Christian Biblical Reflections.13

(Here are pages 229 – 241. The PDF which includes Joshua to Esther will not be created till this section or digit is completed, which should be during this month of April. mjm.)

JOSHUA – ESTHER: Historical Books of the Early Prophets:
JOSHUA: 24 Chapters:
Moses death initiates the period of the Judges commencing with Joshua and terminates with Samuel, who in turn initiates the Monarchy or the period of the Kings. We will follow God as He moves both visibly and hidden during some 400 years of moving in His People to test and save them. As with the Creation, then with Adam, and with Noah and his three Sons, then with the three Patriarchs with the House of Jacob-Israel, so with Moses and Israel God continues to work out His eternal purpose and the counsels of His own heart. The Covenant by Abraham and Moses, in the tokens of Circumcision with Promises, and the Ten Commandments or the Law with Conditions (as the tokens of Two Trees in the Garden, and the Rainbow after the Flood) are now to be tested and judged to redeem and establish a new people. The Lord must needs extend and enlarge the lessons and pictures of His glorious redemptive work of His People. We have moved from the books of the Bible or the Old Testament and First Covenant to a new Division of the Book which we call the Historical Books, but the Jews call them the Prophetical Books, composed of the Early and the Later Books, and the Major and Minor Prophets. No doubt it is due to the Writers of these Books being Prophets, Joshua and Samuel, that this designation has come about. We repeat again that God is concerned with the Land or the Place, and with the People or the Man, and with the Book or the Word; and these three things and thematic doctrines must continue to unfold. Our Reflections will follow the Bible Divisions as they have come down to us in English or the Latin and the Greek, but admitting the Hebrew order has its own peculiar and special place, both for Israel and Christians. As with the Five Books of Moses we will survey in a synoptical way these Books as we find them in their order. Our object and goal are to reach the Psalms of David in the Poetical Books, as the next step of our manual-symbol of the Hands of God. The Legal Books of Genesis and Deuteronomy will reach the high point or the highest place in the Psalms, which then will advance to the Prophetical Books proper, with Isaiah and Daniel concluding the Old Testament, taking with them all the other Books. The Historical Books tell us a Story, ours and His, both are witnesses to each other, or as we say, the lesser reflects the greater, or the image mirrows the real. As we read the Divine and Inspired History we see the greater and truer Story of the Lord God in His creation and world and are nurtured by Him as the Shaddai of the Patriarchs, till we mature as a creation of mankind to value Him in a new and better relations. In one sense He moves from a Garden to a Tent and then to a House, but it is one and the same: God dwells with man. We have said as a principle that there are countless types and shadows in hidden mysteries in the words of Scripture, and the Text embodies the soul as the soul the spirit.

JOSHUA opens with the death of Moses the Lord’s Servant, and the Lord speaks to Joshua ben-Nun, Moses’ Minister to lead Israel across the Jordan River into Canaan, their new Home. The Land of Promise and Oath, the sworn word of God, must be taken by their feet and swords in conquest of war. The Land or Country is some 100 miles wide and 200 miles long from the South to the North and from the East to the West or from Southern Deserts to Northern Mountains of Lebanon and from the Eastern Euphrates River (bordering the Land of the Hittites) to the Western Great Mediterranean Sea. The Jordan divides the Land, with the two smaller seas, Galilee and Dead Sea, irrigating the land. The War and the Conquest is of the Lord Who goes with Joshua and Israel to fulfill His Word of settling them in Canaan. As Moses represented the People to God as the collective man, the greater man, the corporate man or company, so here and now Joshua stands as the Man and the People. The conquest and the success of possessing the inheritance must be faithful obedience to His Word commanded in the Law of Moses; in which Joshua must daily read and speak, meditate and reflect, to observe all things written. It is to the faithful and fearless obedience to words of God, that the Lord God promises to be with Joshua in this mission. The Elders and Officers of the People are delegated to prepare the People in three days for the invasion. The 2 ½ tribes are admonished to leave their families to stay in their new country in Trans-Jordan, but the fighters must march with the other 9 ½ tribes to war, till Canaan is conquered, then they may return home. They agree to obey with oath, and they warn against refusal to obey Joshua means death. They exhort him to be strong and brave that Lord may be with him as He was with Moses. Joshua, at Shittim west of the Jordan, here commissioned two spies to gain intelligence of the Land and of Jericho. They came and hid in the house of Rahab the harlot or prostitute, and she lied to the King of Jericho as to the two spies having left the city in the dark. She then concealed them on the rooftop under straws till safe; she told the spies that she believed the Lord has handed the city over to Israel; and that all Jericho were in fear and despair; having heard that the Lord dried up the Red Sea for Israel in the Exodus from Egypt; and that Israel utterly destroyed the two Kings of the Amorites, Sihon and Og; for the Lord the God of Israel is the true and only God. She made them pledge by Him to show her and her family kindness in return and to give a token or sign for salvation from death. They agreed mutually by oath; and she let them down from her house on the rooftop by a cord down the wall; and they instructed her to tie this scarlet thread or rope to the window, and to gather all her family inside the house, or the oath will be voided; and if she keep her promise to not disclose their business; and she agreed; and spies safely escaped, hiding in the mountains for three days. They returned to Joshua and reported all the matter. Joshua led Israel to the Jordan from Shittim to cross over, the Officers and Captains after three days they ordered the People to set out marching following the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant, at distance 2,000 cubits or 3,000 feet or 3/5th a mile. They must not come too close to the Ark leading them in a new way. The People must sanctify themselves, for the next day the Lord will work wonders. The Priests are to carry the Ark of Covenant and cross ahead of the People; and so did they. The Lord magnified Joshua to Israel that He will be with him as with Moses. The Priests must stand carrying the Ark of the Covenant at the brink in the Jordan; and Joshua must tell Israel the words of the Lord God; that they may know that He is among them, and He will drive out the 7 Nations in Canaan. The Ark of the Covenant of the Lord of all the earth passes over before them into the Jordan; and 12 men, one man for each tribe, after the Priests with the Ark step into the Jordan’s waters, and the running waters stop as one heap (although Jordan overflows all it banks during harvest season), and the People leave their tents and cross the Jordan on dry ground, and the dammed waters from distant city Adam near Zarethan, and the waters flowing toward the Sea of the Arabah, the Salt Sea, were cut off , that the People pass over across from Jericho on dry ground, and the Priests with the Ark standing on dry ground till all the Nation crossed over; the 12 men took 12 Stones near the Priest’s feet in Jordan, and carried them out on their shoulder to the lodging-place of the Camp. This was a sign and a witness for a perpetual memorial to future generations in Israel, that the waters of the Jordan were cut off before the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant. Israel, along with the 2 ½ tribes, some 40,000, armed men of war, for the Lord’s battle, came to the plains of Jericho. The Lord magnified Joshua to Israel, that they might fear Joshua as they did Moses, all his life. The Jordan waters again flowed as before and overflowed its banks. This was on the 10th day of the 1st month (Abib), and encamped at Gilgal east of Jericho west of the Jordan. Joshua set up the 12 Stones of the Jordan at Gilgal; and instructed Israel to tell their children that Israel crossed the Jordan on dry ground, when the Lord God dried up the waters for them, as He did to the Red Sea (Yam Suf); that the peoples of the earth may know the Lord’s mighty Hand; and Israel to fear the Lord God for ever.
When the Kings of the Amorites west in Trans-Jordan, and the Kings of the Canaanites by the Sea, heard the news of all this their heart melted, and their spirit vanished. The Lord told Joshua to make sharp flint knives and circumcise Israel a 2nd time; at the Hill of Foreskins (Gibhath-ha-Araloth) he did so; because the generation of the adult male fighters of the Exodus died circumcised, as sworn, within the 40 years of wandering, for disobedience; but the new generation of the Desert were uncircumcised. They stayed in camp till they healed; thus, the Lord rolled-away the reproach of Egypt: and they named the place Gilgal to this day. On the 14th of Abib they kept the Passover in the plains of Jericho; the next day they ate of the produce of the land, with unleavened cakes and parched grain; the next day the manna ceased in Canaan. While Joshua was near Jericho a man appeared with drawn sword in hand opposite him, and he asked him if he was a friend or foe; he replied, neither, but he came as Prince of the Lord’s armies; Joshua fell prostrate and worshipped, asking what the Lord says to His servant. The Prince of the Lord’s host demanded the removal of his shoe or sandal for the ground is holy. Jericho was secure against Israel. The Lord told Joshua that He has handed over Jericho and its King and warriors; and the fighters must circle the city once a day for 6 days. The 7 Priests with 7 Trumpets of Ram’s Horns before the Ark; and on the 7th day to circle the city 7 times, then the Priests must blow the Trumpets; at the sound of the trumpets all the People must shout: and the wall of the city will collapse, and the People will go straight in. Joshua had 7 Priests with 7 Trumpets carry the Ark of Covenant following the People and the armed men ahead of the Lord’s Ark; they did as they were instructed for 6 days, and on the 7th day after the 7th time the wall of Jericho collapsed. The city of Jericho must be devoted to destruction, banned and condemned, entirely to the Lord; only Rahab and her family to be spared for helping the spies or messengers. Nothing of the devoted or banned things must be taken or Israel will be accursed and troubled. The silver, gold, and vessels of brass and iron are holy to the Lord and must be put into His Treasury. They destroyed Jericho and killing everything; but spared Rahab and her family (who resides in Israel to Samuel’s time); and burnt the city and put the dedicated metals in the Treasury. Joshua at that time charged Israel with an oath and curse: may the man be cursed who rebuilds Jericho, to lose his first-born in its foundations and to lose his youngest son in setting up its gates. The Lord was with Joshua, and his fame spread in all the Land.
Israel trespassed in the devoted thing by Achan ben-Carmi ben-Zabdi ben-Zerah of Judah taking of it and angered the Lord against them. Joshua sent spies to Ai near Beth-aven east of Bethel; the spies return and recommend only a few thousand (3,000) men to attack Ai; but in the battle 36 Israelites died, and Israel fled in terror from Ai, from the city-gate to Shebarim’s descent. Joshua and the Elders mourn and complain to the Lord, that He betrayed them to the Amorites, and regretting crossing the Jordan. The Lord tells him to get up, for Israel has sinned in the contraband, and transgressed His Covenant; Israel will fall before their foes as accursed without His help till the devoted thing is destroyed. Joshua calls Israel to surrender the devoted thing for destruction: Israel comes by tribe, and Judah is taken; by family, and the Zerahites taken; by man, and Zabdi taken; by his household and Achan is taken. Achan confesses his sin of coveting and stealing spoils: a Babylonian mantle of Shinar, 200 silver shekels, a gold wedge weighing 50 shekels; and hiding them in his tent. Joshua retrieves the contraband; then takes Achan (the trouble-maker) and the stuff and his possessions to the Valley of Achor, and troubles him by stoning and burning him to death, along with all his belongings. A heap of stones was piled up, and the place called Achor’s Valley. Then the Lord’s wrath was appeased and deflected. Now the Lord orders Joshua to attack and destroy Ai as they did to Jericho, for He has given them to Israel to conquer. Joshua ambush Ai by a clever maneuver (between Beth-el and Ai on the west) and the men of Ai is drawn away from the city, the city is burnt in accord with the Lord’s word. Early next morning Joshua and the Elders mustered the people, and they went to Ai on the north side, a valley between. 5,000 fighters ambush Ai on the north, the others were hiding in ambush on the west. Joshua enters the Valley, the King of Ai rose early to pursue Israel as before; Joshua retreats to entice them out into the Arabah desert, leaving Ai and Beth-el defenseless. The Lord tells Joshua to extend his javelin towards the city, and then those hidden rushed into the city and captured it, torching it. The men of Ai turned around to see Ai on fire, and they were immobilized; Israel turned from their retreat to pursue the men of Ai, and those of Israel in the city returned to pursue the men of Ai, now trapped between two divisions of Israel. Israel destroyed all of them, in the field, the desert, and the city, total 12,000 men and women. Joshua withdrew his extended javelin after Ai was destroyed. Israel took for themselves only the cattle as spoil. The King of Ai they hanged on a tree till sunset, then threw his body outside the gate, and piled a heap of stones on it. Joshua erected an Altar of unhewn stones to the Lord at Mount Ebal as Moses commanded in the Book of the Law (Deuteronomy); and offered sacrifices to Him. He wrote on the Stones a copy of the Law of Moses (Deuteronomy) in the sight of Israel. Israel and the leaders and rulers and all non-Israelis in two companies stood on opposite sides of the Ark of Covenant before the Levitical Priests; 1/2 at Mount Gerizim and 1/2 at Mount Ebal as Moses commanded. He read all the words of the Law, the blessings and curses, all the words to every Israeli and non-Israeli.
The Kings of the 6 nations in Canaan from all directions united to fight Joshua and Israel. Gibeonites heard of conquest of Jericho and Ai, in fear and wit presented themselves as strangers from a distant country to seek a covenant or treaty with Israel at Gilgal; for we, they said, heard what the Lord did to the Egyptians, and to the Amorites’ kings, Sihon of Heshbon and Og of Bashan at Ashtaroth, so we were delegated to seek an alliance. Joshua with the rulers of the people covenanted a peace pact by oath with the Gibeonites, without seeking the Lord’s counsel. 3 days later they discovered the Gibeonites were locals and neighbors. Israel continued to advance in the Conquest and arrived at the cities of Gibeonites (Gibeon, Chephirah, Beeroth, & Kiriath-jearim); and did not destroy them in keeping with the oath, of which the Israelites complained; Joshua made the Gebeonites wood-choppers and water-carriers for Israel, and for the Lord’s Altar at His chosen place. King Adoni-zedek of Jerusalem united a confederacy of 4 Kings: Hoham of Hebron, Piram of Jarmuth, Japhia of Lachish, and Debir of Eglon, to attack Gibeon (a great city) for alliance with Joshua and Israel. These 5 Amorite Kings and their forces besieged Gibeon; the Gibeonites sent to Joshua at Gilgal for help against the Amorite Kings. Joshua and the warriors went out for war; the Lord promised victory to Israel by Joshua. The Lord discomfited them before Israel, and they slaughtered them at Gibeon; chased and slew them to the ascent of Beth-horon, to Azekah, to Makkedah; and those who escaped to the descent of Beth-horon; the Lord rained great hailstones on them destroying some more than Israel slew by sword. During the battle against the Amorites Joshua commanded that the Lord to halt the Sun over Gibeon, and the Moon over the Valley of Aijalon; and He did it, for an entire day; never or since, was it heard, that the Lord obeyed the voice of a man. Joshua returned to Gilgal, and the 5 Kings had fled and hid themselves in the Cave of Makkedah; Joshua sealed it with a great stone and set a watch till the war was over; leaving only a terrified remnant secured in the fortified cities. Joshua returned to the Cave of Makkedah, and had the 5 Kings brought before him, and ordered the chief warriors to put their feet on their necks; he then put them to death, and hung them on 5 trees till sunset, and then took them down and threw them in the Cave Makkedah and sealed it. Joshua took and destroyed Makkedah, as he did to Jericho, leaving none alive. Thence they passed from Libnah to Lachish, and the Lord delivered it for destruction by Israel; the second day they destroyed it utterly as at Libnah. King Horam of Gezer came to help Lachish, but Joshua destroyed him and his people. From Lachish they passed on to Eglon and they destroyed it completely as with Lachish. From Eglon to Hebron and destroyed it. Thence returned to Debir and destroyed it as with Hebron and Libnah. Joshua smote and destroyed all the land, the hill-country, the South, the lowland, the slopes, with all their kings as the Lord God commanded. Joshua conquered them from Kadesh-barnea to Gaza, to Goshen, to Gibeon, with all their kings and land; for the Lord God of Israel fought for Israel; then Joshua and Israel returned to the Camp at Gilgal.
King Jabin of Hazor allied with 3 Kings, Jobab of Maon, of Shimron, and of Achshaph, along with the Kings in the north, in the Arabah south of Chinneroth, in the lowland, and in the heights of Dor on the west; and with the Canaanite on the east and west, and the Amorite, Hittite, Perizzite, Jebusite in the hill-country, and the Hivite under Hermon in the land of Mizpah. All these as a mighty army without number with many horses and chariots gathered and encamped for battle at Merom against Israel. The Lord promised victory to Israel for the next day, and that their horses will be hocked, and their chariots burnt. Joshua and his warriors surprised the encamped hosts by the waters of Merom and routed them, chasing them to great Sidon, to Misrephoth-maim, through the Valley of Mizpeh eastward; destroying them, hocking their horses and burning their chariots as the Lord commanded. Joshua turned back to Hazor (which was the head of all those kingdoms) and destroyed them and burnt the city. He destroyed all the cities of those kings as Moses the Lord’s servant commanded. The fortified mound cities he did not burn except for Hazor; and Israel took all the livestock as spoil and prey, but killed all the men, as the Lord commanded Moses, and Moses commanded Joshua. Joshua conquered and captured all the land: the hill-country, the South (Negev), Goshen, the lowland (Shephelah), the Arabah (Desert), the hill country of Israel and its lowland, from Mount Halak towards Seir, to Baal-gad in the Valley of Lebanon under Mount Hermon; with all their kings he put to death. He warred a long time against those kings, making no peace treaty with any of them, except the Hivites of Gibeon; conquering all the others. The Lord hardened the hearts of those nations to destroy them, as He commanded Moses. Joshua cut off the Anakim from the hill-country, Hebron, Debir, Anab, and from the hill-country of Judah and Israel; destroying their cities; leaving no Anakim except those remaining in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. Joshua conquered the whole country as the Lord spoke to Moses, and he gave it to Israel as inheritance by their tribal divisions. And the Land had rest from war.
The two Kings of Canaan were already defeated and conquered east of the Jordan, and Israel took possession of their lands as an inheritance; from Trans-Jordan eastward toward the sunrise, from the Valley of the Arnon to Mount Hermon, and Arabah eastward: Sihon of the Amorites, with all their lands from Heshbon and Aroer, edge of the Valley of Arnon to half of Gilead, to Jabbok River, the border of Ammonites; the Arabah to the Sea of Chinneroth (Galilee) eastward, to the Sea of Arabah (Dead Sea, Salt Sea) eastward towards Beth-jeshimoth, and the south under the slopes of Pisgah; and Og of Bashan of the Rephaim, at Ashtaroth and Edrei, in Mount Hermon, in Salecah, Bashan, border of Geshurites and Maaccathites, half of Gilead, the border of Sihon of Heshbon. Moses had conquered and allotted their lands to the 2 1/2 tribes as inheritance. The Kings of the land west of the Jordan that were defeated and conquered, and the lands partitioned to the tribes of Israel by Joshua were from Baal-gad in the Valley of Lebanon to Mount Halak, to Seir; the hill-country, lowland, Arabah, the slopes and desert, in the South. 6 Nations: Hittite, Amorite, Canaanite, Perizzite, Hivite, and Jebusite; 31 Kings in 31 Cities: Jericho, Ai, Bethel, Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, Eglon, Gezer, Debir, Gedir, Hormah, Arad, Libnah, Adullam, Makkedah, Beth-el, Tappuah, Hepher, Aphek, Lassharon, Madon, Hazor, Shimron-meron, Achshaph, Taanach, Megiddo, Kedesh, Jokneam in Carmel, Dor in height of Dor, Goiim in Gilgal, and Tirzah.
Now Joshua was old (over 100) in years; the Lord tells him that there still remains much land to be possessed: the regions of the Philistines, the Geshurites; from Sihor near Egypt to Ekron northward, reckoned to the Canaanites; the 5 Lords of the Philistines, the Gazites, Ashdodites, Ashkelonites, Gittites, Ekronites, and Avvim, in the south; the land of Canaanites, Mearah of the Sidonians, to Aphek, to the border of the Amorites; the land of Gebalites, of Lebanon, towards sunrise-east, from Baal-gad under Mount Hermon to entrance of Hamath; all the inhabitants of the hill-country, from Lebanon to Misrephoth-maim, all the Sidonians; these he allotted to Israel as commanded. The 9 1/2 tribes were allotted lands on the west of the Jordan, the 2 1/2 tribes on the east of the Jordan; from Aroer next to Arnon through the Valley and Plain of Medeba to Dibon in Trans-Jordan, captured from Sihon and Og. But the Geshurites and the Maachathites remained. The Levites received no tribal lot as commanded. The 2 1/2 tribes in Trans-Jordan with all the cities in the plain and 12 other cities: the 5 Princes or Chiefs of the Midian Sihon, which Moses killed: Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba; and the soothsayer Balaam ben-Beor, who Israel slew with them. Israel settled in all those regions from Jordan to Jazer to Gilead to Aroer to Heshbon to Ramath-mizpeh & Betonim to Mahanaim to Debir to Beth-haram & Beth-nimrah, Succoth, Zaphon to Jordan to the Sea of Chinnereth eastward; to Mahanaim, Bashan, with 60 Cities, to Gilead & Ashtaroth, and. Edrei. All these Moses distributed as inheritance to the 2 1/2 tribes in the Plains of Moab; but Levi was the Lord God’s inheritance.
The 9 1/2 tribes inherited in Canaan from Eleazer the Priest and Joshua ben-Nun and the tribal Princes by lot, as the Lord commanded Moses. Joseph’s two sons received each an inheritance; but Levi received only cities and suburbs to live and have substance; and the land was divided by lot. Judah’s lot and borders: Caleb the Kenizzite (now 85) reminded Joshua that Moses the Man of God promised them in Kadesh-Barnea (2 years after the Exodus) when he was 40 years old when he spied out the land and returned with a good report against the 10 spies with a bad report; Moses promised that the land he would tread he could inherit forever, now 45 years later, still strong and brave as he was earlier, desires the hill-country of the Anakims, with its great and fortified cities; for with the Lord’s help, I will drive them out. Joshua blessed him with Hebron, formerly called Kiriath-Arba the Great of the Anakim. Then the Land rested from war.
Judah’s Partition: 1st: south lot, portion, border, and division was from Edom to the Desert of Zin southward, to further south; to upper Salt Sea and southward to the ascent of Akrabbim through Zin to south of Kadesh-Barnea near Hezron to Addar to Karka to Azmon, to the brook of Egypt to the seacoast. The east border was the Salt Sea to Jordan River. The north quarter was the bay of the Sea at the end of Jordan, up to Beth-Hoglah, along north Beth-Arabah, to the Stone of Bohan ben-Reuben; up to Debir from Valley of Achor, north to Gilgal across the Ascent of Adummim, south side of the River, along the Waters of En-Shemesh to En-Rogel, up by the Valley of Ben-Hinnom near the Jebusite southward (Yeru-Shalom, Jerusalem), up to the top of the Mountain near the Valley of Hinnom westward, the uttermost part of the Vale of Rephaim northward; thence to fountain of the Waters of Nephtoah, to the cities of Mount Ephron, on to Baalah (Kiriath-Jearim), thence westward to Mount Seir, on to the side of Mount Jearim on the north (Chesalon), down to Beth-Shemesh, along Timnah; thence beside Ekron northward, thence to Shikkeron, along Mount Baalah to Jabneel, on to the Sea; west to the Great Sea coast. Caleb drove out the 3 sons of Anak: Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai; thence against Debir (Kiriath-Sepher); he promised his daughter Achsah in marriage to one who took the city; Othniel ben-Kenaz, Caleb’s brother, took it and married her. She desired a blessing of springs of water also, so Caleb gave her the upper and lower springs. Judah’s Inheritance in their outermost cities South border to Edom: 29 Cities and villages: Kabzeel, Eder, Jagur, Kinah, Dimonah, Adadah, Kedesh, Hazor, Ithnan, Ziph, Telem, Bealoth, Hazor-Hadattah, Kerioth-Hezron (Hazor), Amam, Shema, Moladah, Hazar-Gaddah, Heshmon, Beth-Pelet; Hazar-Shual, Beer-Sheba, Biziothiah, Baalah, Iim, Ezem, Eltolad, Chesil, Hormah, Ziklag, Madmannah, Sansannah, Lebaoth, Shilhim, Ain, and Rimmon. In the lowland were 14 Cities and villages: Eshtaol, Zorah, Ashnah, Zanoah, En-Gannim, Tappoah, Enam, Jarmuth, Adullam, Socoh, Azekah, Shaaraim, Adithaim, Gederah, and Gederothaim. Again 16 Cities and villages: Zenan, Hadashah, Migdal-Gad, Dilean, Mizpeh, Joktheel, Lachish, Bozkath, Eglon, Cabbon, Lahmam, Chitlish, Gederoth, Beth-Dagon, Naamah, and Makkedah. Again 9 Cities and villages: Libnah, Ether, Ashan, Iphtah, Ashnah, Nezib, Keilah, Achzib, and Mareshah. In addition to these were other Cities with their towns and villages: Ekron, Ashdod, Gaza, to the Brook of Egypt and the Great Sea. In the hill-country 11 Cities and villages: Shamir, Jattir, Socoh, Dannah, Kiriath-Sannah (Debir), Anab, Eshtemoth, Anim, Goshen, Holon, and Giloh. And 9 Cities and villages: Arab, Dumah, Eshan, Janim, Beth-Tappuah, Aphekah, Humtah, Kiriath-Arba (Hebron), and Zior. And 10 Cities and villages: Maon, Carmel, Ziph, Jutah, Jezreel, Jokdeam, Zanoah, Kain, Gibeah, and Timnah. And 6 Cities and villages: Halhul, Beth-Zur, Gedor, Maarath, Beth-Anoth, and Eltekon. And 2 Cities and villages: Kiriath-Baal (Kiriath-Jearim), and Rabbah. In the wilderness desert 6 Cities and villages: Beth-Arabah, Middin, Secacah, Nibshan, City of Salt (Ir-hamMelach), and En-Gedi. The Jebusites remained in Judah at Jerusalem till now (Samuel’s day), because they could not be driven out. ((110 plus Cities in all))
Joseph’s Partition (Manasseh & Ephraim: 2nd and 3rd: From Jordan River to the waters of Jericho (east of Jericho but west of Jordan) in the desert up to hill-country of Beth-El to Luz, along border of Archites to Ataroth, down west to the Japhletites, to Beth-Horon the nether, to Gezer, and along the coasts of the Sea. Ephraim’s borders: eastward at Ataroth-Addar to Beth-Horon the upper, westward at Michmethath on the North, eastward to Taanaqth-Shiloh, along east of Janoah, down to Ataroth, to Naarah, to Jericho to the Jordan; from Tappuah westward along Brook of Kanah, and to the Sea; besides the Cities and villages of Manasseh designated for Ephraim. They drove out the Canaanites at Gezer, but elsewhere in Ephraim the Canaanites continued to this date (Samuel’s day), serving as laborers.
Manasseh’s lot, Joseph’s firstborn, in Machir Manasseh’s firstborn, Gilead’s father, a man of war and had Gilead and Bashan. The other sons of Manasseh: Abiezer, Helek, Asriel, Shechem, Hepher, Shemida; Hepher’s 5 daughters claimed from Eleazar, Joshua, and the Elders 5 parts of the inheritance as promised by Moses. Manasseh had in all 10 parts not counting the lot of the 1/2 tribe in Trans-Jordan. The borders were from Asher to Michmethath, before Shechem, along the right hand to En-Tappuah (Tappuah of Manasseh, but its border belonged to Ephraim); and down to Brook of Kanah, and south of the brook; sharing borders and cities, out to the Sea: Ephraim south, and Manasseh north; from the Sea to north to Asher, and east to Issachar and Asher Beth-Shean with its towns, also Ibleam, Dor, En-Dor, Taanach, Megiddo, and the three heights. They could not drive out these Canaanites; instead, later when they were able they made them task workers. The children of Joseph complained that their lot was too small, and the Canaanites have iron-chariots in Beth-Shean and its towns, and in Valley of Jezreel. Joshua bid them to take the hill country, cut down its forests, and drive out the strong Canaanites.
The Assembly of Israel set up the Tent of Meeting at Shiloh: and Canaan was subdued but partly conquered; but 7 tribes had yet no inheritance. Joshua reproved Israel for delay to conquer the rest of Canaan. He sent 3 men from Shiloh from each tribe to survey the unconquered land to the north, and describe it in a book, partitioned into 7 Partitions to be parted by cast of lots; they did and returned to Shiloh. (The Levites being excluded as the Lord’s Inheritance); Judah and Joseph excluded, also the 2 1/2 tribes in Trans-Jordan having received their inheritance. At Shiloh Joshua cast lots and partitioned thus: 1st Lot: Benjamin (4th) were to be between Judah and Joseph: north from Jordan beside Jericho thru the hill-country west, thru the Desert of Beth-Aven; thence along to Luz (Beth-El), south, to Ataroth-Addar, near the mountain south of Beth-Horon the nether; thence west and south, from the mountain before Beth-Horon south, out to Kiriath-Baal (Kiriath-Jearim) of Judah; thence its south border went west to the Waters of Nephtoah; down to uttermost part of the mountain before the Valley ben-Hinnom, being the Vale of Rephaim north, thence beside the Jebusite south, down to En-Rogel; north to En-Shemesh, to Geliloth, against the ascent of Adummim, down to Stone of Bohan ben-Reuben; along against Arabah north into Arabah, alongside of Beth-Hoglah north, to Salt Sea at south Jordan, its east quarter. Their 12 Cities and villages: Jericho, Beth-Hoglah, Emek-Keziz, Beth-Arabah, Zemaraim, Beth-El, Avvim, Parah, Ophrah, Chephar-Ammoni, Ophni, and Geba. Also 14 Cities and villages: Gibeon, Ramah, Beeroth, Mizpeh, Chephirah, Mozah, Rekem, Irpeel, Taralah, Zelah, Eleph, the Jebusite (Jerusalem), Gibeah, and Kiriath.
2nd Lot: Simeon (5th): Their inheritance was in Judah (which had a large territory) : 13 Cities and villages: Beer-Sheba (Sheba), Moladah, Hazar-Shual, Balah, Ezem, Eltolad, Bethul, Hormah, Ziklag, Beth-Marcaboth, Hazar-Zusah, Beth-lebaoth, and Sharuhen, Also 4 Cities and villages: Ain, Rimmon, Ether, and Ashan; all around them to Baalath-Beer, and Ramah of the South (Negev). 3rd Lot: Zebulun (6th): 12 Cities and villages: Sarid west to Maralah to Dabbesheth to the brook before Jokneam; from Sarid east to Chisloth-Tabor, to Daberath, to Japhia, thence east to Gath-Hepher, to Eth-Kazin, out to Rimmon out to Neah; turning north to Hannathon, out to Valley of Iphtah-El, Kattath, Nahalal, Shimron, Idalah, and Bethlehem, 4th Lot: Issachar (7th): 16 Cities and villages: Jezreel, Chesulloth, Shunem, Hapharaim, Shion, Anaharath, Rabbith, Kishion, Ebez, Remeth, Engannim, En-Haddah, and Beth-Pazzez; bordering to Tabor, Shahazumah, Beth-Shemesh, out to Jordan. 5th Lot: Asher (8th): 22 Cities and villages: Helkath, Hali, Beten, Achshaph, Allammelech, Amad, Mishal, to Carmel west, to Shihor-Libnath, down to sunrising to Beth-Dagon, Zebulun, Iphtah-El north to Beth-Emek, and Neiel; out to Cabul on the left hand, Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, Kanah, to great Sidon, turning to Ramah, and the fortified City of Tyre; out to Sea by Achzib, Ummah, Aphek, and Rehob. 6th Lot: Naphtali (9th): 19 Cities and villages: From Heleph, from the Oak in Zaanannim, Adaminekeb, Jabneel, Lakkum, out at Jordan; west to Aznoth-Tabor, thence to Hukkok, to Zebulun on the south, to Asher on the west, and to Judah toward the sunrising. The fortified Cities were Zidim, Zer, Hammath, Rakkath, Chinnereth, Adamah, Ramah, Hazor, Kedesh, Edrei, En-Hazor, Iron, Migdal-El, Horem, Beth-Anath, and Beth-Shemesh. 7th Lot: Dan (10th): From Zoar, Eshtaol, Ir-Shemesh, Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Ithlah, Elon, Timnah, Ekron, Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Baalath, Jehud, Bene-Berak, Gath-Rimmon, Me-Jarkon, Rakkon, opposite Joppa; their borders went out further, they fought Leshem and captured it and exterminated them, and settled in their place, and calling it Dan. Thus, Israel partitioned the rest of Canaan to the 7 tribes. They gave Joshua his inheritance, according to the Lord’s command, in Timnath-Serah, which he asked for, in the hill-country of Ephraim; and he built the City and lived there. (Eleazar the Priest, Joshua ben-Nun, and the tribal heads at Shiloh partitioned the land by lottery.) ((In all there were 100 plus Cities, in addition to the 110 Cities of the 3 tribes, making some 200 plus Cities; not counting the 60 Cities of the 2 1/2 tribes: in all some 260 Cities and villages.))
Then the Lord tells Joshua to tell Israel to assign or designate the Cities of Refuge as He commanded Moses, for those who cause unintentional death, to seek refuge and protection from the blood-avenger; exactly as Moses had written. They set apart Kedesh in Galilee in the hill-country of Naphtali; Shechem in hill-country of Ephraim; Kiriath-Arba (Hebron) in the hill-country of Judah; in Trans-Jordan opposite Jericho eastward they appointed Bezer in the desert in the plain of Reuben; Ramoth in Gilead in Gad; and Golan in Bashan in Manasseh. (6 Cities of Refuge in all.)
In like manner the leading Levites petitioned them at Shiloh for their Cities and suburbs promised by the Lord by Moses, to live in and for their livestock. Israel gave them by lot: 1st Lot: Kohathites of Aaron: Cities combined in Judah, the Simeonites, and Benjamin: Kiriath-Arba Abi-haAnak (Hebron) with suburbs in the hill country, because Caleb inherited the fields and villages of the City belonged to Caleb ben-Jephunneh. Merarites had 12 Cities in Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun. The Aaronic priests got 9 Cities from 2 tribes: Hebron, suburbs, and City of Refuge; Libnah and suburbs, same with Holon, Debir, Ain, Juttah, Beth-Shemesh. From Benjamin, they got 4 Cities with suburbs: Gibeon, Geba, Anathoth, and Almon: (13 Cities and suburbs in all). The other Kohathites got Cities by lot in Ephraim, 4 Cities and suburbs: Shechem, City of Refuge, Gezer, Kibzaim, and Beth-Horon. 4 Cities and suburbs in Dan: Elteke, Gibbethon, Aijalon, Gath-Rimmon. 2 Cities and suburbs in Manasseh: Taanach, and Gath-Rimmon. (10 Cities and suburbs in all) The Gershonites got 2 Cities with suburbs in Manasseh: a City of Refuge and Be-Eshterah. From Issachar 4 Cities with suburbs: Kision, Daberah, Jarmuth, and En-Gannim. From Asher 4 Cities with suburbs: Mishal, Abdon, Helkath, and Rehob. From Naphtali 3 Cities with suburbs: Kedesh in Galilee, City of Refuge, and Kartan: (13 Cities with suburbs in all.) The Merarites got from Zebulun 4 Cities with suburbs: Jokneam, Kartah, Dimnah, and Nahalal. From Reuben 4 Cities with suburbs: Bezer, Jahaz, Kedemoth, and Mephaath, From Gad 4 Cities with suburbs: Ramoth-Gilead, City of Refuge, Mahanaim, Heshbon, and Jazer: (12 Cities with suburbs in all.) (All the Levitical Cities with suburbs in Israel were 48 in all.) The Lord thus gave to Israel all the land of Canaan He promised; He gave them rest and subdued all their enemies.
Joshua praised the 2 1/2 tribes for their obedience in helping the 9 1/2 tribes conquer Canaan. He then dismissed them to return to their possession in Trans-Jordan; warning them to obey the commandment and law of Moses the Lord’s Servant, to love the Lord God, walk in His ways, keep His commandments, cling to Him, and serve Him with all their heart and soul. Joshua blessed them and sent them away; with wealth, livestock, silver, gold, brass, iron, and much raiment from the spoil of their enemies. They departed from Shiloh in Canaan and returned to Gilead. But the 2 1/2 tribes built a great altar near the Jordan in the Land of Canaan. Israel heard and gathered at Shiloh to wage an attack on the Trans-Jordanians, and they sent Phinehas ben-Eleazar the Priest and 10 tribal Princes to know why they have trespassed against God and turned away from the Lord in rebellion, as in the iniquity of Peor still defiling Israel; the Lord will now be enraged against Israel; if the land in Trans-Jordan is unclean, then pass over to the Lord’s Possession, His Tabernacle dwelling-place; do not setup another altar against the Altar of the Lord God; don’t forget Achan ben-Zerah in his trespass against the devoted things and many perished. The 2 1/2 tribes strongly replied that the Mighty-God, God, the Lord (El, Elohim Yehowah) knows and Israel will know, and spare us not, if we built an altar for offerings and sacrifices may He require it. Rather it is a Witness (Ed) to prevent in future generations that the Israelites on west of the Jordan not to disown the Israelites on the east of the Jordan, saying the Jordan River is a border between us and you. On hearing this Phineas, the Priest and the Princes were pleased and blessed them; and they returned averting war.
Now the Lord gave Israel rest from war; and In time Joshua became very old and he summoned all Israel with their tribal elders and heads or princes, judges, and officers, and exhorted them that the Lord has left the remaining nations or Gentiles as Israel’s inheritance, from the Jordan to Great Sea in the west; and He will drive them out also that you might possess their land; and to take courage to obey all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Deuteronomy), not to intermix with these nations, or mention the name of their gods, or to serve and worship them; but to cling to Him; but if you intermarry with them and they with you, He will no longer drive out these Gentiles, but they shall be a snare and a trap to you, a scourge in your sides, and thorn in your eyes; till ye perish from this good land He gave you, for transgressing His Covenant, to commit idolatry, thus igniting His anger against you unto quick destruction.
Joshua then gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem, with all their leaders and rulers, and he said to them: Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: your fathers long ago dwelt beyond the River (Euphrates, in the east , in Mesopotamia), Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor, and they served other gods; and I took Abraham thence and brought him to Canaan, and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac; and I gave to Isaac Jacob and Esau; I gave Esau Mount Seir to possess; but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt; I sent Moses and Aaron, and I plagued Egypt as I did, and brought you out. I brought your fathers out of Egypt unto the Sea (Yam), the Egyptians pursued your fathers with chariots and horsemen to the Red Sea (Yam Suph); and they cried out to the Lord, and He put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea to cover and bury them; ye saw it, and ye dwelt in the desert many days (40 years). I brought you to the land of the Amorites in Trans-Jordan, and he fought with you; I delivered them into your hand, and ye possessed their land; I destroyed them before you. Then Balak ben-Zippor, King of Moab, waged war against Israel, and sent for Balaam ben-Beor to curse you; but I refused to listen to Balaam, therefore he blessed you still, and I delivered you from his hand. Ye went over the Jordan and came to Jericho, and they fought against you: the Amorite, Perizzite, Canaanite, Hittite, Girgashite, Hivite, and Jebusite (7 Nations, Gentiles), and I delivered them into your hand; I sent the hornet before you to drive them out, the 2 kings of the Amorites; not by thy sword or bow; and I gave you a land you did not cultivate, cities ye built not, to dwell in them; vineyards and oliveyards ye planted not, to eat of them. Therefore fear the Lord, serve Him in sincerity and truth; remove or abolish the gods or idols your fathers served beyond the River (Euphrates), and serve Him; and if it is evil to serve Him, then chose today whom ye will serve, the gods of Mesopotamia, or the gods of the Amorites, where you dwell; but as for me and my house we will serve the Lord. They answered that they would not forsake the Lord to serve other gods; for He brought us from Egypt the house of bondage by great signs and preserved us along the way, He drove out the Amorites; therefore, we will serve the Lord our God. Joshua said they could not serve Him, for He is a holy God, and a jealous God; He will not forgive your transgression or your sins. If ye forsake Him to serve foreign gods; then He will turn on you to consume you. They replied no, they will serve the Lord. Joshua said ye are witnesses against yourselves that you have chosen to serve Him; they said they are witnesses. Remove then the foreign gods among you and incline your heart to the Lord the God of Israel. They said to Joshua we will serve Him and listen to His Voice. Joshua made a Covenant with the People that day; and set them a statute and an ordinance in Shechem. Joshua wrote these words in the Book of the Law of God, and took a great stone, and set it up under the oak-tree near the Lord’s Sanctuary, as a witness against Israel; for it has heard all the Words of the Lord which He spoke as a witness; less ye deny your God. Joshua sent the People away to their inheritance. Joshua died being 110 years old; they buried him near his inheritance in Timnathserah, in the hill-country of Ephraim, on the north of the mountain of Gaash. Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and the elders that outlived him, who knew the Lord’s work for Israel. The bones of Joseph which Israel brought out of Egypt they buried in Shechem, in the parcel Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for 100 pieces of money; and they became the inheritance of the children of Joseph. Eleazar the son of Aaron died and was buried in the hill of Phinehas his son, which was in the hill-country of Ephraim.
Before we continue our reading and come to Judges, we will reflect on Joshua in some matters. The Lord’s words directly spoken and expressed will continue to become less frequent, the Book of the Law must become the Revelation and Inspiration for Israel. The first words in red are these: Joshua 1:2-9: “Moses My servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, thou, and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel… Only be strong and very courageous, to observe to do according to all the law, which Moses My servant commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest have good success whithersoever thou goest. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate thereon day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein: for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success. Have not I commanded thee? Be strong and of good courage; be not affrighted, neither be thou dismayed: for Jehovah thy God is with thee whithersoever thou goest. Every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, to you have I given it, as I spake unto Moses.” Here we see and learn that a new relation has come about between the Lord and Israel and Joshua. As Moses was the Prophet and Leader by whom God would accomplish His purpose with the People for the Land by the Book, so too Joshua is the new Prophet for the same end. In these words (verses 2, and 5-9), and the charge, to Joshua the Lord is speaking to him personally as the corporate and national head, the you and your is the yu and yur, or the archaic thou and thee and thine, and not the plural you or ye of the people proper (which is used in verses 3-4). The standard of measurement and judgment for both Joshua and Israel is the Torah Moses or the Sepher, the Book; for the Book is now enlarging and soon will contain the history and generation of Joshua and the Judges and the Kings, along with the Priests and Prophets and the People, individually and nationally. It will lead to the content of the Psalms and other poetic books of the Old Testament. It is essential and requisite that we understand the Book as related to the Land and the People. The promised land was not yet possessed by the people, the man was not yet planted in the land, though the patriarchs walked up and down and all around in it. The river was there but the people did not live by it, but rather it was a border that must pass over, and through, to the good land. The land on the other side of the Jordan was possessed and dominated by nations or Gentiles opposed to the Lord and His word contained in the Book. They must be dispossessed by warfare, by driving them out and destroying them in every way they ruled, used, and defiled the land. The words of the Book of Joshua are the details and history of that warfare of conquest from Gilgal to Shiloh to Shechem, from the capture of Jericho to the death of Joshua, and many things relative to the land. The circumcision of Israel of the new generation born in the wilderness after the exodus from Egypt, corporate or national guilt and sin as in Achan, treaty with the Gibeonites, the wars and conquests of southern and northern Canaan, the partition of the land to the 12 tribes, their cities and suburbs, with villages and pastoral lands, and many more things. About 50 years transpire in Joshua, after all the tribes were assigned their lands and borders on both sides of the Jordan, after warning them and instructing them, and at the end, before he dies, Joshua in his final words to the people cites the Lord’s words in red, chapter 24: 2-13 in His review of their history and His involvement from Abraham and the idolatry of beyond the flood to Canaan to Egypt to the Desert to the Promised Land; then he renews the Covenant between Israel and the Lord. The Land is still far from conquered or occupied which leads to the Book of Judges for 400 years of history of the struggles and conflicts of subjugation of Canaan or the Land of the Canaanites, and the transformation to Israel, the land of Israel, Eretz Israel, and not Palestine or the Land of the Philistines.
The Book of Joshua, Sepher Yehoshua, is divided into two divisions: chapters 1-12 and 13-24, first part concerns the conquest of Canaan and to things relating to the past, and the second part concerns the partition and allotment of Canaan to the tribes of Israel, and those matters relating to its conquest and division for the future. There are some 200 hundred cities involved in the Book, and there were 31 Kings and their cities that were conquered on the west of the Jordan River, and 2 Kings on the East of the Jordan or Trans-Jordan. The conquest was never complete, and Israel was to continue till complete and full dominion was attained, which is the Book of Judges with its account of the history and state of the nation.
The typical significance of Joshua as the Savior Lord is clear and strong, of Canaan as the heavenly home, of the spiritual warfare of this life and of the world, are abundant. The recurrent themes as with Moses is followed and extended in Joshua. Shiloh was prophesied of by Israel in his dying blessings on his sons with its Messianic significance, but it must first develop in Israel as a nation in the Land as its first center of conquest, in chapter 18-22, and we follow it as the center in Judges and 1st Samuel till it was captured by the Philistines, then had temporary residence in Israel for more than 20 years till David (2nd Samuel) brings it into Jerusalem, the city of David. The principles by which God acted in the removal of the evil nations of Canaan, and of the use of war and violence to accomplish the possession of Canaan and Palestine, are both profound and perplexing. That Israel must drive out the Gentiles of Canaan by armed force, and even complete extermination of people and animals alarms us with fear and dread. We cannot soften or sanitize the record of these wars; and we cannot ignore the human execution of the Divine will, that God intended to pass judgment and sentence upon wickedness. The land is defiled by shed blood, whether murder, violence, rape, or abortion, the land is polluted and becomes sick and unhealthy. The earth is God’s creation, He owns every speck of sand, and every drop of water, but He has given it to man to care for in His stead, and in a manner honorable to Him. Man was made of the earth to elevate nature to a higher and better level, and in the perfection of the noble dirt, make it holy ground. For the larger context of the historical-prophetical books I cite Keil-Delitzsch commentary on Joshua:
“The thorah, or five books of Moses, which contains an account of the founding of the Old Testament kingdom of God, and the laws which were given through Moses, is followed in the Hebrew canon by the writings of the “earlier prophets,” „YNŠJR „YJYBN, (nbiim r’shim), prophetae priores. This collective name is given to the four historical books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, which trace, in the light of divine revelations, and of the gradual unfolding of the plan of salvation, the historical development of this kingdom of God from the death of Moses, the mediator of the old covenant, or from the entrance of the people of Israel into the land of Canaan promised to their fathers, till the dissolution of the kingdom of Judah, and the Babylonian captivity; the whole embracing a period of nearly nine hundred years. The names given to these books are taken from the men whom the God-king of Israel called and appointed at different times as the leaders and rulers of His people and kingdom, and indicate, very suitably on the whole, the historical periods to which the books refer. The book of Joshua describes the introduction of the people of Israel into the promised land of Canaan, through the conquest effected by Joshua, and the division of the land among the tribes of Israel. As Joshua only completed what Moses had commenced but had not been permitted to carry out, on account of his sin at the water of strife (Num. 20:12); and as he had not only been called by the Lord, and consecrated by the laying on of the hands of Moses, to accomplish this work, but had also been favoured with direct revelations from God, and with His miraculous help in the execution of it; the book which is named after him, and contains the account of what he did in the power of the Lord, is more closely related to the Pentateuch, both in its form and contents, than any other book of the Old Testament. In this respect, therefore, it might be regarded as an appendix, although it was never actually joined to it so as to form part of the same work, but was from the very first a separate writing, and simply stood in the same dependent relation to the writings of Moses, as that in which Joshua stood to Moses himself, of whom he was both the servant and successor….These four historical writings have been very justly called prophetical books of history: not, however, because they all, but more especially the books of Samuel and the Kings, give very full accounts of the labours of the prophets in Israel; nor merely because, according to the early Jewish tradition, they were written by prophets; but rather because they describe the history of the Old Testament covenant nation and kingdom of God in the light of the divine plan of salvation, setting forth the divine revelation, as it was accomplished in the historical development of Israel, or showing how the Almighty God and Lord of the whole earth continued as King of Israel uninterruptedly to fulfil the covenant of grace which He had concluded with the fathers and had set up at Sinai, and built up His kingdom, by leading the people whom He had chosen as His own possession, notwithstanding all the opposition of their sinful nature, further and further onwards towards the goal of their divine calling, and thus preparing the way for the salvation of the whole world. These books, therefore, do not contain a general history of the natural development of the Israelitish nation from a political point of view, but trace the history of the people of God, or Israel, in its theocratic development as a covenant nation, and as the channel of that salvation which was to be manifested to all nations in the fulness of time. Their authors, therefore, by virtue of prophetic illumination, have simply selected and described such events and circumstances from among the rich and plentiful variety contained in the accounts handed down by tradition, whether relating to families, tribes, or the nation as a whole, as were of importance to the history of the kingdom of God; that is to say, in addition to the divine revelations in word and deed, the wonders wrought by God, and the prophetic declarations of His counsel and will, they have recorded chiefly such points in the life and conduct of the nation and its more prominent members as affected advantageously or otherwise the development of the divine kingdom in Israel. Whatever had no inward connection with this higher aim and peculiar calling of Israel, was, as a rule, passed over altogether, or, at all events, was only touched upon and mentioned so far as it served to exhibit the attitude of the nation generally, or of its rulers and leaders, towards the Lord and His kingdom. This will help to explain not only the apparent inequality in the treatment of the history, or the fact that here and there we have long periods merely referred to in a few general remarks, whereas, on the other hand, the adventures and acts of particular individuals are depicted with biographical minuteness, but also another distinctive peculiarity, viz., that the natural causes of the events which occurred, and the subjective motives which determined the conduct of historical personages, are for the most part left unnoticed, or only briefly and cursorily alluded to, whilst the divine interpositions and influence are constantly brought into prominence, and, so far as they were manifested in an extraordinary manner, are carefully and circumstantially described.”

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Christian Biblical Reflections.12

(Here are pages 198-229, Deuteronomy. See PDF for the Book proper. mjm)



DEUTERONOMY : Chapters 1-34 : Moses V:

Deuteronomy consists of 34 chapters, and its subdivisions not easily marked, yet two sections may be readily seen, chapters 1-11 and 12-34 (31-34 are also distinct); it is rightly called the Second-Law from its subject or content; but its Hebrew name is Debbarim or Words, which in Greek is Logoi; thus together it is the Book of the Words of the Second Law. The Book continues from Numbers in the place and time in the final month of Israel’s 40 days in the Desert. (A note as to the Red Letter words in the Books of Moses: In Exodus chapter 3 God calls Moses by name: ‘Moses, Moses’ and the Lord frequently chapter after chapter, page after page, then at Sinai the direct speaking is dominant red, chapters 20-35; in Leviticus 1-7 is red, 11-27 is all red; in Numbers it is about half and half throughout, the direct speaking balanced to His peoples experience, need, and actions; here in Deuteronomy like Genesis, the direct speaking is lessened, and Moses speaking for God becomes dominate; the last words in red is Deut. 34:4: And Jehovah said unto him, This is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed: I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.) In Genesis the writer and speaker is hidden, Moses nowhere occurs; in Exodus the Lord soon appears and communicates to Moses then by Moses and Aaron to Israel; in Leviticus it is the Lord speaking to and by Moses and Aaron throughout; in Numbers it is the Lord speaking to Moses with Aaron and then with Eleazar; and now it is Moses speaking and rehearsing and reminding Israel of their history in the wilderness; and if we may say, Moses’s reflections. The encampment was in east trans-Jordan in the desert and plain across the Yam Suph between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. It is 11 days walk from Horeb by way of mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea. Then in 40th year in the 11th month on 1st day of the month Moses spoke to the children of Israel in accordance with the Lord’s commandment to them (over the past 40 years), and after Moses had smitten Sihon and the Amorites in Heshbon, and Og of Bashan in Ashtaroth at Edrei. In Trans-Jordan of Moab Moses commenced to declare or rehearse or restate this Law, the Torah, and a Second Law, Deuteronomy.
Moses recalls to Israel the time they camped at mount Horeb or Sinai and God directed them to turn to the hill-country of the Amorites and the Arabah and the Negev, and all the country and lowlands nearby, all the way to Great Sea and all Canaan and Lebanon, all the way to the Great River Euphrates in the north (above Syria, to Haran). Moses begins to speak in 1st person as the divine Lawgiver, in whom all the Lord’s words and thoughts have found a settled place, and the human vessel is transformed over the 40 years to speak as God to Israel, even as the Lord promised when He called him. He has brought them to the entrance of the Promised Land and he commands them to enter and possess, just as the Lord had also done. Moses reminds them that at Horeb he was unable to handle the task of caring for the entire nation, as made so numerous by the Lord, and he prays that the Lord increase them a 1000 time more with blessings as promised; nor to tolerate their problems and burdens and strife. He reminded them that he directed them to designate qualified men of wisdom and understanding and well-known, and he made for them tribal heads and captains and officers, to be delegated judges on his behalf to the people; telling them not to be corrupt and partial, bias or taking bribes, but to be fair and honest without fear of man, since it was God’s judgment they were giving; and that the most difficult cases must be brought to him. He reminded them that he had commanded them all the things they needed to do; and how they journeyed from Horeb passing through great desert and terrible wilderness nearby the Amorites, as the Lord God had commanded, and came to Kadesh-barnea, near to the hill-country of the Amorites, the country which the Lord God has given. He reminded them that the Lord the God of their fathers has set the land before them to conquer and occupy, and not to fear or be dismayed. He reminded them that they requested from him to send out spies and scouts to search and assess the land and return with a strategic report of how and where to invade. Moses said he was pleased with their request and chose and sent 12 spies, which went up to the hill-country and to the valley of Eshcol, returning with fruit and a good report that the land was good as the Lord God said and gave. He reminded them they rebelled and refused to invade, complaining in their tents in accusations against the Lord God’s motive; saying that most of the spies disheartened them with news of the Amorites were big and tall, with very fortified cities, and even had the Anakims there. And he said he tried to encourage them not to be so afraid, for the Lord their God fights for them, and will protect and defend and care for them as a Father of a little child does, and as He showed in Egypt and in the Desert. He reminded them of their unbelief in the Lord their God Who provided a place in the desert for them to camp, guiding in fire by night and the cloud by day. And that the Lord heard them and was enraged and swore that that evil generation will never see the good land, except for faithful Caleb. He also reminded them that the Lord was angry with him because of them, and said he too would not enter, but Joshua his attendant will lead Israel into Canaan, and he was to be encouraged. Moses further reminded them that the Lord would allow their little ones and children, for which they were so concerned of becoming a prey, to enter; but they must turn back towards Yam Suph. He reminded them that they admitted their sin against the Lord, and then desired to invade and attack, girding on weapons of war, and were forward and presumptuous to attack the Amorites, but the Lord by him tried to stop them but they refused to listen and rebelled again in presumptuousness; so the Amorites, their enemies, engaged in battle and chased them as bees do, and defeated them at Seir to Hormah; and that afterwards they repented and returned in tears, but the Lord refused to listen or respond. So, he said, they remained in Kadesh a long time.
Moses continues his rehearsal of Israel’s history in the desert near Yam Suph and around mount Seir, till the Lord indicated that it was time to move on northward, passing through the border of Esau their brethren in Seir, and though they are afraid they must not be attacked, because the Lord has given that land to Esau as his inheritance; they were to buy food and water, for the Lord their God has blest them these 40 years that they lacked nothing. He recalled to them that they bypassed their kin Esau in Seir along the way of Arabah, Elath, and Ezion-geber; and bypassing the desert of Moab. At that time, he said, the Lord told him not to vex Moab for He has given the children of Lot that country as their property. (There previously dwelt the Emim, a people great and tall as the Anakim, regarded as Rephaim, but called Emim by the Moabites. The Horites lived in Seir before the children of Esau succeeded by destroying them; just as Israel in time did in Canaan.) (This is an example as in other places that the Scriptures were edited at times to clarify certain details for any number of reasons. The emendation or amendment is no less Scripture than what is edited. The Holy Spirit is not limited to Moses or Aaron, or to Joshua and Eleazar, or to the Levites or prophets or others. The scribal transmission of the Sacred Text is not a dilution of inspiration, nor detracts from authenticity of authorship.)
Thence they crossed over the brook Zered, which now was 38 years after they had left Kadesh-barnea, after all generation of the militia died off as the Lord swore; for He was determined to terminate them in the desert. So, Moses continued, after they were all dead the Lord told them to pass over Ar, Moab’s border, near to the Ammonites; but they were not to vex Ammon, for He had given that land to Lot’s descendants as their property. (This also belonged to Rephaim before the Ammonites, who called them Zamzummim; a people like the famed Anakim, who the Lord destroyed for Ammon, and as He did for Esau in Seir of the Horites; even unto the Avvim in the villages of Gaza, and the Caphtorim of Caphtor.) He said the Lord would terrify all the nations who will hear of this invasion. Moses sent messengers from the desert of Kedemoth seeking peace and passage from Sihon king of Heshbon as he had solicited to Esau of Seir and the Moabites in Ar; Sihon refused because the Lord hardened his spirit and his heart obstinate, so to destroy them. So Sihon fought with Israel at Jahaz, and defeated by the Lord’s help, capturing and destroying all of them and their cities and families, leaving none alive; and took all their cattle and things from their cities. Israel by the Lord God’s help destroyed and every city from Aroer bordering the valley of Arnon, and all about, to Gilead. But the land and people forbidden by the Lord God was not invaded, as the Ammonites, and all the side of the river Jabbok.
Then Moses reminded them that they then turned north to the way of Bashan and its king Og warred with them at the battle of Edrei; and the Lord assured him that they and theirs would be done as done with the Amorites, completely annihilated. Some 60 cities were captured in the region of Argob and the kingdom Og in Bashan; all fortified with high walls, gates, and bars; not counting many unwalled towns; all utterly destroyed and spoiled. Also, the land of the two kings of the Amorites we captured in trans-Jordan from Arnon to Mount Hermon of Syria, which the Sidonians called Mount Sirion and the Amorites call Senir; along with the plains and Gilead and all Bashan, up to Salecah and Edrei the cities of Og in Bashan. (Og the king of Bashan was the last of the remnant of Rephaim, with an iron bed-frame of 9×4 standard cubits (12×6 feet) and is in Rabbah of the Ammonites.) Israel occupied all that area and was ceded to the 21/2 tribes as their property; the area of Arnon and Gilead to the Reubenites and Gadites; and the area of north Gilead and all Bashan and Argob to the ½ tribe of Manasseh. (Now Bashan was before Rephaim but was captured along with Argob and the Geshurites and the Maacathites by Jair who renamed it Havvoth-Jair to the present day (the time of Samuel).) He reminded them that he granted and partitioned the trans-Jordan area to the 21/2 tribes from Gilead to Arnon to Jabbok, and to Arabah to Jordan to Chinnereth to the Sea of the Arabah (Dead Sea) to Pisgah eastward. At that time Moses commanded them and reminded them that the Lord their God has given them Trans-Jordan as their possession; but they must pass over armed to assist the rest of the tribes in the conquest of Canaan. Their families may settle in the land till they return after the conquest. Also, at that time he reminded them that he commanded Joshua of what the Lord their God did to the two kings, and so will He do all the kingdoms in Canaan; that he (Joshua) must not be afraid of them, for the Lord their God fights for them. He recalls to them that he petitioned the Lord, Who has shown His servant greatness and power, for no other god in heaven or earth can do such works and acts; to permit him to see and enter the good land across the Jordan and the goodly mountain, and Lebanon. But the Lord was angry at him because of them and refused his request; but told him to ascend to the top of Pisgah and look in all 4 directions and see the land which he will not enter with Israel. So, they stayed in the valley opposite Beth-peor.
Moses concludes the introduction of the rehearsal of Israel’s history in the wilderness with the reiteration and repetition and additional instruction of statutes and ordinances, which they must obey to live and possess the land of promise, granted by the Lord the God of their fathers. They must not add or subtract from the word commanded by him, so that they might obey all the commandments of the Lord their God. They saw how the Lord destroyed the followers of Baal-peor, and that He preserved them; that he has instructed them in the Lord God’s commandments to observe in Canaan. Their obedience is wisdom and understanding to all peoples that will hear of these statutes; and they will say that this great nation is wise and understanding; that no other great nation has a god so near as the Lord God is to Israel; and none have laws as righteous as these now given. They must take heed not to forget these things, in soul and heart, teaching them to their children and grandchildren; to remember when they stood before the Lord God in Horeb, when He said to assemble before Him to hear His words that they might fear Him always, and to live on earth, and teach their kids. Israel approached the burning mountain with flames, darkness, cloud, and dark smoke; and the Lord spoke to them from the midst of the fire, and they heard the voice of words but saw no form. He declared His covenant and commanded obedience to the Ten Words, the 10 Commandments, which He wrote down or inscribed on two tables of stone. At that time the Lord commanded that they should be taught the laws to be practiced in Canaan; and that they note well they did not see any form or likeness on that day when the Lord spoke to them from Horeb out of fire; that they not be corrupted with idolatry of any form, male or female, beast or bird, or reptiles or fishes; lest they look into the skies and worship and serve the heavenly bodies, things that the Lord has allotted to other peoples and nations. But the Lord delivered Israel from Egypt that iron furnace to become His inheritance; He was angry with Moses because of Israel and denied him to enter the good land, but instead to die in the desert of Trans-Jordan. They must take heed against forgetting the covenant and committing forbidden idolatry; since the Lord God is a devouring Fire and Jealous God. Then after their children and grandchildren, after many generations in Canaan, they defile themselves in idolatry of all sorts, and anger the Lord their God; then heaven and earth is witness today against Israel, and they will perish from Canaan and be destroyed; and He will disperse them among the peoples, till they are few among the nations of their exile. They will serve various man-made gods of wood and stone, idols blind and deaf, cannot eat or smell. But they will return and find the Lord their God in searching for Him with all heart and soul; in tribulation in later times will return and obey; for He is a merciful God, unfailing, non-destroying, and never-forgetful of His promised and sworn covenant. For ask of old, from God’s creation of Adam on earth, from the anywhere under heaven, if any such thing was seen or heard; that people heard the voice of God from the fire and still live. Or, that God attempted to take a nation from out of another nation by trials, signs, wonders, war, by a mighty hand, by outstretched arm, and by great terrors, as He did for them in Egypt. He showed all this to be known as the only God to Israel, by His voice and fire. Because He loved their fathers He has chosen their descendants and rescued them from Egypt; and to drive out of their inheritance greater and mightier nations before them. Therefore, since He is Jehovah Elohim forever obey and enforce all His commandments of the laws now given for life and peace.
Moses then designated the 3 cities (Bezer, Ramoth Gilead, and Golan Bashan) in Trans-Jordan, as refuge for one who causes death accidentally or without intention or premeditation. This concludes the Law or Torah of Moses for Israel, in testimonies, statutes, and judgments after the Exodus in Trans-Jordan near Beth-peor of the Amorites, which Israel conquered and settled all that territory. We hereby discern that we have come to a transition to a new section, which some have labeled the Second Discourse. The writer clearly makes a distinction between what Moses taught from the history and geography related to Moses and Israel and the nations.

Moses called Israel to hear the Law and Doctrine to learn and practice; for the Lord God made this covenant with Israel and not with their fathers, when He spoke to them face to face from the fire in Horeb (when Moses interceded for Israel in their fear of the fire, and to reveal to them the Word of the Lord): saying to them: the Lord God saved them from Egypt the house of bondage: 1. Do not have other gods in place of the Lord. 2. Do not make idols of anything or person in any form, to worship or serve them; for the Lord is a jealous God, avenging wickedness for many generations on His enemies; but compassionate towards His friends. 3. Do not profane the Name of the Lord God; for He will hold him guilty. 4. Observe the Sabbath as holy as He commanded; 6 days to work and rest on the 7th day, this applies to every person and every animal in Israel; and remember the Exodus and Egyptian slavery. 5. Honor to parents, father and mother as He commanded for long life and blessing in Israel. 6. Do not kill or murder. 7. Do not commit adultery. 8. Do not steal or rob. 9. Do not bear false witness or lie or slander against another. 10. Do not covet or desire or lust anything or any person that belongs to another. These are the Words which the Lord uttered by a great Voice to Israel from the mount; and He added nothing more; and He wrote them on Two Tablets of Stone, and He gave them to Moses for Israel. And Israel was terrified at the sight and sound from the mount, and at the Voice of God speaking to man and no one died. Israel’s leaders ask Moses to mediate between God and them, lest they be consumed by His fire, for nothing like this has ever happened. Moses was to hear from and speak to God and relate to Israel the Lord’s words and for their observance. The Lord responded to their request and wished that Israel would ever and always have such a heart in godly fear and obedience for all generations and for blessings. He sent Israel back to their tents but demanded Moses to stand in His Presence to hear the Law and Doctrine of the Lord God to Israel to practice in Canaan.
Now these are His Doctrines and Laws, His Words, in detail, for Israel in Canaan, to fear and obey Him always: Israel must hear and observe His words and law for blessing and increase and prosperity as He promised. Israel heard that the Lord God is one YHWH, one Lord, and one Jehovah: He must be loved with all of the heart, soul, and strength. These words of Moses to Israel from the Lord must ever be in the heart and must always be taught to Israel in every generation in every family; in their talk and walk, in their homes and bedrooms, in the morning and at night; and must be bound on as a sign or mark on the hand, and as frontlets on the forehead between the eyes. They are to be written on the door posts of their houses and gates of the cities. He warns them to beware after the Lord God has settled them in Canaan, the promised Land, to inherit good things, cities, cisterns, vineyards, and olive-trees, all which was not theirs; that they then forget their Deliverer from slavery; rather they must fear and serve Him and make oaths by His Name alone. Israel must not seek the gods of the nations to provoke His jealously and burning hot anger, so that He would destroy them from the land. They must not tempt Him as in Massah; but must enact and enforce all His words and laws, doing what is good and right in His sight, for their blessings and prosperity in Canaan, as He swore long ago; to evict the heathens of Canaan. They must tell their offspring concerning the Lord’s words and laws, and of the Exodus and the Wilderness; that His Word and Law, Dabar and Torah, may bless and preserve their lives, be their righteousness in obedience as He promised.
When the Lord God brings Israel to Canaan, and evicts and exile and destroy the 7 nations of Canaan, greater and powerful, superior in number and strength, and He defeats them, Israel must completely destroy them, make no covenant or league with them, show no mercy to them, and not to intermarry with them; for they will be seduced to commit idolatry with their gods and to serve idols, and the Lord’s hot anger will quickly destroy Israel. Therefore, they must be thoroughly destroyed and annihilated, demolishing their idols, relics, altars, pillars, Asherim, statutes, images, temples, groves, and such things, and they must be burnt in the fire. For Israel is to be His holy people, His chosen possession, and His peculiar and special and prized inheritance; loved and chosen not because they were numerous, for they were the smallest of the peoples, but He loved them because of His word and oath of promise to their fathers to redeem and deliver them from Egypt. They must know and realize that He is God and is faithful and true, a covenant or promise keeper, merciful and kind to His friends and lovers and keepers of His Commandments, even to 1,000 generations; but repaying and avenging His enemies and haters to their faces, to destroy them. Israel must implement and execute all His Word and Law so that He might fulfill and accomplish His Covenant and Mercies and His Oath to the Patriarchs; and to love and bless, to multiply and increase, to prosper in everything and every way to Israel in Canaan. That Israel be blessed above all peoples, that they and their cattle be fertile, that He remove all sicknesses and prevent the known diseases of Egypt, which He will put on their enemies. But those peoples must be consumed without pity, lest they serve their gods and be snared. Israel must not be afraid to dispossess those nations but recall the Exodus and the Lord God’s salvation of Israel by power and signs and wonders. The Lord God will send the hornet after them, and they will hide and perish; they must not be afraid, for He is great and awesome; and He will eject those nations little by little, lest the wild animals increase and out populate Israel. He will deliver the nations to Israel to rout and destroy, to ruin and discomfit, and to terminate their kings in all of Canaan; and burn up their carved images and idols; and must not covet their silver and gold things and decorations, to be snared by the detestable things to the Lord God. Israel must not house an abomination, to become devoted to destruction, but must utterly detest and abhor it as devoted or banned and condemned.
All these commandments must be observed in Canaan, remembering the 40 years desert wanderings or drifting to humble, to prove, to know the heart, if they will be obedient. He humbled them with hunger and fed them with manna, to show them that man does not live by bread only but live by the words from the Lord’s mouth. Their clothes did not get old; their feet did not swell for 40 years. Israel must consider that He disciplined them as a son; that they obey and fear Him. The Lord God brings Israel to the good land with brooks of water, fountains and wells, and springs of valleys and hills; of wheat, barley, grape vines, fig trees, and pomegranates; of oil, olive, and honey; without lack of bread or things; with great natural resources of iron and gold. So after Israel have settled and feasted to the full, and blessed the Lord God for the good land; they must not forget Him and His words and laws after they have become satisfied and prosperous in food, houses, herds, flocks, silver, gold, and such things in abundance, that they in pride disregard Him Who saved them from Egypt, and led them in the desert filled with poisonous serpents and scorpions, without water; and Who supplied water from the rock of flint, and provided manna; all to humble and test them and to see their final condition, if they would boast in their hearts of their own power and might to become wealthy; and also to establish His sworn ancient covenant. Israel must always remember the Lord God grants power and wealth for His covenant’s sake. So, if Israel forsakes Him to follow and serve and worship idols, they will absolutely perish as the other nations of Canaan; because Israel rejected His voice and warnings.
Israel must listen up, for they are about to invade and conquer Canaan across the Jordan, to conquer superior nations in numbers and power, with great fortified cities, with great and tall people as the notorious Anakim. Israel must know it is He Who goes ahead of them as a Devouring Fire to destroy the heathens and subjugate them to them, so they might easily and quickly destroy them. But after their conquest and subjugation, they must not boast as if their own righteousness defeated those nations; and not rather that the wickedness of these nations caused Him to drive them out and defeated them and to establish His word of promise to the 3 Patriarchs. It is the Lord God Who gave to Israel the good land despite their unrighteous stubbornness; and to remember that they enraged and provoked Him from the Exodus to the Invasion, as a rebellious people. Also, the provocation and wrath at Horeb that the Lord’s anger would destroy Israel, when He gave the tables of stone of His covenant with Israel, during the first 40 days and nights without bread or water. The stone tablets were written by the finger of God with the same words He uttered to Israel from the mount from fire to the assembly. During that time, they corrupted themselves, and sent Moses down quickly to his apostate idolatrous people; and He said of this stiff-necked people that He would utterly destroy them and make of him a stronger and greater nation. Moses continued to remind them that he descended the mount with the two tables; and when he saw their sin and idolatry against the Lord God, he threw down and broke the tables; then he fell down and stayed another 40 days and nights just as the 1st because of Israel’s sinful provocation; for He was determined to destroy Aaron; but he prayed for him, and took the sin calf and melted it and stamped and ground it to dust; then he threw it in the brook flowing down the mount. Israel provoked the Lord at Taberah, Massah, and at Kibroth-hattaavah; and then at Kadesh-barnea they enraged Him when He sent them to invade and conquer and occupy Canaan; they rebelled against His commandment, disbelieved and refused to listen to Him; for they have been rebellious against the Lord from the day Moses came to them. So Moses reminded them how he fell face down to ground before Him during the 2nd 40 days and nights, that he would not destroy His people and inheritance redeemed by His greatness from Egypt; and to remember His servants the Patriarchs; and to overlook Israel’s stubbornness and wickedness and sin; that the heathens might not criticize the Lord as impotent to save those He delivered, and unable to fulfill His promise, so to say that, He destroyed them in hate in the desert. But Moses continued to intercede for Israel as God’s people and portion, His redeemed.
So the Lord, Moses reminded them, had him carve the two tablets of stone the 2nd time, just like the first, ant be brought to Him in the mount so He may again write the exact words as the former that Moses broke; and it must be placed in a ark or box or chest, made of acacia wood; and He wrote on them the 10 Words or Ten Commandments; which he gave to Moses for Israel; and he returned to the assembly and deposited the tables in the ark, which still exist to this day, 38 years later. (Israel journeyed from Beeroth Benejaakan to Moserah; there Aaron died and was buried, and his son Eleazar ministered in the priest’s office in his place. Thence they journeyed to Gudgodah, then to Jotbathah, a land of water brooks; at that time the Lord selected and set apart the Levites to carry the Ark of the Covenant, and to stand before and minister to and bless in His Name, to this day (38 years later). Levi has no portion or inheritance with his brethren, for the Lord is His inheritance as He designated.) Moses again the 2nd (it appears a 3rd time is meant, but it really goes back to the 2nd , which is under consideration) time as in the 1st occasion, stayed another 40 days and nights, and the Lord listened to his plead not to destroy them. Then the Lord told Moses it’s now time to lead the people to enter Canaan.
Moses instructs Israel of the Lord God’s requirement to fear Him, to walk in all His ways, to love and serve Him with all of the heart and soul, both as a nation and as individuals; to fulfill all His words and laws of commandments, statutes, ordinances, charges, and judgments, from this day forward, in the desert and in Canaan. All the heavens and the earth belong to Him, yet He loved and chose the Patriarchs and their descendants above all other peoples. Israel must circumcise the foreskin of the heart, and no longer be stiff-necked; for He is the God of gods and the Lord of lords, He is mighty and awesome, and takes no reward or bribe. He vindicates the orphans and widows, loves the sojourner and immigrant as Israel once was in Egypt; He is to be feared, served, and clung to, and to make oaths only in His Name; He is Israel’s Praise and God, great and wonderful in acts and works. The patriarchs migrated to Egypt numbering 70 souls and are about to enter Canaan as a multitude as the stars of heaven of some 3 million in all. He is to be loved and his words and laws obeyed always. This adult generation, (not the next generation of their children unfamiliar with the Lord God’s discipline and works and signs and power and greatness in the Exodus from Egypt, and at the Red Sea (Yam Suph), and in the desert till present, and how He dealt with the rebels of Reuben) must know and see clearly His great work; to obey His command that Israel might be strong to conquer and possess Canaan, and to enjoy the good and fertile and blessed land, ever favored by the Lord God. If Israel is faithful and obedient and loyal to Him with all heart and soul, then He will bless and prosper with rain and growth, with grains and animals, with wine and oil, to eat to the full and satisfied. Israel must be on guard of turning away from Him to serve and worship idols, and so anger Him against Israel to withhold rain and crops, to destroy them in the land. But Moses words and doctrines, the Law or Torah to Israel must be in the heart and soul, bound as a sign on the hand and frontlets on the foreheads; to be taught to the children, talked about in their homes and travels, from morn to eve; and to be written on door-posts and city walls; that their lives be prolonged with future generations enduring forever as the heavens and the earth. And if Israel is faithful and obedient to the Mosaic Law to love and follow and cling to the Lord God, then He will defeat and eject the great and mighty heathens from Canaan. Israel will then occupy from the wilderness to Lebanon, from the Euphrates River (in Syria and southern Turkey), and from Jordan to the farthest Sea (the Great Mediterranean Sea); without any people or nation to challenge or oppose them, but their enemies will be terrified by the Lord God.
Moses then set before Israel the Blessing and the Curse (Berachah u-Qelalah): their blessing if obedient to Law of Moses of the Lord God’s commandments; and the curse if disobedient and apostate and commit idolatry. When Israel enters Canaan they must set the Blessing on Mount Gerizim and the Curse on Mount Ebal, mountains on western territory across the Jordan River in the land of the Canaanites who reside in the Arabah or Plains opposite Gilgal near the Oaks of Moreh; for Israel is to occupy the country; and there to observe the Law of Moses. In Canaan Israel must implement all the statues and ordinances, and to destroy and burn all the places and things of idolatry whether mountains, hills, groves, altars, pillars, Asherim, images, or any such thing. Israel must not be like them towards the Lord God; but must seek and visit His chosen place of habitation, to bring their sacrifices and offerings, and to celebrate His feasts, both the nation and the families and individual. Israel must no longer do whatever each man desires or thinks right, but after entering Canaan, and settled and resting in the good land free from enemies and at peace; that they must resort only to the Dwelling-Place of His Name to sacrifice and offer and vow to Him; and one and all rejoice before Him, including the Levite in the city gates. Israel must not offer sacrifices in any other place but what has been chosen and designated by the Lord. Israel may kill and eat of the animals as food in any place they desire, but must not partake of its blood, but to pour it out on the ground. Also, this applies to the tithes and vows made to the Lord, for these must be presented to Him in His Place or House, to be feasted and shared and enjoyed along with the Levites. The Levite must not be ignored or neglected. And when He has enlarged Israel’s borders, and flesh is desired to eat, but the Place of His Name is too far away, then the flesh of animals may be eaten in their cities and gates, without the blood of its life, enjoying and satisfied with these meals in the Lord’s eyes. But the holy things and the vows must be presented to Him at His Place; to offer the sacrifices and offerings on the Altar, and to pour out the blood near the Altar. These words of Moses must be carefully observed, to do the good and right thing in His sight. And after the conquest of Canaan and Israel fully settled in their new land, they must not be ensnared by the idolatry of these nations of Canaan, such as their gods and idols and how they serve them. Israel must not do like these idolatrous nations which commit every abomination to the Lord God which He hates and abhors, detest and despises, like when they offer their sons and daughters to be burnt in the fire to their gods.
Moses added that Israel must not add to nor subtract from this Law he has given them. If there is a prophet or dreamer of dreams or seer predicting a sign and wonder to allure or seduce the people to go after foreign gods to serve them, they must not regard their words or utterances because the Lord God is testing Israel’s love for Him; for He alone must be feared, obeyed, served, and attached. But such revealers must be put to death for inciting rebellion against the Lord God, Who delivered Israel from Egypt; thus is this evil put away. Anyone secretly enticing the people to idolatry or apostasy in any form of relatives or friends must be put to death without hearing, or mercy, or pity, or protection; and he who is solicited must first put his hands to him, then that of all the people. The seducer must be stoned to death, so that Israel may hear and fear to permit any such wickedness. If a city in Israel is seduced to commit such idolatry, near or far, very careful inquiry is to be made of the fact and truth of such abomination done, and then the citizens or residents of that city must be slain by the sword, utterly destroyed of man and beast. The very goods of that city shall be collected as a heap and then burnt up; and that city must not be rebuilt; and nothing of that city must be found with anyone, so that the Lord’s fierce anger might not consume His people, but instead show them mercy and compassion, and multiply them as promised long ago, that in obedience He will bless them.
Moses continued that Israel as the People of the Lord God must not mark their bodies, by cuttings and tattoos, or shave their foreheads for the dead, since they are His holy and chosen people different than all the nations. They must not eat any detestable thing, but only the designated clean and allowable animals; such with hoofs parted in two or chews the cud and regurgitate. Some animals which only have one of these characteristics must not be eaten, for they are unclean and not permitted, and their carcasses must not be touched. Likewise the fishes in the waters and seas, those with fins and scales are eatable, but not if they do not, for those are unclean. Clean birds are edible, but not those designated as unclean as the predators and scavengers. All insects with wings are unclean and are not edible. Not edible is anything which dies of itself for Israel, but the foreigner may eat it. The goat’s kid must not be boiled in its mother’s milk. All increase and harvest must be tithed yearly and presented to the Lord at the Place of His Name; and if it is too far a distance then the tithed must be converted to money, and it be taken to His City and House, and the money used to purchase the sacrifices or offerings as desired or needed; and to feast and rejoice in His Place. And the Levite must not be forsaken or neglected as he is without tribal property. Every 3 years must all the tithed of increase and stored inside the city gates; that the Levite, the immigrant, the orphans, and the widows may eat from it and be satisfied; so that the Lord God may bless your labors.
Every seven years must be declared a year of release for all those in debt by loans and sales, the creditors must release or forgive the debt to his neighbor or brother or fellow citizen. The debt may be exacted from the foreigners or immigrants but not an Israelite; for the poor will not exist in Israel if the Lord God bless and prosper His people; if they diligently obey His voice and Moses’ laws. He will bless Israel as promised so that they will be the lender and creditor to many nations and not the borrower in debt, and they shall rule over nations and not be subjugated. If the poor exists in Israel they must not be mistreated, avoided, disqualified, nor rejected from help and charity, but freely and properly given aid and sustenance; and no base thought and heart consider the 7th year of release is approaching and thus refuse or avoid helping the brother, the needy, and the poor in Israel. If a fellow Hebrew, man or woman, is sold or bought to serve, it must not be longer than 6 years, and in the 7th year they must be released freely and given substance or sustenance or severance in goods or money; remembering Israel’s slavery in Egypt and His redemption; this is the reason Moses commanded this conduct. If a servant refuses to be set free or released because he loves his master and the house and has been treated well; then an awl must be driven through his ear into the door, and thus he will be permanently the servant, male or female. The 6 years’ service must not be regretted in the release, since his service is double the value of a hired servant; for this He will bless Israel. The firstling males of the animals must be sanctified to the Lord God; they must not be used for labor; but eaten as yearly sacrifices at the Lord’s Place. It must be without defect as a sacrifice; and eaten within the gates whether unclean or clean; and the blood must be drained by the altar.
In the month of Abib the Passover must be observed in memorial of the Exodus; the sacrifice of the Passover must be kept exactly and in detail as prescribed; along with the rules of removal and abstinence from leaven or yeast for that week, and the eating the bread of affliction to recall and reflect the Exodus from Egypt. The Passover Lamb must be completely eaten or burned, nothing left over, eaten at night and roasted, in the Lord’s chosen Place. The feast of unleavened bread is to be 7 days. Also 7 weeks must be numbered from the time the sickle is used to harvest, and then on the 50th day, Pentecost, the Feast of Weeks to the Lord God celebrated with tribute of freewill-offering from His blessings; to rejoice with the family and household and servants and the Levites and the sojourners, and the orphans, and widows in Israel. Never forget the bondage in Egypt, and always remember to observe Moses’ statutes. The Feast of Tabernacles or Booths (Succoth) is for 7 days and begins after the harvest of crops and grapes for the winepress, to be celebrated by all in Israel in joy, for the entire week in the Place of His choice; and with all His blessings. The 3 annual Feasts required for all males to appear to the Lord God in the chosen Place are of Unleavened Bread, of Weeks, and of Tabernacles; and none must appear empty handed, but with what He has blessed him with. There must be judges and officers in all the city gates in every tribe to judge righteous judgment; without twisting or distorting justice, or partiality, or taking bribes; for bribes blinds the eyes of the wise and perverts the words of the righteous. But what is truly just must be followed that they may live and inherit the land He has given. No Asherah must ever be planted near the Altar of the Lord God, nor any pillar which He hates.
` Also no animal sacrifice to the Lord God must be defective or deformed for that is detestable to Him; if anyone in Israel has become apostate and committed idolatry in any city, doing evil in His sight and transgressing His covenant, to follow and serve idols, to worship sun, moon, and stars, which He has forbidden. When this detestable evil and crime becomes known it must be carefully verified, then the guilty must be stoned to death. Only by 2 or 3 witnesses must anyone be executed by the people, and the witnesses must participate in the condemnation. Thus is evil stopped and prevented in Israel. When judicial or legal cases arise that are very difficult or problematic anywhere in Israel, then the controversial case must be brought to His chosen Place to the Levitical priests and to the existing judge to enquire and resolve; and their sentence and judgment must stand and followed, to be observed as they teach Israel, and their decision and judgment and sentence or verdict must not be altered or ignored by anyone. But a presumptuous person who refuses the verdict of the Priest who stands to minister before the Lord God, or of the Judge, then such an evil person must die; to stop and prevent such presumption in Israel. When Israel has possessed Canaan and desire to elect a King to rule over the nation, he must be chosen from his brethren in Israel and not from an unrelated foreigner. The King must not multiply horses for himself, must not lead Israel back to Egypt to acquire more horses, for He has forbidden them ever to return; must not have many wives to turn his heart away, must not accrue great wealth in silver and gold. But when the King ascends the throne or is inaugurated in his kingdom he must write for himself a copy of Moses Law in a Book from the Book which is with the Levitical priests; and the King must keep it and read it daily all his life, that he may learn to fear the Lord God, and to keep and enforce all the words of the Torah of Moses; that the King does not become haughty and proud against his brethren, that he does not deviate or neglect any detail to the left or right; that his kingdom may be established and his rule lengthened in Israel.
Also the Levitical Priests, the tribe of Levi, have no portion or inheritance with Israel, but are to eat of the Lord’s offerings by fire as their inheritance as He has indicated. The priests’ due and share must be from the people’s sacrifices and offerings and gifts; because the Lord God chose Levi on behalf of Israel to minister in His name forever. The Levite in the various cities of Israel may desire and choose to relocate to the Lord’s Place, and they must be permitted to share in the ministry and service of their Levitical brethren. They must share equally in the common meals in additional to what they received from the sale of their patrimony or inheritance or estate. Israel must enter Canaan to become like the heathens or nations there; such as child sacrifices by fire to idols, or divination, or augury, enchanter, sorcerer, charmer, consulter, fortune teller, an astrologer, familiar spirit, wizard, necromancer, and such like. These things and persons are a detestable abomination to the Lord, and for these very things the Lord God has driven them out before Israel. Israel must be perfect with the Lord God; and not like these nations who listen to and practice augury and divination of soothsayers and the like; but He has not permitted Israel to this. But the Lord God will rise up a Prophet in Israel like to Moses, and he must be heard and obeyed in all that Israel requested of Him at Horeb or Sinai in the day of the Assembly, when they desired Moses to mediate and intercede between Israel and the Lord. He granted the petition and said He would rise up a Prophet like Moses and put His words in his mouth to speak to Israel all His commands. Those who hear the Lord’s words spoken in His name by the Prophet will be accountable. But that Prophet who prophecies presumptuously in His name which He has not commanded, or who speaks in the name of other gods, that Prophet must die. And the true words of the Lord’s speaking is known when the prophecy is fulfilled as revealed, but if it fails the Prophet is false and has lied, speaking presumptuously; Israel must not fear such.
When the Lord God has defeated the nations of Canaan and Israel has conquered and occupied their country and the cities, then 3 cities must be set apart as Refuge for those escaping the avenger of blood in cases of non-volitional deaths, without premeditation and by accident without malice; the manslayer in such as case is not guilty of murder and need not die for causing death. The Cities of Refuge and Sanctuary must not be too far apart that the manslayer is caught and killed by the blood avenger in his hot anger. When the Lord enlarge Israel’s borders and expands into all the promised territory, then an additional 3 cities may be added; for if Israel is faithful and obedient to His word and Moses’ law, the three cities must be added lest innocent blood be shed, and Israel become guilty. But if a man ambushes and kills another man and then flees to a City of Refuge, he is a murderer and guilty deserving death; and the elders of his home city shall send or summon for him to be arrested and handed over for justice, and he must be put to death without pity; and so remove innocent blood and be preserved. One witness alone must not establish anyone’s guilt of wickedness or sin of a crime; there must be 2 or 3 witnesses. If an unrighteous witness arises against another person of wrong or crime, then both men in controversy must stand before the Lord and the priests and the judges; and diligent inquisition must be made, and if it is determined that the witness is a false accuser and a slanderer of his brother; then must be put to death; thus others will hear and fear, and such evil prevented. The law of retaliation, lex talionis, is impartial and reciprocal: life for life, eye for eye, tooth or hand or foot is the same, and such like.
When in war or battle against Israel’s enemies and see their horses, chariots, and their numbers, and the like; remember the Lord God the Savior from Egypt, and fear not. The priest must approach and speak to the army of Israel to engage in the battle without a faint heart, or fear, or tremble, or terror, for the Lord God fights for Israel to save them from their enemies. The officers shall dismiss any man who has built a new house and not dedicated it, to return home and do so, lest he die in battle, and another does it. So too with one who has planted a vineyard and has not enjoyed its fruit; dismiss also those engaged or espoused but have not married. Further the officers shall dismiss the fearful and faint-hearted, that the others’ hearts melt not. Afterwards the officers must appoint captains of the armies or forces to lead the people. In besieging a city first offer terms of peace; and if they are willing and desire a treaty, then they may become tributary to serve Israel. If they refuse to negotiate peace but choose war, then besiege it till the Lord God delivers them in defeat to Israel; then every male in that city must be slaughtered; but the women, children, cattle, goods of the city, and all spoil, may be spared and reserved as booty and prey, to enjoy the spoil of the enemies of Israel. But this only applies to the cities at a distance outside the limits of the cities of the nations of Canaan. But the cities of the peoples of Canaan, the 6 nations, must be utterly destroyed, none may live or breathe; that Israel may not learn to follow all their abominations and idolatry to sin against the Lord God. If the city is besieged for a long time in the war against it, the fruit trees must not be axed down since they are food supply; only trees that produce no fruit may be cut down and used for bulwarks to subdue it.
When a slain person is found in the field and it is not known who killed him, then the elders and judges shall come forward to measure the distance from the body to the nearest city, and the elders of that city must take a heifer never worked or yoked, and they must take the young heifer to a rough uncultivated valley, and cut off the heifer’s head at the neck there. Then the Levitical priests must come near as those chosen by Him to minister and bless in His name, and to decide all controversy and every stroke; and the elders shall wash their hands over the beheaded heifer; and they shall declare that their hands has not shed this person’s blood. May the Lord be merciful and forgive Israel, His redeemed, to remove guilt of this innocent blood; and the shed blood will be forgiven; and so remove blood guilt from Israel in the Lord’s sight. When He has given Israel victory in battle, and among the captives a beautiful girl, damsel, is seen and desired to become a wife, she may be brought home to the man’s house, she must shave her head and pare her nails or trim her fingernails, and remove her clothes of captivity, and she must remain in his house a full month grieving her parents; after this may he be joined to her and they become husband and wife. If later he delights not in her, he may release her to go freely, he must not sell her for money or treat her as a slave, because he has humbled her. If a man with two wives loves one and hates the other, and both bearing a child, the true firstborn if of the hated wife or disfavored mother must be respected and the primogeniture or firstborn’s rights must be acknowledged and granted in the inheritance and must not be given to the favored one; the firstborn must inherit a double portion of all the property and possessions. If parents have a stubborn rebellious and incorrigible son, refuses to listen or obey either parents, even after discipline and chastisement; then his parents must bring him to the elders of his city to the city gates or courts, and tell the elders of stubborn rebellious son as a glutton and drunkard. The men of the city shall then stone him to death to remove evil and produce fear in Israel. If a man sins worthy of death, and he is hung on a tree, his body must not remain overnight, but must be buried that day; for one hanged on a tree is cursed of God; that the land be not defiled.
If an ox or sheep of a brother or neighbor strays, it must be returned to the owner; and if the owner is a far distance, the lost animal must be kept till it has been sought, then must be restored. The same for a donkey, or his clothes, or any lost item which is found, it must be restored to the owner once known. If a brother’s donkey or ox falls in a pit, those nearby must help pull it out. A woman must not wear a man’s clothing, nor must man a woman’s garment, for such is detestable to the Lord God. If a bird nest is found with the dam sitting on its eggs, the eggs may be taken but the dam or hen must not be taken with its young; for Israel’s good and long-life. When a new house is built the roof must have a battlement or enclosure to prevent an accidental fall and blood guilt on that house. Vineyards must not be seeded with various seeds which defiles the seed and the fruit. The ox and donkey must not be yoked together to plow. Garments must not be worn of mixed fabrics as wool and linen. Garments or vestures must have fringes or hems on the four edges.
If a man marries a woman then hates her and slanders her or accuses her with an evil name, saying that he discovered she was not a virgin; then her parents must produce proof or token cloth to the elders of their daughter’s virginity. The elders then must chastise or whip the man, and fine him 100 silver-shekels, and give them to her father, for the evil and shame or dishonor to a virgin of Israel. She will remain has his wife and may never divorce her. But if it is true that her virginity could not be proven; then she must be brought to the door of her father’s house and the men of her city must stone her death; for her folly in Israel by playing the whore in her father’s house; so removing evil from Israel. If a man is found sleeping with a married woman, they must both die; thus removing evil from Israel. If a virgin betrothed or engaged to future husband, and another man finds her in her city, and sleeps with her; they both must be brought out to the city gates to be stoned to death; the virgin because she did not cry out for help in the city; and the man because he humbled and violated his neighbor’s wife; thus evil is put away. But if a man finds an engaged or promised virgin in the field and forces or rapes her, only the man must die; the damsel must not be punished for sin; since this case is as when a man murders his neighbor; for she cried for help in the field, but none saved her. But if a man finds a virgin not engaged or promised, and lies with her by force, or violates her, then is discovered, the man must give to the damsel’s father 50 silver-shekels, and must marry her, and may never divorce her. A man must not take his father’s wife, nor discover his father’s skirt.
The wounded in the stones, the castrated, or deformed must not enter the Lord’s assembly; nor a bastard or one of illegitimate birth up to the 10th generation; nor an Ammonite or Moabite to the 10th generation, for they refused help and passage to Israel after the Exodus from Egypt, and they hired Balaam ben-Beor from Pethor of Mesopotamia to curse Israel, but the Lord God turned the intended curse into Israel’s blessing, for He loved Israel, therefore never desire their peace or prosperity. Never abhor or despise an Edomite for he is a brother and relative; nor an Egyptian, for Israel was a pilgrim in his land; but their children in the 3rd generation may enter the Lord’s assembly. When Israel encamps their enemies in war they must not do or touch anything evil; if one is unclean by a nocturnal emission he must leave the camp proper, and remain on the outskirt till the evening, but he must bathe before he returns. There must be place outside the camp for natural relief, and a paddle or a shovel in the weapons pack to dig and cover what comes out; for the Lord God walks in Israel’s camp to deliver and defeat the enemies; that He see no unclean thing and turn away. A run away or escaped slave must not be arrested and returned to his master but may freely live where he feels safe without oppression. There must not be a prostitute of the daughters of Israel, and no sodomite or homosexual of the sons of Israel; and the harlot’s hire or a dog’s wages must not come into the House of the Lord God for a vow; for prostitution and homosexuality is a detestable thing to Him. Loans to a brother must not be with usury or interest in any form; but interest may be charged to a foreigner; so that the Lord God may bless and prosper Israel in Canaan. Vows to the Lord God must be paid on time, for He requires it, and it be not sin; but it is not a sin to not vow; but what one has uttered must be observed and fulfilled according to the vow made to Him as a freewill-offering and promise. The neighbor’s vineyard may be freely eaten of to satisfy hunger and need but must not be put in a vessel or container to take; so too with his standing grain or unharvested crop, the ears may be hand plucked but no sickle to be used.
When a man marries a woman and finds in her something unseemly or improper, he may write her a bill of divorcement and give it to her and then send her away; she may then remarry to another man; but if the second husband hate her and divorces her, she may not return to the first husband after being defiled, for that is abomination to the Lord; and they must not cause the land to sin in this. When a man marries a new wife, he must not go out to war, neither charged with any business or obligations; but he must stay at home one year to cheer his new wife. The mill or upper millstone must not take as pledge or security, for it is as life. A kidnapper of a fellow Israelite, who enslaves him or sells him, must be put to death, so to eradicate the evil or crime in Israel. The plague of leprosy, symptoms and precautions and regulations, must be observed carefully as the Levitical priests teach Israel in Moses’ law; remember what the Lord God did to Miriam after leaving Egypt. When a loan is made the pledge or security must not be forced from his house; but the borrower must be allowed to bring it out to the lender; and a poor’s man pledge must not be kept overnight., but be restored to him before sunset, that he may sleep in his garment, and thus bless in return; this is righteousness to the Lord God. A poor hired servant, whether Israelite or immigrant, must not be oppressed in the gates; but his wages must be paid by sunset, being poor and needy; lest he cry to the Lord, and it be sin. Parents must not be put to death for their children, nor children for parents, but each one for his own sin. The justice to pilgrim and orphans must not be wrested or avoided or distorted; nor take a widow’s clothes as pledge; but remember the Egyptian slavery and His redemption of Israel for this command. Do not reap a second time the harvest sheaf or crop, but leave it for the pilgrim, orphans, and widows, that the Lord God may bless the labor. Also the vineyards must not be gleaned after gathering, but must be left for the poor; remembering Israel’s bondage in Egypt.
If men have a controversy for judgment, the judge must justify the righteous and condemn the wicked; and the wicked deserving whippings must be beaten before the judge, and the number or penalty according to the crime; but no more than 40 strips to be exceeded; lest he is regarded vile. The ox while treading must not be muzzled. When one of two brothers who live together dies without a son, then the wife must be married to the other brother and not to a stranger; and he must perform the husband’ brother to her; and her firstborn shall succeed in his brother’s name, that his name may not be abolished in Israel. If he refuses or dislikes to take his brother’s wife, then she must go to the elders at the gate and declare his refusal to raise up his brother’s name in Israel to perform the duty to him. The elders of his city must call and speak to him, and if he insists his refusal; then his brother’s wife in the elders’ presence, must remove his shoe, and spit in his face, saying that so must it be done to one who refuses to build his brother’s house; his name in Israel will be the House of the Shoeless Man. When two men are fighting, if the wife of one of them comes near, to help her husband, and grabs the other man’s private organ; then her hand must be cut off without pity. There must be no diverse or unequal weights, great or small, in the bag; nor in the house diverse measures; but a perfect and just, equal standard, weight and measure; to prolong days in Israel; for all those who do such are detestable to the Lord God. Remember Amalek’s attack on Israel after the Exodus, striking the hindmost and feeble, when faint and weary, not fearing God; so, when Canaan is conquered and Israel at rest from their enemies, and occupying His promised land; then Amalek must be completely wiped out; this must not be forgotten.
When Israel is in possession of their inheritance from the Lord God, each must take a basketful of the first of the fruits of the ground to the chosen Place for His Name; and must say and profess to the priest that he has come this day to Lord’s land promised long ago. The priest must take and set the basket down before the Altar of the Lord God; to which a reply and confession must be made concerning Israel or Jacob as a Syrian who migrated to Egypt few in number, then became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous; then the Egyptians mistreated, afflicted, and enslaved Israel; then they cried to the Lord God, and He heard their voice, saw their affliction and toil and oppression; and the Lord delivered Israel from Egypt by might and power, with terror, signs, and wonders; and brought Israel to Canaan, which flows with milk and honey; thus here is the first of the fruit of the ground which He has given; and it shall be set before the Lord God, and worship before Him; and rejoice one and all of Israel. When the tithe in the 3rd year is given of the harvest and surplus, it must go to the Levite, sojourner, orphans, and widow, that they may eat and be satisfied; and confess to Him, that the holy things have not been kept at home, but are hereby given in accordance to Moses’ commandment of the Lord, and has not been transgressed or forgotten; and it has not been eaten in mourning, neither pilfered, or becoming unclean, or offered for the dead; but have listened and obeyed His entire commandment. May He look down from His Holy Habitation from Heaven and bless His people and the ground of the Promised Land.
This day the Lord God commands obedience to His statutes and ordinances with all heart and soul. Israel has avouched the Lord this day to be their God to walk in His ways, statutes, commandments, ordinances, to listen to His voice, and to be His people and possession as He promised; and He has avouched Israel to Himself to keep His commandments; to exalt them above all nations He has made, with praise, in name, and honor, to be a holy people to Him as He said. Moses and the Elders of Israel commanded the People to keep all Moses’ commandment; and when they cross Jordan into Canaan, the Lord God’s promise and favored land, to erect great plastered stones, and write on them all the Words of this Law (Dabar and Torah). In mount Ebal the plastered stones; and an altar to the Lord God, an altar unhewn and unaltered stones, for burnt-offerings and sacrifices of peace-offerings, to be eaten there and to rejoice before Him. The Words of this Law must be written or inscribed on the stones very plainly; and Moses and the Levitical Priests bid Israel to listen up, for they have now become the People of the Lord God, to obey His voice and laws. Moses charged Israel that day, that 6 tribes, or ½ the nation, are to stand on mount Gerizim to bless the People across the Jordan: Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Joseph, and Benjamin. And on mount Ebal 6 tribes or ½ the nation, for the curse: Reuben, Gad, Asher, Zebulun, Dan, and Naphtali. The Levites must answer and shout to Israel 12 Curses with 12 Amens from the People. Cursed are all secret detestable idolaters and idol-craftsmen; accursed are neglecters of parents; and remover of neighbor’s landmark; and causing the blind to stray; and robs the justice to sojourner, orphans, and widows; and sleeps with his father’s wife, uncovering his father’s skirt; and sleeps with any animal in bestiality; and sleeps with his sister or step-sister in incest; and sleeps with his mother-in-law; and who smites his neighbor in secret or ambush; and who takes a bribe to kill an innocent person; and who confirms not this law to them; all the People shout Amen to each of these 12 Curses.
Moses continued to instruct Israel that if they hear and obey diligently the voice of the Lord God in Moses’ command, that He would exalt them above all the nations of the earth; with the abundance of His blessings for obedience. Israel will be blessed in the city and the field; blessed in offspring, in produce, in livestock, and flocks; blessed in the basket and kneading-trough; and blessed in coming and in going. The Lord will defeat the enemies; they shall come as one force but will scatter in retreat 7 ways. He will bless the barns, and labor or cultivation; and establish Israel as a His holy people in obedience walking in His ways. All peoples of the earth will see the Lord’s Name in Israel and be afraid; and He will prosper Israel, in children, in cattle, in crops, in Canaan as He swore to the Fathers. He will open the good treasure of heaven to rain in season to bless the toil; and Israel will lend to many nations but will not borrow. Israel will be the Head and not the Tail, be above and not below, in their obedience to Him as Moses commanded to observe; and not to depart from the Words of the Law to the right or to the left to go after other gods to serve them. But if Israel disobeys and refuses to listen to Him and His words and laws by Moses, that He will put His curses on Israel. They will be cursed in the city and field; in baskets and kneading-trough; in child-bearing, in crops, in cattle, and in the young of the flock; and accursed in coming or going. The Lord will plague Israel with curses, discomforts, rebuke, in everything; to be destroyed and perish quickly for evil-doings and apostasy. He will make pestilence cling till they are consumed in Canaan. He will smite with consumption, fever, inflammation, fiery heat or burning rash, with sword, blasting, and mildew; and Israel will be pursued and destroyed by their enemies. He will cause Israel to be defeated by their enemies, to go out as one but to flee in retreat in 7 ways; and to be tossed and exiled about among all the kingdoms of the earth among the Gentiles. Israel’s dead shall be food for birds of heaven, and for the wild animals, and none will scare them away. He will plague Israel with Egypt’s boils, with emerods or hemorrhoids, scurvy, and the itch, without treatment or healing. He will cause madness and insanity, blindness, and despair and depression of heart; to cause one to grope in daylight as the blind in darkness, and without prosperity, but only oppression and robbery without a helper. A man will marry a woman but another will sleep with his wife; he will build a house but another will live in it; he will plant a vineyard but will not enjoy its fruit; his ox will be slain in his sight but will not eat of the meat; his donkey will be violently taken and not restored; his sheep given to his enemies, and none to save or stop; and his children given to another people while he looks on in pain and longings and powerless to do anything. The harvest and produce and fruit of his labors will be taken by a foreign nation to eat; and he will be crushed and oppressed; driven insane at the sight of sufferings; the Lord will afflict a man’s knees and legs with severe and incurable boils, from sole of the foot to crown of the head. He will exile Israel and their elected King to a Gentile nation to serve foreign and strange gods of wood and stone; Israel will become astonishment, a proverb, and a byword to all the Gentiles that He surrendered them to captivity. Israel shall plant many seeds but harvest little, for the locust will consume it; will cultivate vineyards but have no wine or grapes, for the worms shall eat them. The abundance of olive-trees will not produce oil for their anointing, for the fruit will be cast or exported; Israel’s offspring will be exiled into captivity; his trees and crops will be possessed by locusts. The sojourner or pilgrim or stranger or alien in Israel will be elevated and superior, but Israel be lowered and inferior; so that he will lend to Israel but need not to borrow; he will be the head and they will become the tail. These curses will plague Israel to their destruction for disobedience to the Lord God’s voice and His commandments; and be as a sign and wonder to the generations to follow. And because they served not the Lord God with rejoicement and gladness for all His abundant blessings, they shall serve the enemies that the Lord will send against Israel, to be in hunger, thirst, nakedness, poverty, and yoke of captivity, till Israel is destroyed. The Lord will bring a distant nation from far away as the eagle flies whose tongue is not understood; a fierce nation, disregarding the old and the young; and he will eat the cattle, the crops, till Israel is ruined; and he will leave nothing left, no grain, new wine or oil, no increase of cattle or young of the flock, till Israel perish. They shall besiege Israel at all the gates, breaking down the trusted walls and towers of defense in His given land; till some will eat their own children’s flesh in the siege and distress of the invading enemies. The tender gentleman will not share of his children’s flesh that he eats with his brother or wife or other children, during the siege and distress in his starvation. So too the delicate and tender woman or lady will likewise eat her own child and refuse to share the body with anyone else in her family during the siege and distress of starvation. If Israel will not observe and practice all the Words of this Law written in this Book (eth-kol-Dibbrei hat-Torah hazzoth hakkethubhim bas-Sepher hazzeh), that is the Book of Deuteronomy, that they may fear this Glorious and Fearful or Awesome Name, Jehovah Elohim; then He will increase and multiply the plagues as wonderful and great, to the next generation and after, sore and clinging sicknesses. He will bring on Israel again all the diseases of Egypt that was feared and they shall infect and spread. Even many diseases and plagues not written in the Book of this Law (Deuteronomy), will the Lord bring to destroy; till He reduce Israel to be few instead as the vast host of stars in heaven; because of disobedience to His voice. Thus, He will no longer rejoice in Israel to do them good and multiply, but to destroy and cause to perish, to pluck them from Canaan. The Lord will scatter Israel among all the peoples both near and far, and abandoned them to serve other gods and idols, new and strange, wood and stone. Israel will not find ease or comfort or favor or rest among these Gentiles; but He wills them a trembling heart, failing eyes, and a pining soul; so that the life and soul is in doubt and uncertain, fearing night and day, and no assurance or security. In the morn they will long for the eve, at sunset they will pray for sunrise, for all the calamity and misery. And the Lord will bring Israel back to Egypt in ships against His promise they would never see Egypt again, but as selling themselves as slaves and no one will buy them.

We are now at the last division of Deuteronomy in which the last 5 chapters will conclude Moses V, and allow us to complete Chapter Two of these Reflections. Till now I have altered the text to always speak in the 2nd or 3rd person, avoiding deliberately the 1st in singular or plural; but in these final chapters I will relate the Text in the persons inspired in this Book, in hopes that the reader might see the uniqueness of this Second Book and Finger of the Divine Hands of the Bible.
These are the Words of the Covenant (Dibbrei hab-Berith) which the Lord commanded Moses to make with the children or sons of Israel in the Land of Moab, in addition to that Covenant which He made with them in Horeb or Sinai. Moses called all Israel and said: Ye have seen all that the Lord did in Egypt to Pharaoh and his servants and his country; the great trials, signs, and great wonders: but He has not given you a heart to know, eyes to see, or ears to hear to this day. And I have led you 40 years in the desert wilderness: your clothes and shoes aged not. Ye ate no bread, drunk no wine or strong-drink, that ye may know that I am the Lord your God. And when ye came to this place, King Sihon of Heshbon, and King Og of Bashan warred against us but we defeated them, and took their land and gave it to the 2 ½ tribes for an inheritance, Reuben, Gad, and half Mannasseh. Keep and do then the Words of the Covenant that ye may prosper in everything. Ye stand now before Him, your heads or chiefs, tribes, elders, officers, even all the men of Israel, with your little ones, wives, and thy sojourner in thy camps, from wood-chopper to water-carrier; to enter into His Covenant and His Oath He now makes with thee; to establish thee this day to Himself as a People, to be God to thee as He said, and as He swore to thy Fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Neither with you only do I make this Covenant and Oath, Moses continued, but with him who stands here with us before Him, as well as he who is not here today. Ye know how we dwelt in Egypt and passed through the nations along the way, and ye saw their abominations, idols of wood and stone, silver and gold, which they had; lest among you man or woman, family or tribe, whose heart turns away from the Lord our God, to serve the gods of the Gentiles, lest there be a root which bears gall and wormwood; and when he hears the words of this curse, he blesses himself, and says: I have peace though I walk in stubbornness of my heart, to destroy the moist with the dry. The Lord will not pardon him, but His anger and jealously will smoke against him, and all the curses written in this Book (Deuteronomy) will rest on him, and he will blot out his name. The Lord will set him apart for evil in Israel with all the curses of the Covenant written in this Book of the Law. And the future generations of your children, and the foreigner from a great distance, shall ask on seeing the plagues and sicknesses; and the entire country with brimstone, salt and sulfur, burning, no sowing, no produce, no grass growing, but like Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim, which the Lord overthrew in anger and wrath; then all the Gentiles shall ask why He has done this? Why this great hot anger? Then men will say that it’s because they forsook the Covenant of the Lord, the God of their Fathers, which he made with them when He freed them from Egypt, after they served and worshipped other strange unknown gods: so His anger burnt against this Land to curse it as is written in this Book; and He uprooted them in anger, wrath, and great indignation, and cast them into another land, to this day. The secret things belong to the Lord our God; but revealed things are ours and our children, that we may obey all the Words of this Law.
And it shall be when all these transpire in the blessing and the curse, which I now set before thee, and thou recall them among the Gentiles where He has exiled the thee, and shalt return to Him, and obey His voice and this command, thou and thy children with all heart and soul; then He will turn thy captivity, and have compassion, and return and gather thee whence He scattered thee; thine outcasts from the uttermost lands He will gather and fetch thee: and He will return thee to the Land of thy Fathers to repossess it, and to do thee good and multiply thee more than thy fathers. He will circumcise thy heart and thy offspring’s heart to love Him with all thy heart and soul, that thou mayest live. He will put all these curses on thine enemies, haters, and persecutors. Thou shalt return and obey His voice and do His commandments as I command thee today. He will prosper thee in every way and everything, to rejoice over thee as with thy fathers; if thou shalt obey His voice, His commandments, His statutes written in this Law Book, turning to Him with all heart and soul. This commandment which I now command thee is not too hard or far off; it’s not in heaven to say, who shall ascend to heaven for us to bring it down, that we may hear and obey? Neither beyond the sea to say, who will cross the sea to bring it to us to hear and obey? Rather the Word is very near, in thy mouth and heart to do.
This day, Moses continues, I set before thee life and good, and death and evil; I command thee to love the Lord thy God, walk in His ways, keep His commandments, statutes, and ordinances, to live and grow, that He may bless thee in Canaan. But if thy heart turns away, refusing to listen, but be drawn away to idolatry, to worship and serve other gods; I denounce to you this day, ye shall surely perish quickly in Canaan. I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before life and death, blessing and curse: so then choose life to live, thou and thy seed; to love Him, and obey Him, and cling to Him; for He is thy Life and Length of Days, to live in the Land promised by oath the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Moses went and related these words to all Israel. He said to them, I am now 120 years old, unable to go out and come in; and the Lord has told me, saying: Thou shalt not cross the Jordan. The Lord thy God will go before thee, and destroy these Gentiles, and thou shalt dispossess them: Joshua shall lead thee as the Lord has said. The Lord will destroy them as He did to the Amorites and their country; He will subdue them and ye shall do as I commanded you; be strong and brave, fear not or frightened of them; for He goes with thee, he will not fail or forsake thee. Moses then said to Joshua before Israel: Be strong and brave; lead this People into Canaan and conquer it. The Lord goes ahead of thee; He will be with thee, He will not fail or forsake thee; fear not and be not dismayed. Then Moses wrote this Law and delivered it to the Levitical Priests who carried the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, and to all Israel’s Elders. Moses then commanded them that in every 7th year, the Year of Release, in the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths, when Israel appears before the Lord thy God at His Chosen Place, thou shalt read this Law before all Israel’s audience. Assemble the People, men, women, children, and strangers in the city-gates, to hear and learn and fear Him, and observe all the Words of this Law; and that their children also may know and obey and learn to fear Him always in Canaan.
And the Lord said to Moses: Thy days to die are near; thou and Joshua present yourselves at the Tent of Meeting that I may commission; and they did so. And He appeared in the Tent in a Pillar of Cloud, which stood over the Tent Door. And He said to Moses: thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; and Israel will arise and play the harlot with strange pagan gods, to forsake Me, and break My Covenant. Then My anger will ignite against them, and they’ll be devoured, with many evils and troubles; then they’ll say: these evils are upon us because our God is not among us: For I will hide My Face in that day for their evil works and idolatrous apostasy. Now then write ye this Song for you and teach it to Israel: put it in their mouths, that it be My Witness against Israel. That after I have brought them into My Promised Land by Oath to their Fathers, flowing with milk and honey, and have eaten and are satisfied, and become fat; they will turn to serve idols and gods, to despise Me, and break My Covenant. Then after many evils and troubles visit them, that this Song will witness against them; for it must never be forgotten out of the mouths of their seed: for I know their imagination today before they enter Canaan. So, Moses on the same day wrote this Song, and taught it to Israel. Then he gave a charge to Joshua to be strong and brave, to lead Israel into Canaan. Afterwards Moses finished writing the Words of this Law in a Book, then he commanded the Levites transporting the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant, to take this Book of the Law, and place it beside the Ark of the Lord your God’s Covenant, to be a Witness against thee. For I know thy rebellion and stubbornness against the Lord while I still live; how much more after I die. Assemble to me all your Tribal Elders and Officers that I may speak these words in their ears and summon heaven and earth as witness against them. For I know after my death ye will utterly corrupt yourselves, turning aside from the way I have commanded; and evil will befall in later times, for your evil doings in His sight, to provoke Him to anger by your works. Then Moses spoke in the audience of the Assembly of Israel the words of this Song, until they were finished.

The Song of Moses of the Lord and Israel:

Let the Heavens and Earth hear the Words my mouth speaks!
My Doctrine drops as rain; my Speech distills as dew;
as rain-drops on tender-grass; and as showers on the herb.
I will proclaim Jehovah’s Name: Ascribe greatness to our God!
The Rock, His Work is Perfect; all His Ways Justice:
Faithful God without iniquity; He is Just and Right!
They are corrupt to Him, not His children, a blemish, a perverse and crooked generation.
Do ye thus requite the Lord, foolish and unwise people?
Is He not thy Father Who bought thee? He made and established thee!
Remember the Ancient Days, consider years of many generations:
Ask thy father, he will show thee; thine elders, they will tell thee.
When Elyon gave the Gentiles their inheritance, He separated the Sons of Adam;
He set the borders of the peoples, according to the number of the Sons of Israel.
Jehovah’s Portion is His People; Jacob is the Lot of His Inheritance.
He found him in a desert land, a waste howling wilderness;
He encompassed him, He cared for him.
As the Eagle stirs her nest, flutters over her young;
He spread out His Wings, He took them, and He carried them on His Pinions.
The Lord alone led him, and no foreign god.
Made him ride on earth’s high-places;
he ate the increase of the field; and to suck honey from the flinty rock;
the herd’s butter, the flock’s milk, the lambs’ fat, and rams of Bashan’s breed, and goats;
the finest of wheat, and thou drank wine from the blood of grapes.
Jeshurun got fat and kicked: thou art fat and big and sleek;
then he forsook God his Maker and devalued the Rock of his Salvation.
They made Him Jealous with idols; provoked His Anger with abominations.
They sacrificed not to God but to demons,
to unknown gods, to new modern ones, never dreaded by your fathers.
Thou art unmindful of the Rock Who begat thee, forgotten God Who birth thee.
The Lord saw and abhorred, because of the provocation of His sons and daughters;
He said, I will hide My Face, I will see their end:
for they are a perverse generation, unfaithful children.
They made me Jealous with Lo-El; provoked me with Vanities;
I will make them jealous with Lo-Am; provoke them with a foolish Nation (Goi-Nabal).
Fire has kindled Mine Anger, it burns to the lowest Hell,
and it devours its increase and sets ablaze the Mountain’s Foundations.
I will heap evils on them, spend Mine arrows on them:
to be wasted in hunger, devoured in burning heat, bitter destruction;
I will send teeth of beasts on them, poison of reptiles of the dirt.
Outside the sword bereaves, inside the chambers terror;
young man and virgin, nursing-babe and grey-headed man.
I said I will disperse them afar, I will abolish their memory from men:
but I feared the provocation of the enemy, lest their adversaries misjudge,
to say, our hand is exalted, the Lord has not done all this.
They are a nation void of counsel, no understanding in them
Oh, that they were wise and understood this, to consider their latter end!
How should one chase 1,000, and two pursue 10,000;
unless their Rock sold them, and the Lord betrayed them?
For their rock is not as our Rock, our enemies themselves judge;
their vine is the vine of Sodom, and fields of Gomorrah;
their grapes are of gall, their clusters are bitter;
their wine is the poison of serpents, deadly venom of asps.
Is not this stored with Me, sealed among My treasures?
Vengeance is Mine, and Recompense when their foot slip:
the day of their calamity is near, the inevitable hastens.
Jehovah judges His People, repents Himself for His Servants:
He sees impotence, nothingness, isolation or abandonment.
He will ask where their gods are; the rock of their refuge;
which ate the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink-offering?
Let them arise now to help you and be your protection.
I and I alone am He, and no-god with Me:
I kill and resurrect; I wound and heal; nothing can deliver from My Hand.
I lift My Hand to Heaven and say: As I live forever!
If I sharpen my glittering Sword, My Hand seizes Judgment;
I will render Vengeance to Mine adversaries, Recompense to Mine haters.
I will make Mine Arrows drunk with blood of the slain
and captives, from the head of the leaders of the enemy.
Rejoice ye Gentiles with His People: He will avenge the blood of His Servants,
and vengeance to His opposers and expatiate for His Land and His People.

Then Moses rehearsed all the words of this Song in the ears of the people, he, and Hoshea ben-Nun. After Moses finished speaking all these words to all Israel; and he said to them, Set your heart to all the Words which I testify to you today, which ye must command your children to observe to practice in all the Words of this Law. It is not vanity for you, for it is your life, to prolong your days in Canaan. That same day the Lord spoke to Moses to ascend the Mountain of Abarim, into Mount Nebo in the Land of Moab across Jericho. Now behold the Land of Canaan which I give to the Sons of Israel for a possession; and die in the mount there, and be gathered to thy people, as thy brother died in Mount Hor, and was gathered to his ancestors; because ye both trespassed against Me in Israel at the waters of Meribah of Kadesh, in the Desert of Zin; because ye did not sanctify Me in the midst of Israel. For thou shalt see the Land before thee; but thou shalt not enter it with Israel.
Now this is the Blessing of Moses the Man of God who blessed Children of Israel before his death, saying: The Lord came from Sinai, He rose from Seir to them; he shined from Mount Paran, he appeared with 10,000 Holy Ones: at His Right Hand was a fiery Law for them. Yes, He loves the People; all His Saints are in Thy Hand: they sat at Thy Feet to receive of Thy Words. Moses commanded us Torah, an inheritance for the Assembly of Jacob. He was King in Jeshurun, when the Heads of the People gathered, all the Tribes of Israel together.
Reuben: Let him live and not die; let his men be not few.
Judah: Hear, Lord, Judah’s voice, bring him to his people; his hands contended for himself; Thou shalt be Help against his adversaries.
Levi: Thy Thummim and Urim are with Thy godly one, proven at Massah, strove with at the waters of Meribah; he said of father and mother, he saw not; neither acknowledged his brethren, knew not his own children: for they observed Thy Word, and keep Thy Covenant. They teach Jacob Thine Ordinances, Israel Thy Torah: they put incense before Thee, and whole burnt-offering on Thine Altar. Lord, bless his substance, accept his works; smite the loins of those resisting him, which hate him and that they never rise again.
Benjamin: The Lord’s Beloved dwells in safety by Him; he covers him all day long, He dwells between His Shoulders.
Joseph: The Lord’s Blessing on his land, with precious things of heaven, with dew, and with the dormant depth below; with precious fruits of the sun, precious growths of the moons, with the best of the ancient mountains, and everlasting hills; with precious things of earth and its fullness; the good-will of Him Who dwelt in the Bush. Let them all come on the head of Joseph, on the crown of the head of him who was separated from his brethren. The firstling of his herds his majesty; his horns are the horns of the wild-ox: with them he will push all the peoples: to the ends of the earth: the 10,000 of Ephraim, and the 1,000 of Manasseh.
Zebulun and Issachar: Zebulun, rejoice in thy going out, Issachar, in thy tents. They shall call the peoples to the mountain; there shall they offer sacrifices of righteousness: to suck the abundance of the seas, the hidden treasures of the sand.
Gad: Blessed is He Who enlarges Gad: he dwells as a lioness, he tears the arm, yes, the crown of the head; he provided the best part for himself, there was the Lawgiver’s portion reserved; he came with the chiefs of the People; he executed the Lord’s righteousness, His ordinances with Israel.
Dan: Dan is a lion’s whelp, he leaps forth from Bashan.
Naphtali: Naphtali satisfied with grace, full of the Lord’s blessing; possess thou the west and the south.
Asher: Asher is blessed with children; let him be acceptable to his brethren, let him dip his foot in oil. Thy bars are iron and brass; as thy days so thy strength.
Israel: Jeshurun, there is none like El, He rides upon the Heavens for thy Help, in His Excellency on the Skies. The Eternal Elohe is thy Dwelling-Place, and underneath are the Everlasting Arms; He exiles the enemy before thee, and says, Destroy! Israel dwells in peace, the fountain of Jacob alone, in a land of grain and new wine; yes, His Heavens drop dew. Israel, thou art blessed; who is like thee, a People saved by the Lord, the Shield of the Help, the Sword of the Excellency! Thine enemies shall submit themselves to thee; thou shalt tred on their high-places.

Moses then went up from the Plains of Moab to Mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, opposite Jericho; and the Lord showed him all the Land of Gilead to Dan, and all Naphtali, and the Land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the Land of Judah, to the furthest Sea, and the South, and the Plain of the Valley of Jericho the city of palm-trees, to Zoar. The Lord said to him, this is the Land I swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, that I will give it to thy seed: I have caused thee to see it with thine own eyes, but thou shalt not enter. So, Moses the Lord’s Servant died in the Land of Moab according to the Word of the Lord. He buried him in the Valley of the Land of Moab opposite Beth-Peor: but no one to this day (time of Samuel) knows his sepulcher. Moses was 120 years old at death, his eye not dim, natural force unabated. Israel wept and mourned for him in the Plains of Moab for 30 days. Afterwards Joshua was full of the spirit of wisdom, for Moses had laid hands on him, thus Israel listened to him as the Lord had commanded Moses. No Prophet has risen in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and wonders, which the Lord sent him to perform in the Land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, to his servants, and to all his land; and in all the mighty hand, and all the great terror, which Moses worked in the sight of all Israel.

Deuteronomy and Moses’ Pentateuch:

Moses V reveals to us the Second Law and the Second Finger-Division of the Old Testament, showing us that the 5th and last Book of the Pentateuch is the second Divine member of the Bible as God’s Hand. The 1st book initiates all the history and purposes of God as a Genesis of His Witness of Himself to all mankind, first and foremost to His declared people, and then to all world of the Gentiles as His rightful possession, but now in separation by disobedience and sin. This 5th Book of Moses is the Sepher Debbarim, the Book of the Words of Moses the Man of God; it is the Debbrith (the words) of the Divine B’rith (Covenant) with Israel in connection, that is in anatomical and organic relationship to his genesis with the Patriarchs and the Sons of Noah as the Gentile world, and His original covenant and vital relations to Noah then earlier with Adam. And though Israel is the primary subject of His then present reflections with man as His world and His works; yet He is ever interested in and connected to the nations as One Who desires to save and restore man to Himself. The way of reconciling the world to Himself was not yet perfected nor revealed, but its features were slowly unfolding in Divine lessons and illustrations, in signs and symbols, in types and allegories, in words and pictures, and in other details and examples not then understood, and often still hidden to many Bible believers among Jews and Christians; not to mention the others who meddle and peddle the Sacred Scriptures. Deuteronomy testifies of Moses as the Lord’s servant and voice, His instrument of revelation, His tool of salvation, and His representation of authority and ownership.
Some of the peculiarities of this Book have already been mentioned, such as its name, its emphasis as Moses Words and Doctrine, Moses’ Mishnah, in His review and rehearsal of the contents of the four former Books, and specifically of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. Throughout the Pentateuch, in each Book, Moses’s name occurs hundreds of times, almost 800 times, and joined with Aaron about 100 times; yet in Deuteronomy his name is never joined to Aaron, or Eleazar as in Numbers, or Joshua, but only the pronouns used of or to him in relations to Aaron or to others. He is here called as the faithful Servant of God, the Man of God. It is in this Book that Moses’s Law or the Mosaic Law is established for Israel for all times. It is generally believed that references to This Book are that of the Pentateuch or the Torah, but it is very clear it is only to Deuteronomy as the Second Law. The Decalogue of Exodus, along with the additional laws and commandments, ordinances and statutes, and all such like, are essentially reiterated and repeated in this Book of Moses Words and Doctrine and Mishnah. As said earlier, it was God’s intent to transform Moses from a Prophet to His Voice and Man, and in so doing Moses words became God’s words because the Lord’s words became Moses’ words. It was Deuteronomy, along with the Articles inside the Ark of the Covenant, that was to be kept in the Most Holy Place as a witness to the New Covenant with Israel, a Second Covenant established after the First Covenant and its Tablets or Written Contract was broken, and thus become null and void. It was Deuteronomy that was to be ever known and spoken in Israel; to be written on Ebal and Gerizim in its Curses and Blessings; and it was Deuteronomy as the Debbarim that was to ever to be read and considered by Joshua and the Elders and Judges of Israel; and it was the Book that the Kings of Israel had to have their own hand-copy in commencing their reign; and finally it was this Book that King Josiah was given by the Priest Hilkiah when it was discovered and recovered from the ruins of the House of the Lord, the Temple of Solomon, and in which Israel’s had neglected many things written in it. It is this Book, the Scroll, in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, after the Exile and the Return, that it was discovered that the Feast of Booths was not kept in the prescribed manner from the times of Joshua and the conquest of Canaan. It was also Deuteronomy that the Holy Spirit used in the mind and hearts of the Sweet Psalmist of Israel, and in his son, the Wisest of Israel. Both the Psalms and Proverbs developed by inspiration what was in the Pentateuch or Torah, but more fully in this Book.
We left Israel in Egypt as a tribe of Hebrews, but in Exodus we have a great populace nation enslaved to the Imperial Egypt; and God delivers them by Moses in display of mighty miraculous works, in signs and wonders, showing His vested interest in His People. He brought them through the Red Sea on dry ground and preserved them in the Desert Wasteland and dry and barren wilderness to strip them of all that was Egyptian, and to transform them from Hebrews to His Son Israel. He made with them a Covenant of the Decalogue and demanded of them to build His Sanctuary that He might tabernacle with them and make His Home on earth with man. He trained them by trials and discipline in what they ate and drank, by their shoes and clothes, in their lusts and desires, and in all things touching their heart and soul, their spirit and life. He ordained a Priesthood upon which He established His Law, His Word and Doctrine, by which all men might know Him to be the Lord, the only true God. He had Promised a Land to the Patriarchs, and He brought them in due time to invade and conquer it, to possess and settle it according the words of Moses Law. But they refused and rebelled, so He delayed their entry into Canaan for 40 years wandering in the deserts of Arabia; during these 38 added years the older generation were made to die off, never to enter the good land; and to raise a new generation that knew not Egypt. The internal or interior nature of man was thus fully exposed and dealt with in many ways. It was now in the last days of Moses that Israel was ready to enter Canaan by warfare and obedience. God had formed as He had transformed Moses by His word and Spirit, and now that same Spirit and Word would also transform a people into a divine nation as witnesses and signs to the world. In Deuteronomy we have both the history and the future of Israel. We see their blessings and their curses, but all contingent on His Word of the Covenant. We have not labored to bring out the thousands of types and reasons of the Divine Word in the Books of Moses, it was thought enough to digest and condense the details so that as the revelation unfolds it might be readily noticed and appreciated. But we must now enter and record some of these matters before we begin our journey to the Psalms.
Deuteronomy is the Book of the Law or in Hebrew with the Jews it is Sepher Debarim of the Torah. The Torah or the Law was originally the Word of God, it was what God spoke by His Mouth and expressed His Mind and Heart, His Thoughts and Desires; it was all that is of Him and from Him and to Him in whatever context or relation; whether determination or reflection. Torah became the Doctrine and the Teaching or Instruction, consisting of words and laws, items and details, cases and examples, and many such things. The Divine Doctrine consisted in two parts, both given at Mount Sinai or Horeb in the Wilderness of Sin and the Desert of Zin on the other side of the Red Sea and Yam Suph. God spoke to Moses and all Israel the Decalogue and He wrote it with the Finger of God; after the 10 Commandments He spoke to Moses for all Israel many other words consisting of diverse laws and commands, rules and regulations, and many like things; these became the Oral Law. The Hebrews, Israel, then at last the Jews, believe that the Torah consists of these Two Laws, the Written Law and the Oral Tradition. But in fact, the Divine Word ever preceded and over-shadowed this dual expression of the Torah Covenant. The 10 Words governed all the laws of the Torah and was superior to and greater than all human laws and traditions. But it was also transcendent and majestic in simplicity and application in all the Mosaic conditions of Israel’s experiences and history. But it was not the Original and the Better which existed in God from all eternity as His Nature and Personality. The Eternal Word revealed God as in Genesis, and He created, made, formed, and trained Adam in those words which was of His image and likeness and countless other things. That Word was the Truth of God in Witness and Testimony, in Covenant and Tradition, and all the human experience and world history has become and done. The Word was first spiritual and Heavenly, then it became natural and Earthly, that is, by the Word becoming Incarnate in the world; and in time Messiah would fulfill this Doctrine and Truth in its highest and most-transcendent form. The Torah was protected or guarded and then fenced or edged in to preserve the purity of the Sacred Text, and so the Mishnah of Moses as found in Deuteronomy, the Second Law, for the First Law was now dead and buried by sin and unbelief, was interpreted by the Mishnah of the Elders and later the Rabbis. In time the Mishnah grew into the Talmud with many explanations and examples to preserve the Mishnaic interpretations and all its hermeneutical principles and references of the Torah of Moses and of God. We Gentiles, some half or part Jewish blood, and many more of Israel’s spirit, need instruction in this Hebrew Tradition that has developed outside of the Christian Church, and often opposed to Christ, to understand the enmity and alienation that historically exists.

In Deuteronomy Moses establishes Judaism, Biblical Judaism or Mosaism, and governs and determines its development thereafter. The renewal of the Patriarchal Covenant is also appended and modified as to Israel’s condition and behavior. Moses reminds them that this covenant that the Lord God makes with them is not merely that covenant He made with their fathers nor even with those of the Exodus, but with them, the new generation after 40 years in the Wilderness, with them who are about to invade and possess Canaan. Moses emphatically repeats this dispensational distinction, as seen in Deut. 5:3: “The LORD (YHWH) made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day.” This said after the 40 years of wanderings in the desert. And though the covenant was that of the patriarchal promises, to fulfillment added changes essential to the new relations and conditions of both Israel as well as the Gentiles. In the Desert they could do what was right in their own eyes, and getting themselves into trouble, but in the promised land, Canaan, that will come to an end, and strict discipline and punishment carried out for every disobedience to the Law. They are to be a model people or righteousness, holiness, of judgment and mercy, and of grace and truth in the world among all the nations. The wicked vile and horrible practices of the nations in Canaan and everywhere, must be exposed and opposed by their lives and testimony. God’s choice of them was not of their superior qualities, not their numeric advantage, but of God’s favor and promises to the fathers. The nations of Canaan were not rejected and then ejected because Israel was so noble and attractive, but only because the wickedness and depravity of those nations in the eyes of God, for Moses reminds them that every detestable, abominable, horrible, and perverse practices was done for and with and to their gods and idols, practices as infanticide to Moloch. This Book was to be regarded in a special sacred way, that its laws commandments, precepts, and statutes, and all the words written in it, was to guide and teach them the divine way. The Book was to be preserved in such a way it was ever a witness of God’s presence and relations to His people. Though Genesis gave the history and generations of the Land and the People, it was Deuteronomy that shows the Book by which the Land and the People will be transformed. Therefore, this Book must not be added to nor its words deleted in part or whole throughout Israel’s dispensation.

Hertz’ Pentateuch (Chumash) and Haftorahs inform us of these details from the Massoretic Notes in various Hebrew Manuscripts: Genesis has 1,534 verses; 12 Sedrahs (parshiyoth) or Sections; 43 Sub-sections, Sedarim, in the Triennial Cycle; (in 50 Chapters). Exodus has 1.209 verses; 11 Sedrahs; 29 Sedarim; (Eng. 40 Chapters.). Leviticus has 859 verses; 10 Sedrahs; 23 Sedarim; (Eng. 27 Chapters). Numbers has 1,288 verses; 10 Sedrahs; 32 Sedarim; (Eng. 36 Chapters). Deuteronomy has 955 verses; 11 Sedrahs; [27 Sedarim]; (Eng. 34 Chapters). The total number of verses in the Torah is 5,845. The Five Books of Moses printed text only is about 350 pages at 400 words per page in 11or12 point font and represents 1/4th of the Old Testament.
Rambam’s Complete Restatement of the Oral Law (Mishneh Torah) [Deuteronomy]:
The Law as it should actually be practiced by all in our day by the Master Teacher Moshe son of Maimon (also known as RaMBaM (Rabbi Moses ben-Maimon) or Maimonides) (Translated from the Hebrew text reconstructed according to the Yemenite manuscripts by the staff of Mechon Mamre.) ©2011 Mechon Mamre, 12 Hayyim Vital St, Jerusalem, Israel. (
The Rambam’s Introduction to the Mishneh Torah: Preface: “In the name of God (Elohim, Allah), Lord of the world” (Genesis 21:33) “Then I will not be ashamed when I gaze at all Thy mitzvoth (commandments)” (Psalms 119:6).
1. All the commandments that were given to Moshe (Moses) at Sinai were given together with their interpretation, as it is written “and I will give thee the Tables of Stone, and the Law, and the Commandment” (Exodus 24:12). “Law” is the Written Law; and “Commandment” is its interpretation: We were commanded to fulfill the Law, according to the Commandment. And this Commandment is what is called the Oral Law.
2. The whole of the Law was written down by Moshe (Moses) Our Teacher before he died, in his own hand. He gave a scroll (book) of the Law to each tribe; and he put another scroll by the Ark for a witness, as it is written “take this book of the Law and put it by the side of the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee” (Deuteronomy 31:26).
3. But the Commandment, which is the interpretation of the Law, he did not write it down, but gave orders concerning it to the elders, to Yehoshua (Joshua), and to all the rest of Israel, as it is written “all this word which I command you, that shall ye observe to do . . .” (Deuteronomy 13:1). For this reason, it is called the Oral Law.
4. Although the Oral Law was not written down, Moshe Our Teacher taught all of it in his court to the seventy elders; and El`azar, Pinehas, and Yehoshua, all three received it from Moshe. And to his student Yehoshua (Joshua), Moshe Our Teacher passed on the Oral Law and ordered him concerning it. And so Yehoshua throughout his life taught it orally.
5. Many elders received it from Yehoshua, and Eli received it from the elders and from Pinehas; Shemuel (Samuel) received it from Eli and his court, and David received it from Shemuel and his court. Ahiyah the Shilonite was among those who had come out of Egypt, and was a Levite, and had heard it from Moshe, but was young in Moshe’s time; and he received it from David and his court…. [to Priests and Prophets to Ezra the Scribe and the Men of the Great Assembly to Hillel and Shammai to the great Rabbis like Gamliel the Elder to the Written Mishnah to the Talmuds, some 40 generations.
45. The number of Torah commandments that are obligatory for all generations is 613: 248 of them are positive commandments, whose mnemonic is the number of parts in the human body; 365 of them are negative commandments, whose mnemonic is the number of days in the solar year.”

Further reflections on Deuteronomy and the Books of Moses. We have given the Traditions that relates to the Torah and Pentateuch. The laws as enumerated and transmitted by Doctor and Rabbi Moses ben-Maimon as 613 consisting of positive and negative commandments in the Books of Moses, but deduced from the Mishnah, which at times altered the original commandment by extension in its application (as in the positive commandment 247, or the negative commandment 360) excluding Genesis, and primarily in Deuteronomy, are in reality many more. Certain laws may be added to the List, such as Deuteronomy 17:18-20 : “And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of [that which is] before the Levitical priests the and it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them; that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left: to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel.” Which would produce these Laws: 1. The King must write for himself a copy of this law in a book from the Levitical Priests’ copy. 2. He shall retain his copy of the Book of the Law. 3. He must read it daily always. 4. He must by all the words of the laws and statutes learn to fear the Lord his God. 5. He must keep and obey them that his heart be not lifted against his brethren; that he swerves not from the commandment; that his and his children’s days be prolonged in his kingdom in Israel. But only the first was put in the list (see commandment 18) and reasoned that the King must have two copies of the Law Book. And there are many other instances if each one was itemized as written, the Mishneh Torah may rise to about 1,000 laws or codes. And of course, as time went along the Judges, Kings, Priests, and Prophets all added other words that Israel was to believe and obey. For this reason, we said that the basis of the Law was the Word, that the laws were the words of God’s will and way. The legal instructions and doctrines were all designed to lead to life, a life with God; but it could not give that life to those who desired it in the weakness of their sinful condition, and the frailty of their flesh. Man’s fragile soul and mind and will could not motivate perfect and constant obedience, so the sacrificial system was provided to bandage the hurts and sores till something better might be offered. This will be seen in the Psalms as that cry and expression of something more, and higher, and far better for both sinner and Savior.
The Law in Moses’ Books was an element or condition of God’s Covenant and Testament or Witness with Israel, which contained many parts and members, and which continued to multiply as the nation grew. The ancient laws of every people, tongue, and nation had laws in the thousands, and then as the kingdom and empire expanded the number of laws also increased into ten-thousands, and then by modern times into hundred-thousands, and now some nearing a million. But all laws in Scripture and the world may be reduced to a few basic laws or principles; such was the Decalogue or the 10 Words, the Ten Commandments, by which all the laws of the Old Covenant were developed. And all laws in the Old Testament in the Law and the Prophet and the Psalms or other Writings were further reduced to Two Commandments (Duologue or Dialog versus Monologue), Love for God and Neighbor, for Him and Others. Now the Mishnah and the Mishneh give us the list of the Oral Law or the Divine Tradition in such a way we may agree with the old saying that from Moses the Lawgiver to Moses the Codifier there has been none like Moses in the transmission of the Law to Israel. But Jewish Tradition is filled with restrictions to the truth, in that its rabbinical interpretations have become additional laws and commandments even to the nullifying or voiding the Torah of God. We brought forth Spinoza earlier as a witness and example of the criticism of the truth of Sacred Scripture in which all inspiration is reduced to human extension and adaptation of ordinary experience and passion. And we may feel for Spinoza’s struggle in his Jewish identity in a Christian dominated world, in which he had to come to terms with Catholicism and Neo-Catholicism, that is Protestantism, and with its Scholastic Rationalism; so here in Rambam we feel his pain as a Jew trying to maintain orthodox faith in a Islamic world, and it’s Neo-Islamism, or Sufism, and its Scientific Rationalism; both great Jewish leaders, both rejected by Rabbinical Orthodoxy while young and living, but after death were owned and honored. Maimonides doctrine of the Oral Law and the Written Law, Mishnah Torah, has dominated most of modern Judaism to retain a semblance of ancient orthodoxy and defense against Christianity and Islam. He truly is an Aquinas of Judaism.
Modern Orthodox Judaism, both Kosher and Rabbinical, accuses the Christian Church and its scholars as mishandling and misinterpreting the Old Testament Bible, in the its most fundamental essentials and value, that is as it pertains to Jesus as the Messiah. No reflections of the Old Covenant, the Old Testament or Tanakh, especially of the Torah and Psalms and Isaiah and Daniel must fail to consider Jewish beliefs and practice as it relates to Messiah and Christian experiences. The Synagogue is the modern witness of the Divine Worship of which we read in the Hebrew Scriptures in the Mosaic Law and those Prophets who poke of the Mosaic system or institution as it applied to Israel’s condition from time to time. The Synagogue Pentateuch or Chumash, with the Haftorahs or Readings from the Prophets, along with its notes and comments transmits to Jew and Gentile Talmudic Orthodoxy. I use several, but favor Hertz’ Edition, but value the Stones Edition of ArtScroll Mesorah Publications as much. Like the Jews, Christians, that is Torah Jews and Bible Christians agree on the Divine Inspiration of Sacred Scripture, and in fact many things related the written Text of the Bible is held in common. It is those intrinsic and core doctrines as it relates to Messiah or Christ that ever divides us and must of nature do so if one or the other stands true. In America, though anti-Semitism still exist in a lesser degree than decades or centuries ago, it is commonly acknowledged that the Jews, the Hebrew People of Israel, have suffered wrongly and horrifically at the hands of Christians, in church and state, far too frequently. This religious persecution by professed Christians has not honored the name of Christ, among the Jews and in the world, and even in the Church. Nor do I excuse the Jewish blame in persecution or slander or other anti-Christian words and acts throughout the centuries. We all may give thanks to God that America and Britain are close and true friends to the modern state of Israel. But now for the divisive doctrines in Moses against Christ and Christianity found in the Chumash Torah.

Hertz’ Pentateuch or Chumash:
1: Fall of Man or Adam: The Christian Dogmatic Doctrine of Original Sin in Adam’s Sin or Fall, and man born consequently in a sinful state and sin nature, is strange and dangerous, and at times an unbelievable vilification of Woman, is rejected by Judaism as somber error. Rather man was and is mortal, ever retains the Divine image and likeness, always capable to improve his life in obedience to God’s Law which is the cure of and from an evil condition. Original Virtue is Jewish doctrine, and the Golden Age of Humanity is in the future as in Isaiah 2 and 6. (Hertz does not notice the doctrinal defect when he writes a few pages later, in his Note on Abraham: “Mankind descending from Adam became hopelessly corrupt…..and moral darkness overspreads the earth.” And does not consider whence and why the creature with the divine image becomes “hopelessly corrupt” in “moral darkness”. The fictional story of Abram’s childhood in Ur in rejecting idols is a vain attempt to dodge man’s sinful nature of which Abram partook.)
2: The Binding of Isaac (Akedah): Hertz cannot see any typical or prophetical reflections in the Divine Requirement of the Sacrifice of Isaac on Mount Moriah or the Temple Mount chapter 22 of Genesis, nor at the mature years of Isaac (not a child), nor anything of Messiah. He only sees a new meaning and influence (as others have done by running away from Christ they run into something as a cheap substitute, like for example, Kierkegaard’s religious existentialism, whose basis of conversion was encased in his childhood horror of the Sacrifice.) Hertz new symbolism and divine principle is that of martyrdom, in which Jews have often sacrificed their lives for the Law of God. As the Apocryphal Maccabean story of Hanna and her 7 sons, which Hertz cites the Midrash, as bettering Father Abraham, because she gave to and for God her 7 Sons in Death. God provided the Ram Sacrifice Himself as a Substitute for the Firstborn; but many are veiled.
3: Alleged Christological References in Scripture: The rendering of the Hebrew in Gen. 49:10 as “until Shiloh come”, is an example of the weak hermeneutics of Christians wanting to find Messianic verses to evangelize ignorant Jews. Hertz cites several other renderings to remove any Messianic typification and significance to a future Messiah, and notes that Shiloh is never elsewhere used of Messiah. (But here again the veil needs to be lifted in the Reading of the Law: the entire passage is verses 9-12: Judah as a Young Lion, leaves His Prey, He lowers and couched as a Lion and Lioness; who shall raise Him up (resurrect Him)? The Sceptre will not depart from Judah (yet this is before Judah had a throne or king or kingdom), the Ruler’s Staff or Rod from between His Feet (yet no ruler’s staff or rod had yet been established in Israel concerning Judah); till men come to Shiloh or Shiloh comes to men, and to Him (Shiloh) shall be the Obedience of the Peoples (Israel and the Gentiles). What then? After He comes He will Bind His Foal to the Vine; He washes His Garments in Wine, His Vesture in Blood of Grapes; His Eyes Red with Wine, His Teeth White with Milk. (What kind of Shiloh could Jacob-Israel possibly be describing in Spirit?) Is not Hertz betraying Jewish prejudice and ignorance? He admits that the older rabbinical teachings saw clearly the Messianic message in this prophecy, but now it is being abandoned. Why? Hertz further cites other so-called Messianic verses that Christian Scholars of repute are gradually reputing; examples: Psalm 2:1, Kiss the Son; Isaiah 7:4, a Virgin shall conceive; and Isaiah 53rd, the most famous.
4: The Decalogue or Ten Commandments: Hertz: “No religious document has exercised a greater influence on the moral and social life of man than the Divine Proclamation of Human Duty, known as the Decalogue. These few brief commands –only 120 Hebrew words in all– cover the whole sphere of conduct, not only of outer actions, but also of the secret thoughts of the heart. In simple, unforgettable form, this unique code of codes lays down the fundamental rules of Worship and of Right for all time and for all men.” The Talmud Teachers by every means, including Rabbinic legend, emphasized the eternal and universal significance of the Commandments; teaching that before the Creation the Tables for the Commandments were prepared out of the sapphire of the Throne of Glory; that it was for all the world, and every people and nation was intended; thus the Divine Voice at Sinai divided itself into 70 tongues to represent all the nations in the entire world. The Rabbis held the 6th of Sivan, when the Law was given, to be as sacred as the Day of creation, because it was the Moral Law, of Conscience and Right in the Universe that completed the Creation, and without it creation would be meaningless. All schools of Judaism hold the Decalogue to be the Fundamentals of the Faith, and the Pillars of the Torah and its Roots. In fact, the whole content of Judaism as Creed and Life can be arranged under the ten general headings of the Commandments. Outside the Synagogue among many of the greatest Christian leaders the Decalogue was taught to be the noblest of laws and ethics. Judaism stands or falls with its belief in the historic actuality of the Revelation at Sinai.
5: Jewish Interpretations of Sacrifice: Hertz: Rabbinical Judaism accepted the law of sacrifices without presuming to find a satisfactory explanation of its details. No need to ask why God demanded it, but only to consent to His will. But some Rabbis retorted to symbolism, not as extreme as Philo, and this Rabbinical view of the spiritual symbolic significance has dominated modern Judaism; showing man’s gratitude to God, dependence on Him, absolute devotion, and confidence in Him. But a few Rabbis taught a so-called juridical ((or judicial and forensic justice and substitutionary penalty and payment for reconciliation and atonement, propitiation or expiation or satisfaction.)). Hertz: “As a sinner, the offender’s life is forfeit to God; but by a gracious provision he is permitted to substitute a faultless victim, to which his guilt is, as it were, transferred [and covered temporarily] by the imposition of hands [in identification of the guilty or the offering]. Many Christian exegetes adopted this interpretation and built the whole theological foundation of their Church upon it. “Hertz then refers to the rationalist view of sacrifice held by Maimonides and Abarbanel, that it was a divine accommodation to primitive conceptions to wean mankind from religious rites and idolatry.
6: The Golden Rule is treated at length to establish that Moses and not Jesus was the true author of the Golden Rule or the Positive Commandment of Love thy Neighbor as thyself. But we need not be troubled about Moses defenders on this difference.
7: Vows: Hertz treats the great value of vows and oaths in Judaism, and with that the Kol Nidre or the Annulment of Vows. But we need not meddle with this doctrine and practice also.
8. The Shema: “Hear, O Israel, the LORD our God, the LORD is One”: “These words enshrine Judaism’s greatest contribution to the religious thought of mankind. They constitute the primal confession of Faith in the religion of the Synagogue….” Which negates Polytheism; Dualism; Pantheism, and the Belief in the Trinity; and promotes Brotherhood of Man; Unity of the Universe and History; and the Messianic Kingdom. “As to the words, “And the LORD shall be One, and His Name One,” they are combined with the Shema Yisroel in the Musaph Prayer [additional sacrificial prayer] of the New Year –one of the most solemn portions of the Jewish Liturgy. They also form the last sentence of the Oleynoo prayer [as in the Kaddish or Mourner’s Prayer], and thus end every statutory Jewish service –morning afternoon, and evening. There could be no more fitting conclusion for the Jew’s daily devotion than this universalist hope for God’s Kingdom.”
9: Deuteronomy: This is the longest annotated Book in the Chumash of Moses in Hertz Edition. After a lengthy treatment of the Shema’s Meaning and History, under the sub-heading Defense of the Unity: “The Rabbis not only trained Israel to the understanding of the vital significance of the Divine Unity; they also defended the Jewish God-idea whenever its purity was threatened by enemies from without or within. They permitted no toying with polytheism, be its disguises ever so ethereal; they brooked no departure, even by a hair’s breadth, from the most rigorous monotheism; and rejected absolutely everything that might weaken or obscure it. The fight against idolatry and paganism begun by the Prophets was continued by the Pharisees. Abraham, the father of the Hebrew people, they taught, started on his career as an idol-wrecker. In legends, parables, and discourses, they showed forth the folly and futility of idol-worship, and pointed to the infamy and moral degradation evidenced by the Roman deification of the reigning Emperor…… The Rabbis defended the Unity of God against the Jewish Gnostics, those ancient heretics who blasphemed the God of Israel, ridiculed the Scriptures, and asserted a duality of Divine Powers. And they defended it against the Jewish Christians, who darkened the sky of Israel’s monotheism by teaching a novel doctrine of God’s ‘sonship’; by identifying a man, born of woman, with God; and by advocating the doctrine of a Trinity: Said a Palestinian Rabbi of the fourth century: ‘Strange are those men who believe that God has a son and suffered him to die. The God who could not bear to see Abraham about to sacrifice his son but exclaimed “Lay not thine hand upon the lad,” would He have looked on calmly while His son was being slain, and not have reduced the whole world to chaos!’” Hertz continues that the Rabbis defended orthodox monotheism against the powerful Christian Church through the Middle Ages, and in the Present Day continues against lenient and liberal Christian theologians and writers…. Conclusion: ‘It was undeniably a stroke of true religious genius—a veritable prompting by the Holy Spirit, –to select, as Prof. Steinthal reminds us, out of the 5,845 verses of the Pentateuch this one verse (Deut. VI: 4) as the inscription for Israel’s banner of victory. Throughout the entire realm of literature, secular or sacred, there is probably no utterance to be found that can be compared in its intrinsic intellectual and spiritual force, or in the influence it exerted upon the whole thinking and feeling of civilized mankind, with the six words which have become the battle-cry of the Jewish people for more than twenty-five centuries’ (Kohler).”
10: Hertz continues his Additional Notes and Comments on Deuteronomy in remarks on the Reward and Punishment in Judaism; Jewish Education; Monarchy and Freedom in Israel, and the King; on Marriage, Divorce, and the Position of Woman, in Judaism; the Hallowing of History (“Israel is the author of the idea of History.”). Hertz concludes with his last Addendum on Deuteronomy: its Antiquity and Mosaic Authorship: I. Deuteronomy and the Religious Revival under King Josiah (621 B.C.E.) (in which he advocates and proves that it was the Book of Deuteronomy, as the Book of the Law, that was Recovered in the Temple, the House of the LORD, during the early reign of King Josiah by the Hilkiah the Priest; and elaborates on the Book’s effect and influence of the Revival of Israel and in turn the Preservation of Judaism; with the strongest criticism of the modern schools of higher criticism of the Bible). II. The Authorship of the Second Part of Isaiah, Chapters 40-66. He shows that the universal belief and tradition was the Book of Isaiah was composed by one author, one Isaiah; that the notion of two authors or two Isaiahs is precarious and incredulous criticism, both weak and strained, and filled with countless variances among its advocates; and Hertz also claims that it was Ibn Ezra who was the first to maintain the second half of Isaiah appears to be composed by another contemporary of Isaiah by its internal witness: as in no prediction concerning the appearance of Cyrus or Israel’s captivity is made, but assumed to be well known history; that the name Isaiah never occurs in the second half, nor any personal reference connecting to the author; that the Synagogue the ancient order of the Great Prophets were: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah; and other less significant reasons that cause some to speak of this part as the Deutero-Isaiah, the Second Isaiah of Babylon.

Additional Reflections on the Pentateuch:

The purposes of God in Genesis chapters 1 and 2 are eternal and unfailing in His bringing about a Land and a People and a Book to satisfy His Heart and Mind, of which He has spoken by His Spirit and clearly made known by His Word in the revelation of the written words from His Mouth. The history of the world is the unfolding of the eternal purpose concealed in types and figures, for His infinite counsels and His foreknowledge of all His intent lay within His Own Soul, waiting in timely manner and proper ways to bring them about, and disclose to us with wisdom and understanding beyond our natural attainments. His image and likeness in us will display His power and majesty despite all that His creation might fail or be deficient by its nature. Man, as lord over all the earth, over its lands, its waters, and its skies; subduing all creatures to his dominion and power; as he ever increases in number and knowledge, beyond any comparison to the animals around him. That has continued uninterrupted from Adam to Moses; although the condition of man did change, and his constitution so altered to deform the divine image in ways and means that reduced him to mere flesh, as a beast, and at times worse than all animals and creatures of this world. Adam in disobedience brought into humanity as a genetic defect and terminal diseases, and a malignant destructive virus; permeating all his inner man in the slavery to his external man of blood, flesh, skin, bones, and his outwards form. All the spiritual qualities of Adam and his decedents shows the conflict of the good and the evil, of the outward and the inward, of love and hate, and a million such descriptions of human personality. In regard to God as the Creator, as the Maker, He Who speaks and acts, and as Lord Who forms and enlivens man, then nurses and trains him in all things of life and blessedness; man, also would in his own world exhibit this dualism often in opposition, and sometimes in harmony according to Divine decree. As God to creation, and the heavens to the earth, and water to land, and life to man; so is man for the Lord’s will and intent. The divine principles of creation, the laws of nature and physics, are all subject to His Word and Power, and it is the operation of His Spirit that works to fulfill all His desire. The way of life and of death is set before man in the garden, man’s home and land in his infancy with the Lord God. From Adam comes both peoples, one follows Adam in disobedience and sin; the other submits to God’s will and way and offers back to God the right and acceptable sacrifice. The serpent as the enemy of God and man, lures and captures man, and in time begins to devour him and to possess his soul and body by the death of man’s spirit and life. In Adam, after the Sin and the Fall, man has become like the serpent and his offspring becomes a brood of vipers. But in Adam man is still God’s creation, with God’s breath of life, and a semblance of innocence and glory; but only in the seed of the woman which in birth shows God’s work and wonder, as a sign and a witness of the divine. This begins a new level of the divine landscape, with its highs and lows; and in between are plains of all kinds; and by which new features appear in the new players or participants. In mankind is seen both the Seed of Woman and the Seed of the Serpent, with the conflict of the head of the one and the heel of the other. The divine blood-line springs in the Woman’s Seed as her children walk with God and in time the Child as the Seed of the Woman triumphs over the Serpent. He will show grace and favor, comfort and rest, to His own in the midst of judgment and destruction of the world; a world that was His, and He loves, and for which He plans salvation.
The ways of God are inscrutable, super-transcendent, surpassing all human thoughts and minds; they are divinely hidden everywhere in all reality and existence, in the universe and all life, and in man. Yet He writes them in clear signs and characters in order that we might come to know and love Him, to fear and serve Him, and for Him to be our God, and us to be His People. In Noah and his Sons God would see and select of them a people to bear His Name (ha-Shem), and that Semitic race of the Hebrew people would become His called and chosen People in Abram of Ur of Chaldea of the Babylonian world. He as Shaddai led him to a new land to inherit it has an eternal home from God; though he died without seeing it and left but one son to bear the birthright and divine promises and blessings. The world continued according to God’s decree from creation, altered by His new covenants along the way, and those visitations of His own choice and manner, as in the Angels manifesting His decisions and words. It is the revelation to Abraham by God’s words and covenant that the Hebrews were formed into theistic people holding confused localize notions of God, in an adulterated version of monotheism and polytheism. Such a world of which the Patriarchs Abraham and Isaac and Jacob lived; and in such a world of hundreds of nations, peoples, tribes, and families, and tongues, God continued to effect His purpose as He affected man in a very simple manner. God revealed His thoughts and ways by His speaking His words to His chosen vehicle or vessel, whether a Melchisedek, an Abimmelech, a Pharaoh, or Priest like Jethro, or Prophet like Balaam, or even an animal like Balaam’s donkey. We see His presence veiled and distorted in the ancient world of the nations of the Patriarchs up to the days of Moses; whether we read of the Sumerians or Accadians, of Babylon or Assyria, a Nimrod or a Hammurabi, and a host of others; His knowledge is there in types and shadows, in reality and in idolatry. These times among all Gentiles He needs must wink at seeing human degradation and the utter confusion of truth or history. But then in the right time and in the perfect condition He must visit His People, and He must deliver them out of their misery, darkness, confusion, abomination, slavery, and many such things; and He must speak anew and more clearly and must write all His Words in a Book for His People in the New Land, and that He might manifest His presence and live with them as a token of His eternal tabernacle with man and His creation.
The Word of the Lord God in all His words, in promises and covenants, in laws and requirements, in judgments and decisions, in codes and cases, in statutes and ordinances, and many other such things, would by Moses create a People of the Book, the Book of God and His Law and Covenant. The Exodus from Egypt and Wilderness Wanderings in the Desert, with Tabernacle and Tent, with the Sacrifices and Levitical Priesthood during the 40 years, were training and trial, a sifting and election, a purging and perfecting of Israel to display them as His Glory and Witness and Light to the Gentiles. The transformation of Jacob to Israel from the Hebrew People to Jehovah’s Nation was actually a shadow and a veil of something far greater and better, of which Moses in his own person and life would foreshadow and illustrate. From his sufferings in Egypt to his exile in Midian, from a Hebrew Egyptian to a Hebrew Israelite, from a prince to a shepherd, and in many other depictions God’s work and word taught man the divine doctrine of salvation to prevent final judgment and condemnation on man, and to renew and restore His creatures in a new creation. Who and What God was and is and will be would slowly and increasingly be displayed in the audience of His people in His world. The Divine qualities and attributes by means of all the words of Moses’ Law and Book, Sepher Torah, the Holy Scriptures, would lead man to the truth of God. And though it may be said by ancients that the Torah was created before the World, yet it is truer to say that the Word (Debar) gave the Law (Torah). Moses as the Lawgiver was the Voice and Mouth of God, and as Our Teacher in Israel, the Prophet and Man of God serving Him to the end that man may be wooed or driven to the Lord God and His Word. That Word would in time come forth from eternity into the world in Israel as a Final Prophet of God to complete and fulfill all God’s words and laws and commandments.

The Pentateuch as the Sacred Writings and the Holy Book instructs us about God, and reveals His Truth, the truth coming from Him and returning to Him. We said in the early chapters of Genesis that God is the Author of all things that His Word is His speaking with power and life to create and make all things. That of Man or Adam He spoke man’s existence and creation in His will and purpose or plan, but in time, and His way, He formed man in a more personal manner, as if He was begetting out of His labor the pregnancy of His generation and being. Moses has recorded God’s words and His doctrines, has absorbed and integrated the Divine Word within his mind and memory, and conveyed that message to Israel and to us. Its details as has been said consist of a library of Divine and Spiritual things along with a host of ordinary and common things. Many things have been passed on to us as common knowledge, while some things are mysteries understood by a few and taught to a remnant. Our interpretations are not always accurate, at times only partially true, and often erroneous in our ignorance with assumptions and presumptions of divine things. The long history of the Church and of the Synagogue, have preserved many of the Divine Doctrines amidst much tradition. Divine Tradition does exist in certain instances when the words proceeded from God. The literal views as well the symbolic, the natural or spiritual interpretations, in many cases are limited and restrictive, with misapplications everywhere in every group or family. Many of these we have already noticed from Genesis to Deuteronomy. We have reserved some views till we completed the Five Books of Moses and gave a detail but comprehensive digest synopsis of Scripture of Moses. We are prepared to move onwards and forward towards the next great book of the Divine Hand in Psalms, but we must traverse through the historical books from Joshua to Esther. Job will be treated with the Psalms and the other Poetic Books. I remind the reader and the Bible student that I have established the uniqueness and superiority of the 1st and 5th Books of Moses’ Pentateuch-Chumash, and though the Books of Exodus-Leviticus-Numbers are essential to the Word revealed, still it is Genesis & Deuteronomy that governs the Book. The 40 years Wilderness Wandering was intended to be only 2 years, and that only to transform the people, construct the Tabernacle and Sanctuary, and constitute the Law and Sacrifices in the Aaronic and Levitical Priesthood, and of those essentials relative to the Promised and Possessed Land. Therefore, again, I repeat, with this in view, the next great Book is the Psalms where the Law and the Word, from Genesis to Deuteronomy to David will find a maturity and superiority that surpasses the old.

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Christian Biblical Reflections.11

(Here are pages 180-197. The Graphics or Illustrations & Maps will no doubt not be visible in the post; the PDF will be uploaded to see the examples given. As usual, errors are corrected as I notice them, or informed by others. mjm)

Illustrations & Maps Relevant to CBR Chapter I and the Word :

1. Simple marks to Complex figures: Geometric & Symbolic: Nature & Human:
1. . : dot, period, point, and mark; used in many Alphabets and Writings; etc.
2. – : line, a mark of a dot extended in a straight direction; used in Alphabets, etc.
3. ( ) : curve, curved line, extended simple lines into complex lines into forms, figures, etc.
4. [ ] : angles, simple straight lines into complex forms, figures, etc.
5. O : circle, simple curved line closed; etc.
6. Square, Triangle, Spiral, Circles (multi-circles), etc. complex extensions of simple lines & curves.
7. Shapes, Forms, Figures, Characters, Marks, etc. are complex derived from the simple.
8. Art, Pictures, Images, Charts, Maps, etc. are representations and illustrations of things, etc.

2. Hammurabi Code Stone Monument

3. Larkin’s Dispensational Truth, © 1918. God’s Sanctuary: Tabernacle, Priesthood and Camps.


3. Larkin’s Dispensational Truth and Spiritual World, © 1918, 1920: Example of the Doctrine of the Tripartite (Trichotomy) Nature of Man. Compare with many others, Heard, Bullinger, Nee, etc. For Dichotomy: merge Soul & Spirit into one.

4. Ancient Latin Map of the Earth in Middle Ages: note distortions and ignorance of the World.

5. City and Temple (Ziggurat) of Ur; of Abraham’s times; once unknown and denied to exist; excavated along with much more, in 1930s. It relates from Nimrod to Abram.

6. Older Map of Middle East of the Ancient Nations.


7. Modern Physical Map of Middle East.

8. King Tut’s Tomb (Tut-Ankh-Amun) or Sarcophagus or mummified coffin, discovered in 1922 in Valley of Kings. See Nat. Geographic, Sept. 2010, King’s Tut’s DNA. Relates Israel in Egypt and the Dynasty of Pharaohs from Joseph to Moses; from Yuya & Tuyu to Tut & Ankh-Esen-Amun.

Image Image

9. Google’s Virtual Map of the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba & Sinai Peninsula, 2011.


10. Bing (Microsoft) Virtual World Map of 2011.

11. Egypt & Arabia & Sudan of 1910, borders and railways; British Protectorate. Compare T.E Lawerence on Arabia Partition, 1910-1922. Compare Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 of Partition of Middle East.

12. Google’s Virtual map of Middle East area near Israel, from 2 Gulfs to Syria, etc.

13. Modern Middle East map of borders, roadways, terrain, etc.

14. Sumerian standard’s “war panel” at Ur, time before Abram; shows war, craft, etc. See S.N. Kramer “History begins at Sumer”; also J.B. Pritchard’s ANE, vol.1

15. Ancient Near-East Map from American Bible Society in eSword.

16. Partition Maps: Israel & Trans-Jordan 1910-1922-1967. Note Dagger (Israel) and Ax (Jordan).

17. Arabian-Indian-Iranian Teutonic Plate or Rift next to the African and Eurasian. Note line through Red Sea, northward through Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea, and Jordan River along eastern coast of Mediterranean Sea.

18. The Major Rivers of the Middle East.

19. Birds Eye View of the Holy Land: Ancient Canaan-Palestine-Israel:

20. Ancient Palestine-Canaan-Israel:

21. TimeLine of Ancient Egypt by National Geographic Society. The periods relating to the times between Joseph and Moses are numbers 6 and 7, Dynasties 15 – 20, 1600-1400 B.C.
Time Line of Ancient Egypt: Egypt Secrets of an Ancient World.
1. Predynastic About 5500-3000 B.C.: Climatic change about 7,000 years ago turns most of Egypt—except for along the Nile—to desert. Farming begins and communities form along the river, with important population centers at Buto, Naqada, and Hierakonpolis. Egypt remains divided into Upper and Lower (southern and northern) Egypt.
2. Early Dynastic (Dynasties I-III) 2950-2575 B.C.: Consolidation of Upper and Lower Egypt and the founding of Memphis, the first capital; Calendar and hieroglyphic writing created. Royal necropolis located at Abydos; vast cemeteries at Saqqara and other sites.
3. Old Kingdom (Dynasties IV-VIII) 2575-2150 B.C.: Age of pyramids reaches zenith at Giza; cult of the sun god Re centered at Heliopolis; Cultural flowering; trade with Mediterranean region and brief occupation of Lower Nubia.

4. First Intermediate Period (Dynasties IX-XI) 2125-1975 B.C.: Political chaos as Egypt splits into two regions with separate dynasties.
5. Middle Kingdom (Dynasties XI-XIV) 1975-1640 B.C.: Reunification by Theban kings. Dynasty XII kings win control of Lower Nubia; royal burials shift north to near Memphis; Major irrigation projects; Classical literary period.
6. Second Intermediate Period (Dynasties XV-XVII) 1630-1520 B.C.: Asiatic Hyksos settlers rule the north, introducing the horse and chariot; Thebans rule the south.
7. New Kingdom (Dynasties XVIII-XX) 1539-1075 B.C.: Thebans expel the Hyksos and reunite Egypt. In this “age of empire,” warrior kings conquer parts of Syria, Palestine, and Lower Nubia.
8. Third Intermediate Period (Dynasties XXI-XXIV) 1075-715 B.C.: Egypt is once again divided; the high priests of Amun control Thebes; ethnic Libyans rule elsewhere.
9. Late Period (Dynasties XXV-XXX) 715-332 B.C.: Nubians from Kush conquer Egypt; Egypt reunited under Saite dynasty. Persia rules in fifth century B.C. Egypt independent from 404 to 343 B.C.
10. Greco-Roman Period 332 B.C. – A.D. 395: Ptolemies rule after the death of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Dramatic growth of population and agricultural output. Roman emperors build many temples, depicting themselves in the Egyptian style.
(National Geographic Society. ©1996-. All rights reserved.)
(Awaiting permission:


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Christian Biblical Reflections. Chapter I.pdf

((Christian Biblical Reflections. Chapter I. pdf. mjm.)) Christian Biblical


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Christian Biblical Reflections.10

((Here are pages 161-179; with further corrections. We this post and submission I have completed Genesis – Numbers, as planned and promised, Chapter 1 completed; Chapter 2 of Deuteronomy – Psalms, is planned for April. I also will attempt to upload a PDF of each Chapter as completed, if I find the way to do so. mjm.))

NUMBERS: Chapters 1-36: Moses IV:

The Fourth Book of Moses, Moses IV, consists of 36 chapters, and takes its name from the content of the book as given verse two, the number of the names; but the Hebrew uses the fourth word, bedmidbar, meaning “in the wilderness” or desert. The connection to Leviticus is obvious and intentional, as the continuation of the story in the scroll. The Book has two significant parts, part one from chapters 1 to 14, and part two, chapters 15 to 36. Part one is at Sinai, when the people were numbered, then moves to the Desert of Paran, where the spies were sent out and returned. Part two Is at the Desert of Paran near Kadesh-Barnea after the rebellion and refusal to invade Canaan and continues through the next 38 years of wandering in the wilderness up to the 40th year after the Exodus, to the last month of Moses life.
The Lord spoke to Moses in the Desert of Sinai in the Tent of Meeting on 1st day of the 2nd year after the Exodus, for him and Aaron to number all the male Israelites by families and clans, from 20 years and above, those able to go to war, to enlist them by their hosts or divisions. Each Tribe to be represented by a leader or general, in this order: of Reuben; of Simeon; of Judah; of Issachar; of Zebulun; of Joseph’s Ephraim; and of Manasseh; of Benjamin; of Dan; of Asher; of Gad; and of Naphtali.  These twelve were the Princes of the Tribes of Israel the heads of the thousands of Israel; Moses and the 12 princes with Israel in the Sinai Desert declared their lineages, on the 1st day of the 2nd month, from 20-60, as commanded they were numbered by generations, families, houses, and polls all that could go to war. Those numbered were: of Reuben were 46,500; of Simeon were 59,300; of Gad were 45,650; of Judah were 74,600; of Issachar were 54.400; of Zebulun 57,400; of Joseph’s Ephraim were 40,500; of Joseph’s Manasseh were 32,200; of Benjamin were 35,400; of Dan were 62,700; of Asher were 41,500; of Naphtali were 53,400. The total number of Israel’s military was 603,550. Only the Tribe of Levi was forbidden to be numbered because the Lord appointed the Levites over the Tabernacle of Testimony and its furniture to minister to it and encamp around it and to take it down and to set it up; but the stranger who comes near shall be put to death. The children of Israel shall encamp by their own standards in their divisions, and the Levites must encamp around the Tabernacle that wrath come not on the community.
The tribes of Israel are to camp around the Tabernacle on four sides by the standards and ensigns or banners or flags, opposite or facing the Tent. On the East Judah’s hosts and the tribal prince, with all the numbered men; in like manner next to him is Issachar; next Zebulun; in all on the East side of the Three Tribes is some 186,400; these are to march and camp first. On the South likewise is Reuben and with him is Simeon and Gad, in all 151,450; these to march or set out and camp 2nd. The Tent of Meeting with the camp of the Levites by their standard in between the 12 Tribes, 6 in front and 6 in back. On the West is standard of Ephraim’s camp and host, as the others, along with Manasseh and Benjamin; in all these totaled 108,100; the third to set out or march and camp. On the North is Dan’s standard and host, in like manner, along with Asher and Naphtali; in all these totaled 157,600. These 12 Tribes numbered in all 603,550; excluding the Levites; they set out and encamped by families and houses.
The generations of Moses and Aaron at the time the Lord spoke to Moses at Mount Sinai: Aaron sons were Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar; these were anointed and consecrated to minister or serve in the priest’s office or Aaronic Priesthood. Nadab and Abihu died as childless rebels for offering strange fire to the Lord in the Sinai Desert, leaving only Eleazar and Ithamar minister.   The Lord tells Moses to bring and present the tribe of Levi to minister or serve Aaron by keeping his charge and for Israel at the Tent of Meeting in the service of the Tabernacle, to attend to all the furniture and service.  The Aaronic priesthood is not to be approached by a stranger or unauthorized person, who must be put to death.  The Levites are to be numbered from one month and older, from the names of the families and houses of Aaron three sons: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.  The Gershonites encamped westward behind the Tabernacle; with its tribal prince; and their charge and duties in the Tent of meeting was the Tabernacle and Tent, and its inner Covering, the Screen or Curtain for the door or entrance, and Hangings for the court, the outer Screen or Curtain, and its Cords or Ropes.  The Kohathites in like manner, on the Tabernacle’s south-side, were numbered, and their charge was the Sanctuary and its Ark, Table, Lampstand, Altars, Vessels, and inner Screen or Curtain.  Eleazar is to be Prince of Princes of the all Levitical Priests, and supervisor of the Sanctuary attendants.  The Merarites likewise, on Tabernacle’s north-side were numbered and their charge was the Tabernacle’s Boards, Bars, Pillars, Sockets, Instruments, and its Service, its Court-pillars, Sockets, Pins, and Cords or Ropes. The encampment on the Tabernacle’s east-side before the Tent of Meeting as the sun rises was Moses and Aaron and his sons, to keep the charge of the Sanctuary for Israel; the stranger who approaches shall be put to death.  The Levites that were numbered by Moses and Aaron by the Lord’s command, males from one month and older, were 22,000. The Lord told Moses to number all males of Israel from one month and older by names; for the Levites are to be a substitute for all the firstborn of Israel, and the Levites’ livestock for the firstlings of Israel.  Moses numbered Israel and the male population from one month and older came to 22,273, that is 273 over. For these the redemption is to be 5 sanctuary-shekels a person (one shekel = 20 gerahs); the redemption-money came to 1,365, which Moses gave to Aaron as the Lord commanded.
The Lord told Moses and Aaron to take the Kohathites from 30 – 50 for the service of the Tent of Meeting for the most holy things: before setting out the Aaronic priests take down the Veil of screen or curtain and cover the Ark of Testimony with it, and over the Veil a covering of Sealskin (Badger-skins), and over that a blue Cloth, and its Staves or Poles inserted The Table of Showbread must also be covered with blue-cloth, and on the Table its dishes, spoons, bowls, and cups, these covered with a scarlet-cloth and over this a covering of sealskin or badger-skin, with its poles inserted. The Lampstand of the Light and its lamps, snuffers, snuff dishes, oil vessels, are to be covered with a blue-cloth, and then sealskin, and put on the frame. The Golden Altar is to be covered with blue, and then a covering of sealskin, with its poles inserted; the vessels of ministry in the Sanctuary are to be covered with blue-cloth, covered with sealskin, and placed on the frame.  The Altar’s ashes are removed, and the Altar to be covered with purple-cloth, with its vessels, fire pans, flesh-hooks, shovels, basins, and its vessels, and covered them with sealskin, and its poles inserted. After the Aaronic priests have covered the Sanctuary and its furniture then the Kohathites are to carry them, but must not touch them, or they may die; these are their burden (things to be carried and transported) in the Tent of Meeting. Eleazar ben-Aaron the priest is responsible for the oil for the light, sweet incense, continual meal-offering, anointing oil, the Tabernacle and its things, and the Sanctuary and its furniture. The Kohathites are not to be cut off from the Levites in their care of the most holy things in their service and burden; they must not ever look inside the Sanctuary, lest they die. The Gershonites were numbered from 30 to 50 to attend to and serve the work of the Tent of Meeting. Their Service and burdens is to carry the curtains of the Tabernacle and Tent of Meeting, its covering, covering of sealskins, screen or curtain for the door or entrance of the Tent, the court hangings, the screen or curtain for the door or entrance of the gate of the court, their cords and instruments, and whatever is needed in the service.  The Merarites in like manner numbered to serve and care and carry the Tabernacle’s boards and bars, its pillars and sockets, its court pillars and sockets, their pins and cords, with all the instruments and service, each instrument by appointment. Moses and Aaron the Princes of Israel numbered the Levites by families and houses, from 30 to 50, for the work of service to carry the burdens in the Tent of Meeting as commanded by the Lord; and the total was 8,580 Levites from Kohath, Gershon, and Merari.
The Lord told Moses to command Israel to isolate the lepers, those with discharges, and those unclean by the dead, male and female, outside the camp, so the camp, the Lord’s dwelling) become not defiled. The guilty soul who sin or trespass against the Lord must confess and make restitution in full and add 1/5th to his victim or the other party; and for the injured party without some kin, the restitution must go to the Lord’s priest, with the ram for his atonement. All heave-offerings of holy things of Israel must go to the priest, and anyone’s hallowed things. A wife who trespass against her husband in secret adultery, being defiled but no witness against her, not being caught in the act; if the spirit of jealousy causes her husband to suspect her adultery, whether true or not, she must be brought to the priest with her offering of 1/10th ephah of barley meal, without oil or frankincense; it is a jealousy meal-offering, a memorial of remembrance. The priest shall take holy water in earthen container and dust from the floor of the Tabernacle mix in it, and before the Lord the woman’s hair loosed, and give her the meal-offering of memorial and jealousy and give her the mixed water of bitterness which causes the curse. The priest must make her swear an oath that she has not committed adultery and uncleanness while married, and then she is to be free from the bitter water of the curse; but if she is guilty and defiled, may the Lord make her a curse and oath to her people, when her thigh is infected and her body swell, after the cursed water enters her stomach; and she must say ‘amen’, ‘amen’.  The priest must write these curses in a book, and then blot them out with the water of bitterness; then the woman must drink it bitter. The priest must take the meal-offering of jealousy from the woman, and wave it to the Lord, and bring it to the altar; he shall take a handful of the meal-offering as a memorial, and burn it on the altar, then make her drink it. Afterwards if she is defiled and guilty of trespass the bitter water will cause her to be cursed, and if not, she will not be cursed but conceive seed. This is the law of jealousy of the spirit of jealousy, to free or convict the wife or husband of iniquity.
The law of the Nazirite, by the Lord’s command to Moses for Israel, that when an Israelite, man or woman, makes a special vow of a Nazirite to separate to the Lord, they must abstain from wine or alcohol, from wine-vinegar or vinegar, from grape-juice or grapes or raisins. A Nazirite must abstain from partaking of anything that comes from the grapevine; a Nazirite must not cut the hair or beard, till the vow is fulfilled, he is holy in his separation; the locks of the hair of his head must grow long. A Nazirite must not come near a dead body to become unclean, not for any relative, because he is holy and separated to God. If he is accidently defiled by the dead, he must shave his head on the 7th day of his cleansing and offer his sacrifices on the 8th day at the Tent, a sin and burnt offering for his atonement for sin of death. He may renew a vow of separation to the Lord but must not resume the days of his former vow voided by defilement. When a Nazirite vow is completed he must offer all his sacrifices to the Lord at the Tent; after the priest is done the Nazirite must shave, and take the hair and put it under the fire of peace-offerings; then the priest give him the boiled shoulder of the ram, a cake, and a wafer, and the priest must wave them as a wave-offering to the Lord; this is holy for the priest, and also the wave-breast and heave-thigh; then may the Nazirite drink wine.
The Lord said to Moses to tell Aaron and sons to bless Israel in this way: ‘The Lord bless them, keep them, shine on them, and be gracious to them, lift is countenance on them, and give them peace’; thus His Name is put on them to bless them. When Moses setup the completed constructed Tabernacle (a year from the Exodus) and anointed and sanctified it and all related to it, that the tribal princes of Israel of the militia offered their oblations to the Lord at the Tabernacle; 6 covered wagons or carts, one per two tribes, and 12 oxen, one per tribe were offered; for the service of the Tent for the Levites; to the Gershonites 2 wagons and 4 oxen; and to Merarites 4 carts and 8 oxen. The Kohathites were given none, because they shouldered the Sanctuary service.  The princes offered on a set day the offering for the dedication of the Altar, for 12 days, 1st Judah, 2nd Issachar, 3rd Zebulun, 4th Reuben, 5th Simeon, 6th Gad, 7th Ephraim, 8th Manasseh, 9th Benjamin, 10th Dan, 11th Asher, and the 12th was Naphtali. The tribal Princes each offered the same offerings which was alike: 1 silver platter 130 sanctuary-shekels in weight, 1 silver bowl of 70 sanctuary-shekels, both filled with fine flour mixed with oil for a meal-offering; 1 golden spoon of 10 shekels, full of incense; for a burnt-offering one bullock, one ram, one he-lamb a year old; for a sin-offering one male goat; for the sacrifice of peace-offerings were 2 oxen, 5 rams, 5 he-goats, 5 he-lambs a year old. Each Prince offered the same kind and number of offerings each for his tribes’ day for the Altar’s dedication in its anointing: 12 silver platters of the same weight, 12 silver bowls of same weight, 12 golden spoons of same weight; the silver totaled 2400 sanctuary-shekels; the gold totaled 120 shekels; the bullocks, rams, he-lambs, their meal-offerings, and he-goats were 12 in all for burnt and sin offerings; for sacrifice of peace-offerings were in all 24 bullocks, 60 rams, 60 he-goats, 60 he-lambs. Now when Moses entered the Tent of Meeting to speak to God, he heard a Voice speaking to him from above the Mercy-seat or Atonement-cover, from between the two cherubs.
The Lord told Moses that Aaron must light the 7 lamps or candles of the Lampstand to give light in front of the Candlestick, which was made of beaten gold and its base and flowers exactly as the Lord showed Moses in the mount. The Levites are to be cleansed with water of expiation or purification, and all their flesh shaved, and their clothes washed, and they must bathed, and must offer the sacrifices of the sin-offering; they present them to the Lord at the entrance of the Tent with all Israel; and Israel must lay their hands on the Levites, and Aaron must offer them as a wave-offering in place of Israel to minister to the Lord. The Levites must then lay their hands on the heads of the bullocks offered as sin and burnt offering to the Lord for atonement for the Levites as a wave-offering; they are made separate for the ministry of the Tent in substitution for Israel the Lord’s Firstborn. The Levites are a gift to the Aaronic priests for the ministry of atonement of Israel to prevent plague and death when they approach the Lord’s Sanctuary. The Levites must serve and wait on the work or ministry of the Tent from age 25 to 50; and from 50 years and older must cease from the work and service, but from 50 and older must minister with their brethren in the Tent and its charge.
The Lord spoke to Moses in the Wilderness or Desert of Sinai in the 1st month of the 2nd year after the Exodus.  The Passover must be kept as prescribed in the 14th day of the 1st month, Abib, at night. If some are unclean by death contact, or on a journey, they must keep the Passover on the 14th day of the 2nd month at night with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, and nothing must remain till the morning. But if anyone is clean and at home and does not keep the Passover in its appointed season, he will bear his sin.  This applies to even the stranger or foreigner in the land, for one statute applies to all. When the Tabernacle was erected the cloud covered the Tent of Testimony, and at night the cloud appeared as fire; but when the cloud lifted and moved on so too Israel journeyed and followed, and Israel encamped where it rested; by the Lord’s command the journeyed and at His command they rested, according to the cloud, whether it rested on the Tabernacle many or few days, even if only for one day, so did they; whether two days, a month, or a year.
Two silver Trumpets or Horns of beaten work must be made for the calling and gathering of the congregation of Israel to assemble at the Tent of Meeting. If the Trumpets are blown only once, the leaders are to the gather; if the Trumpets are sounded for alarm the 1st time, the East camp must move; if sounded 2nd time the South camp must follow; an alarm must be trumpeted for their journeys. But for gathering the assembly they must trumpet without alarm; and the Aaronic priests are to sound the Trumpets as a permanent statute for all generations.  There must be a sound of alarm for war with the Trumpets, and the Lord God will remember and save Israel from their enemies.  There must be trumpet sounds for gladness and feasts, for the new months, for the different sacrifices and offerings, for such celebrations as a memorial to God. In the 2nd year in the 2nd month on the 20th day the cloud lifted off the Tabernacle of Testimony, and Israel left the Desert of Sinai and came to the Wilderness of Paran. The order of the journey of the hosts or army by standards and camps and princes was: Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, then the Tabernacle, after it is taken down, and the Gershonites and Merarites; after them Reuben, Simeon, Gad; then followed the Kohathites transporting the Sanctuary and those to setup the Tabernacle; after these were Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin; and last was Dan, Asher, and Naphtali. They journeyed and marched.  Moses conversed with his father-in-law Hobab (Jethro) ben-Reuel the Midianite, inviting him to join Israel in their journey to Canaan, and he would be treated well; but he turned down the invitation to return to his land and people. Moses entreated him to accompany Israel in the desert as eyes for Israel, and they truly will treat him good. Israel departed from the Mountain of the Lord and went 3 days journey, with Ark of Covenant of the Lord leading the way to find a new resting place, the cloud leading above.  When the Ark moved forward Moses bid the Lord to Rise and scatters His enemies and put to flight those who hate Him; when the Ark rested he bid the Lord to Return to the hundreds of thousands of Israel.
The people complained with evil, and the Lord heard it and burned in anger and He devoured to the edges of the camp; and they cried to Moses, and he prayed and then the fire abated; for which reason the place was called Taberah. The mixed crowd in Israel lusted exceedingly crying for flesh to eat like when they were in Egypt, when they ate freely, along with cucumbers, melons, leeks, onions, and garlic; for their soul was tired of the manna (it looked as coriander seed (zera-gad), as bdellium (here only and in Gen. 2; the bedolach is a resin or pearl, whitish or grayish; but mostly uncertain; its connection to the dew, seeds, and quails is curious),and it was gathered and grounded, or beaten or boiled, and made into oil tasting cakes; and it fell only at night. The people’s complaints and tears angered the Lord and displeased Moses, who complained to the Lord of the burden of caring for such a people, as if as a mother to conceive and birth them, or a nursing-father to carry them as nursing-babes in the bosom to Canaan (here the Lord and Moses are pictured as Shaddai). Moses despaired how he could feed all these unbearable people with flesh and chooses rather to die now than to guide them. In response the Lord appointed 70 elders and officers of Israel to stand with Moses at the Tent, and He told him that He would take of the Spirit on Moses and put it on the Elders to share the burden of the people with him.  But the people must sanctify themselves for the next day they will indeed eat flesh according to their cries and demands, not just a day or more, but an entire month till it comes out of their nostrils and they despise it, since they rejected and complained against the Lord. Moses replied that the footmen alone numbered over 600,000, how he could give them flesh to eat for a month, and even all the flocks and herds slain, or all the fishes of the sea would not be enough to satisfy them. The Lord replied to Moses that His Hand is not so short to fulfill His every word. So, when the Spirit rested on the 70 Elders gathered around the Tent they prophesied. Two of Elders (Eldad and Medad) remained in the camp and the Spirit rested on them and they prophesied; a young man ran and reported it to Moses, and Joshua ben-Nun, his minister, a chosen man, ask Moses to stop them, but Moses replied that is it jealousy for him, but wished that all the Lord’s people were prophets and His Spirit rest on them. Moses and the Elders returned to the camp, and the Lord sent a wind that brought quails from the sea (here is a clue to Israel’s location in Arabia), and they fell near the camp, about a day’s journey on both sides of the camp all around, flying about 2 feet above the ground. The people gathered quails for a day and half, each 10 homers or more, and then distributed them throughout the camp. While they stuff themselves, even before they could chew it, the Lord’s anger ignited and severely plagued them; and they called the place Kibroth-hat-taavah, for they buried those who lusted.
From Kibrothhattaavah they journeyed to Hazeroth and stayed; there Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses for marrying a Cushite (Ethiopian, African of southern Egypt, black or dark, not a remarriage of Zipporah the Midianite) woman. They equated themselves with Moses in hearing the Lord, and the Lord heard it; now Moses was the meekest of men. The Lord demanded Moses and Aaron and Miriam to appear at the Tent, and He appeared in a pillar of cloud, and called to Aaron and Miriam, and told them that to a prophet among the people He will appear in a vision or dream, but to His servant Moses who is faithful in all His house, He will speak mouth to mouth clearly and not obscurely; he may see the Form of Jehovah; and He asked why they were not afraid to speak against His servant. The Lord’s anger burned against them, and He departed, and the cloud lifted, and Miriam was leprous as snow-white. Aaron seeing her, begged Moses for forgiveness for their foolish sin, and to spare Miriam from a more severe case of the plague, as a miscarriage. Moses begged the Lord to heal her; but the Lord said that if she had spit on her father’s face she should be shamed for 7 days, so she must be outside the camp for a week. The people remained in Hazeroth till Miriam returned.
From Hazeroth they came to Desert of Paran and encamped in the wilderness. The Lord instructed Moses to commission 12 spies who are tribal princes from the tribes of Israel to survey and spy out the land of Canaan. Two of the 12 were Caleb ben-Jephunneh of Judah, and Hoshea (who Moses renamed Joshua) ben-Nun of Ephraim; these 12 were sent out as spies. They were to enter Canaan by the South borders and into the Hill-Country, to get intelligence of the entire land and its people, their strength and number, the country’s condition and landscape, its cities and forts, the camps, the crops, the trees, and such. The spies are to return bravely and with some fruit of the land. The time was the season of the first-ripe grapes (about summer, July). The spies surveyed from the Desert of Zin to Rehob to Hamath; from the South to Hebron, where the 3 sons of Anak lived (Hebron was built 7 years before Zoan of Egypt); then they came to the valley of Eshcol (or wady or stream or pass of Grape-clusters) and they cut down clusters of grapes. They returned in 40 days and reported to Moses and Aaron and to Israel in the Desert of Paran to Kadesh. They said the good news is the land flows with milk and honey and fruit; but the bad news is the people are strong, the cities are great and fortified, and the Anakims live there; in the South dwell Amalek; and Hittite, Jebusite, and Amorite in the hill-country; the Canaanites are by the sea coasts and along the Jordan. Now Caleb hushed the people before Moses and encouraged them to invade and conquer quickly. But the 10 spies insisted that the occupants are too strong, giving an evil report that the land consumes its inhabitants, and have giants, even the Nephilim or Anakims; and that the spies appeared as grasshoppers compared to them. Israel cried in despair and complained against Moses, and sighing for to have died in Egypt or the Desert; asking why the Lord delivered them to kill them in Canaan, desiring to return to Egypt by a new captain. Moses and Aaron prostrate before the assembly, and Joshua and Caleb tore their clothes and tried to persuade the company that the land is worth it, that if the Lord delights in them He will give them this rich land; but they must not rebel and be afraid for they will be their bread. The congregation wanted to stone them; then the Lord’s glory appeared at the Tent to all Israel; and He asked Moses how long they will despise Him in unbelief of all His miracles; and offered to plague them and disinherit them, and to make of him a new greater and mightier nation in their place. But Moses pleaded that the Egyptians will hear the news and broadcast it to the Canaanites, for they all know the Lord dwells in Israel, and He is seen by Face, and His cloud and pillar leads them. If the Lord kills them, the nations which heard the news of His fame of the Exodus will reason that the Lord was not able to bring them to their new home in the land He promised, so He killed them in the desert. Moses prayed that the Lord’s great power, with His slow anger, mercy, forgiving iniquity and transgression, punishing the guilty, visiting parents’ wickedness on the children to the 4th generation; he begs pardon for the people as in forgiveness to them from Egypt to the present. The Lord replied that He has forgiven them as Moses prayed, but by His Life all the earth will be filled with His glory and these men of unbelief and rebellion and disobedience and ungrateful, who has tempted him by testing and provoking Him these 10 Times (Ex. 5; 14; 15; 16; 17; 32; Num. 11; 11; 12; 14)) disregarding His Voice; He swore by oath to them that that generation of those who despised the Lord will not enter Canaan, except for Caleb (and Joshua), because his spirit was different, and fully followed Him, for he and his seed will enter.
Now the Amalekite and Canaanite resided in the valley; He made them return to the desert near the way to the Red Sea (Yam Suph, Gulf of Aqaba). The Lord told Moses He is fed up tolerating these complaining stubborn people, tell them that as they have desired and demanded so it will be; their dead bodies will fall in the desert, everyone from the age of 20 and older who have complained will never enter Canaan, excluding Caleb and Joshua. But the children that they were worried about becoming a prey they will enter the land they rejected, but they will die in the wilderness, and their children must be wanderers and pilgrims in the desert for 40 years, a day for a year (40 days for 40 years) to bear their inequities and know my alienation. Thus, did He say and swore and so it must be. He spared the children but slew the parents; He favored the younger generation and destroyed the older one; and the spies that brought the evil report died by the plague of the Lord. Moses told all this to the people, and Israel mourned and decided to go up to the mountain top and determined to invade Canaan as previously ordered; but Moses rebuked them again of a new transgression against the Lord’s command and told them to not go up because the Lord will not go with them.
Korah a Kohathite priest along with the Reubenites Dathan and Abiram and with a company of 250 Israelite famed princes who assembled against Moses and Aaron; accusing them of usurping the priesthood, since all Israel is a holy assembly of the Lord, then Moses fell face down, and told Korah and his company that the Lord will show and say who is holy and choose who may approach Him. The next day all of them are to take censers filled with fire and incense before the Lord Who will decide who is holy, for the Levites were usurping by rebellion against their appointed service and ministry from the Lord to usurp the priesthood opposing Aaron.  When Moses sent for Dathan and Abiram they refused to come, complaining that he has led them away from Canaan (milk and honey) to be killed in the desert, and has made himself the prince, and has not led them to the rich new land, but desire to put out their eyes. Moses enraged asked the Lord to reject their offering, for he has taxed or oppressed anyone. Moses told Korah and his crowd to take a position and Aaron another place everyone with 250 censers; they gathered at the Tent, and the Lord’s glory appeared to all. The Lord told Moses and Aaron to separate their selves away from the congregation that He may instantly consume them; but they fell down and begged the God of the spirits of all flesh not to destroy all for one man’s sin, and not be angry with all. The Lord told Moses that the congregation must remove from the tabernacle (tent and home) of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and their families. He and the elders told the people to depart from their tents, and touch nothing of theirs or they may be consumed; and they moved back and about. Moses declared that the Lord will confirm His commission to Israel by the rebels not dyeing a common death or visited as other men; but the Lord make a new thing by opening the ground swallow them all and all that belongs to them, going alive into hell or the grave (sheol); all will know these men despised the Lord. It was so done, they were swallowed alive by the earth, into sheol, and the earth closed again, and they perished from the assembly; and Israel ran away that they might not be swallowed up. But the fire of the Lord devoured the 250 men who offered the incense. The Lord ordered that Eleazar the priest take the 250 burnt censers and scatter the fire yonder because they are holy, censers of sinners against their souls; the censers must be beaten and made into a covering of the Altar, a memorial to Israel to prevent a non-Aaronic stranger from approaching to burn incense as did Korah and his crowd.
The next morning the congregation of Israel accused Moses and Aaron of killing the Lord’s people; and while assembled thus they saw the Lord’s glory appear in the cloud above the Tent. Moses and Aaron stood in front of the Tent, and the Lord told them to get away from the Congregation that He might quickly consume them; and they prostrated themselves. Moses told Aaron to quickly take his censer with fire and incense to the Congregation and make atonement for them to halt the Lord’s wrath and plague. And he did so to stand between the living and the dead, and the plagued stopped; but the plague killed 14,700, excluding those of Korah’s rebellion.  The Lord told Moses that Israel must take 12 rods for the tribal princes and write their names on each and Aaron’s name to be written on a rod for Levi; and all the rods placed inside the Tent of meeting before the Testimony where the Lord appeared. He will choose the rod and it will bud and the complainers of Israel will be silenced; and it was so; the Aaron’s rod for the house of Levi budded and blossomed and produced ripe almonds; and the Lord commanded that Aaron’s rod must be kept before the Testimony as a token or sign of the rebels, and that others may not murmur and die. Israel spoke to Moses afraid that they might die as undone, since those who approach the Lord’s Tabernacle are dead and perish.
The Lord told Aaron that he and his sons and the Levites must bear the iniquity of the Sanctuary, and the Aaronic priests will bear the wickedness of their priesthood. The Levites are to help and minister to him, but only the Aaronic priests may be before the Tent of Testimony; to keep the charge of the Sanctuary and the Altar, that none may die. The Levites are to assist as a gift in the charges and service of the Tent to the Aaronic priesthood in all concerning the Altar and inside the Veil, their priesthood is a service gift; no stranger must approach, or he will die. Also, to Aaron and sons He gave the charge of His heave-offerings and the holy anointed things of Israel as their continual portion.  All the fire sacrifices of the most holy things of the various oblations, every male must eat of it; also the heave and wave offerings of Israel all the priest’s family may eat who are clean; also of the best first fruits of the crops; also of the first ripe fruits, and of the devoted things, and the firstborn of man and beast, and those redeemed firstborn and firstlings. All the redeemed of Israel valued by the priests; but the firstlings of the animal sacrifices are a fire offering to the Lord and to be burnt up, but the waived breast and the right thigh may be eaten. The heave-offerings the priest’s family may eat as a covenant of salt before the Lord forever.  The tithe of Israel belongs to the Levites as an inheritance as payment for their service in the Tent, that Israel may not approach with sin and die. The Levites must do the service of the Tent to bear their inequities always for the tithe of Israel is theirs. And the Levites are to tithe of the tithe as a heave-offering to the Lord and must be given to Aaron the priest. All the gifts must be offered as a heave-offering and sanctify part of it, and reckoned as increase produce; and eat it as reward for service without sin.
The Lord told Moses for Israel that the statute of the law of the spotless and unblemished and Red Heifer, never yoked, is that she is to be given to Eleazar the priest, and he must take her outside the camp and she must be slain in his presence, and he shall sprinkle her blood toward the front of the Tent 7 times, and the Red Heifer must be entirely burnt up. The priest must throw some cedar-wood, hyssop, and scarlet into the fire of the burning heifer; then he must wash clothes, bathe, and remain unclean till eve; the one who burnt her shall do likewise. Then a clean man shall collect the ashes of the heifer and store it outside the camp in a clean place and be kept for the Congregation as water for impurity as a sin-offering; and he who gathers the ashes shall do likewise. So too with one who touches a dead person’s body and does not purify himself, he defiles the Lord’s Tabernacle; he must die because the water for impurity was not applied to him, and he remains unclean still.  The law of a dead man in a tent defiles everyone and everything in the tent for 7 days; so too the death contact in the field or elsewhere.  The ashes of the burnt sin-offering by fresh water must be sprinkled on the unclean by death, on the 3rd and 7th day; and he who applies the water himself must be cleansed; and death to the who refuses to purify himself since he has defiled the Lord’s Sanctuary.
Now Israel encamped in the Desert of Zin in the 1st month (of the 40th year) at Kadesh (we are now concluding Numbers, and its relations to Genesis and Deuteronomy, and are preparing for Moses V), and Miriam died and was buried. Again, the assembly complained and opposed Moses and Aaron wishing to die quickly as their brethren earlier rather than slowly by thirst to death; they criticized them for their deliverance to an evil place without seed, figs, grapes, pomegranates, or water. They left the assembly of complainers and prostrated before the Lord’s glory; and He told Moses to take the Rod with the assembly, and to speak to the Rock to bring forth water for the people and animals. They gathered the assembly of rebels and denounced to them that they must produce water from the Rock; he struck the Rock twice (instead of once) and water flowed abundantly. But the Lord said to them that since they did sanctify the Lord in the eyes of Israel they will not enter Canaan with the people. These are the waters of Meribah of Israel’s strife with the Lord and He was not sanctified. Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, relating Israel’s stay in Egypt, their mistreatment and travail, their deliverance and exodus, the Lord’s Angel bringing them up to Edom’s southern borders to the city Kadesh. Moses requested passage through Edom to Canaan, and he promised that Israel would only go along the King’s Highway and will not touch or eat or drink anything. Edom refused, and Israel requested again, but Edom again refused, and came to oppose them with many people; Israel turned away; and journeyed from Kadesh to mount Hor at the border of Edom. The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, telling Aaron must die here before Israel enters Canaan because they rebelled against the Lord’s word at the waters of Meribah; and he must bring Aaron and Eleazar to mount Hor; and must strip Aaron of his priestly garments and put them on his son Eleazar. Aaron died in mount Hor in the sight of Israel; Moses and Eleazar descends the mount, and all the congregation of the house of Israel grieved for Aaron 30 days.
Now the Canaanite king of Arad, who lived in the South hearing that Israel went by the way of Atharim, attacked and captured some of them; Israel vowed that if the Lord defeats them by Israel then their cities will be utterly destroyed. So, He did, and Israel destroyed the cities of the southern Canaanites near Hormah. They journeyed from mount Hor by the way of the Red Sea (Yam Suph, Aqaba) going around Edom; and the souls of the people was much discouraged on the way, and they complained against God and Moses for bringing them from Egypt to die in the wilderness, without bread and water, and they hated the light bread of manna. The Lord sent fiery serpents (seraphim serpents, poisonous snakes) to bite and kill many people. The people came to Moses repenting and confessing their sins, and begging Moses to pray that the Lord remove the snakes; and he did. The Lord told him to make a fiery serpent of brass and set it on a standard, and anyone bitten by a snake looking on it shall live; and it was so. Then Israel journeyed and encamped in Oboth, then again to Lyeabarim in the desert near Moab eastward to the sun-rising. Again, they traveled to the valley of Zered, then to Arnon’s other side in the desert borders of the Amorites and Moab. Here is it said, in the Book of Jehovah’s Wars (Sepher Milchamoth), Vaheb in Suphah (eth-Waheb beSuphah), and the Valleys of Arnon (Hannechalim Arnon, Arnon’s Nachalim, Nachal, or Stream, Torrent, Vale, Wady, or Wady), and the Slope of the Valleys (Eshed Nachalim) towards Ar’s dwelling, adjacent to Moab’s border; thence to Beer, the Well, where the Lord told Moses to gather the people, and He gave them water, and Israel sang the ‘Song of Spring Up O Well’, the well princes dug, nobles delved, with scepter and staves. They left the desert went to Mattanah, then to Nahaliel, then to Bamoth, then to the valley in the field of Moab, to the top of Pisgah overlooking the desert.
Israel then out messengers to Sihon the king of the Amorites, just as they did earlier to the king of Moab, to be permitted to pass through his land into Canaan; but he also refused and mustered and attacked Israel at Jahaz. Israel defeated them by the sword and captured and occupied his land from Arnon to Jabbok at the strong and secure border of the Ammonites. Israel captured and occupied all the cities of the Amorites, Heshbon and all the surrounding towns. Now Heshbon was the city of Sihon the king of the Amorites who captured it by defeating the king of Moab and occupied all his land up to Arnon. Thus those who speak in proverbs say to invite them to come to Heshbon and build and establish the city of Sihon; for a fire from Heshbon and a flame from Sihon devoured Ar of Moab, and the lords of Arnon’s high-places; woe to Moab and undone is Chemosh’s people; his sons are fugitives, and his daughters captives to Sihon king of the Amorites; they were shot, and Heshbon perished up to Dibon, and destroyed up to Nophah and to Medeba. Israel occupied the land of the Amorites.  Moses sent spies or scouts to Jazer and captured it and drove out the Amorites; then they turned to the way Bashan and Og its king engaged at the battle of Edrei. The Lord told Moses not fear him or his people for He has given Israel their land, and they must be treated just as Sihon king of the Amorites at Heshbon; Israel utterly destroyed them and possessed their land.
Israel then moved and encamped in the plains of Moab across Jordan’s Jericho; and Balak ben-Zippor the king of Moab aware of Israel’s defeat of the Amorites, and that Moab was afraid and distressed by Israel’s number and strength; that he told the elders of Midian that Israel will lick up all the nearby country as the ox eats the grass. He sent messengers to Balaam ben-Beor to Pethor by the River (Euphrates), to his people’s land, saying that a people come from Egypt and cover the earth, and residing nearby; soliciting him to come and curse Israel that he might prevail and strike them to drive them out of the country. But God told Balaam he must not go nor curse for they are blessed. Balaam arose in the morn and told the princes of Balak to return home for the Lord refuses to permit him to go. They returned and reported to Balak, but he sent other more honorable princes to Balaam with an offer of great honor and reward, at any cost, that he may curse the people. Balaam told them not even Balak’s house full of silver and gold could make him alter the word of the Lord God. But he bid them stay the night to see what the Lord might say. God visited him at night and told him to go with the men who came to hire him, but he must only speak only what He speaks to him. He awoke and readied his donkey and went with them; but God’s anger burned against him, and the Lord’s angel stood to oppose him, as he rode along with his two servants. The donkey seeing the angel blocking the passage with a sword drawn, it turned away into the field; Balaam hit her to turn her back. The angel moved to a narrow path between the vineyards between walls, the donkey seeing the angel went into the wall crushing Balaam’s foot; he struck her again. Again, the angel moved further to a narrower place without room to pass, the donkey seeing him she collapsed under him, and he struck her with his staff; but the Lord opened her mouth, and she asked him what wrong has she done to be struck these 3 times. He replied to her that she has mocked him, and if he had a sword he would kill her; she replied that he has ridden her all her life, and has never acted this way, and he agreed; but the Lord opened Balaam’s eyes to see the angel standing with a drawn sword, so he bowed to the ground. The angel rebuked him for beating the donkey 3 times, and that he came as an adversary to him for his perverse course, that if the donkey had not halted and turned away he would have slain him and spared her. Balaam replied that he was unaware of the angel’s opposition, and if he was displeased he would return home; and he told him to go with them and warned him to only speak what he would tell him; he went with the princes. Balak met him at the city of Moab at the furthest border of Arnon and asked why he delayed responding to his urgent plea and generous offer of reward. Balaam reminded Balak that he has no power but to speak God’s expressed words; they both went to Kiriath-huzoth, there Balak sacrificed oxen and sheep and fed Balaam and the princes. Next day Balak took him to Baal’s high places to see all the people.  Balaam instructed Balak to construct 7 altars and prepare 7 bulls and 7 rams; he did so and offered the sacrifices. Balaam told Balak to wait by his burnt-offering while he would go see if the Lord might visit him, and he related the words and vision to Balak. God met Balaam and he told Him that he had prepared and offered two sacrifices each on 7 altars. Then the Lord put a word in Balaam’s mouth, and to return to speak it to speak to them; he turned and found them all waiting by the burnt-offering.
Then Balaam related his parable and vision: Balak the king of Moab brought me from Aram, from the mountains of the East (Mesopotamia) to curse Jacob and defy Israel. But how can he curse one whom God has not cursed or defy whom the Lord has not defied; for from the top of the rocks and hills he sees them dwelling alone and not numbered with the nations. Jacob’s dust cannot be counted, and the 4th of Israel cannot be numbered; and may Balaam’s death and end be like righteous Israel. Balak protested that instead of cursing his enemies he has altogether blessed them; but Balaam insisted he can only speak what the Lord inspires. Again, Balak took him to a 2nd place to see only a small part of Israel and to curse them; to the field of Zophim to the top of Pisgah and sacrificed as before; likewise did Balaam as before, and so also the Lord. Balaam returned to Balak and the princes of Moab; and Balak asked what the Lord said, and Balaam related his 2nd parable and vision. Arise and listen Balak ben-Zippor, God is not a liar like man, does not repent as the son of man, He will do what He says and fulfill His words; he must bless because He blessed, and cannot reverse it. He sees no iniquity in Jacob and no perversity in Israel; the Lord his God is with him, the shout of a King among them God rescued them from Egypt, as with the strength of the wild-ox (thoaphoth, high-horns, strong-horns, and unicorn). Jacob is without enchantment and Israel without divination; they will say of Jacob and Israel: what has God done? The people rises as a lioness and a lion, he will not rest till he devours his prey and drink their blood. Balak protested that he neither curse nor bless them; but Balaam reminded him that he must only speak what the Lord has spoken. Again, Balak took Balaam to another place in hopes that God will permit him to curse Israel; but the 3rd time he took him to the top of Peor overlooking the desert; and as before made sacrifices on 7 altars. But Balaam seeing that the Lord determined to bless Israel turned his face towards the wilderness without enchantments but gazed upon Israel’s tribes; and the Spirit of God came upon him. Balaam’s 3rd parable and vision, with closed eyes, which speaks and hears the words of God; which sees the vision of Shaddai, falling down with eyes open. Beautiful are Jacob’s tents and Israel’s tabernacles; as spacious valleys, as gardens by the river-side, as the Lord’s planted lign-aloes; and as watered cedar-trees. Water flowing buckets, seed of many waters; his King higher than Agag, and his kingdom exalted. God delivered them from Egypt, with strength of a wild-ox; and he will consume the nations his adversaries, breaking their bones, and shooting them with arrows; as couched lion and lioness at rest. Blessed are those who bless them and cursed are those which curse them.
Balak very angry at Balaam clapped his hands saying he invited him to curse his enemies, but instead 3 times he has blest them; he told him to return home since the Lord has deprived him of honor. Balaam reminded him that he told the messengers his limitations to speak only what the Lord revealed, no matter what the bribe or rewards offered; Balaam before leaving offered his advertisement and prediction of the future actions of Israel against Moab. As before, he uttered his prophetic parable of God’s words and Elyon’s knowledge and Shaddai’s vision in his trance: he saw in the distant future a Star of Jacob and a Sceptre of Israel striking all Moab and breaking all the sons of tumult; Edom-Seir, his enemies, will be conquered, Israel victorious; one from Jacob has dominion, and will destroy the city’s remnant. Then looking toward Amalek he continued his parable and prophecy: Amalek the first and head of the nations or Gentiles shall finally come to destruction. So too his 3rd parable: the Kenite with their strong and secure homelands nested in the rock; Kain indeed will be devastated and captured by Asshur or Assyria. Again, he continued with his 4th and final parable: who will survive the acts of God? And the ships of Kittim’s coast will afflict and invade and destroy Asshur. Balaam returned home and Balak departed.
But Israel settled in Shittim; and the people played the harlot there with the daughters of Moab, who had invited them to share and partake in their sacrifices to their gods or idols, and to worship their idol gods. Israel was joined or united with Baal-peor as a harlot; and the Lord’s anger ignited against Israel. He told Moses to take the chiefs of the people and to hang them up before the sun to turn away the Lord’s fierce anger from Israel. Moses told the judges to slay anyone who had joined and participated at Baal-peor. One of the princes had taken along a Midianite woman in sight of Moses and the congregation of Israel while they wept at the door of the tent of meeting. Phinehas ben-Eleazar ben-Aaron saw, and arose with a spear, and went after the Israelite into the pavilion or tent and speared them both together; and the plague ended, after 24,000 died. The Lord told Moses that Phinehas has mitigated His wrath on Israel by his zeal for the Lord’s burning jealousy; he will have His covenant of peace, and to his seed, for an everlasting priesthood, for his zeal atoned for Israel.  The slain Israelite was Zimri ben-Salu a prince of the Simeonites; the Midianite woman was Cozbi bath-Zur who was a chief or sheikh of Midian. The Lord told Moses to vex and smite the Midianites as they seduced and deceived Israel concerning Peor, and of Cozbi a daughter and sister of a Midianite prince.
After the plague of Peor the Lord told Moses that Eleazar the priest must number all Israel, a census of those 20 and older able to go to war in Israel of those delivered from Egypt. This they did in the plains (areboth, the Arebah) of Moab by the Jordan River near Jericho: of Reubenites, 4 families or clans numbered 43,730 (of these were Pallu’s son Eliab and his 3 sons Nemuel, Dathan and Abiram; these last two were the same rebels of Korah’s company, all of which died by the earth swallowing them and the fire devoured the 250 as a sign; but Korah’s sons died not); and of Simeonites, 5 tribal-families numbered 22,200; of Gadites, 7 clans totaled 40,500; of Judah (Judahites, Judaens, Jews), (Judah’s sons Er and Onan died in Canaan), 3 clans and clans of Perez’ sons, numbered in all 76,500; of Issachar, 4 clans totaled 64,300; of Zebulun, 3 tribal-families, the sum was 60,500; of Joseph’s Manasseh, 1 clan and 1 family of Machir’s son, and of Gilead 6 families, and of Zelophehad’s 5 daughters, all these totaled 52,700; of Joseph’s Ephraim, 3 clans, plus of Eran I family, in all numbered 32,500; of Benjamin, 5 clans, and of Bela’s sons 2 families, in all totaled 45,600; of Dan’s son, 1 clan of 64,400; of Asher, 3 clans, plus of Beriah 2 families, and Asher’s daughter Serah, these all numbered 53,400; of Naphtali, 4 clans numbered 45,400. All Israel numbered in total sum 601,730; and the Lord told Moses that the land must be divided for inheritance by the number of their names; the more numerous get more land, and the smaller tribes get less land. But the land must be divided by lot to inherit.  The Levites in 3 clans and 5 tribal-families; (now of Kohath was Amram, and his wife Jochebed was of Levi who was born in Egypt, and of these were Aaron and Moses, and their sister Miriam); and Aaron had 4 sons, two of them died in offering strange fire before the Lord; all these Levites numbered 23,000 of males 1 month and older. These were excluded in the census of Israel for they were not to be given a tribal inheritance in Israel. This census numbered by Moses and Eleazar was taken in the plains of Moab by Jordan at Jericho. Not a single man was in this census that was in the census made by Moses and Aaron in the desert of Sinai (38 years earlier), according to what the Lord had sworn concerning their dying in the wilderness, except for Caleb and Joshua.
Now the 5 daughters of Zelophehad ben-Hepher ben-Gilead ben-Machir ben-Manasseh ben-Joseph were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah stood before Moses and Eleazar and the elders at the door of the Tent; and they argued that their father had died in the desert for his own sin but did not participate in the rebellion of Korah, without a male heir, his name must not be removed from his family inheritance, but his daughters should be allowed to inherit his portion. Moses inquired of the Lord Who replied that the daughters of Zelophehad were right and must inherit their father’s possession. Further, when a man dies without a male heir then the tribal-inheritance must go to the female, and if no children must pass on to his brothers, or his father’s brothers, or to the nearest of kin; this is a perpetual statute and ordinance in Israel.
Then the Lord told Moses to go up into this mountain of Abarim, to see at a distance the promised land of Israel, then he must die as Aaron had died, because they rebelled at the Lord’s word in the desert of Zin in Israel’s strife and of their not sanctifying Him at waters of Meribah of Kadesh in Zin’s desert. And Moses requested that the Lord as God of the spirits of all flesh, to appoint a successor as a shepherd to lead Israel in going and coming. The Lord told him to call Joshua, in who is the Spirit, and lay hands on him before the priest Eleazar and the assembly, and to charge him, and to give him of his own honor that Israel might obey and follow him. And he shall stand before Eleazar who will inquire for him the Divine Judgment of Urim before the Lord, and at Joshua’s word shall all Israel go out or come in; and it was done.
Then the Lord by Moses commanded the Israelites that His oblations and food offerings by fire as a sweet smell, must be offered appropriately and timely as originally given at Sinai. Whether fire offerings as continual burnt-offerings, or drink offerings or meal-offerings, or such; with animals or grains, on Sabbaths or holy days and seasons, or ordinary days or special occasions, must all be performed in strict and exact order of the Mosiac code of the Lord at Sinai. So too with all sacrifices and offerings as the sin-offering with all that pertains to it, that is offered for atonement or propitiation or satisfaction or reconciliation, all must conform to the original mandates and regulations, in manner and substance, in fasts or feasts, for individuals or the nation. The Mosaic legislation and Divine ordinances must not be altered or ignored for all generations in all or the least of its detail, including all amendments or additions divinely given. Whether in set feasts as the Passover, or in vows, free-will offerings, burnt-offerings, meal-offerings, drink-offerings, peace-offerings, and all such offerings, they are to be performed to the Lord as commanded. Men’s vows to the Lord or soul sworn binding bond oaths must be kept as vowed; and so too unmarried women’s vows, unless her father negates it; and so too a married woman’s, unless her husband negates it; all must be by divine regulations. A widow’s vow must be kept. These legal statutes governing relations and conditions of people are to be observed exactly.
The Lord by Moses ordered Israel to avenge and execute the Lord’s vengeance on the Midianites; and then Moses will die. Each tribe must send to war 1,000 men, in all numbering 12,000. Eleazar the priest and the vessels of the Sanctuary, with alarm trumpet in hand, with them. They warred with Midian and slaughtered them, slaying all the adult males, and the five kings of Midian, and also Balaam ben-Beor they killed by sword. Israel captured the women and children of Midian, and their cattle and flocks, and all their goods they took as prey or spoil. They burnt up all their cities and encampments, and led captive all that belonged to the Midianites, and brought the captives and spoil to Moses and Eleazar at the camp in the plains of Moab by Jordan at Jericho. Moses was enraged at all the captains of war that they had spared the Midianite women, declaring that these women followed the counsel of Balaam to prostitute themselves in trespass against the Lord concerning Peor and the plague that followed. So Moses ordered them to kill every male child and all the non-virgin women; thus sparing only the female children and the Midianite virgins. Those who executed the orders and had killed the Midianite captives must remain outside the camp for 7 days to be purged from blood and death, on the 3rd and 7th day; also every garment or fabric, skins, wooden things, must all be purged by water and sacrifices. Eleazar the priest instructed the soldiers the Lord’s statute by Moses concerning the metal objects of gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead to be purged and cleansed by fire and water, and all other substance and objects must be water purged, such as clothes by washing. After the 7 days of exclusion from the camp they were cleansed and returned.
The Lord by Moses demanded a census of the sum and number of the prey or captives of both man and beast, to be taken by Moses, Eleazar, and the tribal princes. The prey or captives to be divided into two parts, one part of the soldiers, and the other part of the assembly; and a tribute levy to the Lord to be made.  One soul of every 500 persons or humans, of oxen, of donkeys, and of flocks, and the number from this half must go to Eleazar as the Lord’s heave-offering; and the other half one out of every 50 and the sum to be given to the Levites caring for the Lord’s Tabernacle; and it was so done. The count of all the livestock prey, not counting the soldier’s booty, totaled 675,000 sheep, and 72,000 oxen, and 61,000 donkeys, and 32,000 virgin women; and the half belonging to the soldiers’ portion and booty numbered 337,500 in all. The Lord’s tribute of sheep was 675; and of the 36,000 oxen His tribute was 72; of the 30,500 donkeys His tribute was 61; and of the 16,000 persons His tribute was 32.  Moses gave the tribute of the Lord’s heave-offering to Eleazar the priest as Moses was commanded.  And the half belonging to the assembly, totals based on one out of every 50 of the assembly’s half; the tribute sum went to the Levites serving the Tabernacle. Then the officers over the army, the captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds came and told Moses they have numbered all the soldiers to the last man and have brought the Lord’s oblation from every soldier’s booty of all the objects of gold jewels, of ankle-chains, and bracelets, signet-rings, ear-rings, and armlets or arm-bands, to make atonement for their souls before the Lord.  Moses and Eleazar took the gold and jewels; and the gold of the heave-offering offered by the captains came to 16,750 shekels, from what the soldiers had personally taken for themselves as their booty. They took the soldiers’ gold and brought it into the Tent of Meeting as a memorial before the Lord.
Now the Reubenites and Gadites had extensive cattle and saw the lands of Jazer and Gilead were good cattle pastures, they came to Moses and Eleazar and the princes or elders, and requested that from Ataroth to Beon, 9 lands, all the country the Lord smote for Israel, being good cattle land, to be given to them as a possession on the east side of the Jordan River. Moses first response was to question their motives that they wished to escape war and to desert their brethren while they settle in trans-Jordan. He rebuked them for discouraging the Israelites from crossing over into Canaan; and he reminded them what their fathers did 38 years earlier at Kadsehbarnea, when they returned from Eshcol and influenced Israel to refuse to invade Canaan. The Lord then enraged at Israel swore that not a single man of that generation from 20 and older should see and enter the land promised to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob; excluding Caleb the Kenezite and Joshua, for they completely followed Him. In His burning anger He made Israel wander as nomads and Bedouins in the desert for 40 years (38 years extra) till all that evil and rebellious generation died off. So Moses accused the two tribes of like conduct as sinful men fueling the Lord’s fierce anger towards Israel, so that He will desert and destroy the people in the wilderness. The two tribes replied that they would make folds and enclosures for their livestock and build fenced cities for their families to protect them from the local inhabitants; but they as warriors would accompany Israel into Canaan till the conquest. They will return to Trans-Jordan only after the conquest of Canaan and Israel securely occupies the country as their inheritance.  Moses then yielded or acquiesced to their desires, restating the conditions and terms of this new agreement in which they may remain guiltless to the Lord and to Israel. He warned them to be faithful to this contract or their sin will find them out. So he granted their request and permitted them to do as they said; and he instructed Eleazar and Joshua to grant to them the Transjordan or the land of Gilead as their possession after Israel’s conquest of Canaan. So all Israel agreed to the covenant and the Reubenites, Gadites, and half tribe of Manasseh were given the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites, Og king of Bashan, its land and coasts and all their cities. The Gadites built 9 fenced cities and folds for their sheep. The Reubenites 6 cities, some names being changed, But Machir ben-Manasseh and his sons conquered Gilead and dispossessed the Amorites; so Moses granted to them to settle in Gilead as their inheritance. Manasseh’s son Jair captured the small towns of Gilead and called it Havoth-Jair. So too Nobah captured Kenath and its villages and named it Nobah.

These are the Journeys of Israel’s Hosts or Armies after the Exodus out of Egypt led by Moses and Aaron; and he wrote or recorded the directions of Israel’s journey and goings. They departed from Rameses in the 1st month on the 15th day, on the morning after the Passover in greatness in sight of all the Egyptians, who buried all the firstborn which the Lord had killed and had executed judgments on their gods or idols. Israel left Rameses and camped in Succoth, then to Etham at the desert’s border, then to Pihahiroth by Baalzephon and camped at Migdol; then they crossed the sea into the desert, and went 3 days journey (some 30 miles) into the desert of Etham and camped at Marah; thence to Elim with its 12 founts and 70 palms and camped; thence camp by Yam Suph; thence camped in the desert of Sin; thence encamped in Dophkah[10], thence to Alush, then Rephidim a place without water, thence to the desert of Sinai; and thence to Kibrothhattavah, then to Hazeroth Rithmah , thence to Rimmonparez, then to Libnah; and thence to Rissah, then to Kehelathah, then to mount Shapher; thence to Haradah, then to Makheloth, then to Tahath, then to Tarah; and thence to Mithcah, then to Hashmonah, then to Moseroth; thence to Benejaakan, then to Horhagidgad, then to Jotbathah, then to Ebronah; thence to Eziongaber, then to the desert or wilderness of Zin or Kadesh. (About 30 locations of encampment.) And thence left to mount Hor at Edom’s border; and Aaron by the Lord’s command went up and died in mount Hor at 123 years of age in the 40th year, in the 1st of the 5th month, after the Exodus.
The Canaanite, king of Arad, who dwelt in the South or Negev of the land of Canaan, heard of Israelites’ coming. They journeyed from Hor to Zalmonah and encamped; thence to Punon, then to Oboth and camped in Lye-abarim (Lyim) in Moab’s border; thence to Dibon-gad, then to Almon-diblathaim; thence to the mountains of Abarim facing Nebo; thence to the Arabah or Plains of Moab by Jordan at Jericho and encamped near the Jordan River from Beth-jeshimoth to Abel-shittim in the Arabah of Moab. These journeys and encampments, in all some 40 locations or sites, over 40 years, brought Israel at the door and crossing into Canaan. The Lord by Moses in the Arabah of Moab at Jericho by Jordan commanded Israel to pass over across the Jordan and drive out all the Canaanites in the land, and to destroy their figurines and statutes and monuments, and their molten images and high places, their idols and idolatries. They must conquer Canaan and possess and occupy the land and country as He promised. They must inherit the land by lot and by number, to the more or to the less, by tribes and families as permanent inheritance. If they do not completely drive out all the remnants of Canaan then those who reside in the country will be eye splinters, side thorns, and will vex them; and the Lord will treat Israel as He dealt with the Canaanites.
The Lord by Moses commanded Israel to inherit the land of Canaan by designated borders and divisions or 4 quarters. South Quarter or Southern Border from the desert of Zin along the borders of Moab, and its Border from the Salt Sea (Yam Melach) eastward, turning southward at the ascent of Akrabbim, passing along to Zin; going southward of Kadesh-barnea, to Hazar-addar, to Azmon; turning at Azmon to the brook of Egypt, thence to the Sea. The Western Border is the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea). The Northern Border is from the Great Sea and marking or designating mount Hor, to the entrance of Hamath, to Zedad, to Ziphron, and to Hazar-enan. The Eastern Border is marked or designated from Hazar-enan to Shepham, down to Riblah east of Ain, down to the side of the Sea Chinnereth (Galilee) eastward; down to Jordan, going to the Salt Sea. This is the geographical description of the designated borders inherited by lot by the 9 1/2 tribes of Israel on the west of Jordan in Canaan or Palestine. For the 2 1/2 tribes inherited the country in Transjordan on the east of Jordan toward the sun-rising. The Lord by Moses designated the men by Eleazar and Joshua to divide and partition the land by lot for the tribal inheritance; one tribal-prince from each tribe by name; 12 in all.
The Lord by Moses continued His commands to Israel that they must give to the Levites from their inheritance cities to reside in, along with suburbs; for their cattle and substance, and all their animals and livestock. The suburbs must be measured from the wall of the city outward to 1,000 cubits all around (some 1800 – 2000 feet, or 1/3 mile); then measured on the four sides of the city, east and south, west and north, additional 2000 cubits (some 3000 feet or 2/3 mile), making a circle enclosing or surrounding the walled city. The Levites must be given 6 cities of refuge for the manslayer, causing unintentional or accidental death, to flee for refuge and asylum. An additional 42 cities must be given, all these 48 cities must have suburbs; these are to be taken from each tribe by numerical representation, of the more or of the less. He commanded Israel to appoint in Canaan the 6 Cities of Refuge for the accidental or unintentional deaths for temporary refuge till he is tried by the court of judgment. In Transjordan must be 3 cities, and in Canaan 3 cities for those causing deaths but are not murderers, that is those who kill intentionally, willfully, and by use of a weapon or object, or by ambush and hatred; such are murderers and may not be a refugee and protected from the blood avenger. The one who kills or murders by whatever means must be judged by the assembly’s judicial courts; to save or put to death, to protect or to hand over, to restore or condemn. He must stay in the City of Refuge till the death of the High Priest who was anointed with holy oil; and if the manslayer leaves before this and encounters the blood avenger’s kin and is slain by him, the blood avenger is not guilty. But after the death of the standing anointed High Priest he may return home without harm.
These things are permanent statutes and ordinances for all generations in the land. But a true guilty murderer shall be put to death at least by 2 or 3 witnesses; no ransom money or bribe for the killer or murderer to flee or free, convict or release; for such pollutes the land, for blood pollutes the land; and no expiation can be made for the land except by the blood of the one who shed it. The land must not be defiled for the Lord resides in Israel. The tribal-heads of the Gileadites of Machir ben-Manasseh of Joseph brought before Moses and the princes and the chiefs of Israel the case of the inheritance of Zelophehad’s daughters. If they should marry outside the tribe of Manasseh then their husband’s tribe will inherit their land, and in the Jubilee resort to their husband tribes. Moses by the Lord’s command declared that the sons of Joseph are right in their concern; the daughters of Zelophehad must marry only within the tribe of Manasseh to prevent the loss of tribal inheritance into another tribe. No tribal inheritance is to be lost by marriage into another tribe. So Zelophehad’s daughters did as commanded; they married into the families of the tribe of Manasseh, retaining their father’s inheritance. These concludes the commandments and ordinances which the Lord commanded Moses in the Arabah of Moab by Jordan at Jericho.

 We have now completed the summary and digest of the Book of Numbers of Israel’s 40 years in the wilderness or desert in transition from the Exodus of Egypt and slavery to Canaan, the Promised Land.  Also we have surveyed the three books of Exodus and Leviticus and Numbers as preparatory and preliminary to the Book of Deuteronomy as the Second Law. We have presented by way of reflections and interpretations that the Bible as the Divine Hands with its Thumbs and Fingers illustrate and symbolize the Books of the Bible are connected in such a way that 10 key Books along with the other interconnected Books unfold the written Word of God as witness by the prophetic Spirit to the Living Word Who is revealed from beginning to end. I have attempted in my reflections to adhere tenaciously to the Text in these 4 Books of Moses as the initial foundation of God’s revelation and purpose, His design and intent, and His works and ways.  We have seen and learnt from the Scriptures step by step, line upon line, by letters and words, by sentences and verses, and by chapters and books as many details as we could that will help us as we progress through the Scriptures.  We have restrained ourselves from thinking that our understanding in these modern times in which we live and know, is the standard by which we read and understand the Bible. The Bible we have judged is its best interpreter as to the letter, and by the Spirit of God is alive and enlightens our minds and hearts, creating faith and obedience, giving hope and patience as we follow after God in faith and obedience.
The 4 Books of Moses are plainly presented as from one source; the Author must be God or it all falls apart, Scripture broken into countless pieces and hundreds of parts or documents. If this were true, God forbid this unbelief, the faith and ingenuity required to account for the thousands of details would be nothing short of divine. As we have seen and said at different times that the stories and the history, both in facts and experiences, are obviously based on oral and written traditions in regards to natural things as it is in mankind, as easily attested by thousands of witnesses of the recovered past, as resurrected witness to the veracity and relevancy of the Bible. But if we stop here we stop short of the entrance to the Good Land of Divine things revealed spiritually and inspirationally by God Who is the Witness to Himself and all His desires towards man.  The God of the Bible requires absolute faith but in absolute truth and honesty, He is not capricious or manipulative with the facts or the details, and requires nothing less than to follow His example in our hearing and searching of Scripture. And further we have not tried to engage the science of those Bible experts, or accomplished scholars, who have spent their lives in understanding the Book of Books, as if we could outdo them in their own domain. No, we have consulted them here and there, comparing what we read and discover against their comments and explanations and have not blinked at the problems or differences that exists; but have freely admitted ignorance in some things unexplainable or irreconcilable or apparent or real contradictions, as if the human did not clothed the divine.
We conclude Numbers with a few observations, reserving many things to the major reflections on Deuteronomy the Second Finger in which we must unite and intertwine the Mosaic System as the Divine Word. Numbers, as in all the other Books of the Bible, or in most books of the world, is understood always in three parts, the beginning and the end and what is between these. This is seen in man in the family, a father and a mother and the child springing from both; and many such examples may be adduced. Numbers opens by taken us back to Sinai a year after the Exodus, and at the time of the completion of the Tabernacle as God’s Sanctuary in the Tent of Meeting, and with all that pertains to the Divine Service and Liturgy of the Aaronic and Levitical Priesthood in work and ministry for the Lord and for Israel. The Book ends at the door to Canaan in Trans-Jordan of Moab which was conquered and captured and possessed by Israel and granted to the 2½ tribes as their inheritance. The military preparations are introduced by the essential numbering and the enlisting of Israel’s militia; and it continues up to the time they were to commence the invasion of Canaan, of which they refused from fear and unbelief. The remainder of the time would be used to destroy unbelief and rebellion, fear and provocation; and would harden for war, training them to fight the Lord’s battle against idolatry and wickedness. And as with the Tabernacle in structure and features, so also the Encampment of Israel portrayed God dwelling with His people from the whole and then the Levitical tribe, and in the innermost in His Sanctuary of the Holiest of all. The picture and types are like those in Exodus and Leviticus but now seen in the armies of Israel. The names and places of the people and the land paint a picture of conflict and crisis. But all this and more will be discovered and emerge in growth and life.

 (From Edersheim’s Bible History of the Old Testament 1876-1887, 1890, reprinted frequently to the present time, originally published in 7 volumes, by Alfred Edersheim, the author of Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. His work covers the Pentateuch or Torah in 2 volumes; volume 1 covers Genesis in two parts, the World History and the Nations (5 Generations, Creation to Shem), and the Patriarchs’ History (5 Generation, Terah to Jacob). In volume 2 surveys the Exodus and the Wilderness Wanderings. Deuteronomy is treated only sparingly, mainly as parallels to the other books, and carrying over into Joshua; in this he is deficient to present the fuller picture and the grand design.
From his Preface in Volume 1: “One of the most marked and hopeful sign of our time is the increasing attention given on all sides to the study of Holy Scripture. Those who believe and love the Bible, and have experienced its truth and power, can only rejoice at such an issue. They know that “the Word of God liveth and abideth forever,” that “not one tittle” of it “shall fail;” and that it is “able to make wise unto salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus.”
Accordingly they have no reason to dread the results either of scientific investigation, or of searching inquiry into “those things which are most surely believed among us.” For, the more the Bible is studied, the deeper will be our conviction that “the foundation of God standeth sure.” It is to help, so far as we can, the reader of Holy Scripture — not to supersede his own reading of it — that the series, of which this is the first volume, has been undertaken. In writing it I have primarily had in view those who teach and those who learn, whether in the school or in the family. But my scope has also been wider. I have wished to furnish what may be useful for reading in the family, — what indeed may, in some measure, serve the place of a popular exposition of the sacred history. More than this, I hope it may likewise prove a book to put in the hands of young men, — not only to show them what the Bible really teaches, but to defend them against the insidious attacks arising from misrepresentation and misunderstanding of the sacred text.  With this threefold object in view, I have endeavored to write in a form so popular and easily intelligible as to be of use to the Sunday-school teacher, the advanced scholar, and the Bible-class; progressing gradually, in the course of this and the next volume, from the more simple to the more detailed. At the same time, I have taken up the Scripture narrative successively, chapter by chapter, always marking the portions of the Bible explained, that so, in family or in private reading, the sacred text may be compared with the explanations furnished. Finally, without mentioning objections on the part of opponents, I have endeavored to meet those that have been raised, and that not by controversy, but rather by a more full and correct study of the sacred text itself in the Hebrew original. In so doing, I have freely availed myself not only of the results of the best criticism, German and English, but also of the aid of such kindred studies as those of Biblical geography and antiquities, the Egyptian and the Assyrian monuments, etc.
But when all has been done, the feeling grows only stronger that there is another and a higher understanding of the Bible, without which all else is vain. Not merely to know the meaning of the narratives of Scripture, but to realize their spiritual application; to feel their eternal import; to experience them in ourselves, so to speak — this is the only profitable study of Scripture, to which all else can only serve as outward preparation. Where the result is “doctrine, reproof, correction, and instruction in righteousness,” the Teacher must be He, by whose “inspiration all Scripture is given.” “For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? Even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.” But the end of all is Christ — not only “the end of the law for righteousness to everyone that believeth,” but also He in whom “all the promises of God are Yea and Amen.”  A. E.”)

(From his Preface in Volume 2: “The period covered by the central books of the Pentateuch is, in many respects, the most important in Old Testament history, not only so far as regards Israel, but the Church at all times. Opening with centuries of silence and seeking Divine forgetfulness during the bondage of Egypt, the pride and power of Pharaoh are suddenly broken by a series of miracles, culminating in the deliverance of Israel and the destruction of Egypt’s host. In that Paschal night and under the blood-sprinkling, Israel as a nation is born of God, and the redeemed people are then led forth to be consecrated at the Mount by ordinances, laws, and judgments. Finally, we are shown the manner in which Jehovah deals with His people, both in judgment and in mercy, till at the last He safely brings them to the promised inheritance. In all this we see not only the history of the ancient people of God, but also a grand type of the redemption and the sanctification of the Church. There is yet another aspect of it, since this narrative exhibits the foundation of the Church in the Covenant of God, and also the principles of Jehovah’s government for all time. For, however great the difference in the development, the essence and character of the covenant of grace are ever the same. The Old and New Testaments are essentially one — not two covenants but one, gradually unfolding into full perfectness, “Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner stone” of the foundation which is alike that of the apostles and prophets. (Ephesians 2:20)
There is yet a further consideration besides the intrinsic importance of this history. It has, especially of late, been so boldly misrepresented, and so frequently misunderstood, or else it is so often cursorily read — neither to understanding nor yet to profit — that it seemed desirable to submit it anew to special investigation, following the sacred narrative consecutively from Chapter to Chapter, and almost from Section to Section. In so doing, I have endeavored to make careful study of the original text, with the help of the best critical appliances. So far as I am conscious, I have not passed by any real difficulty, nor yet left unheeded any question that had a reasonable claim to be answered. If this implied a more detailed treatment, I hope it may also, with God’s blessing, render the volume more permanently useful. Further, it has been my aim, by the aid of kindred studies, to shed additional light upon the narrative, so as to render it vivid and pictorial, enabling readers to realize for themselves the circumstances under which an event took place.” A.E.)

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Christian Biblical Reflections.9

((Here are pages 124-161; and further corrections. mjm.))

(From Synopsis of the Bible Old Testament by J. N. Darby. French & English. 1857-1862.1882.)

Genesis: Introduction: Genesis has a character of its own; and, as the beginning of the Holy Book, presents to us all the great elementary principles which find their development in the history of the relationships of God with man, which is recorded in the following books. The germ of each of these principles will be found here, unless we except the law. There was however a law given to Adam in his innocence; and Hagar, we know, prefigures at least Sinai. There is scarce anything afterwards accomplished of which the expression is not found in this book in one form or another. There is found also in it, though the sad history of man’s fall be there, a freshness in the relationship of men with God, which is scarce met with afterwards in men accustomed to abuse it and to live in a society full of itself. But whether it be the creation, man and his fall, sin, the power of Satan, the promises, the call of God, His judgment of the world, redemption, the covenants, the separation of the people of God, their condition of strangers on the earth, the resurrection, the establishment of Israel in the land of Canaan, the blessing of the nations, the seed of promise, the exaltation of a rejected Lord to the throne of the world, all are found here in fact or in figure —in figure, now that we have the key, even the church itself.
Chapter 1: Creation with man as head: God’s work and God’s rest. God’s revelation given as to man’s relationship with Him. God as Creator of the material universe. Out of chaos and darkness the earth prepared and furnished. Light and order out of darkness and confusion. The prepared creation, proof of God’s life-giving power. Man formed a living soul in immediate connection with God. Man’s creation distinct from all else. God’s rest.
Chapter 2: Man’s relationship with God: the special manner of his creation. In chapter 2 we have man’s relationship with God, and his own portion as such. Hence the LORD * God is introduced: not merely God as a creator, but God in relationship with those He has created. Hence we have the special manner of man’s creation. * That is Jehovah Elohim, a personal name as well as Godhead. It was important too that Israel should know that their God was the original Creator of all. Still it is only used when special ways and connection with man are introduced. The distinction of Jehovistic and Elohistic documents is the merest child’s play, and flows from entire ignorance of the ways and mind of God. There is always a reason for one or the other. Elohim is simply God; Jehovah is the acting governing person in time though self-existing, who abides ever the same and having to do with others, who is, and was, and is to come. The Garden of Eden. The two trees: man’s responsibility in obedience and a sovereign source of life. Man in contrast with every other creature. Man by his derivation of life in immediate relationship with God. Adam’s relationship with God, his wife, and the inferior creation. Adam’s blessing secured by dependence on and intercourse with God. The position of the first and innocent Adam.
Chapter 3-4: Man’s fall: disobedience and failure. * He made fig leaves to cover his nakedness as to human shame, but when God came in he was as naked as ever. ‘I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, and went and hid myself, for I was naked.’ The fig leaves were man’s covering. God clothed them with skins which were had through death. Man trusts Satan rather than God. Contrasts between the first Adam and the Second. Death, and life through an accomplished work. The way of the tree of life was henceforth inaccessible to man *, according to nature, as the creature of God. There is no return to the paradise of man in innocence. Adam, already in sin and far from God, is the parent of a race in the same condition as himself **. *The cherubim I believe always to represent judicial government and power. ** Whatever Eve’s own condition as believing promise, what she says at the birth of Cain was the expression of the thought that the fulfilment of promise was in nature, which could not be. Sin was there and death, and the judgment of the hope of promise connected with nature come in. “I have gotten a man from Jehovah” was faith in promise, but expectation of the accomplishment of promise in nature. And Cain had to go out from the presence of Jehovah.
Chapter 4: The separation of the families of God and of the enemy: Cain and Abel. Sin and its present consequences. Cain is cursed from the earth in this very position, and a fugitive and a vagabond; but he will be as happy there as he can, and frustrate God’s judgment as far as he can, and settle himself in comfort in the earth as his, where God had made him a vagabond *; and that is the world. Here it is first pictured in its true character. * Nod is “vagabond.” God had made him Nod; and he settles himself, calls “the land after his own name,” or at least his son’s name, as an inheritance, and embellishes his city with arts and the delights of music —a remarkable picture.
Man’s state and sin apart from God. Lamech. Summary of chapters 2, 3, 4: Seth, the heir of God’s counsel. We have also the man of grace (Abel, type of Christ and of them that are His) rejected, and left without heritage here below; man, his enemy, judged and abandoned to himself; and another (Seth) the object of the counsels of God, who becomes heir of the world on the part of God. We must remember however that they are only figures of these things, and that in the antitype the Man who is heir of all is the same as He who has been put to death.
Chapter 5-50: The family of God on the earth: Enoch and Noah. The result of apostasy: man’s ruin ending in judgment; The way of salvation through the judgment. The History of the New Earth; Government in the hand of man; A beginning on new principles. The history of the world after the Deluge; The history of our present world in its great principles, and original sources; The world set out by families; Japheth; Ham; Shem; Man seeking a centre for himself; God’s history beginning in Shem; Universal idolatry; A new system: Abraham called and chosen by grace; Abraham the father of the faithful, the head of the accepted race of God on the earth; God introduces us into His own thoughts. A new order of events; The call to separate; The world and its prince, and Abram the root of the tree of promise; A new principle to rule; Abram called out by the manifestation of the glory of God; A second revelation of the Lord for communion and worship; Abram’s lack of faith. Abram and Lot; Abram’s own proper portion and the result of Lot’s choice; The manifestation of Melchisedec; The final triumph of the Lord and the family of faith over the world; The victory of faith. Detailed instruction as to the earthly seed and the land given; Earthly hopes and God’s purposes: unconditional promise as to Israel and the land; The inheritance assured to Abraham’s seed by unconditional covenant; Summary of man’s state and God’s ways with him in it. The covenant of the law in Hagar; Order of chapters 12 to 16; Sarah’s fleshly attempt to secure the promise, and its failure. God’s new revelation of Himself by name; unfolding of God’s purposes with the world; Circumcision, expressive of death, and free sovereign promise of the Seed; God gives names to Abram, Sarai and Isaac. The Seed of promise, the Heir of the world, and the present object of hope; Abraham’s visitors; the rebuke of unbelief; Communion and intercession; the patience and perfectness of judgment with God. Judgment; Lot delivered by providential power, but passes through the tribulation. Chapters 20 and 21; Unbelief working: God’s preservation of Sarah; The heir of promise born and the heir of the bondwoman cast out; Abraham’s title in the world. Chapters 22 to 24 (The heir of the promise is sacrificed and raised again in figure, and the promise is confirmed to the seed*. * This distinct confirmation to (not in) the seed, is what the apostle refers to as the one seed, that is Christ. The general promises as to Israel were of a seed as the stars of heaven for number. This is the confirmation to the one seed, when risen, of the promise given in chapter 12.). The election of God sets apart His earthly people, shown in Jacob; Summary of chapters 22-25: The sacrifice and resurrection of Christ shown in Isaac; The promise of the blessing of the families of the earth confined to one Seed, Isaac; Sarah disappears to make way for Rebecca, the church in figure; The work of the Holy Ghost; Abraham’s finished course; Isaac heir of all; Esau and Jacob: their character and spring of conduct. God’s new revelation to Isaac; Issac’s personal walk as to faith; Esau’s ways and thoughts governed by present enjoyment. Jacob as heir of the promises he values, but uses evil means to secure (Jacob’s history now begins*. * In general, Abraham is the root of all promise and the picture of the life of faith: Isaac, of the heavenly man, who receives the church; and Jacob, of Israel, heir of the promises according to the flesh.). Jacob’s wanderings, a picture of Israel watched over but an outcast. Jacob’s two wives —the Gentiles (Rachel) and Israel (Leah); The deceiver deceived, but preserved according to God’s promise; The dealings of God with a soul who does not walk with Him. The apostate world in power; the heirs of promise as pilgrims on the earth (The apostate world establishes itself in power, while the heirs of promise are still poor pilgrims up on the earth. This last is a distinct point of revelation.). Repentance and humiliation bring blessing through the once-rejected One; Joseph revealed to his brethren in glory and grace; God’s children and the world; Israel blessed in grace in connection with a risen Saviour (One cannot fail to see in the history of Joseph one of the most remarkable types of the Lord Jesus, and that, in many details of the ways of God in regard to the Jews and Gentiles. * This is the subject of Romans 11: 28-33. In verse 31 read “even so have these not now believed in your mercy that they also might be objects of mercy.” They had forfeited the promises, and take them now on no higher ground than a Gentile; that is, pure mercy.). Joseph as heir in Canaan; The pledge of Israel’s re-establishment in the land; God’s patience with evil; The difference between the prophetic blessings of Jacob and Moses; The moral character and failure of Israel, and the purposes of God; Salvation will come with the true Joseph; Deliverance and blessing through Christ as once separated and now the heavenly glorified Man (….but salvation from Jehovah Elohim. Thereon deliverance and blessing for Israel; and finally (what we have already seen as the double character of Christ —separated from His brethren*, and then glorified) Joseph and Benjamin present Him to us as the heavenly glorified Man to whom all is entrusted, and the all-conquering Lord on the earth. * Joseph is so characterized in Deuteronomy also.); Israel’s past and future history in Jacob’s prophetic blessing; The fear of God shown in Joseph the true basis of power and blessing.

(We will return to Darby’s Synopsis from time to time in our reflections.)

(From the earlier Bible Reflections. I was tempted to add additional examples from the ANE Texts but decided against it. What is here given adequately gives us details enough of the age of the patriarchs and the life and times of the Bible characters from Noah to Abraham to Moses. mjm.)

(I will depend on the Ancient Near East, edited by J.B. Prichard; vol. 1, an Anthology of Texts and Pictures, relating to the Old Testament, © 1950, 1953 and 1954 by Princeton University Press in two volumes; abridged in 1958, and 6th reprint in 1973, which I am consulting. I also compare with Rogers’ works on Babylonia and Clay’s books on Babel as they relate to the Old Testament Pentateuch; and of course the others as Jastrow, Sayce, Delitzsch, Budge, Lutz, Smith, and many others, as well as the newer works and institutions and societies.)

The age from Noah to Abraham, as we reflected on in Genesis, developed in the nations along with many other things, ways of managing people in various social context in various cultural idiosyncrasies, one after this or that manner. Certain nations developed into kingdoms and empires, and certain customs and traditions became more universal in the progression of civilization; these were considered in Genesis in the dispensation of the Sons of Noah concerning the Gentiles or the Nations. In the time of Abraham the spread of the Mesopotamian power and culture spread to Canaan, reaching the Egyptian Empire, reemerging again, spreading north into Canaan between the Great Sea and Jordan River, as it had southward following the Nile River into Africa or the Land of Cush. Compared to much later times, thousands of years later, these kingdoms and empires were simple and primitive. Abraham encountered local or regional pharaohs and kings, from Ur of the Chaldees or Babylonians, to Hebron of the Canaanites to Egypt. We read of his encounter with Amraphel King of Shinar, of King Arioch of Ellasar, King Chedorlaomer of Elam, and King Tidal of Goiim or Nations; these were confederated in alliance against the kingdoms of Canaan and south Dead Sea, after these Canaan kingdoms rebelled and refused their rule or subjugation as tributary to the Mesopotamians. We see by this the interactions and national progress of this period and locale of the ancient world concerning which the Bible takes notice. Therefore it is fitting to cite or garnish from some of the remains that are now in our possessions which compares and relates with the Sacred Text; since it was only several hundred years ago, from the Renaissance and Reformation to the Modern Age of Reason and Criticism, that these Biblical generations and stories were denied and treated as fiction.
Pre-Hammurabic Codes and Laws: The Sumerian and Accadian literature in the translated cuneiform texts have given us a long lists of legal codes indicative of human behavior and interactions. The religious associations in polytheism and idolatry permeated all the ancient laws from Noah to Abraham but was slowly disconnecting from a theistic or polytheistic moral basis, and gradually moving towards a philosophical morals and ethics of human living. The legal precepts came about as man had need or desire to govern or be governed by known and established authoritative laws and rules. So the words of the gods and idols gave way to that of the kings and lords of the nations.
Such we find in abundance of texts. But we may give an example of laws and legal codes and rules in Mesopotamia in the Laws of Eshnunna translated by Goetze in Pritchard’s work, vol. 1, the Legal Texts; excavated near Baghdad, Iraq, and found in the Pre-Hammurabi layers: it lists standards for crop prices; rate of monetary exchanges; wages for hired help or vehicles and vessels; of wagons and boats; fines for loss of properties; penalty for commercial crimes; relations between employers and employees; relations and rules for slaves and masters; marriages and dowries or bridal-fees or deposits or pledges; loans and credits, payments and interests; debts and compensations; female slaves and woman’s status; homes and lands; rape and fornication; adultery and death-penalty; contracts and deeds; captivity and freedom; children and family; thefts and restitution; crime and punishment; injuries or wrongs and retaliation and vengeance; poverty and wealth; receiving and keeping of stolen goods; Eshnunna’s rights and authority; temple-slaves and prostitutes; deaths by river and water and impalement; of oxen and donkeys and dogs; of polygamy and spousal neglect; and other such things. In all the Laws of Eshnunna come to some 100, about a third of the Laws of Hammurabi, and about 1/6th of Moses.))

((From: Light on the Old Testament from Babel; by Albert Tobias Clay, Ph.D., 1866-1925. Philadelphia, Sunday School Times Company; (Assistant Professor of Semitic Philology and Archaeology; and Assistant Curator of the Babylonian Section, Department of Archaeology, University of Pennsylvania.)

Introductory Remarks
Why is there such an intelligent interest displayed in these days in Oriental excavations? Why are such immense funds expended, and such sacrificing efforts put forth, in digging up the ruin-hills of the past to find perchance the remains of a wall, an inscribed object, or a potsherd? Why does archaeology, or the study of the material remains of ancient times, possess a charm for so many? And why do people delight in having opened up vistas of the past through the discoveries of what is left of bygone civilizations?
A desire to have more knowledge concerning biblical matters has been responsible, in most instances, for the work of opening up the mounds which cover the remains of ancient activities. It was felt that the Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, and other nations, having thrived in the days of Israel, and having come into close relation with the Hebrews, should have left that which would throw light upon the Old Testament. Broader questions, such as the interdependence of national ideas and customs, were scarcely thought of. The question uppermost in importance was whether points of contact could be found, and the Bible verified; and every scholar who has worked upon material from which there was a possibility that such revelations might come forth, has longingly searched for the desired data. And when we glance over the trophies gained by sacrifice, industry, patience, and skill, we must exclaim: What a change has been wrought within a few decades by the explorer, the excavator, the archeologist, and the philologist!
Not many years ago little was known of extra-biblical history of the age prior to the days of Greece and Rome. The conception of these times was largely based upon the Old Testament and the uncertain myths and legends which have been preserved by the Greeks and Romans. These furnished all the knowledge which we possessed of the early history of man. But now we have original sources. The resurrection of ancient cities, and the decipherment and interpretation of that which has been unearthed, has enabled us not only to reconstruct ancient history, as well as the background for the Old Testament, but to illustrate, elucidate, substantiate, and corroborate many of the narratives of the early Scriptures. This, in truth, is one of the greatest achievements of the last century.
The right interpretation of the Old Testament, of course, is the greatest service rendered by the monuments, but the average Bible student has regarded the confirmation of the Scriptures as being, perhaps, of greater importance. Corroborative evidence of a contemporaneous character has been in the highest degree welcome, especially because of the declarations made by the skeptic or by the destructive critic. Immense results in this line have been achieved. Episodes which have been affirmed to belong wholly to the realm of fiction, or which have been regarded as mythical or legendary in character, are now proved to be historical, beyond doubt. Many theories, even those put forth by careful and conservative students have been modified, and many supposed inconsistencies have been satisfactorily explained. Some theories growing out of alleged results achieved by certain scholars, being no longer tenable because of their ephemeral character, have completely disappeared. In short, while some scholars have endeavored to show portions of the Old Testament wholly fictitious, many of their theories, by the help of archeology and philology, can now be shown to be wholly fallacious. On the other hand, there has been much grasping after verifications by some which, in many cases, have turned out to be illusory; and as a result, their supposed confirmations, having been popularized and widely circulated, have done more harm than good.
There is scarcely a period of Old Testament history that has not received some light through these researches. It is as though additional chronicles of the kings of Israel and Judah have been found. The bare outlines of ancient history preserved in the Old Testament are clothed in such a way as to offer pictures realistic in the extreme. Episodes, passages, words, receive new meanings. Acquaintance with the religious institutions of the nations with whom Israel came in contact has offered a better understanding of Israel’s religion; and incidentally many questions, as, for example, their besetting sin—proneness to idolatry—receive new light. In short, the study of the life and customs of these foreign peoples shows certain influences that were felt in Israel; and with this increased knowledge we naturally gain a more intelligent understanding of the Old Testament.
While these researches have caused many difficulties to vanish, the fact must not be lost sight of that they have given rise to new problems. While, also, much contemporary evidence has been produced which corroborates the historical character of portions of the Old Testament, certain discoveries have given a totally different conception of other portions, forcing us to lay aside a number of antiquated views, and to reconstruct our ideas on many important questions. Old interpretations which have been copied or revised by a succession of commentators, and have been handed down from century to century, disappear; and that which approaches nearer to the truth becomes known. This increased light is, of course, heartily welcomed by the biblical student, and is regarded as being of inestimable value, as it makes possible a better understanding of the Scriptures.
Perhaps the most fascinating feature of the results gained through these studies is the retrospective glances afforded into the early doings of man. While we are disappointed in not being able to reach still nearer the primitive beginnings, our knowledge of the history of man has been projected backward several thousand years and is attended by many surprises. We find that cultured peoples antedated Israel by millenniums; and that instead of Abraham’s descendants belonging to the dawn of history, they lived in the late pre-Christian period. Instead of Israel being an all-powerful nation of antiquity, we find that, with the exception of the time in the days of David and Solomon when the borders of the nation were temporarily extended, it scarcely can be classed with such world-conquering powers as Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Persia, and other nations. Yet, while Israel politically is not to be compared with some of her illustrious neighbors, intellectually and spiritually the nation is found to stand in a unique position.
Another important result is the new historical geography which has been reconstructed, with its thousands of additional data. Hundreds of important points have been located definitely, whose provenience previously could only be surmised, or for which no reasonable position could be assigned. As a result, the number of places and rivers in the Old Testament concerning which nothing is known at the present time is comparatively small. By our knowledge of the nations surrounding Israel, its historical setting is worked out in a remarkable way. The improved perspective for many of the episodes gives them a totally different aspect. Peoples of whom we have had little or no knowledge are again introduced into the galaxy of nations. We become familiar with their language, their religious institutions, their local habitations, their conquests, and even their every-day life. Personalities loom up among their leaders which appear to be equal in greatness with those familiar to us in modern history.
One of the most important results obtained is the knowledge that Israel enjoyed—in common with other peoples—certain social, political, and religious institutions, as well as rites and customs. This knowledge, at first thought, is disturbing to some, especially when told that that which has been regarded as peculiarly Hebraic in character had its origin in antiquity. To cite a single example, circumcision was practiced long before the patriarchs. Professor W. Max Muller has recently ascertained that the Egyptians circumcised at least 2500 B. C
After some reflection, this truth, instead of causing apprehension, enables us to understand how it was possible for the leaders of Israel to influence the people. It is impossible to imagine how unheard-of rites and ceremonies could have been introduced in Israel, even though one divinely sent advocated their practice. With some, also, it cannot be inferred that the leaders directly borrowed these rites and customs from their contemporaries, especially in view of the injunction they received: “After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do: and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do; neither shall ye walk in their statutes” (Lev. 18:3). The people were required to shun the practices of these peoples; but what shall be said concerning such customs, manners, and traditions that for centuries during the patriarchal period had gradually crept into the Hebrew life and remained with it? By making use of customs with which they were acquainted, and giving them a significance that conveyed the truth which the leaders desired Israel to have, the success attending their practice is comprehensible. This becomes clearer when we take into consideration the intellectual status of the people, and the fact that, as far as we know, there were no efforts put forth to elevate them prior to the leadership of Moses.

Chapters: The Great Antiquity Of Man; The Babylonian Creation Story; The Babylonian Deluge Story; The Tower Of Babel and The Babylonian Temple; The Fourteenth Chapter of Genesis; Babylonian Life in The Days Of Abraham; Code Of Hammurabi; Moses and Hammurabi; The Name Jahweh In Cuneiform Literature; The Amarna Letters; Babylonian Temple Records of The Second Millennium Before Christ; The Assyrian Historical Inscriptions; The Neo-Babylonian Historical Inscriptions; Babylonian Life in The Days Of Ezra and Nehemiah; With a List of (many) Illustrations.).

((Clay concludes Chapter VII as follows, and then writes Chapters 8 and 9 of which we are concerned.))
From Ur, Abram with his father proceeded to Harran, which was about 560 miles to the northwest of the city. It is situated along the banks of the Belias, a tributary of the Euphrates. The name Harran means “road” (hharranu) in Assyrian, doubtless having derived its name from being on the high-road between Syria and the Mesopotamia valley. Harran was affiliated with Ur, in so far that the tutelary deities of both cities were the same. If Terah, whom we imagine was a devotee of the god Sin, from the passage in Joshua (24:2), and because his house had been in Ur, it is not at all improbable that, feeling at home in Harran after leaving Ur, he refused to proceed further. This suggestion has been offered as a reason why Abram tarried with Terah in that city before he completed his journey to Canaan. In the past it has been customary to draw freely from what is known as the contract literature to portray the every-day life that pulsated in the streets of ancient Babylonian cities. The discovery of the Code of Hammurabi, however, gives us in a systematic form much important information concerning the family, state, and other subjects that enables us to get even a clearer idea than heretofore of life in the age of Abraham.

Chapter VIII: Code of Hammurabi (Hhammurapi):
At the close of the year 1901 and the beginning of 1902, M. de Morgan, the French archeologist, who had been excavating for the past years, for his government, at the acropolis of Susa, (or “Shushan the palace,” as it is referred to in the book of Esther), discovered the now famous Code of Hammurabi. It is the longest cuneiform inscription known, and perhaps the most important monument of antiquity thus far discovered in the history of excavations. It was found in three large fragments, which were readily joined together. It is cut out of a block of diorite, and stands seven feet, four inches high. At the base it is about twenty-two inches wide, and at the top just above the bas-relief it is about sixteen inches. On the uppermost part of this enormous block of stone, Hammurabi had himself depicted in bas-relief, standing before the sun-god, Shamash, who is seated on a throne. The god wears a swathed head-gear, which is adorned with horns and a flounced garment. In his hand are a staff or scepter and a ring, emblematic perhaps of authority and eternity. Rays emanate from behind his shoulder. In reverent obedience, Hammurabi stands before the god with his right hand near his face, perhaps to emphasize the fact that he is listening. His left hand is resting against his body at the waist, an attitude quite similar to his position in a relief upon a brick in the British Museum. He wears upon his head a cap with fillet, well known from the early Sumerian heads of statues found at Telloh and Nippur (see page …). He is clothed in a long tunic, which lies in folds; it is hemmed in at the waist. Like the gods, he wears what we know as the artificially-plaited Assyrian beard. Beneath the bas-relief are sixteen parallel columns running belt-wise, beneath which five additional lines had been erased, and the stone polished. On the reverse there are twenty-eight parallel columns, containing in all about four thousand lines of a closely-written cuneiform inscription. It is possible that some king may have desired to alter certain laws; but more probable that the invader, who had carried away the stele, desired to inscribe upon it an account of its recovery from the Babylonians. It is quite probable that the stone discovered is one of many copies set up in different centers of Hammurabi’s great empire. A fragment of another stele, containing a portion of the epilogue, was also found by de Morgan at Susa. The closing lines of the complete stele seem to show that it had been set up in Ebarra, the temple of Shamash, in Sippara. Another expression in the inscription seems to indicate that a similar stele stood near the statue of the god Marduk in his temple Esagila in Babylon. This, doubtless, was the original, as Babylon was the capital, and the others which were deposited in the different cities were copies.
Several fragments of tablets, now in the British Museum, which had been written for Ashurbanipal (668-626 B.C.), and which were called “The judgment of the righteousness which Hammurabi the great king set up,” indicate that his scribes had copied somewhere these laws. In Babylonia also a series was known by: Ninu-ilum-sirum, “when the lofty Anu, ” which are the opening words of the code. Fragments of these having been published by Professor Peiser before the discovery of the stele, Professor Delitzsch inferred the existence of the code, and even styled it the “Code of Hammurabi.” By the assistance of these copies, attempts have been made to restore some of the erased portions of the code. This stele was carried to Elam by some conqueror of Babylonia. In the vicinity of the place of discovery another stele, which recorded a victory by Naram-Sin, was found. A part of its inscription was also erased, and recut by Sutruk-Nankhundi (about 1200 B.C), who says that he secured this stele at Sippara, and dedicated it to his god Shushinak at Susa. De Morgan also found a large number of Babylonian boundary-stones belonging to the Cassite period. These facts point to an invasion by the Elamites at the close of the Cassite dynasty, and make it probable that Sutruk-Nankhundi had also carried away the stele of Hammurabi. The inscription is divided into a prologue, code, and an epilogue. In the prologue, Hammurabi gives his titles, mentions the gods he worshiped, enumerates the cities over which he ruled, and in general magnifies himself by referring to the beneficent deeds which he conferred upon his people and country. Including the number of laws erased, which are estimated at about thirty-five, the code has about two hundred and eighty-two paragraphs of laws.
Contrary to the conclusions arrived at by other scholars; Professor Lyon of Harvard has shown that Hammurabi has arranged his laws in a definite and logical system. He says: “In the skillful arrangement of its material, the code has never been excelled, and it has probably never been approached.” (“The Structure of the Hammurabi Code, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. XXV, p. 254.”) On some subjects but one law is given, while upon others as many as thirty. The following brief outline will afford an idea of the subject-matter treated: Witchcraft, witnesses, judges; concerning offenses involving the purity of justice, as tampering with witnesses, jury, or judge; crimes of various sorts, as theft, receiving stolen goods, kidnapping, fugitive slaves, burglary; duties of public officers in their administration; laws relating to landlords, tenants, creditors, debtors; canal and water rights, licenses, messengers, herdsmen, gardeners, slander, family relationship, marriage, divorce, desertion, breach of promise, adultery, unchastity, concubinage; rights of women, purchase money of brides, inheritance, adoption, responsibility for all kinds of assaults; fees of surgeons, branding of slaves, fees and responsibilities of builders and boatmen, hiring of boats; agricultural life, the purchase and punishment of slaves who repudiate their master, etc.
In the epilogue, Hammurabi recounts his noble deeds, and credits himself with faithfulness in administration and loyalty to the interest of the people. He charges that every ruler shall observe the laws and commandments after him. He pronounces a blessing upon those who will faithfully administer the laws; and in long-drawn-out curses, he calls upon the gods of Babylonia to destroy those who neglect and annul them, or who alter the inscription.
There is no definite information as regards the origin of the code, but many things point to the fact that earlier collections of laws were utilized by the codifier. The legal phraseology employed, the existence of the early Sumerian family laws, the fact that some of the same laws were quoted in the contract tablets of an earlier period, all point to the existence of a code or codes prior to Hammurabi. The fact should be taken into consideration that the greatest confusion must have existed in Babylonia prior to the conquest of Hammurabi because of the many petty independent states. Also Elam, having dominated a portion of the land for a long period with Rim-Sin (Arioch), the king’s son, stationed at Larsa, must have influenced greatly the courts of justice and their decisions in that section of the country. The codification of laws under such conditions, or the promulgation of old but accepted judicial decisions, —sentences of judgment, as Hammurabi himself regarded them, —was surely a task of no mean proportions. The study of the code reveals the same peculiar mixtures of laws suitable for different states of society as is found in the Old Testament. In short, the code doubtless amalgamated the diverse elements of the small states, which had been handed down by the former inhabitants of the valley, the Sumerian as well as the Semitic. In the establishment of his mighty empire, which held together for centuries, this unification of laws, dispensed in regular courts of justice, doubtless was one of the most important factors in overcoming the great confusion that must have existed.
The code recognizes three grades in society: First, the amelu, ((Here I must add a note from T.J. Meek in Pritchard’s Texts of the ANE, on this often used word, which appears to be used as in the Scripture’s use of adam or man: “awelum seems to be used in at least [three] senses: (1) sometimes to indicate a man of the highest class, a noble; (2) sometimes a free man of any class, high or low; and (3) occasionally a man of any class, from king to slave. I follow the ambiguity of the original and use the rather general “seignior” as employed in Italian and Spanish, to indicate any free man of standing.” [I add that in reading and understanding the word identifies and defines a man in general, apart from the social relations or rank or class; our sir or mister, as the Seignor or senor, senior, only waters down the idea of a class once called lord and master.]) And which included the aristocrat, the gentleman, the free citizen, the professional man, the officer, (and) the tradesman. Secondly, the mushkenu, who was, as the term implies, the poor man, or pleb, the man of a lower rank; the freedman who had been a slave was also included. His temple offerings could be less. His fines were lower, but at the same time, in case of injury, the damages he received were also less than those of the gentry. Thirdly, the ardu, or the slave. There seem to have been a great many slaves in Babylonia at that time. Besides recognizing these three grades, the code legislated also for certain classes of men and women, professions, trades, and occupations.
It has been the custom with most peoples in a large part of the ancient as well as the modern Orient, including the Hebrews, to base a betrothal upon an agreement of the man or his parents to pay a sum of money to the father of the girl. In Babylonia this was called terfaatu, “bride money.” This, together with the gift of the husband and her dowry, formed the marriage-portion which was given to the bride. It would hardly be right to call the money which was paid the price of the bride, as the transaction was primarily for prudential purposes. It gave her protection against ill treatment and infidelity on the part of her husband, as well as divorce. She perhaps could not get this protection in a better way. For while her husband may have made use of her money: if she returned to her father’s house, she took it with her, unless she was the offending party. This made the position of woman higher than it would have been otherwise. If she died childless, her dowry was returned to her family. If she had children, the marriage portion was divided among them. In case the father of the girl rejected her suitor, double the amount of his terfaatu was returned. If the suitor broke his engagement, the girl’s father retained the terfaatu. If he had been slandered by a rival, the latter could not marry the woman. It seems that the betrothal took place when the parties were young; and the engagements were usually made by the parents. If the father died before all the sons were married, prior to the distribution of the estate, the terfaatu for those not having wives was first deducted.
In the marriage contracts, which were necessary to make the marriage legal, it is not unusual to find conditions,—such as the bride being required to wait upon her mother-in-law, or even upon another wife; or certain conditions relative to the disposition of property given by her father; or in case the man broke his agreement and took a second wife, that she could secure a divorce.
Concubinage was indulged in, especially where the first wife was childless, and she had not given her husband a slave-maid, in order that he might have children. The concubine could not place herself on equality with the wife, although she was a free woman, and lived in the same house. If she became insolent she could be reduced to slavery, but could not be sold if she had borne children. After the man’s death, she had the usufruct [legal-usage] of house and garden to raise her children. When they came into possession of their inheritance, she received a child’s portion, after which she could again marry. If the man recognized the concubine’s children as his own, at his death his estate was equally shared by the children of both, with preference, however, of choice to the wife’s children. If he had not recognized them as his own, they received nothing, but gained their freedom.
The wife received, at her husband’s death, her marriage portion and anything deeded to her by her husband during life. If he had not made her a gift, she received a son’s share. At her death, what she possessed was divided among her children. After her husband’s death, the children could not force her to leave her home; but, if she desired to marry again, she could take along her marriage portion. At her death, this was shared by the children from both marriages. A widow with young children could only marry with the consent of the judge. An inventory was made of the former husband’s property, which was then entrusted to the couple for the children. Not a utensil could be sold. The buyer of an article lost it, and the price paid for it.
According to the Sumerian laws, which are frequently found quoted in the contracts of this age, a man could divorce his wife by paying her one half-mina. These laws doubtless belonged to an earlier age. The code provided that if a man divorced a wife, whether a concubine or votary, if she had borne him children, her marriage-portion was to be given to her, besides the necessaries of life, to bring up her children. After they were grown up, they were compelled to give the mother a son’s share. She was then free to marry again. In case she had not borne children, she received back her dowry including the bride-price. In case there was no bride-price, she received one mina of silver if the man belonged to the gentry; but if a commoner, one-third of a mina. A woman who had lived properly could divorce her husband who had been faithless, in which case she returned to her father’s house with her dowry. In the case of a worthless woman, the code provides for her divorce without any provision. The husband could marry again, and degrade her as a slave. If she had been unfaithful, she could be drowned. Disease offered no grounds for divorce. The man, however, could marry a second wife, but was compelled to maintain, in his home, his invalid wife as long as she lived. If she preferred to return to her father’s house, her dowry was returned to her.
The code legislated concerning desertion. If a man was taken captive in war, having provided for his wife’s maintenance during his absence, and she entered another man’s house, she was condemned to death as an adulteress. If he had not provided for her, and she had borne the other man children, on the return of her husband she was compelled to return to him, but the children remained with their father. If the desertion was voluntary, and he had not provided for his wife, on his return he could not reclaim her.
The father, while he had no control over the life and death of his child, could treat him as a chattel, and pledge for a debt. In four years the child became free. For disobedience, in the old Sumerian law, a father could brand a son and sell him as a slave; or, according to the code, his hands could be cut off. If the father desired to favor one of his children, this could only be done while he was living, and by contract. After the father’s death, the law of inheritance fixed the child’s share. To cut off a child from sonship, it was necessary to make charges of wrong-doing before a judge. Only after the second offense, and for a serious misdemeanor, could he be disinherited. If an adopted child of a votary or palace favorite repudiated his foster parents, his tongue should be cut out; and if he ran away, his eyes were to be put out, for his ingratitude.
A number of the laws refer to the adoption of children. A great many adoption contracts belonging to this time are known. If a child that had been adopted discovered its parents, and desired to return to them, this could be done, provided a handicraft had not been taught, nor he had been considered a son, or had not been adopted by one belonging to the court. If a man desired to disinherit a foster-child, he could do so by paying it one third of a child’s share. A great many contracts show that children were adopted by aged people that they might care for them in their old age.
A great many laws in the code bear upon slavery; considered in connection with the many contracts and documents dealing with slaves, these give very satisfactory knowledge concerning this class of social beings. The slave was treated like a piece of property. He could be sold or pledged. If he received injury at the hands of another, compensation for the same was paid to the owner. For insolence he could be branded, or tattooed; but his master could not put him to death. If agreeable to his master, he could engage in business and acquire wealth. With this he could buy his freedom. He could marry, and live in a house of his own, by his master’s consent. If he married a slave girl, the law permitted the owner to regard his children and property as his own. If he married a free woman, the master had no claim upon the children or property. At the slave’s death, the property was divided between the wife and himself. Her children were free. A slave could become a concubine. At the death of her master, she gained her freedom. The law of adoption enabled him to adopt their children, when they could become his heirs. In case he had no other children, these would have first choice in the distribution of his property. As Sarah gave Hagar to Abraham, the Babylonian wife could give a slave girl to her husband for wife. The woman, however, retained the right to punish her in case of insolence. If she had not borne children, she could sell her as a slave. If she had borne children, the wife could not send her away, but could put a slave mark upon her, and reckon her with the slaves. The story of Hagar was in strict accord with Babylonian custom, except the sending of her away.
Provision was made also with reference to disease when a slave was sold. In case the buyer detected any weakness or disease within a month after the purchase, the owner could be compelled to redeem the slave. In the case of a runaway slave, the captor was compelled to return him to his master, when he received two shekels. The death penalty was the punishment for the captor who retained or harbored the slave. A great many of the slaves were the captives of military expeditions, and, for a certain period, certain obligations were due the state on the part of those who received them. Freemen could also be enslaved to settle unsatisfied obligations.
The code makes us familiar with a class of votaries. They were, however, altogether different from the prostitutes dedicated to the goddess Ishtar at Erech. Some seem to have been women of means, and were highly respected. Their vow included virginity. They lived in a convent, or bride-chamber. On taking the vow, they usually received a dowry, as the bride of the god. It was possible for them to leave the convent and marry, but they must remain virgins. If her husband insisted upon having children, she was required to give him a maid, in which case he could not take a concubine. If she refused, he could take one; but she could not rank on the same equality with the votary. In case the concubine bore children, and placed herself on equality with the votary, the latter could brand her, and reckon her as a slave. If she had not borne children, she could be sold for insolence. If the votary broke her vow, and bore children, she had no legal right to their possession. They could be adopted by others.
Votaries seemed to have engaged in business relations with others. They were, however, not permitted, on pain of death by burning, to keep a beer shop or even enter one. At a father’s death, the votary was entitled to one-third of a son’s share. Her estate could be managed by her brothers, but in case dissatisfaction arose she could appoint a steward to look after her affairs. In the event of her death, her property reverted to her brothers. If the father had made a deed of gift, she could dispose of it as she desired. There was a class of votaries dedicated to the god Marduk, at Babylon, who enjoyed the privilege of disposing of their property at death as they saw fit. It seems the wine shops were usually kept by women, for whom the code had especial legislation. The measure for drink was to be the same as for corn. In case she overcharged her customers, they could throw her into the water. If she did not inform the authorities in case she overheard treasonable conspiracy in her shop, the penalty was death.
For surgery and the practice of medicine, there was special legislation. If the physician cured a broken limb, or healed a diseased bowel, his fee from the gentry was fixed at five shekels; from the commoner, three; and from the master of the slave treated, two. As in later periods, magic and medicine were doubtless intimately connected with each other. Decoctions of various kinds were employed in connection with the repertory of incantations and exorcism. Whether the aid of one who possessed priestly functions to conduct this part was necessary, is not known. In order to discourage the surgeon from making rash operations, and overcharging his patients, severe penalties were fixed in case of unsuccessful operations; and for successful ones the fees were regulated. For an operation upon the upper class, the surgeon received ten shekels; the lower class, five; and a slave, two. If the patient died, the surgeon’s hands were cut off. In the case of a slave, he had to replace him with one of equal value. If the eye of a slave was lost, the owner received half the price of the slave. The veterinary surgeon was already recognized as being in a distinct class. If his operations were successful, his fee was one-sixth of a shekel. If the animal died, he was compelled to pay one-sixth of the value.
Similar legislation was enacted for builders. For a completed house, he was paid at the rate of two shekels per sar of house. The punishment for his bad workmanship, in case the house fell down, was the death penalty if the owner was killed. If a son of the owner was killed, one of his own sons was put to death. A slave had to be replaced by another and the loss of goods he had to make good. Further, he was compelled to rebuild the house at his own expense. The boat-builder was paid at the rate of two shekels, per gur in the boat. His work was guaranteed for one year. In case it did not prove trustworthy, and the boat suffered injury, he was compelled to repair it, or replace it. If a man hired a boat, and it was lost or injured, he had to make good the loss. If the owner hired a boatman, his wages were fixed at six gur per year. If the boat suffered injury through his carelessness, he made good the loss. If the ship grounded, and he refloated it, he had to pay the owner one-half its price. If a boat was sunk at anchor by another, the owner made an affidavit regarding his loss, which was refunded by the one who had done the damage.
The office of judge seems to have occupied a position relatively the same as in these days. His pronounced decision, however, was to be irrevocable. In case he altered it, he was to pay twelvefold the penalty of the judgment, and be publicly expelled from his seat. Thereafter he could not even sit with the judges at a trial. A defendant in a serious case was granted six months if necessary to produce his witnesses. Tampering with witnesses was penalized heavily. If the witnesses testified falsely, and the judgment involved the death penalty, he was killed. The oath figured prominently in the code, and in the contracts that have been deciphered. Considerable importance in this age was attached to it in the purgation of charges, and claims for injury. It seems to have been administered at particular places, e.g., at the Shasharti of Shamash in Sippara, or before the sculptured dragon on the door of the temple of Marduk at Babylon. The gods invoked in the oath were the patron deities of the city; at Sippara, for example, Shamash, Ai, and Marduk were invoked; at Nippur, Bel, Ninib, and Nusku. In many of the documents, the name of the king was invoked with the gods. It usually follows the names of the gods. The decision was generally drawn up by the scribe, who gave the names of the witnesses and the judge. These documents usually contain the seal impressions of some of the witnesses and the judge. If the decision in a criminal case was unfavorable to the prosecutor, and it involved the death penalty, he himself was killed. For a false accusation of slander, he was branded, and generally he was required to pay the penalty that would have been exacted from the accused if he had been successful in gaining the suit.
The death penalty seems to have been inflicted for a great many offenses; at least the code requires it as the punishment. But whether the judges generally inflicted the extreme penalty, cannot be ascertained. Considering that the judges had legislative power, the code could not be regarded as much more severe than some codes of the Christian era. It was inflicted for witchcraft, bearing false witness in a capital trial, housebreaking, highway robbery, adultery, neglect of duties on the part of certain officers, criminal negligence on the part of a builder, permitting conspiracy in a beer shop, for theft at a fire, for desertion on the part of a woman, for kidnapping a child, and harboring a runaway slave. In many cases the kind of death is not stated; but in others it is. Drowning is mentioned for a woman caught in adultery, unless her husband appeals to the king in her behalf; impalement for a woman who had her husband killed for the sake of another; burning for incest with his mother or stepmother after the father’s death.
Corporal mutilation or punishment was freely indulged in. The lex talionis, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, the cutting off the hand for striking a father, or for unlawful surgery; the branding of the slave on the forehead of an individual for slandering a votary, are mentioned in the code. On the death of a child, the wet-nurse’s breasts were cut off if it was learned that she had suckled another child at the same time. For grossly assaulting a superior, scourging was the penalty. Sixty lashes with an ox-hide whip were publicly administered. If the offender was a slave, he had his ear cut off. For an assault upon an equal the penalty was one mina of silver; if upon a plebeian, one half-mina. If a man struck a free woman who was pregnant, resulting in a miscarriage, he was compelled to pay ten shekels; if he assaulted a daughter of a plebeian, five shekels; and if a man’s maid, two. If the woman died, and she was a free woman, his own daughter was killed; but if a plebeian, one half-mina of silver; and if a maid, one-third. If the slave brander removed the marks of a slave without the owner’s consent, his hands were cut off. If a man had deceived the brander concerning the slave, he was put to death; the brander, on swearing that he did not do it knowingly, was permitted to go free.
A man could give his wife, son, daughter, or slave to work off a debt; but in the fourth year, he or she could gain freedom. A creditor could sell a slave he held as a pledge, providing, if it was a female, that she had not borne children for her master; in which case it devolved upon him to redeem her. If while in service a free-born hostage died from ill treatment, the creditor’s son was put to death. If a man contracted a debt before marriage, the creditor could not take his wife for it. The same applied to the woman’s debts before marriage. After their marriage, together they were responsible for debts contracted.
In the code the duties of those having the use of government lands is clearly defined. There are a great many laws relating to farming, the hire of laborers, oxen, cows, wagons, and the regulation of hire and wages, the grazing of flocks, the renting and cultivation of fields, and of damages through carelessness.
The every-day life of the Babylonian in Abraham’s day can be understood in no better way at the present time, than by a careful study of the Hammurabi Code as well as the legal documents of that period. (For the text, transliteration, translation in English, glossary and sign list of the Hammurabi Code, see Professor R. F. Harper’s excellent publication, The Code of Hammurabi.) To the biblical student the study of the code is especially interesting as it throws light upon customs among the patriarchs, for example on Abraham seeking a wife for his son (Gen. 24:4), the possession of Machpelah Cave being placed on a legal basis (Gen. 23:14-20), or Rachel giving her handmaid Bilhah to Jacob for wife (Gen. 30:1-4) as well as the story of Hagar (Gen. 16:1, 2).

‘In his “Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters,” the Rev. C. H. W. John of Cambridge discusses at length the contracts and letters of this period which have been published by Strassmaier, Meissner, Pinches, King and others, as well as give a complete translation of the Code of Hammurabi. Recently two volumes by Drs. Frederick and Ranke on the Contract literature of this age appeared. The latter is in the series, Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania, Vol. VI., and Part 1. It will be followed by Part 2, by Dr. Arno Poeble. An immense literature on the code has sprung into existence since its discovery. It was first translated and published by Father Scheil. Translations by Doctors Winckler, Johns, Pinches, and R. F. Harper followed. As there remains much that is obscure in the code, for years to come it will form the basis of studies on the part of scholars.

Chapter IX: Moses and Hammurabi
Some scholars have indulged in extravagant statements with reference to the possibility of a code of laws having been promulgated as early as Moses. Such questions will no longer be raised, but another, now uppermost in the minds of some scholars, is, whether the Mosaic code is dependent upon the Hammurabi. It seems reasonable to assume that the Israelitish Code is based on precedent, the same as the Babylonian, but exactly what indebtedness there is due to the Babylonian, if any, or to general Semitic law, will be a question long debated by investigators. Inasmuch, however, as Abraham’s ancestral home was in Babylonia, and as Hammurabi was suzerain over Amurru (which included Palestine), it would be quite natural to suppose that the latter established his laws in that land as well as in Babylonia; in which case, later Palestinian laws would probably show such influence. But nothing is known at the present which proves that this was done.
Laws in the two codes have been pointed out as being strictly parallel. Others treat of the same subjects, having penalties which are quite similar. Besides, the study of one code throws light upon the other. In consideration of these facts it is natural and reasonable to suppose that Israel’s code owes some indebtedness to the Babylonian. If such should eventually be proved to be true it would in no wise detract from the Israelitish code. But contrary to what has been declared, this does not seem to be the case. The spirit underlying the Oriental lex talionis, which has existed in that region for millenniums, and prevails even at the present day, is in both codes. Also certain laws arising from common customs, peculiar to that entire district, might be pointed out. But beyond these the similarities can reasonably be explained as coincidences which are due to the existence of similar conditions. For the sake of comparison, some of those which are strikingly similar or are parallel in the Hammurabi and Mosaic laws follow: [7, 8, 14, 21, 57, 117, 125, 127, 155, 157, 195-200, 206, 209, 245, 250, and 251.]
There are other laws among the two hundred and eighty-two (282) of the Babylonian code which are paralleled by laws of the Mosaic period, but these appear to be the most striking and noteworthy. [Exod. 22:1; Exod. 21:16; Exodus 22:2-4; Exod. 22:5; Exod. 21:7; Exod. 22:12; Lev. 20:10; Leviticus 20:12; Lev. 20:11; Exodus 21:15; Exodus 21:24, 25; Leviticus 24:20; Deuteronomy 19:21; Matthew 5:38, etc.; Exod. 21: 26, 27; Exodus 21:18; Exodus 21:12, 13; Exodus 21:22-25; Exodus 21: 28; Exodus 21:29; Exodus 21:32;etc. I may here express that Clay’s summary and synopsis of the Hammurabic Code leaves little to be desired by my hand; I have carefully compared his treatment of the Stone Monument as fair and clear. It may be added these words however: The Hammurabic code is more advance and developed from earlier codes though it covers most of the older rules and precepts. In Pritchard’s Texts the Laws reflect or compares with those in Moses’ Books: In Deuteronomy chapters 5, 19, 22, 24, 21, 15, 27. Exodus chapters: 23, 20, 22, 21. Leviticus chapters: 19, 18, 20, 24. Numbers chapters: 5. References could be given in Genesis and in Ruth, as well as in other passages.]
Not a few scholars, in discussing the question of the dependence of the Israelitic (Mosaic) code upon the Babylonian, seem to think that the Hebrew code is indebted to the older. Some see similarity in the phraseology, besides in the thought embodied in the code. Others maintain that the origin of both is to be found in Arabia, either because they hold that the original home of the Semites is to be found in that land, or because of the influence of Jethro the Kenite father-in-law of Moses (see Exodus 18:14-27); and the fact that it is probable that the kings of the Hammurabi dynasty were Arabian.
If the laws which have been pointed out as being similar are carefully considered from a commonsense point of view in connection with the entire code, the only conclusion that can be reached is that the similarity of those laws must be ascribed to similar conditions which would give rise to them no matter how far the one people was removed from the influence of the other, except as indicated before, those laws which were influenced by the barbarous law of retaliation or Oriental law in general. To give a single illustration: when an African or a North American Indian owns a vicious animal and knows its habits, and does not restrain it from doing violence, the only penalty thought of is that he shall be accounted responsible for any damages done. Where slavery exists, or where one may become enslaved for a debt, similar laws may be expected. The same is true of the laws of chastity and of the family, or the relations of one member of a family to another. Such to a great extent are not confined to civilized peoples. Moreover, similar customs will give rise to similar laws, as human nature is the same everywhere. The phraseological and philological arguments that have been advanced seem to have less in them. Also, we have no evidence from the Old Testament that Jethro taught Moses a single precept. His advice as regards the administering of law cannot be construed as such. That Arabia is the original seat of the Semites, or that it is the home of the kings of the first dynasty of Babylon, are theories held by some, for which there is no proof. In short, dependence upon the Babylonian code, or even a common origin for both, cannot be proved at the present, and from the light at hand it does not seem plausible.
Between the Mosaic and the Hammurabi codes there is an exceedingly wide gulf. If for no other reason, the responsibility of the individual for his own deeds, whereby the son is not punished for his father’s deeds, or the father for those of the son’s, gives superiority to the Hebrew code. There are some humanitarian considerations in the Babylonian, as for instance the provisions for an invalid wife, or an enraged father who wishes to disinherit a son; but if the codes, even from this point of view, were compared, it will be found that the Mosaic is not wanting. The Hebrew also in almost every respect religiously and ethically is far superior to the Babylonian. The gods are prominently mentioned in the prologue and epilogue of the latter but play no role in the code itself. Pure and simple external conformity to the law is all that is required. Inasmuch as Hammurabi is known to have been religiously inclined, it may be unfair to judge the code from this point of view; as it deals with civil law, and he may have intentionally omitted the religious element. There is not, however, even a semblance of a law in the Babylonian against covetousness and selfishness.
The fundamental principle of the Israelitish command: “Be ye holy, for I am holy,” on the other hand has an inward emphasis which makes its impress upon all actions. “Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself,” as well as purification and devotion to God, is the keynote of the Mosaic law. It was God’s commandment that the Israelite was required to obey. Cursed was he that fulfilled not the words of the law to do them. This especially was the spirit of the prophets. This is totally foreign to the Babylonian code.))

(From Bible Reflections. mjm.)
We have completed the Book of Genesis that Great Thump of the Divine Hand of the Old Testament revelation. Before we rethink and reconsider the whole book, we may notice some more points on the Patriarchal Age, and especially of Jacob-Israel. The customs of the nations continued to develop and to change during that age and more so among the civilized or more advanced peoples. From Mesopotamia to Canaan to Egypt and Arabia the Bible pictures glimpses and windows into the life and times of patriarchs as God moved with them. The ancient ways of those nations show the ways and practices that evolved into more fixed customs and the culture encompassing them. God shows Himself as El Shaddai though it is Jehovah and Elohim ever with His people in all their travels as pilgrims. The promises begun in Abraham and enlarged in Isaac become magnified in Israel. God both as Ellah and Allah forms His people into great companies and nations, and He led them about as a Stranger with them in the creation of His own hands. He appears to them at different times in person but more often in dreams or visions as He deemed best. Man is always on His heart and our condition ever before His eyes among all peoples. Ishmael of Abraham and Esau of Isaac would form another branch of the Semitic Hebrews, and the mixture of Canaan and Egypt permeated to various degrees. The root of the divine tree in human history was spreading deep and far, always manifesting God’s wondrous hidden mystery of creation and His judgment and salvation. The glory of His Person, filled with grace and truth, righteousness and mercy, and peace and holiness, being infinite and ever present, unfolding His ways and thoughts as He watches and relates in countless ways. In this age He is indeed the God of the Gentiles, and He is known everywhere in different degrees of truth and virtue. He keeps covenant and His steadfast word never fails but will always against all odds be made true to the nursing and deliverance of His children. Nor is the Serpent ignored as a harmless creature, but his ways of evil and wickedness exposed at every turn and in every generation.
It may be further observed concerning the human history from Jacob to Joseph the development of several details. As we have seen that Genesis begins with Mesopotamia, first the south in Eden near and east of the Garden, then moves north in Padan-aram on too Syria then moves south again to Canaan and Egypt and Arabia. Egypt had become a world power and one of the greatest nations, so that an empire was formed with various dynasties and domains. God moves with history for it is also His-story in many ways. We see Joseph posed as a crucial influence of the Egyptian custom and economy. We have a great treasury of ancient Egypt, before and after Abraham, and we understand a great deal of their culture and civilization in all the departments of living. There is great enmity between Egyptians and Hebrews, as well as Canaanites and other nations, Egypt was proud of its place and privileges over others. They have a advanced priestly system intertwined with the government. Slavery was essential to the monarchy of its king and all his subordinates. God takes little effort to dwell on the ancient cultures saves as they were connected to the patriarchs. But He does give us in Job what the ways and thoughts of the ancient Hebrews and Arabs, and by careful attention to its words both by Job and his three friends, and Elihu, and by the Lord Himself, we are instructed on human experiences and culture and ideas about mankind, and human nature, about the world, and many things concerning God. Political ideas grew out of the religious beliefs based down from generation to generation, laws developed like those of Hammurabi, divine worship was a mysterious form of idolatry, and sexual vices abounded. The doctrines of death and the after-life took great root in the Egyptians and their neighbors. These then will further develop and undergo more changes and enlarge through the human race, and God will in turn have plenty to say.
(I may now add to the above remarks these reflections on Genesis:
1.-Though Moses is not mentioned in Genesis we have discovered references to a later period of Genesis events and details that moves us forward to the Moses and the Exodus; expressions such as ‘unto this day’. We see that the story and history end in Egypt with Israel awaiting deliverance, and Exodus opens with Israel’s salvation by the leadership of Moses by the hand of God. The connection is clear and certain, Genesis is Moses I, and Exodus is Moses II.
2.-Genesis is the Book of Beginnings or Origins: of Creation, Generations, Sin, Death, Nations, Sacrifice, Covenants, Dispensations, Slavery, Marriage, Murder, Family, Revelation, Mystery, Antiquity, Kingdoms, Religion, Cities, Civilization, Prophecy, Birthrights, Theophany, Spiritual World, Natural World, Judgment, Salvation, Sex, Concubines, Prostitution, Incest, Vices, Homosexuality, Violence, Rape, Wars, Circumcision, Hospitality, Foot-washing, Veils, Clothes, Kidnapping, Altars, Offerings, Oblations, Worship, Songs, Music, Industry, Weapons, Arts, Crafts, Births, Funerals, Arranged Marriages, Dowry, Barter, Commerce, Treaties, Contracts, Sales, Trade, Shepherds, Farmers, Hunters, Angels, Messengers, Visitors, Giants, Heroes,00[= Patriarchs, Matriarchs, Tithes, Love, Hate, Alcohol, Drunks, Lies, Cheats, Thefts, Robbery, Ownership, Property Rights, Grace, Mercy, Charity, History, Writing, Speaking, Types, Figures, Signs, Symbols, Competing, Jealousy, Envy, Conspiracy, Priesthood, Policy, Hierarchy, Rules, Customs, Laws, Retaliation, Confederation, Alliance, Dreams, Interpretation, Deception, Pride, Arrogance, Poverty, Famine, Surplus, Futures, Investment, Deals, Bargains, Discounts, Wages, Heir, Negotiations, Crimes, Punishments, Torture, Offences, Defense, Adoption, Inheritance, Primogeniture, Criminals, Prisons, Prisoners, Faith, Hope, Promises, Trust, Travel, Blessing, Cursing, Embalming, Coffins, and thousands more.
3.-Genesis contains in its pages many seeds which will germinate and sprout as we have repeatedly pointed out in the reflections. Its seeds will grow into plants and trees, and as with this analogy and the application we give it, so too, hermeneutically the animal and human seeds, as sperms or semen (Latin-Greek for seed), conceived in the womb, the egg fertilized, the fetus forms and grows, an animal or a human is born. The Genesis Bible Seeds will likewise reach their end as designed or intended, and they will be distinct and recognized accordingly. When we reach the prophetic books of the Old Testament and then the New Testament these prophetic seeds will be plants and trees and animals and beasts. Genesis teaches in the usage of words and expressions a spiritual language, and with this comes spiritual understanding of divine mysteries to each as each has the capacity and the calling. The names of God, man, animals, places, and things, are important insight to spiritual and psychological things, and psychology is a matter of the spirit, and not just of the soul. So in Genesis we have ‘figures of speech’ by which the style and structure of Scripture may be interpreted and understood. We have encountered many types, symbols, signs, and pictures which may not have been understood at first, but as we see in later chapters and books things become clear. Genesis chapter 1 compared with chapter 2 is a case in point; or the Fall of Man and Human Depravity as another example. Bible Grammar, Scripture Syntax, Biblical things, and Scriptural principles, and all such things will surface in each and in all as nature teaches, for even idiots make noises (as it has been said). As we learn in time that names, sayings, and terms will change as man changes. We will encounter words used as figuratively or literally, general or specific, universal or local, rhyme or reason, repeated or omitted, allegory or metaphor, substitution or illustration, proverb or parable, prophecy or history, inferences or references, types or antitypes, thesis or antithesis, correspondence or completion, fermentation or maturation, irony or sarcasm, interrogation or exclamation, quotes or declarations, idioms or peculiarities, personifications or virtualities (visions), dreams or facts, and so many other names too many to list.

EXODUS: Chapters 1-40: Moses II:

We leave Genesis and we come to the 2nd Book of Moses, Moses Two, called Exodus from the great event of Israel’s deliverance from Egypt. The Hebrews were in the habit of naming a book or scroll by its first words as we saw in Genesis= Bereshith= In the Beginning. Here we read “Now these are the names of the Sons of Israel, who came into Egypt”, and the Hebrew (w’eleh sh’moth) became the name of this book, and shortened to Shemoth or Names, the Sepher Shemoth. By the time the Greek LXX translation was made it was common to refer to its theme of Exodus to identify the Second Book of Moses. As with Genesis the human author is not presented upfront, but the Book begins as a continuation of Genesis. It is a mistake to think that the 430 years of the Hebrews slavery, or Israel’s bondage, occurs between Joseph and Moses. In Genesis 15 we read that the Lord foretold the seed of Abraham (Hebrews) would be pilgrims, aliens, enslaved and afflicted, and that in the 4th generation God would deliver them. The 4th generation is Moses, the 3rd is Joseph, and the 2nd is Jacob, and the 1st is Isaac, thus from Isaac to Moses. Those who have seen this have avoided the chronological error that many fell into. The generations of pilgrimage are in two parts of 215 years each, from Abram to Jacob-Israel, and from Entrance to Egypt to Israel’s Exodus another 215. God is dealing with a people as one man, and the Hebrews are henceforth the Israelites. We have 40 chapters with two major divisions chapters 1-19 and 20-40; the first half before the law and the second part after the law. God continues to create and judge and save to make a land and a people and the book.
The Sons of Israel migrated to Egypt being 70 souls in 12 tribes while Joseph was then Lord of all Egypt during the years of famine. Pharaoh received them on account of God’s favor towards Joseph and to Egypt. The Hebrews grew and multiplied into a mighty slave nation to the benefit of Egypt. The old enmity of the serpent’s seed against the seed of the woman was ever at work, and soon the favored became despised and subjugated. The many years of slavery created in the King of Egypt fear and concern against Egypt’s national interest. Egypt’s pharaohs had built an empire as a mighty aggressive and expansive power so that many smaller nations and peoples hated and envied them. The powers to the east and those in the north were already encroaching on Egypt. Canaan became the bridge and doorway to Pharaoh’s kingdom. The southern nations and tribes of Africa were like the Hebrews in bondage to Egypt and supplied his many needs and desires. The great river Nile was the vehicle in which Pharaoh’s power was carried up and down the land. His power was always liable to insurrection and betrayal from within, and from without the emergent super-powers threatened with invasion and attacks. Human traffic and technology were being integrated in the civilizations being formed in the world. The truth of God and divine knowledge was in Egypt as elsewhere corrupted into the grossest idolatries. The world was filled with war increasing in numbers and violence in every new generation. As often happened in history the subservient population of slaves or servants, or foreigners and lower-classes, had to be watched by the ruling nation against their revolt or escape. Israel had become Egypt’s slaves and lower class and posed a threat to national security, especially if they allied themselves to invaders seeking to overthrow Pharaoh’s dynasty. God’s interest for His people had become forgotten and distorted in the interest of Pharaoh and his administration. The stricter enslavement solution became policy to weaken the resolve and ability of the Hebrews against foreign alliance. The periodic change of weather and climate as in the great famines and droughts had to be offset by supply houses as in Joseph’s day. Pharaoh’s ambition and self-glory of immortalizing his name and fame on the backs and lives of the Hebrews, and other slaves, was seen in his building constructions like the Pyramids, and in his throne or resort cities like Ramesses. Many other measures were conceived to continue the subjugated race or class in various degrees. Here Pharaoh resorts to population reduction by selective genocide by the murder of the newborn males as a form of national abortions in the interest of Egypt. The use of Egyptian midwives as an advanced developed civilized medical assistance in birthing, in order to lessen the many risks and dangers of childbearing, had become the common practice even for the Hebrews. Not only was midwifery a help to save life, but was an easy way to keep a census of the working class or potential warriors. And as it became the practice to murder the primogeniture of nobility, or contending ruling families, so now it could be used to control the increasing population of the working slave class. But as it is in every such evil the good and righteous will show defiance to such grotesque wickedness against life and nature, and they will align themselves to truth and love as they submit to God’s will over human law and power, no matter how dressed or idolized. God notices this good thing in man or woman, He always in His own hidden ways will reward and bless them among every nation, people, family, and tribe in all places of the earth and through all generations. The Great River of the life and might of Egypt from which all Egypt and Pharaoh depended and worshipped was at last to be used to commit murder and genocide, and thus will become a main focus of God’s judgment of a sinful wicked nation and its head.
In the midst of the darkest evil God comes in to save His people, and at a great distance His Holy Spirit must create the way and the preparation of a savior and deliverer. From the house and tribe of Levi a goodly child is born and spared from Pharaoh’s abortion law, and by love and faith they hid him, nested in a little ark of reeds and placed him afloat by the River’s bank, being watched by his little older sister. As Noah in the ark in the great Deluge, so too here a Hebrew Babe floats in the Nile. God always takes pleasure in the impossible things to show His providence and faithfulness. Pharaoh’s daughter, against the abortion law of murder, finds compassion for the crying Hebrew baby. The baby’s sister is sent for a Hebrew nurse and Pharaoh’s daughter hires unknowingly the child’s own mother to nurse and nurture him for her for a time. The Hebrew child returns to Pharaoh’s daughter and becomes her son Moses, the Rescued One, the saved and delivered. And thus, Moses as Noah, was saved by water of judgment.
Moses was raised up in Pharaoh’s palace and as one of his grandsons, schooled and disciplined as an Egyptian as was Joseph a century before. As a grown prince (now 40), he took notice of the Hebrew slaves as his kin and seeking to help them he stopped an Egyptian from beating a Hebrew by killing him, followed by mediating between two quarreling Hebrews who rejected him as a murderer and self-made prince and judge. When Pharaoh heard he sought Moses death, so in fear he escaped from Egypt to land of Midian some 200 miles east, beyond the Sinai Peninsula, near the Gulf of Aqaba. He rested by a well where the daughters of the Priest of Midian watered their flocks and he helped them. Reuel their father welcomed Moses the Egyptian prince and gave in marriage his daughter Zipporah, who birth his firstborn son Gershom (pilgrim and sojourner, foreigner and alien), and he became a shepherd of Midian. About 40 years passed (Hebrew idiom was “after many days”, where days means years as we saw in many places in Genesis), a new Pharaoh on the throne, and Israel’s bondage more severe. God heard and saw His people’s affliction and He remembered the Patriarchal Covenant, and the prophetic promised day of deliverance after 400 years past, and He prepared to save His people from their bondage. While Moses was shepherding Jethro’s flocks in the desert near Horeb, God’s Mountain, the Lord’s Angel appears as God in the flame of fire in the burning bush, which did not consume the bush to Moses surprise; as Moses approached the Burning Bush God stops him and orders him to take off his sandals for the ground here is holy. The God of the Hebrew Fathers, as Jehovah (YHWH), has come to deliver His people from Egypt, and save them from sorrows, and to lead them to the Promised Land (Canaan). Egypt’s oppression of the children of Israel will now come to an end by means of a deliverer of God. Moses is reluctant to accept the Divine Call, so God promises to be with him, and assures him the sign or proof of His Providence is that Israel shall worship God at Mount Horeb in Midia. Moses inquires of God’s Name (Shem) for Israel’s ears, to which the God of the Hebrews tells him to tell them that EHYEH (I Am Who I Am, that is, the Eternal) has sent him to them, Jehovah their God is His Eternal Name and Memorial, their God and Savior, the Covenant and Promise Keeper, to bring them to Canaan. God calls Israel and the Elders to come forth to the desert of God to sacrifice to Him, and though Pharaoh will refuse to release them God will by force free them. God will display signs and wonders, might and miracles, in judgment on Egypt. He will cause the Egyptians to treat Israel with favor and supply all their needs for the Exodus, thus to despoil the Egyptians.
Moses is sent with his rod, his shepherd’s staff, which the Lord will display signs and tokens of miracles of a Serpent and Leprosy, by a mighty hand. Their refusal will be met with the water of the Nile becoming blood. Moses is reassured by the Lord’s anger to have his brother Aaron as his orator and spokesman, his prophetic mouth, along with the Rod. Jethro blesses Moses return to Egypt and his people. The Lord visits Moses in Midian and bids him to return to Egypt and reminds him to perform the signs and wonders by his hand as he was instructed, although Pharaoh’s heart will harden in stubborn refusal. Pharaoh is to be told that he must release Israel as God’s Firstborn or the Lord will kill Pharaoh’s firstborn son. Now while he was returning the Lord attempted to kill Moses because of his uncircumcised son, so Zipporah in anger circumcised his foreskin and denounced her bloody husband. The Lord bids Aaron to visit and reunite with Moses in Midia, at the Mount of God (Horeb). Moses and Aaron speak to the Elders of Israel and perform the signs in Israel’s sight. The people believed and worshipped the Lord, and then Moses and Aaron request Pharaoh in the name of Israel’s God to free them to go into the desert to hold a Feast. Pharaoh rejects Jehovah and refuses to release Israel. They petition Pharaoh in God’s name to permit them to go 2 days into the desert to sacrifice to the Lord lest He in anger slay them. Pharaoh refuses and accuses them of insubordination, and so stiffens their labors with taskmasters and officers to lessen the supply of straw but demand the same quota of bricks. The people distraught and the officers whipped at the extreme demands of Pharaoh. The officers complain to Moses and Aaron that they have made Pharaoh to detest and distress them. Moses complains to the Lord of His ill-treatment and slowness. The Lord reveals that He as El Shaddai (God Almighty, God of Nurture and Provisions, the Nursing God of Sustenance) visited the Patriarchs of old but now as Jehovah (YHWH) has come to visit and deliver His people by force. And He established His covenant to give them the land of Canaan and pilgrimage. The Lord assures and comforts Israel of His deliverance by wondrous works and ponderous powers and executes judgment and effect salvation, to make them His People and Him to be their God, as He has promised and sworn. But the people were disheartened in anguish of spirit and cruel bondage. Moses responds to the Lord in reluctance, but the Lord insists Moses and Aaron proclaim to Israel and to Pharaoh freedom to leave Egypt.
The heads, sons, and families of Reuben are recorded; along with Simeonites and the Levites. The generations of Levites are named from Levi (died at 137) to his sons Gershon, Kohath (died at 133), and Merari; then his grandsons from these three. Kohath’s son Amram (died at137), Levi’s great-grandson, married his aunt Jochebed, who birthed Aaron and Moses (Levi’s great grandsons), along with other great-grandsons, like Korah. Aaron married Elisheba of Amminadab, Nahshon’s sister, who bore him Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar (these were Levi’s great-great grandsons). Korah’s 4 sons (one being Elkanah) were Levi’s great-great-great grandsons). These Levitical families in their generations, brings us chronologically from Jacob or Israel in Egypt to the Exodus, some 200 years. It is clear that there are not 400 years to be fitted in the generations between Joseph and Moses. We see God entering human affairs with conditions contingent on Israel’s relations to Egypt; God had begotten His firstborn and called him out of Egypt from the house of bondage. His purposes for all the world was being disclosed as He formed new patterns and pictures to be revealed till the appointed time. What we learn of God’s ways with man is often in increments of decades or centuries to bring about His promises, and He moves with His people to align them with His vision.
Moses as God to Pharaoh and Aaron as his Prophet are engaged to magnify the hearts hardness against the will of God. God must increase His judgment in severity to deliver His armies the Israelites. God is known by His judgments and deliverance. Moses is 80 and Aaron 83 and Miriam 6 or more, at the command of the Lord they are to answer Pharaoh with the sign or miracle of the Rod-Serpent, to which Pharaoh countered with his magicians making their rods turn into snakes, but God called and raised the stakes by devouring the snakes. Pharaoh’s hardened heart continued as God made each hand costlier (that is, raised the stakes, not just call his bluff) . The contest continued in the water of the Nile turned to blood as the first of ten plagues. All the outlets of the Nile into rivers, pools, and the like were polluted and filled with death. The nature or the properties of the water and blood is not God’s concern, He wishes to picture the life of man as with Pharaoh and Egypt as death. The water is for life and the blood is life, but here not in creation but judgment before salvation. As with the Hands of God having Ten Fingers or Digits with the First Thumb establishing the type or picture, so the Water-Blood plague of Divine wrath explains the other digits to this. It is the waters of the Nile River as Egypt’s fountain of life and source of living. Everything connected to the water must all be contaminated with the blood of death. This sign also the magicians were able to imitate to the satisfaction of the defiant heart. Yet the waters of the wells of the earth were not judged since they were not idolized by Egypt. A week passed in judgment. We do not know the interval between the plagues, nor the conditions existing in the execution of them by the rod and hand and voice of Moses and Aaron at God’s behest. The 2nd plague of frogs swarming from the Nile and overwhelming the land people was like the 1st in that which pertains to life and death. This to the magicians by magic and enchantments replicated to the deception of stubbornness. But in time Pharaoh yielded to the Sovereign Hand and pleaded to stop the judgment; and Moses yields to his glory, and God did so. The 3rd plague of lice from the dust of the earth is like the 1st in that it pictures man’s creation and curse. The magicians failed to duplicate this sign and could not but confessed that this judgment was God’s Finger; yet Pharaoh’s heart hardened. The 4th plague of swarms of flies was like the 1st and the others concerning human life and all that it produces in corruption. Pharaoh partially relents to permit them to sacrifice to the Lord in Egypt, but Moses insists on at least 3 days journey in the desert so not offend the Egyptians; to which he yields and promises to let them go out a little way. Moses prays, and God answered, and the flies were removed, but Pharaoh reneged and refused to release the people. The 5th plague completes the Hand of God, though a small finger, effects all Egypt’s living, and as in the other plagues Israel was spared in the judgment. The plague of murrain or the disease of death which infected and killed Egypt’s livestock in the open field, was to reduce Egypt to starvation in sacrifices and meals. This too could not change the heart of Pharaoh.
The 6th plague begins the Second Hand of God and works toward the second Thumb of the most severe and final judgment. The plague of ashes of the furnace polluting the air of the heavens brought boils and blains, blister and blotches, and such that appeared as leprosy in the skin. And even the magicians were plagued; yet Pharaoh remained obstinate, because on this hand God begins to harden is heart for destruction and final deliverance. The Lord as the God of the Hebrews, declares Himself against Egypt but for His people, and will destroy Egypt with plagues and pestilence, revealing that Pharaoh was raised up to this end that God’s power and name be known in all the earth. The 7th plague was the raining of hail stones from heaven, with thunder and fire, on all the animals outdoors and in the fields, destroying plants and crops (as flax in bloom and barley in the ear (abib). But Goshen was spared; and Pharaoh confessed his sin and wickedness and the Lord’s righteous judgment, and petitions Moses to have God stop the plague. The rains and hails and thunders ceased, but Pharaoh’s heart hardened and his servants also. The Lord tells Moses He has determined to harden the hearts of Pharaoh and his servants for destruction, to display His signs and wonders to be told to the generations to come in all the earth. The 8th plague followed Pharaoh’s refusal to humble himself before the Lord and release Israel, so God sent locusts over all Egypt, to cover the earth and strip the country of vegetation of every sort. At this Pharaoh’s servants pleaded to him to release the Hebrews to stop the destruction. Moses and Aaron were told to go, but asked who will go out, and Moses all Hebrews will go and all that belongs to them to hold a feast to the Lord. Pharaoh permits the men to go out to serve the Lord, but the others must stay; and he drove them out of his presence. The locusts came, carried by an eastern wind, and covered all the earth that is all Egypt, and stripped the land bare. Pharaoh begs Moses to have the Lord remove the death of locusts. The Lord removed the locusts by a strong western wind that carried them to the Red Sea (Sea of Reeds, Yama Suph, Yam Suf, this is 1st occur.). But the Lord still hardened Pharaoh’s stubborn heart. The 9th plague of a thick darkness over Egypt for three days, yet Goshen had light. Pharaoh tells Moses to go out with men and children, but the flocks must stay; but Moses demands animals for sacrifices and offerings, so all the cattle and flocks must also go. The Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart and he expels Moses from his presence never to return before or he will die. Moses said amen, he will not again see Pharaoh. And so we reach the 10th plague, the last sign of judgment.
The 10th plague was the death of the firstborns, and it answers to the first sign of the water and blood. This plague will force Pharaoh to force Israel out for good. Israel is told to borrow from the Egyptians silver and gold. The people are told that the Lord will go through Egypt and kill all the firstborn of Egypt of Pharaoh to his servants and his people and their cattle; but Goshen shall be spared. And Pharaoh’s servants will beg Moses that Israel leave Egypt; and he left in anger. The Lord continues to harden Pharaoh, and revealed His intent o display His many wonders in Egypt; and it was so. The month of the Exodus is to be the 1sts of months called Abib (ears of barley or Barley Harvest, early spring March-April). The Congregation (Edad, Synagogue, Company) of Israel on the 10th of Abib was to take a male lamb, one year old and unblemished, from sheep or goats, for a household or households for all the souls to partake. It was to be kept till the 14th of Abib and killed by the assembly at eve, and the blood applied to the door-posts and window-frames of the house eating the Passover, roasted, not boiled, and with unleavened bread, and with bitter herbs. It must be roasted entirely, and any remains burnt up before morn. They must eat it in haste fully dressed and ready to depart for it is Jehovah’s Passover. The Lord will kill all Egypt’s firstborns of men and beast, and He will execute judgment against all the gods of Egypt; and He will see the sign of blood marks on the houses and pas-over them, sparing them from destruction. It shall be always celebrated in Canaan with 7 days of Unleavened Bread (he who eats leaven in this week shall be cut-off), and the 1st and 7th day must be a holy convocation, a Sabbath of rest for man and beast. The feast of Unleavened Bread is a memorial of deliverance to be observed perpetually as a changing ordinance. From the 14th to 21st of Abib shall no leaven or yeast to be found in any house in Israel. Moses and the Elders of Israel killed the Passover, and with a bunch of hyssop applied the blood to the houses. And in the future generations to tell their children that the Passover Feast is a Sacrifice of Jehovah’s Passover, when He killed the Egyptians and spared Israel.
At midnight while all Israel was in their houses, the Lord killed the firstborns of Egypt of every rank, so that Pharaoh and his servants and the Egyptians awoke to death in every house. Pharaoh expelled and thrust out Israel to depart and go serve the Lord as demanded, and to leave him a blessing. The Egyptians hurried off the Hebrews assisting them in all they needed and wanted. While the dough was still unleavened they baked it, and they packed all their belongings. They despoiled the Egyptians, and they journeyed from the royal city Rameses unto Succoth, with some 600,000 (thousands is eleph (aleph) = cattle or oxen in Hebrew) men (geber) on foot, not counting children. Now Israel dwelt in Egypt for 430 years to date of the Exodus and the Passover. The feast is a perpetual ordinance for Israel and only foreigners purchased with money and circumcised may partake, not even a visitor or Gentile pilgrim may eat, unless they first are circumcised. Every male Israelite is to be sanctified as belonging to the Lord. The feasts of unleavened bread and the Passover are to be a solemn commemoration of the Exodus, as a visual sign and ever conversation of the law of the Lord. The firstborn and firstlings will always be the Lord’s in Israel, and they must be redeemed or the neck to be broken, for by might the Lord delivered them by killing all the firstborn of Egypt. This is to be a sign in the hand and frontlets between the eyes forever, since the Lord slew all the firstborn in exchange for Israel.
Israel departs Egypt and God led them by avoiding the way of the Philistines though it was nearer and a direct route lest they see war and return to Egypt, but instead they were led by the route of the wilderness near the Red Sea (Yam Suf), ready and armed. And they took the bones of Joseph with them as he made them swear. The total number of people of the Exodus is not stated, and the sense to be given to phrase the men (geber) on foot is uncertain, but on all accounts or calculations of 2-3 million souls is a safe guess; the sum of 5-6 million appear to be an exaggeration. The years of slavery by divine reparation or restitution is made at a very high cost by the severe and relentless justice of God Who does not overlook such cruel bondage. The last plague, the 10th, is connected to the Exodus and the Baptism in the Red Sea, as was the 1st plague connected to the Signs of the uplifted Serpent and the leprous hand, along with the slavery of Israel and the murder of the male children. The many rich types and figurative representations of God’s ways with the world and man are beginning to be clearer and more detail. That the types are of Messiah or Christ is hard to ignore or deny and will shortly be enlarged and made more elaborate. The Rod of Moses is made of tree or wood; thus it is the Tree of the Garden, and the serpent or snake is the Devil judged; the leprous hand is sin judged and removed. But these things will unfold in their own time and way, such as the dead bones of Joseph in a coffin to be buried in Canaan.
Israel journeyed from Succoth and camped at Etham at the edge of the desert; the Lord led them by day in a pillar of cloud, and by night in a pillar of fire, hiding His Presence among His people to judge and to save. They are to turn-back (repent) and encamp (prostrate) facing Pi-hahiroth (Pi-ha-Chiroth) between Migdol (tower, watch-tower, fortress, outpost) and the Sea facing and across Baal-zephon, so that Pharaoh will say they are trapped in the desert by the sea, and Pharaoh’s hard heart will pursue Israel and the Lord will get honor on him and his army, that the Egyptians know that He is the Lord. So, with 600 chariots and captains with horses and riders he pursued and caught up with Israel by the Sea. And Israel was terrified and complained against Moses that he brought them out to die and be buried in the desert, rather than let them remain slaves and die in Egypt. It must be admitted here that the exact locations of these places are all uncertain and filled with centuries of traditions and confusion. The Sea is either the Suez Canal or Gulf or the Gulf of Aqaba, and not some river of the Nile Delta, or any waters of Egyptian soil. The Westminster Historical Bible Atlas edited by Wright and Filson, with Albright’s introduction, suggest by mere conjecture the upper Nile Delta near Tanis or Rameses, and Goshen and the Shur Wilderness or Desert south-east of it, but I think not. Those who find the ancient remains of the Asian or Canaanite pastoral shepherds like the Hyskos settled near and about Zagazig, with San el Hagar at the north, and down to Qantir or Pi-Ramses and Avaris, are more correct or factual. We know that Israel intended to go three days journey into the desert-wilderness, and that would allow some 50 miles give or take to distance themselves from Pharaoh’s grip and presence, and sufficient lead to escape his power and pursuit. In a direct route this would allow them the time and distance to freedom. God intended something more and other for His people who must be prepared to meet great opposition and larger numbers than Pharaoh’s forces. But more than this was the spiritual warfare and universal conflict that must be fought in the desert and portrayed or illustrated for them and us, both then and thereafter. The route Israel took must also be a route that Pharaoh’s chariots could take to overtake them, thus it is clear that route was a travelled trade route to cross the desert, even as it is to this date. Three days journey would take Israel to the top of the Red Sea or Gulf of Suez some 60 miles south; from the Gulf of Suez to the top of Aqaba some 130 miles across the wilderness-desert, 7-14 days trip. Night travel would be dictated by the moonlight available for a ½ month. I point out these things as we will encounter them shortly and afterwards. Baker’s Compact Bible Atlas with gazetteer of 1979 shows a hypothetical trade route of a direct line from Goshen to the middle of Aqaba ( by Nuweiba, “Nuwayba’al Muzayyinah in Arabic which means ‘Waters of Moses Open’), some 200 miles, then crossing through the Sea, Yam Suph (reed, weed, bulrush or papyrus; also traditionally red; much is conjectural for the ancients had little knowledge of these seas, Egyptians were familiar with the Gulf of Suez while the Canaanites and Midianites with the Gulf of Aqaba; these things in the past decades have changed greatly) or the other Red Sea called the Gulf of Aqaba, then up the coasts of Aqaba some 50 miles in Midian control. The Atlas shows the proposed sights as did the Historical Atlas, but in altered locations, and with question marks indicating the uncertainty that exist of the entire Exodus Route. Again, I notice these things to bring us to current consensus that remains and evidences lead to Aqaba and not Suez as the Crossing site. Saint Catharine City and its famous Monastery in the Sinai Peninsula of ancient and modern Egypt is the traditional but conjectural site of the giving of the Ten Commandments in the desert. If we cross over the Aqaba on the eastern coasts we have Midian and other ancient non-Egyptian peoples and tribes, and a more conducive environment for several million migrants. Since the 17th – 18th centuries the traditional view has been held suspect, unsupported and creating confusion and questions rather than solutions; the past two centuries by explorations in land, sea, and sky have led away from the Sinai Peninsula (“The ancient Egyptians called it Mafkat, or “land of the green minerals (Turquoise)”.”; also of copper and gold) to the Arabian trade routes of the ancient Midianites and Ishmaelites, as well as the modern Arabs.
Moses calmed the people and comforted their fear with promise of the salvation of the Lord (eth-yeshuath Yehowah, Yeshua or Joshua, that is Jesus), on the next day He will fight for Israel. The uplifted and outstretched rod will divide the sea and Israel will walk on dry ground. Pharaoh will pursue, and the Lord will get the honor over Pharaoh and his army. The Angel of God went to guard Israel at the back against any attack. So that all that night the Lord caused a strong east wind to dry the ground between the walls of sea. At day break the Egyptians pursued after them into the sea-bed, and the Lord saw them from the pillar of fire and cloud and drowned in the Sea, dismantling their chariot wheels in the midst, and the waters buried them all, men and horses and chariots. The Lord saved Israel and they saw the dead bodies along on the sea-shore. Israel was saved by fear and faith by the Lord and Moses His servant. This great Crossing was celebrated with the Song of Moses of Jehovah’s triumph and salvation, as a Man of War He drowned Egyptian host in His wrath in the Red Sea. The miracle is poetically described in Jehovah’s praise. The Egyptians, Palestine, Edom, Moab, and all Canaan will hear and tremble in great fear. The people of the Lord, saved and purchased, will be planted in Canaan, Jehovah’s new dwelling-place and Adonai’s new Sanctuary, for His everlasting kingdom. Miriam the prophetess and the women with timbrels and dances led in celebration and with refrain or chorus: Jehovah’s victory and the horse and rider were drowned in the sea.
Moses led Israel onward from Yam Suf to the desert of Shur another three days journey or some 50 miles, and they found no water. They came to Marah (Bitter-waters) and Israel complained of thirst to the Lord against Moses. The Lord showed him a tree and he threw it into waters and it became sweet. Here the Lord made for Israel a statute and ordinance and tested them; warning them to always hear and obey the voice of God, to do right and keep His commandments, then He as the Healer will spare them from all the diseases of the Egyptians. They next came to Elim (Elimah) with 12 springs of water and 70 palm-trees and they camped by the waters. From Elim they journeyed to desert of Sin (Midbar-Sin) between Elim and Sinai; which was on the 15th of the 2nd month, Zif, exactly one month or 4 weeks or some 28 days after the Passover. By this date we see Israel traveled in the desert from Passover and Exodus to Yam Suf Crossing to mount Horeb in Sinai, God’s mountain, for one month and some 300 miles. From Goshen to the Arab’s Jebel Musa of St. Catharine city and monastery is about 150 miles. Israel complained against Moses and Aaron longing for bread and meat. The Lord sent them bread from heaven to be gathered daily for 6 days, but not on the 7th day, for the 6th day shall have twice the supply. This was to test their resolve to walk in God’s law or not, and to deal with their gripes and complaints. The Lord appeared in glory in cloud and spoke to Moses that Israel shall indeed eat flesh in the evening and bread in the morning as a proof of His sovereignty. At night the quails covered the camp, and at morning dew covered the ground. When the dew lifted small pellets as hoar-frost (silvery grey thin wafers with round pellets inside), and they said: What is it? (Manna?); this was the Lord’s bread for them. The manna was to be gathered by need, an omer per head, a quart-gallon per person. If left overnight, it bred worms and smelled foul, it melted in the sun’s heat. Twice as much was gathered to last through the Sabbath and it did not breed worms or become foul. But the Sabbath is holy, and Israel must stay in their tents and rest. Manna was white like coriander seed and tasted like honey wafers. Further a pot of a omer of it must be kept forever as a witness of the Lord’s feeding them in the desert. They were to eat manna for 40 years till they entered Canaan. An omer as a dry measure was 1/10th of an Ephah; these weights and measures are related to simple standards of the body or its parts or its extension of relations, as in the cubit, shekel, or as with us the foot or feet. I pass-over any remark as some scholars who connect the evening quails and the morning dew and manna.
They moved from Midbar-Sin to Rephidim a dry waterless place, and the people complained against Moses for their thirst as they did for their hunger, so tempting or provoking god. Moses complains to God that Israel is ready to stone him, and the Lord tells him that He will stand before him on the Rock in Horeb, and he must strike Rock (as in a deathly blow) with the Rod and water will flow for the people, and he did so. The place of the Smitten Rock was called Massah (provoke by crying) and Meribah (Strife), a place of Israel’s strife and testing the Lord, or unbelief. Here at Rephidim Amalek attacked Israel and Joshua is sent to fight against Amalek, but Moses will stand on the hill with the Rod of God with Aaron and Hur to support his hand along with a Stone to sit on, so that Israel prevails against Amalek. Joshua killed the Amalekites with the sword; and the Lord swore to always be at war with Amalek for all generations; and He told Moses to write (katav, first occurrence) in a book (sepher, second occurrence, first in Exodus, Gen.5:1 is the first) this as a memorial for Joshua for Amalek’s destruction. Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law in Midian near Rephidim and Horeb near the Mount of God, heard of God’s favor to Moses and Israel and the Exodus, and he visits Moses along with Moses wife (who he had sent back because of the circumcision) Zipporah and his two sons Gershom (Alien) and Eliezer (God-my-Helper or Deliverer). Moses welcomes Jethro and relates all the wonders of the Exodus. Jethro blessed the Lord as Israel’ Deliverer and the only true God of judgment; and he offered to God burnt offering and sacrifices. Aaron and the Elders also feasted with Jethro. Moses sat alone to judge the people from morn to eve and Jethro inquires why Moses did so, and Moses explains that the people inquire of God from him, and to judge between parties, and instruct them of God’s statutes and laws. Jethro disapproves, and advises Moses, if God agrees, to be for God in serious (superior) cases, and those requiring special divine instructions. He suggests to Moses to share the judicial burden with able and truthful men, without bribery; in ranks of 10, and 50, and 100, and thousands to judge and rule in all general judicial cases and to reserve the great matters to him; Moses did as Jethro advised; but God did not comment. Jethro returns to his own land.
Now another month passed since the Exodus, some 60 days, and they came to the desert of Sinai after Rephidim and camped before the Mount of God. Moses goes up to God and the Lord reminds Israel that He judged the Egyptians and rescued Israel on Eagle’s Wings to bring them to Himself. That if Israel obeys His voice and keeps His covenant they will be His special possessions from all peoples, for the earth is the Lord’s. Israel shall be a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. Moses reported the words of the Lord to the elders, and they agreed to obey the Lord’s words; he related this to the Lord. The lord spoke to Moses that He will appear to Israel in a thick cloud that the people will hear the lord speaking to Moses and to believe Moses forever. In response to Moses words of the people, the Lord commands Moses to ready the people for 3 days, that they sanctify themselves and wash their clothes. That a fence be set around the mount and that no one, not even an animal, cross it or touch it, or they will be put to death, by stone or arrow. At the long sounding of the trumpet the people are to come near the mount. Moses did so, forbidding even sexual contact for the 3 days. On the morning of the 3rd day there was thunders and lightning, a thick cloud on the mount, and a very loud trumpet sound, and the people trembled. Moses then brought the people from the camp to the foot of the Mount Sinai (Horeb), and the mount smoked because the Lord descended on it in Fire, and smoke ascended as a furnace smoke, and the mount quaked greatly. Moses reminded the people not to cross the bounds but to sanctify it. When the trumpet sound got very loud Moses spoke to God and He answered him by Voice. The Lord came down on top of Mount Sinai, and He called Moses, and then told him to return and further secure the premise lest the people cross it to gaze at Jehovah and many die. And let the Priests also sanctify themselves that the Lord does not harm them. But Moses insist that he did secure the borderline of the mount as commanded, but the Lord insist that He return and secure it, then he and Aaron to come up the mountain, but no priests to be with them lest they be harmed, so Moses went and did so.
And God spoke all the words of the Ten Commandments or the 10 Words, the Decalogue, in two parts or tablets, as the Lord God Who delivered them from Egyptian bondage: 1. No gods but God. 2. No images or likeness, graven or carved of wood or stone or metals, of anything in heaven or on earth or in the depths; not to worship or serve them, for God is a Jealous God, judging wickedness for many generations on his enemies, but merciful to those who love and obey Him. 3. No profanity of God’s Name, for He will hold them guilty for using His Name in vain. 4. No work on the holy Sabbath, the 7th day, by man or beast. For God rested on the Sabbath from His creation and sanctified the Sabbath. 5. No disowner or disregard for parents that they may live long. Then the second set: 6th: No murder. The 7th: No adultery. The 8th: No stealing. The 9th: No lying or false-witness. The 10th: No Covetousness or desires or lusts or cravings or envy of what belongs to another or what does not belong to them, whether man or animal, or another thing. And the people seeing the thunders and lightening, hearing the trumpet sound, and the smoking mount they trembled and moved back, telling Moses to speak to them and they will obey. But let not God speak and we die. But Moses assures them that no need to fear since God is testing them to see if they will obey Him and sin not. Moses then drew near the thick darkness where God was, and the Lord tells him to tell Israel that they have seen and heard the Lord speaking to them from heaven; that they commit no form of idolatry of silver or gold. But they make to Him an altar of earth to sacrifice burnt-offerings of sheep and oxen in the place He records His Name to visit and bless them. The altar must be of natural stones that it may not be polluted and must not have steps to expose their nakedness.
A word must be said concerning the Ten Words and its connection to the Ten Plagues as well as to the rest of the Law. The Ten Commandments are Ten Words and Ten Laws which govern all the other 600 plus laws consisting of various types and categories of legal enactments or constitutional legislation in ancient Biblical Hebrew judiciary system. The 10 words were negative judgments against conditions and behaviors against God and man. The first table against idolatry and whatever was not love to and for God, whether direct or indirect. The second table was against whatever was not love for others as neighbors and strangers. The first and last commandments of no idolatry and no coveting governed all the laws in one form or other. This in consequence of 10 plagues of judgment against the Egyptians and leading to the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the Passover, which was followed by Baptism of the Crossing in the sea, in order to create a new nation and people. God’s words, the debarim, were His Word, the Debar, and His Speaking and this was the Torah, the Law and Teaching to Israel. This goes back to Genesis 1:3 and continues to the New Testament in the incarnate Word and Wisdom and Truth, and all things of God.
The Lord continues from Mount Sinai to give various ordinances and judgments as Hebrew servants or slaves; and of women servants or slaves; of accidental deaths or intentional murders; of cursing of parents; of fights and beatings; of injury to pregnant women and miscarriage and death; namely eye for eye and tooth for tooth, hand for hand, and foot for foot, and the like. Laws of accidents by a goring ox; of robbers; and many such laws and regulations and cases of penalty and punishment, of various kinds of sins and crimes, and many judgments related to people living together as a nation. In all these laws God reveals His thoughts and attitude towards man’s condition that had developed over the centuries since the days of Noah. These laws would contrast or compare God’s way against the ways of the Gentiles. In countless examples God shows Himself hating evil and loving good; and He judges sin but desires to save the repentant. His laws of persons and of things, of animals and properties, of places and of nations, would mold and form the nation of Israel and make the Law of Moses universal in influence as the centuries past. God gave dietary laws and those of public health, of medical conditions and contaminations, of civil and political laws, of ceremonial and religious ordinances, statutes and judgments. All these laws were to prepare them to enter Canaan, led by His Angel who will not tolerate transgression because the Lord’s name is in him. The Lord will fight for Israel if they obey by His Angel. They are not to yield to idols of Canaan but destroy them utterly. They are to serve only the Lord Who will bless them in every way. He will terrorize their enemies, and His hornet will drive out those in the land; but not all at once lest beasts outnumber them. Their border will be from Yam Suf to the Great Sea of Palestine and from the desert to the Jordan River. They must mix with or tolerate the people of Canaan lest they become idolaters. He summons Moses with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and the 70 Elders of Israel to come closer but not near, only Moses to approach the Lord; so Moses related all this to the people and they assented to obey, and Moses wrote (katav, 2nd occurrence) all the words of the Lord; then he erected an altar of 12 stones or pillars, according to the 12 tribes of Israel. Moses sent young men to offer the burnt-offerings and sacrifice peace-offerings; and he took the blood in two basins, half he sprinkled the altar, and the Book of the Covenant, and read it to the people who said they would obey. And he took the blood and sprinkled the people with the blood of the covenant of the Lord concerning all these words. Moses and the others saw the God of Israel as it were paved work of sapphire stone as heaven for clearness. But he did not lay hands on the nobles, for they beheld God, and feasted. Then the Lord called Moses to come up to receive the Tables of Stone with the law and commandment written by Him for Israel. Moses and his minister Joshua went up into the Mount of God, but not the Elders nor Aaron and Hur. The cloud covered the mount, and the Lord’s glory appeared like a devouring fire in top of the mount in sight of Israel, and he was in the mount for 40 days and nights.
We note the severe judgment of God against the 7 nations of the Promised Land: Canaanites, Hivites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Jebusites, and Amalekites. God did not take personal judgment on these nations during the many centuries of their apostasy and detestable ways. We could write several volumes of citations from the heathen practices of ancient times that have come to light by explorations of the spade and pick. God will in time reveal some of their vile and unnatural ways just as He did with Sodom and Gomorrah and the Antediluvians of Noah’s days. We need not shy away from the words or pictures presented of war between God and Israel against the nations and peoples of Canaan, even to local extermination. No persecution was to be made of those outside Canaan, or of Canaanites that fled the country. God did not bring down Divine judgment arbitrarily and capriciously, but humanely and strategically to establish a people who will hear and obey Him, and to follow His words in love and faith in righteousness and truth, with holiness and humility. And if Israel stray from the right path then He in turn would severely judge them with penalty and punishment to heal and restore them to Himself, that all the world, those near and those far away may know the way and will of God who will get honor and glory on His friends and foes. Those who insult intelligence by accusing God of cruel brutality and gross vindictiveness are those who excuse or ignore the infinite misery that many nations and rulers have produced and inflicted upon mankind from the Fall to the present world. The slaughter and causalities from the wars between Israel and Gentiles indeed ran into hundreds of thousands over a century of conflict from the invasion through the period of the judges to the establishing of the kingdom. This does not compare with the thousands of millions and now billions that occurred as man spread far and wide and making conquest as they advanced their power and cultures. Frequent genocides occurred as one people annihilated another or absorbed them as slaves and servants as a people or nation. From primitive savagery of uncivilized tribes to global imperial powers war has demanded a devilish price. God desires to eradicate evil with good but the time for the highest good to be manifest was in the distant future, and the would require the ultimate sacrifice of a God Who loves the world that has rejected Him and lost in sin.
The Lord now enlists His people to prepare Him a Place to dwell among them, the materials are to be offered willingly of all that they possess and took out of Egypt. Some 16 items are listed to make and construct the Sanctuary, a Holy Sacred Place (Miqdosh), and Dwelling Place (Shakan) or Tabernacle (Mishkan) for God according to the exact pattern and model shown, as well as its furniture. 1st the form of the golden Ark (Aron, a chest) of the Testimony (Eduth) or Covenant is described, where God will meet and commune. 2nd the golden Table of Showbread or Bread of Presentation or Presence (Shulchan Lechem Panim). 3rd is the golden Seven Branch Lampstand, 6 Branches of 3 pairs on either side of the middle stand or branch or tree, Candlestick and Candelabra (Menorath, Menorah) (in God’s House 7 Lamps or Candles but in Jewish homes they have 9 for the 9 days of Chanukah, Hanukah in the Christmas season). The Tabernacle or Mishkan was a Tent of 10 curtains in two sections coupled together with 50 loops, and covered with skins; with boards, sockets, tendons, and bars; and having a veil between the two compartments, the holy place and the most holy place. Moses was shown the detail design of all the elements and the particulars of the Tabernacle, their placements and setup, their use and function, namely all things related to the Divine Sanctuary. The Tent would have a curtain or screen at the entrance, outside was a brazen Altar (Mizbeach) for sacrifices; there was a court of linen hangings around the Tabernacle; the Tent of Meeting had Aaron and sons to service it daily. The garments of Aaron were for glory and beauty, made in wisdom by skilled artisans, made with breastplate and ephod, and other garments for him and his sons. The ephod had shoulder pieces with two engraved stones of 12 names of the tribes, as a memorial before the Lord, having the Urim and Thummim (Lights and Perfections, Glory and Beauty) of judgment to be carried by Aaron for Israel. It must have a plate engraved with Holy to Jehovah (Qodesh lai-Yehowah) to be placed on the front of the mitre or hat or crown, to bear the iniquity of the holy things for Israel to the Lord. Aaron’s sons must have coats and girdles and caps for glory and beauty; and thus, were his sons dressed to serve the Lord in His Holy Place, and in the Tent of Meeting. Many other things related to the priests’ daily duties and functions are described as the sacrifices, the offerings of various types, all which were to be sanctified that the Lord their God, Who delivered them, might dwell among them.
Also, the golden Altar of Incense placed facing the Veil by the Ark of Testimony, before its Mercy-Seat where God appeared. The Altar of Incense is to be used only for holy incense, and once a year used for Atonement by Blood. Also, the people when numbered are to give a ransom for their soul to the Lord lest He plague them. The atonement ransom is to be half a sanctuary shekel, equal to 10 gerahs, by all those over 20. And the atonement money used to support the divine service. A brass Laver or Washing-Bowl for daily washings, placed between the Altar and the Tent, to be cleansed before entering the Tent, lest they die. The holy anointing oil is made of spices as a unique perfume compounded with skill, to anoint all things and persons; but if copied and used as common brings death. As with the anointing oil so with the incense, it is not to be common. The Lord equipped by inspiration and wisdom certain select craftsmen to oversee and produce all these things. Israel is reminded and warned concerning the sacred Sabbath for it is God’s covenant with them forever. And God finished communing with Moses and gave him the Two Tables of Stone written by the Finger of God.
Israel became impatient with God and Moses, so they had Aaron make gods or idols to lead them on; and they gathered the golden rings and melted them and made a molten calf and said that this was the Gods or Idols or Charms that delivered them from Egypt. Aaron built an altar to this Sacred Bull and proclaimed a feast to Jehovah. They committed idolatry and feasted in their sin. The Lord told Moses to return to his people who have corrupted themselves in idolatry; they are a stubborn people; and He said His wrath will get hot to destroy them and make Moses a great nation in their stead. But Moses pleaded with Him for Israel not to burn against His people, but to repent of His intent lest the Egyptians say that He delivered them to destroy them, and what will come of His promises to the fathers. The Lord repented of His intended evil to Israel; and Moses descended with the Two Tables of Writings and Work of God, and Joshua met him and heard the noise and thought it was war, but Moses said it was celebration; and his anger burned at the sight of the idol and dance, and he threw the Tables and broke them beneath the mount. Moses melted the molten calf, burning and pulverizing it and strewed in it on the water and made Israel drink it. He rebuked Aaron for the sin, but Aaron excused himself and blamed Israel for his part of the evil idolatry. Moses saw the free and loose people as derision to the enemies; he demanded those on the Lord’s side to step aside from those who were not, and the Levites came to him; he then ordered them to gird their swords and to kill all the idolaters, and about 3,000 died. He consecrated them, and he rebuked their sin, and tried to propitiate or cover the great gold sin of idolatry, by returning to the Lord and confessing and pleading to forgive them or blot him out of His written book. But the Lord said He would only blot out of His book those who sinned against Him. Moses must return to lead the people to the land, with His Angel ahead of them, but God will one day visit their sin on them. So, He smote the idolaters of Aaron’s calf.
Moses is told that he and his people to get out and away towards the land of promise, and the Angel shall go ahead to clear the land, but the Lord will not go with the stubborn people since He might destroy them along the way. The people mourned at this bad news without their ornaments, for He had told them to remove them from mount Horeb and onward. Moses had often set up the Tent of Meeting outside and beyond the camp, and in the morning they watched at going to the Tent till he entered it; for the Pillar of Cloud then descended and rested at the door of the Tent, and the Lord spoke with Moses there, as a man speaks face to face with a friend, while the people worshipped at their tent door, then Moses returned to the camp. But Joshua, his younger-aid, remained in or at or near the Tent. Now Moses pleaded with Lord that though he was sent to deliver the people, he was not told who will go with him, yet the Lord knew him by name with favor and grace. He prays for proof of such favor by His ways shown him, and that the people belong to the Lord. The Lord’s Presence (Face) shall lead and give rest, and he said that if His Presence lead them not then not take them hence, for how will God’s favor be known by His chosen people. The Lord agreed to this also; Moses asked the Lord to show him His glory. He said He will pass by him all His goodness and proclaim Jehovah’s name, gracious and merciful; but His Face (Presence) may not be seen by man and live. Moses was to stand close by on the Rock, and while passing by in glory He will hide him in a Cleft of the Rock, and cover him with His Hand, and he will only see His Back-Side.
The Lord instructs Moses to chisel out two tables of stone as a copy of the first, and He will write the words as in the former broken tables. Moses was to present himself before the Lord in the Mount Sinai alone, and man or beast to be at a distance from the mount. Moses did so, takes the two stone tablets to the Lord, Who descended in cloud and stood with him, and He proclaimed the Lord’s name as a God of mercy and grace, patient, kind and true, faithful forever, forgiving sinners, but harsh towards those who are guilty visiting iniquity on many generations; and Moses worshipped, petitioning the Lord (Adonai) to go with them though they are stiff-necked, and to forgive, and to inherit them. The Lord covenanted with Moses for Israel, and Israel must obey and never make a covenant with the nations of Canaan to play the harlot of idolatry and to intermarry with them to lead to more harlotry of idolatry. But Israel must keep the feast of unleavened bread as commanded; redeem the firstborn and firstling and appear before the Lord with something to give. Other laws are then given as the Sabbath, the Feasts of Leaven or Yeast, and other such things. Moses wrote these words as a covenant between God and Israel; and he was with the Lord for another 40 days as before, without water, and He wrote on the tables the words of the covenant the 10 Commandments (Debbarim = Words). When Moses came down from Sinai with the Tables of Testimony his face was shining because He spoke with Him, and Israel was afraid to come near him. Moses bid them come to him and he related all; but when he finished speaking he veiled his face, then he unveiled himself to speak to the Lord; for the skin of Moses’ face shined bright.
Moses rehearsed the laws to be obeyed and then requested a free-will offering of heart and spirit, of mind and strength, to the Lord to build the Tabernacle. All the materials to be donated and all the articles to be constructed, all that must be worked and crafted as the Divine Pattern revealed. Israel freely stripped themselves of all their Egyptian ornaments and jewelry and money, along with cloth and fabrics and wood, and all that was needed. Overseen by gifted and inspired men and women, young and old, led by select master craftsmen (Bezalel and Oholiab). Israel gave so much Moses had to restrain them from further donations. The Tabernacle was made and all that pertained to it, exactly as the Divine Design shown to Moses in the mount. The sum or total of all of things for the Tabernacle of the Testimony inventoried by Moses command for the Levitical service, by the hand of Ithamar, the son of the Priest Aaron; along with those who helped according to the materials needed. All the gold used for the Sanctuary was 29 talents, and 730 sanctuary-shekels; the silver was 100 talents, and 1,775 sanctuary-shekels; for the men 20 years and older, a beka (1/2 shekel) for each, came to 603,550 sanctuary-1/2-shekels. The Sanctuary sockets came to 100 talents of silver, 1 talent per socket; the 1,775 silver shekels were used for hooks and coating the capitals, and for fillets. The brass was 70 talents, and 2,400 shekels, for the sockets, the brazen altar, its grating and vessels; sockets and pins for the court. And all the other items as fabrics and threads, and such which are not inventoried were available and used. So too the priestly garments of Aaron or the High Priest, and for the Aaronic Priests, and for the Levitical Priests, were made according to the Divine Design. Thus, was completed all the work of the Tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting.
Israel brought the tabernacle to Moses, the tent and all its furniture and furnishings and utensils and appliances, along with the priestly garments and attire. And Moses saw it was all made according to the pattern shown in the mount. The Lord commands them to erect the Tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting on the 1st day of the 1st month. First must be placed in order the Ark of Testimony, second the Veil to screen it, third the Table, fourth the Lampstand, fifth the golden Altar of Incense, sixth the Curtain at the Door of Tabernacle, seventh the Altar of burnt-offering, eighth the Laver, ninth the Court, and tenth Anointing Oil to anoint all things and persons. Moses did all as he was commanded to do. In the 1st month of the 2nd year on the 1st day was the Tabernacle setup with all his belongings and articles and in order and arrangement. Moses finished the work. Then the Cloud covered the Tent of Meeting, and the Glory of the Lord filled the Tabernacle, so Moses could not enter. When the Cloud went up the sons of Israel moved onward in their journey; but when the Cloud rested they journeyed not. For Jehovah’s Cloud was over the Tabernacle by day and His Fire by night in the sight of all the House of Israel in all their journeys.

We are at the end of our reflections of Exodus, and we again encounter another 10 sequences to portray one picture, just as in the 10 Plagues and the 10 Commandments so here we conclude the Book with Ten Parts of the Tabernacle. The First and the Last are the governing items, the Ark of Testimony and the Anointing Oil. The Tabernacle was a Sanctuary or a Holy Place for God to be manifest; it was a Tabernacle or Dwelling, thus the House and Home of God. But it was also a Tent of Meeting or Living with God at home in His tent in His visitation of His people. The types and pictures are extensions and progressions of those in Genesis. The world of the Hebrews and Israelites is far more developed in many levels, both in nature and divine things. Conflicts between peoples are far more terrible as the larger powers increase and advance. God however is manifesting His presence and glory, His grace and goodness, and all things that pertain to His image and likeness. Man’s dominion of the earth and all in it was everywhere apparent, and evidence of his creativity and superiority over mere brutes everywhere found. The ways of God though very obscure was not effaced from earth or man but was becoming difficult to understand or appreciated. We will not yet resort to Job to explain these things. In Exodus God intends to form His people by His Book to be a witness to the world and draw man to Himself. We do harm to our mind and spirit by imposing too many things into Scripture, as well as not understanding the things as they unfold.
The types in the Plagues lead to the Feasts and Exodus, thus a nation is delivered out of a nation, and that new nation must be stripped of life and living, must be changed internally as well as externally. The Baptism separated them from the old and rebirth them unto the new, with many new things to be added. The Tabernacle had two compartments the Holy and the Holiest, and outside was the common place, the divine service was from man to God outside the Tent, but within it was God to man, but God was ever separate in His Holiest of All, for man could not share yet in these things. Each element and article in the smallest detail to largest magnification, speak of God dwelling and indwelling man. The Jews saw some of these things as it is seen in Israel, but those things of Messiah have been much distorted in rejection of Jesus Christ. Again, all things belong to God as is seen in the Word, and that word is in the book, and the book is Scripture; thus, all things spiritual is governed by the word, first by sacred tradition as existed in different ways with the patriarchs, but much more as it is written in scripture. Therefore, the Bible is His chosen media to educate and transform man, whether Hebrew or Heathen. The stories in Genesis and the record in Exodus all are for man’s birth and growth, although hidden and shrouded behind nature and clouds, within darkness and light. The analogy and the allegory have been passed on and down to us who believe God and follow His word unto righteousness and love and life. The Law was no exception but confirmed these things having the spiritual elements embedded in them, and each part answers to another to form a whole. It was never intended for all symbols to be understood by any generation in time past, but incrementally the grand design and intricate work would increasingly be comprehended. Therefore, in the New Testament so much of the Old Testament is explained and comprehended for it is then completed and complimented. The Symbols are very numerous, and the rules are obscure and coded so that many things will not be grasped at first sight but in life and time God’s Spirit brings us to know divine things. Man’s condition will not permit the natural man to properly grasp or partake of the heavenly things in Scripture for we have been alienated from God, and as we return to Him spiritual things come alive in the right way. Many have seen and written on the typology of the Bible and the rich pictures in Exodus, filled with innumerable examples of fine interpretations; but of course many silly and meaningless exegesis. What is good for me and for all is the basic over-ruling theme and background, the function and operation of the divine system as programmed by God and not man. As we have seen by now in these two books of Moses, the usage and grammar, the sense and symbols, first occurrences that govern the occurrences afterwards, and many such things can be easily discovered by diligent study with or without divine assistance. It is to faith and love, to obedience and righteousness, and these like things that allow the true and pure to take a hold of us as we take a hold on them. Finally we add that any things of God, of heaven, are spiritual and are all reflected by the natural, as nature, showing forth His glory; or by earth and all its animals and creatures and features in infinite variety of good and evil; and by man who is the image and likeness of God for whom God has occupied Himself these many thousands of years to birth and bring many sons to glory in a world better than this, and a time more infinite than now, beyond our comprehension and our quest, be they ever so high and deep –for God is the Beginning and End of all.

LEVITICUS: Chapters 1-27: Moses III:

We come to the 3rd Book of Moses called Leviticus after its general focus of the Levitical Priesthood. It is clear from the opening words that it is connected to and continues from the Book of Exodus. Exodus concluded with the erection of the Tabernacle and the Tent of Meeting filled with God’s Presence, and the Levitical Priests ready to serve and minister to the Lord for the people of Israel. One year had passed from the Exodus to the completion of the Tabernacle, and now in the second year the Levitical Priesthood will be ordered and the people prepared to enter Canaan. In the Law God revealed His transcendent sovereignty and absolute holiness against all ungodliness and depravity in man, and especially in His people. Sins must be covered or atoned, man’s condition exposed and mitigated by truth and righteousness without impugning God or annihilating man. He saved Israel from misery and must meet them in their weakness and frailty by the provisions substitutionary sacrifices and offerings in a national worship of God. God begins to reveal the need of the Savior and the Sacrifice, as we have already encountered several times in Genesis and in Exodus. Leviticus has 27 chapters, with two discernible parts, chapters 1-16, and chapters 17-27. Part One covers the Sacrifices for Sins and their Laws relating to the Sanctuary and Aaronic Priesthood, and concludes with the Day of Atonement. Part Two covers the Laws of Sanctification of People and Priest in relations to the House of Israel and ends in Vows.
The Lord called Moses and spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting or Congregation to tell Israel that in offering Oblations or Offerings (qorban, offerings or sacrificial-gifts) and Sacrifices these rules and details must be observed: Animal Offerings of herd and sheep may be a Burnt-offering as a spotless male, offered at the entrance of the Tent of Gathering to be accepted or approved; his hands on the head of the Burnt-offering to make his atonement. The Bullock to be killed before the Lord and the Aaronic Priests shall present and apply the blood on the Altar; then the animal butchered and the pieces put on the fire and wood, first the head and fat, then inwards and legs washed and completely burnt up. This is a Offering of Fire and Sweet Savor to the Lord. And as with the Burnt-offering of Bullocks, so with the Sheep or Goats, slaughtered at the north-side of the Altar, and offered as a Burnt-offering. Likewise Burnt-offering of Birds or Fowls of Doves and Pigeons, its neck wrung off cooked or burnt on the Altar but the blood drained at the side, and its crop or throat-pouch with its filth cast away at the east side with the ashes; the wings to be torn off but the bird not divided but it is consumed by Fire. There are rules for the Meal or Grain Offerings, in kind and preparation and cooking as a memorial a Fire Offering and Sweet Aroma to the Lord. The rest of the Grain-offerings not consumed by fire belong to the Aaronic Priests as most holy. So too with the baked meal-offerings of unleavened cakes or wafers, and the like, part of it is a memorial offering and the rest belong to the Aaronic priests. But no grain-offering is to be offered with leaven or honey. There are also rules for Offerings of First-fruits, and they are not a Sweet Aroma on the Altar, but they must be always seasoned with salt. So too with the Grain-offerings of First-fruits, grain in the ear parched with fire and bruised grain of the fresh ear, with oil and incense; and part offered as memorial. The Sacrifice of Peace-offerings, though similar, has different rules and details compared to the Burnt-offerings and the Grain-offerings. The cooking of these Sacrifices is the Food of the Fire Offerings to the Lord as a sweet savor with all the fat; for the fat or blood must never be eaten.
Israel must observe these rules also: A Sin unknown or unintentional by people, or sin of the anointed priest that brings guilt on the people, a young bullock must be offered as a Sin-offering; and sacrificed according to these rules, as with the Sacrifice of Peace-offerings burnt on the Altar, so the skin, flesh, head, legs, inwards, and dung, the entire bullock to be carried outside the Camp to the clean place where the Ashes are poured out, and it shall be burnt on wood with fire. So too if the entire Congregation of Israel err, unknown to the Assembly, but are guilty of violation of the Lord’s commands, when the sin becomes known they are to offer a Sin-offering of a young bullock, and the Elders are to lay their hands on it, and it must be killed before the Lord, and the anointed priest to apply the blood 7 times before the Lord and Veil. As with the bullock of the Sin-offering, so here also, it is to make atonement for forgiveness for the Assembly. Likewise a Ruler who sins unintentionally or unknowingly, when known, he must offer for his guilt as did the assembly. Even the common people in unknown sins must offer for their sin and guilt when it becomes known. In like manner sins and trespass unintentional must offer for the sin and the trespass a Sin or Trespass Oblation. And restitution with penalty must be paid for violations against the holy things; a ram for trespass atonement.
Then follows the laws of burnt-offering, of meal-offering, of sin-offering, of trespass-offering, of consecration, and sacrifice of peace-offerings; all of which the Lord commanded Moses in Mount Sinai for Israel to offer their oblations to the Lord in the wilderness. The Burnt-offering is to lay on the hearth on the Altar all night and morn, the fire always burning; the priest clothed wearing his linen shorts, to take the ashes remaining from the consumption and put them beside the Altar; then he must change his clothes and carry the ashes outside the camp to a clean area. The fire on the altar shall be kept burning by the fat of the peace-offerings. And so other rules and regulations are prescribed concerning these laws of sacrifices. And as with the description given earlier, so too now these laws cover a wide variety of things which are related to the divine service. The symbolism is in each and every part, with different degrees of applications and types of the larger Divine Service. The substitutionary relation between the soul and sin, the animal and offering, the ransom and redemption and all the particulars are to be understood as looking back to the Fall and looking forward to Messiah. The work of the Holy Spirit is comprehensive and complex in the work of judgment and salvation. Thus the need for priesthood is manifest that could be a basis of the Law; on one hand to vindicate a holy God (Divine satisfaction and reconciliation by atonement or covering), and on the other hand meet the sinner’s need (forgiveness and restitution by payment or purchase)
The Aaronic Priests with the garments, anointing oil, bullock of the sin-offering, two rams, basket of unleavened bread, are to assemble with Moses and Israel at the door of the Tent before the Lord. Aaron and his sons are to wash, dressed with girdle, robe, and Ephod and its band; with breastplate and the Urim and Thummim, and with the mitre or holy crown with its golden plate. Moses anointed with the anointing oil the Tabernacle and all in it, and sanctified them, and he applied the oil 7 times to the altar, anointing and sanctifying it and its vessels, and the laver and its base; he did all this exactly as the Lord instructed. The Aaronic priests put their hands on the head of the bullock for sin-offering, and it was killed, and its blood applied to the horns of the altar with his finger to purify it; the blood was poured out at base of the altar to sanctify make atonement. The fat of the inwards, caul of the liver, the two kidneys and their fat, was burned or cooked on the altar. The bullock and its skin, flesh, and excrement were burnt with fire outside the camp. In like manner was offered the ram of burnt-offering, with some changes. Likewise the ram of consecration with its peculiarities, as the blood applied to the priests’ thumbs and great toes, and the unleavened cake, a cake of oiled bread, and a wafer placed on the fat and the right thigh, then all these items carried as a wave-offering waived before the Lord, then was burnt with the burnt-offering, as a consecration for a sweet smell as a fire offering to the Lord. So too was done with the breast of the ram of consecration as a waive-offering as Moses’ portion. The oil and blood sprinkled on priests and garments, and then the flesh was boiled at Tent’s door, and was eaten with the bread from the basket of consecration. Nothing was to remain, but consumed by fire. The priests are restricted for the 7 days of their consecration to stay at the Tent’s door to do service to make atonement. After the 7 days of the Priests’ Consecration, the Elders of Israel must offer a sin-offering and a burnt-offering, also sacrifice of peace-offerings and grain-offerings, on behalf of the people, at the Tent’s entrance, so that the glory of the Lord might appear. Then priests offered the offerings according to the ceremonial rules. The people saw His glory and shouted and worshipped.
Nadab and Abihu, Aaron’s sons, took their censors with fire and offered strange fire to the Lord which was not commanded, so the Lord’s fire devoured them. Moses told Aaron that this was done because the Lord must be sanctified by all those appearing before Him, and be glorified before the people. Moses had other Levites remove the bodies from the Sanctuary outside the camp; and he ordered that the Aaronic priests must not grieve for the dead rebels lest they die, but the house of Israel may mourn the burning death which the Lord kindled. The priests must stay during the week of their consecration by the oil of anointing. Aaronic priests are to abstain from all alcohol for they are holy and clean, and are to teach Israel the Lord’s statutes. Further rules are given the Aaronic priests as the eating of the grain-offerings, the waive-breast offering, and heave-thigh offering, all to be eaten in a clean place and shared by their family members. Now Aaron’s other sons, Eleazar and Ithamar, did not eat of the goat of the sin-offering, and Moses was angry at them for not bearing the iniquity of the congregation to make atonement, but Aaron replied that after offering the sin and burnt offering after the death of his sons would it please the Lord to also eat of these offerings, and Moses agreed.
Next follows the ceremonial and dietary laws concerning the clean and unclean animals that may or may not be eaten by Israel; and of fishes; and of birds; and also of insects and reptiles. The unclean animals and creatures in death contaminate or defiles and they must wash and remain unclean till evening. And whatever objects come in contact with any unclean carcass, and the article must be washed and remain unclean till eve. Earthen containers contaminated by contact with an unclean carcass must be broke; and all its contents is unclean. Exceptions are fountains and wells of flowing waters. And there are other such restrictions and applications. All these laws are given to sanctify them to be holy for the Lord their God is holy. They must not defile themselves with the unclean. This is the Law of Clean or Unclean Creatures.
Women who give birth to sons are unclean for 7 days, and the child circumcised on the 8th day, then she shall continue in her blood purification for another 33 days, during which she must not the holy things, or come in the Sanctuary. If a woman bears a daughter, she is unclean for two weeks and then continues for another 66 days. After the days of her purification she must bring a lamb a year old as a burnt-offering and young pigeon and a dove as a sin-offering to the tent, and the priest offers it to make atonement for her, and she will be cleansed from the fountain of her blood. This is the Law of Child-bearing Purification.
Then follows the Law of the Plague of Leprosy in garments of wool or linen, warp or woof (twist or weave), of skin or leather, to pronounce it clean or unclean. The details and symptoms of the plague and disease of Leprosy is given at great length, the early appearance as rising, scab, bright spot then the priest must examine it carefully and determine if really is a infectious leprosy, and if so he is unclean, and if not he is clean. If it cannot be readily determined as contagion leprosy then he is to be quarantined for 7 days, then if it has not spread, another 7 days of quarantine, and then reexamined, and if it still has not spread, but diminish, then he is clean, for it is not contagion leprosy. If it later reappears and spread, he is a unclean leper. There are many kinds of leprosy, different stages of the disease, and different symptoms. The priest must examine carefully and isolate it that it does not spread. Old leprosy is declared always unclean. If the leprosy breaks out all over the body and turns white the leper is clean and not contagious; but if any raw flesh appears, he must be pronounced unclean leper, and if the raw flesh disappears again the priest must reexamine him and declare him again clean. So too are the rules for scall like leprosy; along with leprosy-like conditions or infections of the scalp or skin; or baldness appearances; or head infections. A leper’s clothes must be torn and his hair loose and he must cover his upper lip and announce ‘Unclean’! ‘Unclean’! And he must live alone outside the camp. In like manner a plague in the leper’s clothes or articles must be examined, quarantined, and declared clean or unclean. Clothes with a fretting leprosy must be destroyed by fire. So is the doctrine of leprosy in ceremonial holiness in declaring what and when it is unclean or clean.
(We are searching Scripture in our survey and reflections; we pass over many things which we encounter in these chapters and books (as the Federal Headship of Aaron for his House and for the Nation as the High Priest, just as Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Israel stood for the entire People; this hermeneutically, is a principle of the part for the whole, the one for many, and also the reverse); some things will be noticed in the last book of Moses’ Torah, and other things will occur in later books, and of course the New Testament. The Jewish Tradition as found in Mishnah and Talmud is developed from these words of laws and rules, of regulations and instructions, and of many such things stated or inferred. We will have reason to reply and respond to these traditions as we move through the Old Testament and come to the New.)
Next is the Law of Issues or Bodily Flows and of Sexual Emissions, of Female Impurity and Menstrual Contact. The male uncleanness or impurity of bodily fluids, flows, issues, discharges, and emissions are always unclean, and all contact of persons or things constitute defilement, and such must be washed and bathed or be destroyed and remain unclean till evening. One week after his cleansing, on the 8th day, he must present a sacrifice or oblation before the Lord as a sin and burnt offering for his atonement. So too is female uncleanness and impurity of flesh and menstruation, and sexual and non-sexual contacts.
The Aaronic Priests are never to approach the Holy Place beyond the Veil before the Mercy-seat on the Ark, lest they die when the Lord appears in a Cloud on the Mercy-seat. He must present for himself and his house, two sacrifices for sin and burnt offering, be clothed with breeches and girded and with the mitre; dressed in his holy garments after bathing. Then two male-goats for Israel as a sin and burnt offering; and present them before the Lord. Aaron to cast lots for the two goats, one for Jehovah and one for Az-azel (scape-goat, exiled-goat, banished-goat, that is to remove or send away); the Lord’s goat is to be offered as sin-offering, but the goat of Azazel must be alive before the Lord for his atonement, and sent-away into the desert for Azazel. The bullock of sin-offering for atonement to be killed; and a censer full of fire coals, with fine ground sweet incense, and enter through the veil, put the incense on the fire so that the cloud of incense covers the mercy-seat on the Testimony, that he may not die. The blood of the sacrifice is to be applied by his finger to the mercy-seat on the east side and sprinkled 7 times before the mercy-seat. In like manner the goat of sin-offering for the people is to be offered. Thus, atonement is made for the Holy Place for Israel’s uncleanness of transgressions and all their sins, for the Tent of Meeting which dwells amid their filth and defilements. None but the High Priest must enter within the Veil to make atonement; afterwards he must go out to the Altar before the Lord and atone for it and apply the blood of the two sacrifices on the horns of the Altar, then sprinkle the blood 7 days to cleanse and hallow. After this the live goat’s head must be covered with both hands and to confess over it all Israel’s iniquities, transgressions, and all their sins; then the goat is to be escorted out to the desert, to carry all their iniquities to a solitary place in the desert. The High Priest shall then remove the garments, and wash himself, and then offer the burnt-offering for himself and the people for atonement. The fat of the sin-offering to be burnt on the altar, the goat’s escort must wash his clothes and bathed his flesh before returning to the camp. The remnant of the sacrifices, skin, flesh and dung, burnt with fire outside the camp, and the one doing it must wash and bathe before returning. This is a perpetual statute in the 7th month, 10th day, is the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) for souls to be afflicted, rest from work for all, to atone and cleanse for Israel’s sins, to cleanse them before the Lord. This is a Sabbath of Solemn Rest, a High Sabbath forever. The anointed high priest consecrated in Aaron’s place shall be dressed in holy garments to make atonement for the Holy Sanctuary and the Tent of Meeting (Congregation, Assembly, and Gathering), and for the Altar and priests and people. This is an everlasting statute once year as the Day of Atonement or Yom Kippur.
The Lord by Moses added other rules and laws concerning killing of animals by the people for sacrifices, its blood must be presented to the Lord at the Tent, or it will be imputed as blood guilt and he must be cut off from his people. All sacrifices must be offered by the priests at the Tent as prescribed. Israel must not sacrifice to he-goats as harlots of idolatry. The life of the flesh is its blood; the blood atones for the soul because it is life, thus no blood may be eaten or consumed, but it must be poured out and covered with dirt. What dies of itself, and then eaten, makes unclean; and he must wash and bathe and remain unclean till eve, or he is guilty. Israel must not be like the Egyptians or the Canaanites to practice their statutes, but must practice the Lord’s statutes and ordinances, that a man may live in them. Abstain from uncovering the nakedness of all close relatives or next of kin, by blood or law. Abstain from marriage of both sisters while both are still living; and from sexual contact with a woman while impure by uncleanness; and from defilement of adultery; nor sacrifice a child to Molech; nor profane God’s name; nor detestable defiling bestiality of confusion. These and the like are the practices and customs of the Canaanites by which the land and the people are disgustingly defiled, for which cause the Lord visits them to drive them out and destroy them, and the land vomits them. Rather they are to be holy for the Lord is holy; and to fear and honor their parents; to keep the Sabbaths; nor turn to or make idols. They must not eat of the sacrifices on the 3rd day and so profane the holy things; it must be eaten on the day offered. Leave some of their gleanings for the poor and traveler. Such and many like laws are given to Israel to observe, such as stealing, lying, false witness, gossip, hatred by silence, vengeance, love of country and neighbor; and also breeding, sowing, mixed clothing or fabrics, fornication, slaves, and the like; as shaving, body cuttings or piercings and tattoos ; of prostitution, and Sabbaths and the Sanctuary; of witchcraft or the occult which defiles; honor the aged, love the alien; of righteousness in weights and measures, and the like. These prohibitions and injunctions are again repeated by extensions and specifications, to expose idolatry and immorality, as infanticide to Molech, fornication and adultery, witchcraft and demonic doctrines and practices. The relations of individuals and society, of kin and neighbors, of age and gender, and many things related to human living of a divine chosen nation related to the Lord their God.
` The various laws and rules are given concerning the priests as those before of the people. The priests are restricted and limited in matters of marriage, defilement of the dead, appearance, conduct, status, service, morality, and the like; and the high priests are further restricted and limited by legal rules and regulations. The Aaronic Priests are to separate themselves from the Holy Things of Israel which are sanctified to the Lord; they must not profane the Lord’s holy name. They must not approach or serve in uncleanness or they will be cut off; a leper may not partake of holy things; and like instructions as in the previous classes. Rules are given as to eating of holy things, the penalties of violations, and such matters, as the condition of the sacrifices offered, and the various classes of offerings. The set Feasts of the Lord are to be proclaimed to be Holy Convocations or Holy-Days or Sabbaths. First, the Passover on 1st month and 15th day; second, the Feast of No-Leaven or No-Yeast on 15th-21st of 1st month; third, the Feast of Harvest of First-fruits, reaping and bringing the sheaves; fourth, the Feast of the First-fruits 49 days or 7 weeks after the Feast of Harvest, celebrated with sacrifices, 7 lambs and leavened bread or yeast bread, with the one burnt-offering and meal and drink offerings, and one sin-offering, and two peace-offerings; a wave-offering, it is a special Holy Sabbath, a Holy Convocation (Miqra-Qodesh, qodesh or kodesh is holy, but miqra is a gathering or meeting or assembly, from qara to cry or call or read, whence qere Hebrew textual variants, whence also Arabic Quran.). The fifth feast is Yom Kippur or Day of Atonement in the 7th month and the 1st day to the 10th day, 1st day a Sabbath, the 9th and 10th day every soul must be afflicted and grieved, it is a Sabbath. The sixth feast is the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths (Succoth) in the 7th month from the 15th day to the 21st day, the 1st day and the 8th day a Sabbath, Israel must dwell in Booths during this week of the Feast, in memory of the Exodus. These are the Feast Days besides the weekly Sabbaths. These are the 7 holy set Feasts of Jehovah for Israel.
Then there are laws and rules for the lamps of the pure Lampstand to burn continually with pure refined olive oil; and those of the pure Table having 12 loaves or cakes of baked fine flour; and pure frankincense on the two rows of cakes or loaves. When an Israelite blasphemes the Name of the Lord God, (as in the case of the son of a Danite woman, Shelomith of Dibri), the blasphemer must be stoned to death, by those who heard him, along with all the assembly, outside the camp. Also, laws of murder, and of killing animals, are based on life for life, equal retaliation or retribution, and just compensation. There must also be a Sabbath for the Land, after 6 years of sowing and pruning and harvesting then the 7th year must be a holy Sabbath for the land to remain unploughed and unreaped; but all may partake of what grows of itself without human labor or cultivation. Also 7 Sabbaths of years must be counted, that is 7 times 7 or 49 years, then in the 7th month on the 10th day, even the Day of Atonement, it must be proclaimed with trumpets throughout the land of Israel, to hallow the 50th Year of Liberty for all, the Year of Jubilee, and all must return to their native tribe and family, and celebrate the Jubilee as a special Holy Sabbath, partaking of the natural production and increase of the land. All sales of persons and properties must be returned to its original owners at the fair price based on the Year of Jubilee. If Israel observe and obey all the words of the Lord in His statutes and ordinances they will be blest and dwell in safety, even the 6th and the 8th year will yield more. Redemption and restoration of persons and possessions must be allowed according to value and laws, but no Israelite must be kept in slavery beyond 6 years or when the Jubilee occurs. The Levites must be allowed to redeem all their possessions at any time they desire; but the field of their suburbs must not ever be sold. Also a poor brother of Israel must be treated kindly, even as the stranger and sojourner, fearing God, to allow the poor brother to live and improve; he is not to be charged with interest, or increased price, or such things, but to remember that they were delivered out of Egypt and given Canaan; he must not become a slave but only a hired-servant; and then he and his family must be released in the Year of Jubilee, for they are the Lord’s servants. No mistreatment to the poor brother by enslaving him; but the non-Israelite may be bought or sold as slaves, and a poor Israelite that is enslaved by a foreigner must be redeemed by his brethren or near kin or by himself, and must be freed by redemption in the Jubilee; his service is as a hired-servant not as a slave; the children of Israel are the Lord’s delivered servants.
Israel must have no idols of any sort, and must keep the Sabbaths, and reverence the Sanctuary; must obey the Lord and He will bless with rain and increase the crops and make Israel to prosper; He will give peace and security; the beasts will cease as well as the sword. Israel will be stronger than their more numerous enemies. The Lord will be favorable to Israel and establish His covenant and make their food supply plenty. He will set up His Tabernacle and dwell as God with His people; who He saved and made upright to serve Him. But if Israel becomes rebellious and break His covenant then the Lord will turn against Israel as an enemy to vex and destroy them, to plague and enslave them; and if they repent not He will punish them 7 times more for their sins. He will break the pride of their power and harden the heavens; and with many such evils will visit them; He will reduce them to poverty and misery, to starvation and terror, to wars and captivity, to destroy all their idolatry and their cities, and scatter them to all the Gentiles, even to utter desolation. Even the surviving remnant will despair in dismay at their enemies for all Israel’s sins and trespass against the Lord. And if they turn and confess for their trespass against Him and are humbled and accept the punishment for their wickedness, then the Lord will remember His covenant with the Patriarchs and the land, and will not reject or abhor them utterly, for He is their God. These are the statutes and ordinances and laws of His covenant with Israel at Sinai. When a vow is accomplished, the estimation must be made from those 20-60 years of age according to the sanctuary-shekel, 50 shekels for males, 30 shekels for females; and vows for children from 5-20 shall be estimated at 20 for boys, and 10 for girls. Vows for infants from one month to 5 years of age are estimated or valued at boys at 5 shekels, and for girls 3 shekels. Vows for those above 60 must be valued at 15 shekels for men, and 10 shekels for women. Those too poor to pay the standard price, must be revalued by the priest according to their ability to pay. Vows for animals, clean or unclean, good or bad, a clean sacrifice must be offered according to the vow, but an unclean animal must be valued by the priest and his estimation must stand. An animal sacrifice may be redeemed if 1/5th the value (20%) is added to the estimation. When an Israelite sanctify or consecrate his house by a vow, good or bad, the priest must value it and if redeemed its price valued with additional 20% added to it. In like manner vows of sanctification of fields and crops; but unredeemed fields of a vow must not be freed in jubilee but will be devoted as holy to the Lord and belong to the priest; but an exception is made for purchased fields for another’s ownership, it shall return to the seller in the Jubilee. No firstling of clean animals shall ever be sanctified by a vow for it belongs to the Lord; but unclean firstlings may be ransomed according to estimation of the priest, and 20% added to the price. No devoted or banned (cherem= to ban, devote to destruction, to cut off, as in contraband) thing by vow, of man or beast or his own inherited field shall ever be sold or redeemed for they are most holy to the Lord; no man devoted or banned shall be ransomed but must be put to death. The Tithe (1/10) of the land and its produce is holy to the Lord, and if redeemed must pay 20% more; so too of animals and must not be redeemed.

The Book of Leviticus as Moses III, like the Book of Exodus, is filled with countless types and shadows, looking back to Genesis and looking forward to the rest of Scripture, and most significantly to the New Testament and Messiah. Its Divine Theme as before and ever after in the Word is Judgment and Salvation, the Fall of Man in Adam met with in many ways and words, laws and rules, statutes and ordinances, but established by blood of sacrifices and oblations offered to Divine instructions and commands, and all which is related to the Sanctuary as God’s Tabernacle and its Service or Ministry of the Priesthood. The lessons are valid realities but of temporary significance as will unfold in the progression of God moving in the world among His people. All the Sacrifices and Offerings though many are all one and the same, the body and blood one, the soul and life one, and thus portray One Sacrifice and the One Offering in the Divine Service. Many of these matters are therefore treated in the Book of Hebrews in the New Testament. The animals of herds and flocks, of fowls, of grain and crops are all for one thing a temporary reconciliation or atonement for sin and sinner to live in the presence of a holy and righteous God, that His virtues of grace and mercy, goodness and kindness, His forgiveness and friendship, peace and fellowship, and so much more as required in different relations and conditions or cases, flow freely and properly from the Creator to the Creature, from the Lord to Israel, and from God to the World.
We have already remarked before and above that there are many ongoing developments of significance and applications to spiritual things reflected by natural things, in different forms and degrees. The Offerings in whatever form and for whatever reason all lead to the same thing, namely back to God. The offerings as wholly burnt, sin, trespass, peace, grain, wave, heave, and all such, are for the same things; and the condition of man or woman, the old and the young, known and unknown, of Israel or Gentile, are also the same, whether sins or uncleanness, or impurities and diseases, all are one in nature and truth in regards to God. We are past the middle of the Torah with the 4th Book of Moses to complete the 1st divine finger of the Bible hands, and to advance to the 2nd. We have a picture of the daily ceremonial routine based on the people’s living and giving in the wilderness, anticipating the settlement in the good land. But God must test and train them regarding warfare with the enemies of God, and to grow within them all that is of Him and for Him. As with Genesis and Exodus there are thousands of other details that we could consider but have no need in these reflections, to venture out, in seeking the Word as the Mirror to show God as He wishes to be seen and to show us as we are.

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Christian Biblical Reflections.8

((Here pages 99-124 are given, I have reread the pages 1-99 and edited and corrected many small errors of spelling and syntax, a few doctrinal matters were clarified. With this submission and post we complete the Book of Genesis, and after the extra matters are added and dealt with, we will treat Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers together as a unit, attached to Genesis and preparatory to Deuteronomy. I still intend to follow my aim of monthly installments in increments as I finish each section. A final note to readers, the outline is intentionally not yet created, nor Table of Contents prepared; the method adhered to will be that the 10 Key Books will dictate our journey and survey with reflections; thus those Key Books as well as all the Bible Books will be given in CAPITAL LETTERS, all other outline titles or headings are treated as regular or non-emphatic titles and descriptions. I have added the Chapter references to help in that regard. Grace. mjm.))

GENESIS: Chapters 11-25: Generations of Shem and of Terah: Abram-Abraham:

Shem is 100 years old, his son Arpachshad was born 2 years after the Flood. We see a change in the chronology of the generations and are not told why or anything else about the calendars of those days. The decrease of longevity is about 50%, and Noah’s age, using biblical chronology as Ussher and many others have done, like Bullinger, who in his Companion Bible, Appendix 50.viii, charts Noah’s death (at 950 yrs. Of age) 2 years before Abraham’s birth, while Shem (who by some Jewish and Christian traditions and stories, is identified as Melchizedek) continues to live over another 150 years, and dies when Abraham was 150 years of age, at which time he marries Keturah. But of these biblical chronologies and calendars we have forewarned the believers and readers to beware. The generations from Shem to Abram are 14, with notices of each of the patriarchs or fathers who had sons and daughters which are not named. The period thus occupies some two centuries or more from the Flood to Babel to Abram. Genesis is silent as to the human progress in all the features that constitute culture and civilization.
The Generations of Terah, a patriarch, the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran (Lot’s father), commences with Abram’s history and biography. We are brought to the land of Ur of the Chaldees (Kas’dim), that is, to Shinar and Sumer. We are told that Terah’s sons marries their half-sisters, and that Terah had two or more wives. Further, Terah migrated from Ur of Chaldea to-ward the land of Canaan, stopping and settling in Haran, where he died at 205 years of age. Again, we note that the longevity of the patriarchs’ lives or age continues to shorten, again by some 50%. The Generations of Terah continues in Abram, but Abram’s generations are not signified as separate, but his divine call by the Lord (YHWH) is recorded. It appears that Abram’s call was while he was still in Ur, but we are not told clearly, and that after Terah’s death he migrated, according to the divine call, to Canaan, with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, and all their belongings and animals and souls. The Divine Call was about a land, a nation, and blessing, and a curse and promises made by the Lord, that all the families of the earth might be blessed in Abram. Abram was 75 when he left Haran of Mesopotamia and settled in Canaan at Shechem, at the Oak of Moreh, among the Canaanites. Again, the Lord appeared (-year’, from ra’ah; 1st occur.) to him with another promise of Canaan to be the inheritance of Abram’s seed, that is, the Hebrews and Israel who will descend from him. Abram’s altar to the Lord is a testimony amidst idolatry and apostasy, and he will continue his witness of the Lord wherever he sojourned, calling upon the name of the Lord (beshem Yehowah). Abram was a pilgrim in a strange land among strangers in blood and faith.
We see Abram as a rich patriarch of a large family or clan, but not as a tribal chief or sheikh, and he journeyed to the South of Negeb, from Beersheba and south of the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. The famine forced or compelled him to migrate to Egypt, but with great fear for his life and wife, he solicited Sarai, who was still attractive, to represent herself as his sister, which in fact, she was his half-sister by same father but not same mother. His fear proved true, the Egyptians and their princes (sarey, 1st occur., compare with Sarai’s name) praised (y’hallu, 1st occur., and compare with hallelu- in the Book of Psalms) her to Pharaoh the King, and she was made to stay in the royal house. Though he treated Abram favorably for Sarai, yet the Lord plagued his house, to prevent violation. When the cause and truth was discovered Pharaoh was upset, but yielded to the divine judgment, and released Abram and his wife and what belonged to him, being escorted out of Egypt. He returned to the Negeb, then revisited the places of the altars he erected to the Lord. Lot was with him, and both were very prosperous, so that they had to part company, and lot choosing to settle in the Plain of Jordan of Sodom and Gomorrah, like a well-watered garden, before they were destroyed. But the Sodomites were very depraved and against the Lord. We are given a picture of Abram’s world that shows humanity in progress and decline, making cities, establishing government and kingship, with social customs that indicates moral confusion. We see sexual vices, slavery and bondage, prejudice, violence, and idolatry. The world of Terah and of Abram was filled with immense advancement of man’s dominance on the earth. The ethnic diversity was already very prominent on a small scale, but was soon to grow ever larger, and spread very far. We will afterwards examine that world from extant records, such as the Code of Hammurabi.
But the Lord intervenes and interacts to bring the Patriarch into His dispensational and covenantal plans. The Lord reaffirms to Abram the promise of inheritance of the land of Canaan, to him and his seed for-ever ((‘adh– ‘olam; this is the 3rd occur., 1st occur., Gen.3:22, and 2nd occur., in Gen. 6:3; the meaning, then the idea and doctrine, of ever, age, and eternal, must be learnt from biblical usage)). The promise asserts Abram’s descendants, his seed, will be innumerable; and he is to occupy the land of promise. So, Abram resides in Hebron. At that time, in the days of Amraphel King (melek; 1st occur) of Shinar, Arioch King of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, and Tidal King of Goiim (Nations, Gentiles), 4 Kings in a northern-eastern confederacy or league against 5 Kings in a southern-western confederacy, consisting of the Kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Bela or Zoar. This war took place in the Valley of Siddim or the Salt Sea (Dead Sea), because of a rebellion or refusal after 13 years to pay tribute in their treaty or service to Chedorlaomer of Elam, which was the King of the Kings. This foreign alliance and dominance against the local or Canaanite kings and cities was also carried out throughout the western land or country of Canaan, both to the west and east of the Jordan River, against the Rephaim, Zuziim, Emim, and the Horites; that is the conflicts and invasion covered the entire land of promise, from Dan to Beersheba, and beyond, and from the Great Sea to the Dead Sea to Mesopotamia. It was an expansion of the Mesopotamian power and civilization to dominate and subjugate the Canaanite lands and people. Abram is strategically positioned to participate in this crisis and conflict in the battle of his divine inheritance. The defeat of the Kings of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the capture of his nephew Lot, was reported to Abram who was in league with the Amorites; and who with them, and 318 of his own servants, pursued the foreign hosts northward to Dan and then east of Damascus, and by night, strategically defeated them, recovering the captives and the goods. On his return from the slaughter, the King of Sodom met him in the King’s Valley; and Melchizedek (Malki-Tzedek) King of Salem (Melek Shalem) brought bread and wine as Priest (Khohen, Kohen, Cohen; 1st occur.) of God Most-High (le’El ‘Elyon). Here God as Lord is related to the Patriarchs as EL Elyon and El Shaddai, and not as Elohim or Jehovah. Melchizedek a Gentile Priest, whether a Hebrew or not, is not of the people and family that God is creating from Abram and the other Patriarchs. The King of Salem blessed Abram and the Highest God, Who as Owner and Sovereign of all, gave Abram victory of his enemies, which was according to the covenantal dispensational promise of blessings to those who blessed Abram, and curses to those who cursed him. And Abram tithed to him of the goods recovered. We will reflect on this at the close of Genesis and explore more hidden things of mystery and history. But the King of Sodom wished to repay Abram by only taking the souls or persons (Heb.: nephesh,1st occurs in Gen. 1:20, and frequently afterwards; here for the 1st time translated or refers to persons as men or people, an important development), and Abram to keep the recovered goods or booty; but Abram refused claiming he has prayed and sworn to the Lord (YHWH) Most High God to take nothing, lest it be said: ‘I made Abram rich’.
We see in the patriarchal dispensation in the new covenantal relationship that Word of the Lord (D’bar–Y’howah, 1st occur.) after these things or words (had-debarim, 1st occur.) came to Abram in a vision (machazeh, 1st occur.) as the Shield (Magen) and the Great Rewarder (Sechar Rebbeh). He relates to the Lord God, or more literal, Adonai Y’howah, (1st occurrence of Adonai and of Adonai YHWH together), that his heir is likely to be his house-born servant Eliezer of Damascus, but the Lord, as Jehovah, by His Word, in relation to the man Abram, negates this claim, and predicts that Abram’s heir will be a son born from his own body ((bowels, loins, etc., the idea of man as flesh, was not yet developed to see the body as a distinct thing, just like the idea of dead-body as a corpse (Heb. peger) was viewed as the dead, a dead man, and so too with other expressions as heart and reins and womb)). And the Lord reaffirmed the covenantal promise of blessing to him; and Abram believed in the Lord (YHWH), Who credited it to him as righteousness (1st occur., but righteous already was used in Gen. 6:9 and 7:1 of Noah). Now the Lord in His dispensational relations to Abram as the patriarch, called and led to inherit the promises. Abram wishes a clearer confirmation and sign, which was provided in a sacrifice which Abram was in deep dreadful sleep without participation and witness to the Word: “thy seed (the Hebrews and Israel) shall be sojourners (pilgrims) in a strange land (first Canaan then Egypt) not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them 400 years; and also that nation (Egypt), whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance. But thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in good old-age (grey-hair, hoary-head). And in the 4th generation (Abram, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph) they shall come hither again; for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet full.” And while Abram slept, the Lord renewed His covenant of the promised land extending from the River of Egypt to the great River Euphrates, of the 10 nations occupying the land; and so, a smoking furnace and a flaming torch passed between the pieces of the sacrifice and offering. And the dispensational relations established in the patriarchal age between God and His chosen people was unilateral; for the creation, judgment, and salvation of His people was completely up to God to bring about. Which looking back to the creation week, the garden of Eden, and after the flood, we see several seeds and details of principles which must germinate and sprout out of the death, fall, and ruin of one generation to the other generation. We have man’s dominion over the earth and the animals of creation, that is over the world, he is to subdue the earth and utilize it to grow and expand, which continued ceaselessly up to the time of the Patriarchs, and afterwards continues to the very present. Man, in the Garden had a dispensation related to that home and place, but his fall and the judgment that followed, brought about a change in his disposition and nature, hence his position changed, or altered, and his enemy would compete with him for the dominance of the earth and life, and man’s nature would feed his craze. The enmity exists, by divine governance, between him and the woman, and she as the mother, then as mankind, then as a nation or synagogue or church. But the Seed of the Woman will be the ultimate and final Enmity, which in the national (Israel) and the corporate (the Church) man or body will terminate the conflict and enmity; this is the judgment of God. The order of human existence in the new world in contrast to the Garden will constitute dispensationally a hierarchy of the female’s humiliation or subordination to the male, in her weakness and maternal function and nature, and the patriarchal system would prevail. Man, as a man is bound to the cursed earth, the ground for his survival and living, a struggle to prevail against nature and death. So, in the flood, the old world ending in judgment and death, man now must be ordered, regulated, and delegated into a system or society, and all such like things that is identified and named, to bring mankind via the nations unto the maturity as a global or worldwide family in which God can dispensationally enter a different relationship with man, and by covenant and intervention complete the divine drama of salvation. This is what we see unfolding here with Abram the Hebrew and will continue in Isaac and Jacob-Israel.
Sarai was barren, and the infertility frustrated her to suggest a remedy in using her Egyptian servant woman, or slave, Hagar, to be a surrogate mother to have children by Abram; who yielded to this suggestion; he already was in Canaan now 10 years. The outcome was bad, and a pregnant maid despised her mistress, and the mistress would punish and mistreat the surrogate mother, who in turn runs away, towards Egypt by way of the Desert of Shur. This unfair abuse, in turn, requires the Lord (YHWH) as the Angel of Jehovah to meet her in a Theophany, a divine manifestation, real and visible and human. Here we must seriously reflect on the Divine Revelation given to us in Genesis. This is the 1st occurrence of angel or messenger, in Hebrew malak or malac (other variants are melek, which makes it confused with the word for ‘king’), and it occurs in this chapter 4 times, each time as ‘angel of the Lord’. The Divine Messenger as the Lord’s Angel was really and truly the Lord Himself, now Jehovah manifest, not by word or in dream or trance, but in Person as an Angel or a Divine Being as a Spiritual Person or Man. We cannot escape the Text, the Angel appears just like we read of the Lord in the Garden of Eden, and there He walked in the Garden in the cool afternoon, and confronted Adam and Eve and the Serpent. Here He intervenes to save Hagar, and interacts with her as El Shaddai, which we will soon see in Genesis 17, but here the dispensational covenant necessitates blessing Hagar for blessing Abram, at Sarai’s expense. He promises her that He will cause her seed, as the seed of the woman, a dispensational meaning often overlooked and not understood, to become innumerable, that her son is to be named Ishmael (Yishma‘el, Yishma-El, meaning ‘God’ as ‘El and Jehovah’, as the Lord’s Angel, ‘heard (shama‘) thy affliction). This compassion and nurturing as a mother nurses and nurtures her child is made manifest in the Age of the Patriarchs. He has bound Himself to His people, to Abram, and to Abram’s seed, also to the seed of the woman, and thus Hagar and her seed in Ishmael is to be blessed and saved. Ishmael will be a wild donkey among men, against all and all against him, dwelling facing and opposing his brethren, in families, tribes, and nations. The Arabs are Ishmaelites, and the Arabs are here spoken of, first the ancient Arabs, and then the modern Arabs or Muslims of Islam. This theophany, of Jehovah who spoke the word to her, to Hagar, is recorded thus: “Thou art God Who sees (’El Ro‘I, El-Roi, El-Roy): for she said, ‘Have I even here looked after Him Who sees me?’ And it is El Roy Who will throughout Arab history intervene and interact, dispensationally, to bring about all His intent and desire towards Abram’s seed. He showed to Hagar a well to meet her thirst, and she called it by the name: Beer-lahai-roi, and it is between Kadesh and Bered in the Wilderness of Shur. So, in Abram’s 86th year Hagar gave birth to Ishmael, Abram’s firstborn son.
When Abram was 99 years old, 13 years after Ishmael’s birth, the Lord appeared to Abram as El Shaddai (God Almighty, God Sufficient, God Who: nurtures, cares, nurses, with maternal qualities and attributes (see Gen. 49:25, and my remarks there); and Abram must walk perfected before Him; and renews the covenant as God (Elohim, because it is about creation). God will create and make in Abram and from Abram ‘multitude of nations’ (goiim) (and this term is a 1st occur.), but not as Abram, but now something new, with a new name, Abraham, an added letter and syllable, the 5th letter of the Hebrew Alphabet ‘heh’, the ‘h’, which may be seen in Psalm 119 under the 5th letter of the acrostic Psalm. From Abraham nations and kings will come, and his seed will retain the everlasting eternal covenant of God being the God of the Hebrews, the God of Abraham, and Isaac, and Israel; and as God He gives them the land of Canaan for inheritance. But this covenant in the dispensation of the times and ages of the generations requires a conditional obligation, a law and command, male circumcision, from the 8th day after a male is born, whether free or bond, native or alien, relative or stranger; for the covenant will reside forever in the flesh. The uncircumcised, the foreskin not removed, has violated the covenant, and must be outcast. And God, again as Creator, changes Sarai to Sarah by substitution of the ‘Yod’, the Hebrew 10th letter (see Psalm 119), with the ‘Heh’, the 5th letter, same as in Abraham. His promise is to bless her, she will have a son named Isaac., she will have nations and peoples; and Ishmael will father 12 princes (n’si‘im, from iy‘, chief, ruler, sheikh, etc.), and will be a great nation; but in Isaac will the Lord’s covenant reside, who will be born next year. God (Elohim, for He will create the impossible, of an old woman given birth) departed after His talk with Abraham, which implies a Theophany. Abraham, Ishmael, and all males of Abraham’s house.
Another Theophany is related in the Sacred Text. Abraham was resting in his tent at home at Oaks of Mamre in the heat of the day, he saw 3 men (’anashim, as in Enosh, from ish, male in contrast to female, a man in contrast to a woman) across the way, he ran to them and bowed at their feet. He called one of them ‘my lord’ (’adonai) inviting him to feast with ‘thy servant’ and taking hospitality; then he appeals to the 3 men to stay a few hours. He has Sarah quickly prepare bread and meat for a meal for the guests, his visitors. While they ate he stood under the tree watching them; and they asked where Sarah was, and he said she was in the tent. One of the three said: ‘I will certainly return this time next year, and Sarah will have a son; (both Abraham and Sarah were very old (zeqenim, from zaqen. 1st occur.) Sarah overheard and laughed (tzchaq, whence Isaac) at the impossibility of the promise; then Jehovah (the Visitor, the Ish, is now revealed as God Incarnate as Man) asked why Sarah laughed that an old woman to give birth to a baby, is anything too hard for Jehovah? Sarah denied laughing, but he repeated: ‘you did laugh’. The men got up, facing Sodom, and Abraham accompanied them; and Jehovah considered Abraham greatness and privilege dispensationally, that ‘Abraham will command his children and household to keep Jehovah’s way, to do righteousness and justice; that He may fulfill all His promises and purposes’. Jehovah said that He heard the cry and sins of Sodom and Gomorrah were very grievous, and He wanted to see if it really was so. The two men headed towards Sodom, but Abraham stood together, Jehovah looking, and Abraham asked the Lord, as the Judge of all the earth, if He intends to kill the righteous with the wicked, even if the city only has 50 righteous people; and He said He would spare the city for the 50 righteous sake, and Abraham continues to plead and negotiate with Jehovah in increments of 5 down to 10 righteous in the city, He continued promising to spare Sodom for the ten’s sake. Jehovah went His way, and Abraham returned to his tent.
The men are now called angels or messengers, they arrived in Sodom in the evening, Lot saw them while he sat at the Gate of Sodom, and he invited them to dine and stay the night at his house. They wanted to stay out in the streets, but they yielded to his request. Later, before retiring for the night, the men of Sodom, young and old from the entire city, surrounded the house and demanded the guests to be brought out to be known, that is to be used sexually, homosexually; Lot went outside to persuade them to not act so wickedly, and offered his two virgin daughters to satisfy their vile lusts, since the visitors have come under his roof for protection. They rejected his plea, saying that Lot came as a traveler and now wants to be a judge, now they will treat him worse than the men, and they attempted to break in. The men, that is, the angels, pulled him back inside and locked the door, then struck the men with blindness; Lot was told to get all his family and friends in the city together to leave before the city is destroyed by the Lord for their depravity and perversity. He tried to persuade his future sons-in-law engaged (married by engagement and arrangement) to his daughters, but they thought he was joking; so by morning the angels hurried Lot and his wife and his two daughters to escape from the city, but Lot lingered, so the angels took them all by the hands and brought them out of the city, and told them to flee to the mountains and do not look back, but Lot begged permission to escape to a little city, Zoar. The Lord (YHWH) rained fire and sulfur on Sodom and Gomorrah from the Lord (YHWH) out of heaven and destroyed cities and the nearby plain and everything living there. Lot’s wife looked back and was turned into a pillar of salt. Abraham got up early and looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah and the Plain and saw the smoke; and God remembered Abraham spared Lot from Sodom’s destruction. Lot soon left Zoar and he and his daughters lived in a cave. In time his daughters troubled that they would not be mothers and perpetuate the family, got their old (zaqen) father drunk and on separate occasions slept with their father without his awareness of the deed, and they both became pregnant by their father Lot; and the oldest gave birth to son named Moab (from-father), who became the father of the Moabites; and the younger gave birth to Ben-ammi (son-my-people), who became the father of the Ammonites. Thus, both daughters were mothers by incest, and the Moabites and Ammonites are related to Abraham’s seed of Ishmael and Isaac and Keturah’s children. This entire history and generation of Lot is a sad and heartbreaking picture of human depravity at many levels or grades. That God should so love man, care for His creatures is amazing; and He as El Shaddai, to nurse and nurture wayward man reveals a God very different than that of human invention or imagination. But we must not here consider these things till we see a larger picture still, and at the close of Genesis reflect more fully and properly.
Abraham continued his pilgrimage in the promised land, settling in the south near Gerar as you look towards Egypt; and Abraham told Abimelech, King of Gerar, that Sarah was his sister, and he took her to his house. God warned him in a dream he is a dead man if he didn’t return Sarah Abraham’s wife, he replied he didn’t know, and was innocent, to which He agreed, but also prevented him from doing so; but he must restore Sarah for Abraham is a prophet (nabi’ 1st occur.), and he will pray (palal, 1st occur. to intervene, intercede, and interpose, to negotiate) for his life. Abimelech and his servants confront and rebuke Abraham why he caused him and his kingdom great harm, and he answered that he thought the fear of God was not in the place, so he had his wife, who is his real half-sister, say she was his sister. The King restored Sarah along with great gifts animals and servants and permitted that he may dwell in the kingdom wherever he pleases unmolested, and to Sarah 1,000 pieces of silver, for her brother as a covering of the eyes (a veil) to respect and right. Abraham prayed, and God healed (rapha, 1st occur.) all of them, and they gave birth, since the Lord (YHWH, related to man in giving life, bearing children, etc.) had closed the wombs in Gerar for Sarah’s sake. Thus, the Lord visited Sarah according to His word, she conceived and gave birth to Isaac to old Abraham, 100 years old. He circumcised him on the 8th day; and Sarah said that God had made her to laugh. Isaac was weaned, few years later, and they celebrated. Sarah saw Ishmael (now 16 years of age, older or younger) the Egyptian Hagar’s son mocking so she insisted that Abraham cast out Hagar and Ishmael, for her son will never share Isaac’s inheritance. God instructs him to yield to Sarah, and not to be disheartened about Ishmael who will also become a great nation. He packs water and bread for Hagar and Ishmael and sends them away, and she roams in the Wilderness of Beer-Sheba (instead of heading towards Egypt), then the water runs out. She puts (cast, throw, and pushed, but this confuses my mind) the youth (child, misleads) in the shade, then sits a distance off awaiting his death, and she cries out in agony; God heard (shama‘, whence he was named Ishmael at birth) and the Angel of God (malak Elohim) from heaven asks Hagar what is wrong, do not worry, God has heard the boy’s voice, go help him up by the hand, for he will become a great nation. God opened her eyes to see a well of water, she gave her son a drink, and he lived, and grew, God was with him, and in the Wilderness of Paran he became an archer and his mother got him a wife from Egypt.
King Abimelech and his army captain Phicol acknowledged to Abraham God’s favor and made a treaty with him for mutual peace to extend to the King’s son and grandson. Abraham complained about the well that Abimelech’s servants took by force, unknown to the King; Abraham gave the sacrifices and they made a covenant, witnessed by 7 ewe lambs given as proof that Abraham dugged the well. The well was called Beer-Sheba (Oath-Well); Abimelech and his captain returned to the land of the Philistines. Then he planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba and called on the name of the Lord (YHWH), the Everlasting God (El Olam); and stayed in the land of the Philistines many days. Then after these words God proved (nasa, test, try, tempt, etc., only occur. in Gen.) Abraham by asking him to take his only beloved son Isaac (now grown) to the land of Moriah and sacrifice (’alah) him on one of the mountains that God tells him; 3 days later of traveling he arrives near the mountain. He tells his servants to wait till he and his son go worship and return; and he took the wood for the sacrifice, carried by Isaac, and carried the fire and the knife; and as they went Isaac asked about the sacrificial lamb, and he told him that God will provide for Himself a sacrifice ram. They arrived, and he built the altar, placed the wood, bound Isaac, put him on the altar on the wood, and took the knife to slay his son. But the Lord’s Angel from heaven told him not to harm the boy, for God knows he fears Him to the utmost. Abraham looked up to see a ram caught in the thicket by the horns, and he offered the ram in Isaac’s place, and he called the place Jehovah-jireh, it is said to this day (that is, in the time of Moses). ‘in Jehovah’s mount it is provided’. Again, the Lord’s Angel spoke to him that his obedience will be blessed, his posterity will be countless, and his descendants will possess their enemies’ gate, and in his seed all the nations and Gentiles of the earth will be blessed; and they all returned to Beersheba.
After these words, Abraham was told that Nahor’s wife Milcah gave birth to 8 sons, first, Uz and Buz, Kemuel the father of Aram, and last, Bethuel Rebekah’s father. Nahor’s concubine (1st occur.) Reumah gave birth to 4 sons. Sarah died in her 127th year, Abraham was 137, and Isaac was 27, at Kiriath-arba, later Hebron, in Canaan; and Abraham mourned in tears for Sarah. He requested to buy a burial ground from the Hethites, they replied that he is a lord and prince of God among them, and they offered him the best sepulcher instead, but Abraham entreated them to entreat Ephron Ben-Zohar for the cave of Machpelah and the field it was in for the full fair price. Ephron the Hittite offered as a gift both the field and the cave, but Abraham insisted on paying for it, Ephron said, what is a land worth only 400 shekels (1st occur.) of silver to us, so Abraham purchased the property for that sum, current with the merchant or traders (1st occur.). Thus, Abraham secured and deeded all the property around the Cave of Machpelah near Mamre (Hebron) in the presence of the children of Heth. Abraham makes his servant, the elder (zeqan) and steward of house, to swear an oath to God of heaven and earth not to take a Canaanite daughter as wife for Isaac, but to go to his kin in Mesopotamia, Padan-Aram, if she is willing to come, and may the Lord Who has lead him from his homeland, and promised him this land for his seed, prosper his visit, and His Angel to be with him. The servant took 10 camels loaded with gifts and goods and went to the city of Nahor. He stopped outside the city by a well towards evening, when women came to draw water from the well; he prayed that the Lord God of Abraham would favor Abraham by a young woman (na‘arah, damsel, girl, etc., 1st occur. of a girl but occur. first of young men in Gen. 14:24) offering him water to drink and for the camels, to be the chosen one of God; and it happened that Rebekah, Nahor’s wife Milcah’s son Bethuel’s daughter, did as he prayed; and amazed he gave her some gifts, and asked who was her father and if there was room for guests or travelers; she told him her father was Bethuel Milcah’s son Nahor’s wife, and that there was room for lodging; the servant bowed and worshipped the Lord, and blessed and thanked the God of his lord Abraham, for His mercy and truth, and for leading him to his master’s family. Laban, Rebekah’s brother heard her report, and ran out to meet Abraham’s servant at the well, impressed at the gifts to Rebekah, invited him to lodge with them; but the man would not eat till he told the reason of his visit and mission; then he told them of Abraham and of Sarah and of Isaac, and the oath sworn to Abraham before God, and of experience at the well before and after Rebekah’s arrival; then the man desired a response, good or bad, from them. Laban and Bethuel said it was of the Lord (YHWH), and agreed to let Rebekah go to Isaac as wife; Abraham’s servant bowed to the Lord, and then gave them all many gifts and precious things, and they feasted that night; Laban and Rebekah’s mother tried to delay Rebekah’s departure, but the servant insisted to leave, and they asked Rebekah and she consented to leave; and they sent with her a nurse or maid (yanaq, suck, nurse, feed, etc., 1st occur.), with a blessing that she have thousands and ten thousands offspring, and her seed possess their haters’ gate. They returned to Beer-lahai-roi in the Negeb in southern Canaan, and Isaac went to the field at eve to reflect (panah, turn, meditate, consider, look, etc.; the 1st occur. was in 18:22 of the Angels ‘turning’ towards Sodom and away from Abraham), he noticed them coming, and she asked the servant who was that man, and he said he was his master, Isaac, so she got off the camel and veiled herself; the servant related to Isaac all things (words) that happened. Isaac took her to Sarah’s tent as his wife and was comforted after his mother’s death.
Abraham had taken another wife (concubine), named Keturah, who gave birth to 6 sons, and of them were 2 + 5, 7 grandsons, and 3 great grandsons, in all 16 descendants; but Isaac inherited all as son and heir; and the sons of the concubines (Hagar and Keturah), he gave them gifts and sent them away eastward, to the east country, that is, to the Middle East, and Arabia, and Mesopotamia. The years of Abraham were 175, and he died (gawa‘, expire, perish, etc., 3rd occur., also Gen. 6:17; 7:21) an old man, good and full. And was gathered to his people. His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah at Hebron, next to Sarah. And God, after Abraham’s death, blessed his son Isaac, who resided near Beer-lahai-roi.
We are finished with the Generations of Terah and of Abraham the Hebrew which is the first of the three parts of the patriarchal dispensation, that of Isaac and Jacob, with Joseph and Job concluding the age. There are many things connected to this period and its history, the divine ways and words which formed and altered the generations to conform man to God’s interest and His economy as it unfolds in human affairs. The historical comparisons to the ancients of the conterminous and contemporaneous period and timeline is instructive in every way in understanding Bible history. As we move along in the second half of Genesis our reflections will cover ever larger segments of the Text, to trace the Divine Author and His intent and inspiration. The Bible stories will be seen to be very much a mirror and reflection of what existed and persisted in the world, and what really is known will explain many Bible questions, problems, discrepancies, contradictions, and uncertainties.

GENESIS: Chapters 25-50: Generations of Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob-Israel:

GENESIS: Chapter 25: Generations of Ishmael:
The Generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son by Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s maid (shiphchath, Gen. 12:16 is 1st occur., frequent in chapter 16; it appears it evolved as synonym with ’amah (1st occur. at Gen. 20:17) as concubine, as a mistress or female slave becomes used as a wife, or service of living, to the other kind of derogatory work and service for sex). Ishmael’s sons by names and generations were 12 in all, Nebaioth being the firstborn. The years of Ishmael’s life were 137, and he died and was gathered to his people. The Ishmaelites dwelt from Havilah to Shur near Egypt, and went toward Assyria, he resided opposite to his brothers Isaac and Keturah’s sons. The Ishmaelites seem to have settled and inhabited the area known as Saudi Arabia, dwelling from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf, going south and made their home to all the coasts, then spreading north a little, stopping before Assyria.

GENESIS: Chapter 25-35: Generations of Isaac: Esau & Jacob:
The Generations of Isaac Abraham’s son: Isaac was 40 years old when he married Rebekah of Bethuel the Syrian (Assyrian) of Padan-Aram, and sister of Laban the Syrian (Assyrian). She was infertile, Isaac entreated the Lord on her behalf, and she became pregnant with twins, but she despaired, and the Lord told her that two nations and two peoples shall be born from her, one stronger than the other, and the oldest will serve the younger. When the twins were born, the firstborn was red like a hairy garment, who they named Esau; but the second came out holding the Esau’s heel, and they called him Jacob. Isaac was then 60 years old, which was 20 years since marrying Rebekah. The boys grew, Esau became a skilled hunter and a man of the field, but Jacob was a quiet tent dweller. Isaac loved and favored Esau, especially because his venison, but Rebekah loved Jacob. Once when Jacob was cooking a soup, and Esau came hungry and tired from the field, he asked for some red soup (whence he was nicknamed Edom (Red), but Jacob valued it for his birthright, and Esau said that if he dies his birthright is useless to him, Jacob insisted he swear the sale of his birthright to Jacob; so, Jacob gave him bread and lentil soup; he ate and drank and went his way, but he despised his birthright.
A 2nd famine was in Canaan, like the 1st in Abraham’s day when he went to Egypt, and the Lord appeared to him and told him not to go to Egypt, to stay in the promised land, that the Lord will be with him, bless him, give him and his seed the lands, will establish the oath sworn to Abraham, will multiply his seed innumerable, and in his seed all the Gentiles (nations, goiim) of the earth blessed; because Abraham obeyed the Lord, kept His charge, commandments, statutes, and laws. As with Abraham and Sarah, so Isaac and Rebekah experienced (100 years earlier) the same shame. The men of Gerar asked him of the attractive woman, and he said she was his sister, after a long while, Abimelech King of the Philistines noticed Isaac sporting with Rebekah, and told him, surely she is his wife, why did he say she was his sister, and he said because he feared he would die on her account, the King blamed him that one of the people could have easily raped her, and they would be guilty, so the King charged that anyone who touched (raped) Rebekah would be put to death. Isaac prospered in the land with the Lord’s blessing, becoming very great, and the Philistines envied (qanah, 1st occur., jealous, zealous, etc.) him. Abraham’s wells had all been filled up with dirt by the Philistines (a loss of time, money, and water), and the King demanded Isaac to leave Gerar, because he had become too powerful. Isaac resettled in the valley of Gerar, and he reopened the water wells that Abraham had dug, and the Philistines filled or stopped up with dirt after Abraham’s death. Isaac renamed the wells with the name given by Abraham. Again, Isaac’s servant found a well of springing water flowing, and the herdsmen of Gerar quarreled with Isaac’s herdsmen, and claimed the well as theirs, so he called it Esek or Contention. Again, he dug another well, and they claimed it as theirs, so he called it Sitnah. Again, a 3rd well, but they did not try to claim it, so he called it Rehoboth, saying that the Lord has made room for them to be fruitful. Afterwards he relocated to Beersheba. The Lord (YHWH) appeared to Isaac as Abraham’s God, he was not to fear, the Lord will be with him, bless him, multiply his seed, because of Abraham. He built or erected an altar, called on the Lord’s name, and set up his tent; and his servants dug a well. King Abimelech and his friend and his captain visit Isaac, and he said why visit me when you hate and reject me, but they replied that the Lord was with him, so they wanted a treaty covenant by oath, to be mutual friends, since they have treated as a friend and blessed of the Lord. So, they feasted, swore by oath, and left in peace. That day Isaac’s servant said they dug a well and found water, and he called it Shibah, and the city was named Beer-Sheba (Oath-Well).
Esau was 40 years old when he married Judith bath-Beeri the Hittite to the grief of Isaac and Rebekah. Later, Isaac older still, with blindness, he told Esau to prepare his favorite savory venison meal, that he may bless him before he dies; Rebekah overheard, and when Esau went hunting for the game In the wilds, she told Jacob about what was going on, and ordered him to fetch young kids of the goats, and she would make it to taste like savory meat, that Isaac may eat and bless Jacob as if he was Esau; he told his fear to his mother that his father would easily detect that he was not Esau by his smooth skin, since Esau was a hairy man, and he’ll get a curse instead of a blessing; but his mother took the curse to herself, and insisted that he get the kids, he did, and she made Isaac’s favorite dish; she covered Jacob’s arms and hands, and on his neck; she gave Jacob the food for Isaac, and Jacob pretending to be Esau, gave it to Isaac to eat and bless; Isaac amazed asked how it got it so quickly, he said the ‘Lord thy God’ delivered it to me; so Isaac bid him come closer, and felt his hands, and said the voice is Jacob’s, but the hands are Esau’s, and he could not tell for sure; so he blessed him asking if he was really Esau, and he said he was; Isaac ate it, and drank wine, and bid him to come kiss him, and he smelt the smell of the field of his clothes, and blessed him as the Lord blessed the field, willing that God give him heaven’s dew, earth’s fatness, plenty of grain and wine, peoples serve him, nations bow to him, rule his brothers, his mother’s sons bow to him, and curse to those who curse him, and blessing to him who blesses him. Soon as he finished, Jacob exited and Esau entered with his savory meat, asking for the blessing; but Isaac asked shocked who was this, and he said he was Esau the firstborn; Isaac trembled at the trick, saying Jacob will be blessed; Esau cried bitterly at the words, demanding to also be blessed; Isaac told him that Jacob got the blessing by guile; Esau said Jacob truly was named rightly, for he has supplanted and tricked me twice, once for my birthright, and now for my blessing; and he asked Isaac if he had not reserved a blessing; so he blessed him with the earth’s fatness as his dwelling, with the heaven’s dew, to live by his sword, to serve Jacob, and later to break free, and shake off his yoke from his neck. Esau hated Jacob for this blessing and resolved to kill him when Isaac was dead. Esau’s words and intention were told to Rebekah, and she told it to Jacob, and advised him to temporarily flee to Laban her brother in Haran of Padanaram, till Esau’s fury cooled. Rebekah told Isaac she hated her life, if Jacob marries a Hethite her life is worthless. Isaac sent Jacob to Bethuel Rebekah’s father to marry one of Laban’s daughters, also that El Shaddai (God Almighty, All-sufficient Nourisher) bless him, make him fruitful to prosper, multiply him, to become a company (qahal, assembly, convocation, congregation, community, synagogue, ekklesia and church, etc., 1st occur.), give him Abraham’s blessing to him and his seed, to inherit the promised land. Isaac sent Jacob to Padan-aram to Rebekah’s brother Laban the Syrian (Assyrian) to get married to a Hebrew or Semite. Esau in turn married a 3rd wife Mahalath bath-Ishmael ben-Abraham, she was Nebaioth’s sister.
Jacob departed from Beersheba headed for Haran, at a certain place he stayed overnight, a stone for a pillow, he slept and dreamed of a ladder from earth to heaven with God’s angels going up and down, the Lord (YHWH), God of Abraham and of Isaac, stood at the top promising to give him and his seed the land on which he slept, that his seed or posterity will be countless, spreading abroad to the west, east, north, and south of that place; and all the families of the earth shall be blessed in his seed; that He will be with him and protect him everywhere, and bring him back to this land, and will not leave him till all divine promises are fulfilled. Jacob awoke in dread and amazed, and said that the Lord must be in this place, this is God’s House (Beth ’Elohim) and Heaven’s Gate (sha‘ hashshamayim); and in the morning he took the stone he used as a pillow and set it up as a pillar, and poured or anointed oil on it, and called it Beth-El, but it was named before that Luz. Jacob vowed that if God brought him back home safely, protecting me, feeding me, and clothing me (the way and work of a nurturing parent, as a father and mother cares for their child, namely, as El Shaddai), then the Lord will be my God, and this Stone and Pillar will be God’s House, and I’ll give him a tenth (tithe) of all. Jacob continued his journey and came to the land of the children of the east (beney-qedem), and he came to a well where they watered the flocks at a set time, rolling a stone to seal it when not used; Jacob asked them of their city, they said from Haran, he asked if they knew Laban ben-Nahor, they said yes, and said there is his daughter Rachel come to water the sheep; Jacob said it was noon, they should water their flock and go feed them, but they said they must wait till all the flocks are gathered before the stone is rolled away, and as they talked Rachel came with her father’s sheep; Jacob seeing her, rolled away the stone and watered Laban’s flock, he kissed Rachel and raised his voice and wept; he told Rachel that he was Laban’s nephew (brother, Heb. idiom), Rebekah’s son; Rachel ran home and told Laban, and he ran out to meet his sister’s son, and he hugged and kissed him, and brought him home; they talked, and Laban knew this was his nephew; he stayed about a month. Laban ask him what wages to keep him as helper, and Jacob said he would work 7 years for his beautiful younger daughter Rachel; Laban agreed it was a good deal; he served 7 years as if it was 7 days because he loved her; after the 7 years he demanded Rachel as a wife, Laban celebrated a marriage feast, and at the night he tricked Jacob by bringing to him the older, and less attractive, Leah, along with her maid Zilpah, and in the morning Jacob he discovered it was Leah; he confronted Laban for the deception, saying he served 7 years for Rachel; Laban told him it’s their custom to marry off the older daughter before the younger, and he asked him to fulfill the marriage week for Leah, then he can also marry Rachel for service of another 7 years. Jacob thus married both of Laban’s daughters for 14 years of service. Laban also gave Rachel his maid Bilhah to be her maid. Jacob loved Rachel more than Leah, but the Lord saw Leah was hated and opened her womb to give birth, but Rachel was infertile.
Leah was fertile, she gave birth to Reuben, the 1st, (from ra’ah, look, see, visit, etc., I think it’s Reu-ben, Re’u-ben, meaning ‘visitation-son, that is the Lord saw and visited her affliction and gave her a son; I know it’s unusual, ’ben’ usually a prefix rather than a suffix; the sense is ‘son of affliction’ or ‘affliction-son’; but then again I think that ‘ra’ah’ joined to ‘ye’ehabani’ (he-will-love-me), as raah-bani, raah-ben, reuben. ); then, 2nd, Simeon, (from shama‘, hear, listen, obey, etc.; the Lord heard); then, 3rd, Levi, (from lawah, lavah, join, attend, etc.; husband is united); and the 4th was Judah (from yadah, praise, thank, laud, etc.; to praise the Lord). Rachel demanded Jacob to give her a child or she’ll die; Jacob replied in anger that he was not in God’s place; so, she insisted that he give her children thru Bilhah as a surrogate; and Bilhah gave birth to a son, Dan (judge, judgment), to Jacob for Rachel; then another son, Naphtali (from pathal, wrestle, struggle, twist). Leah in turn gave Zilpah as wife to Jacob to have children, and she gave birth to Gad (fortunate, lucky), then to Asher (blessed, happy). Thus far 8 sons by 3 wives. During the wheat harvest Reuben found mandrakes (Heb., duda’im, in Delitzsch on Gen., “the yellow ‘love’ apples of the alraun (Mandragora vernalis), a mandrake very common in Palestine. They are about the size of a nutmeg, with a strong and agreeable odour, and were used by the ancients, as they still are by the Arabs, as a means of promoting childbearing.”) in the field, and gave them to Leah; Rachel asked for some, but Leah told her , you took my husband, now you want my son’s mandrakes, Rachael told her she can sleep with Jacob tonight for the mandrakes; Leah told Jacob when he came from the field, that he must sleep with her, because she hired him for her son’s mandrakes. God heard her, she became pregnant, and gave birth to her 5th son, Issachar (from sakar, wages, pay, reward, etc.); then she gave birth to a 6th son, Zebulun, (from zabad, bestow, dowry, gift, etc.; she also gave birth to a daughter, Dinah (from din, judge, judgment). God remembered Rachel He heard her, and made her fertile, and she gave birth to Joseph (from yasaph, add, addition, join, increase, etc.; by removal of her shame). Jacob sons by Leah: 6: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon, and 1 daughter; sons by Bilhah: 2: Dan and Naphtali; sons by Zilpah: 2: Gad and Asher; by Rachel, a son, Joseph. In all 11 sons of Jacob, and 1 daughter.
Jacob asked Laban to let him return home, and to his country, with his wives and children for whom he had served 14 years; Laban acknowledged the Lord’s favor to him because of Jacob, and desired he stay on for new wages. Jacob agreed to stay if all the black and spotted sheep, and all spotted and speckled goats in the flocks becomes his wages, both then and after; Laban agreed. Jacob peeled rods to appear spotted and streak, put them in view of the sheep and goats while drinking, and they conceived before the rods, and brought forth steaked and spotted and speckled kids and lambs; he separated the lambs of Laban to drink by the rods so they also brought forth more spotted, streaked, and speckled; so did he do with the strong and the weak, that more strong were born to him, and more weak to Laban. Jacob prospered greatly, and Laban’s sons complained that Jacob was robbing their father, and the tension grew. The Lord told Jacob to return home to his family, and He will be with him. Jacob called Rachel and Leah, rehearsed and reviewed his stay with Laban, of his faithful service and God’s favor, of his wages being changed 10 times, of his taken the loss of the lost or stolen animals, of God’s Angel in a dream speaking and showing the streaked, speckled, and grizzled of the flock, and told him that He has seen what Laban is doing, that He is the God of Beth-El, where he anointed the pillar and vowed; and He commanded him to return to the land of his birth. Rachel and Leah answered that they have no more inheritance in their father’s house, but are treated like foreigners, he has sold us and stolen our money (dowry), so what God has taken from him is now ours and our children’s; whatever God tells you, do it. Jacob packed his stuff, his family, everything that was his, and headed back to Canaan. But while Laban was away shearing the sheep, Rachel stole the teraphim or idols or house-gods of Laban the Syrian, and they fled, and passed over the River, headed toward the mountain of Gilead. Laban was told, and with men, pursued 7 days after Jacob, and God warned Laban in a dream at night not to speak to Jacob good or bad. Laban confronted Jacob for sneaking away without notice or blessing, taking his daughters and grandkids as captives, without any regard to his rights or feelings, he could do him harm, but the God of Jacob’s father spoke to him in a dream warning him. Laban said that in longing to return home why did he steel his Gods (’Elohai, ’Eloah, whence Elohim, Ellah, Allah, etc.), his idols. Jacob said he left secretly that Laban would not by force take his daughters from him; and if you find your Eloah (god, gods, idols, teraphim) with any of us, he shall die. Laban searched but found nothing, Rachel having concealed the teraphim in the camel’s seat and sat on it, pretending to be on her period and could not get up. Jacob was angry at Laban for accusing him falsely, and for hotly pursuing him as an enemy or thief, although he has never stolen a single thing from him for 20 years (14 years for Laban’s two daughters, and 6 years for the flock), not to mention his wages changed 10 times. The God of Abraham and the Fear of Isaac prevented him from poverty and loss, and has seen his affliction and labor, and rebuked him. Laban said the daughters, children, flocks, everything belonged to Laban, yet what can he do against them; he desired that he and Jacob make a covenant, to be a witness between them. Jacob took a stone for a pillar, they gathered stones in a heap, and they feasted by the heap. Laban called it Jegar-saha-dutha (in Aramaic, old Assyrian Syriac), but Jacob called it (in old Hebrew) Galeed (Gal-‘Ed), the Heap of Witness, Witness-Heap. Laban said, the Lord watch as witness between us, that you do not afflict my daughters, and take other wives, that Jacob does not cross over for harm, and that the God of Abraham, the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge between them. Jacob swore the oath by the Fear of his father Isaac. In the morn Laban kissed them all, and blessed, and returned home.
Jacob went his way and God’s angels met him, and he said it was God’s host (camp), Mahanaim. Jacob sent messengers (malakim, angels, for angels are messengers in simple ordinary sense) to meet Esau in Seir in the field of Edom; he told them tell Esau that he has stayed with Laban till now, that he has gained much wealth and servants and he seeks his favor; they returned saying that they met Esau, and he now comes with 400 men. Jacob very afraid and worried divided his people and animals into two companies to meet Esau, and mitigate the risk and danger of Esau’s attack, and to have some escape. He prayed to the God of Abraham and of Isaac, that the Lord Who promised to lead and protect him, though he was unworthy of His mercy and truth, Who made him a great company, to deliver him from Esau to not attack, and to keep His promise to bless and increase Jacob. He lodged the night, then prepared a gift to Esau of many animals, and set them in droves with his servants. He told the first drove, to tell Esau that his servant Jacob offers these as gits to find favor from his lord Esau, and he is behind us; he instructed the 2nd and 3rd droves likewise, hoping to appease Esau. Jacob lodged at night in the company or camp; then at night took his family of 2 wives, 2 subwives and 12 children (11 sons and 1 daughter), and crossed the Jabbok, and he sent them over the stream with the stuff, but he remained behind alone; there he wrestled with a Man till dawn, and being disabled (yakol: able, prevail, over-power, etc.; Gen. 13:6 is 1st occur.) against him, touched and shrank the hallow (kaph: flat, palm, sole, , socket, etc.; the spot that a hand was placed in swearing oaths, as with Abraham and Eliezer) of Jacob’s thigh, and demanded to quit, but Jacob insisted on a blessing first, He said his new name shall be Israel, Yisrael, Isra-’El, (from sarah, sarar: prince, rule, govern, strive, contend, challenge, fight, compete, etc.; the root of Sarah’s name; thus, God’s-Prince, God’s-Rule, God’s-Fight, etc.) because he has striven and prevailed with God and men; Jacob asked His name, but He did not say; Jacob named the place Peniel, Peni-El, Penuel, because he saw God’s Face, yet lived; Jacob left Penuel limping at the thigh (which the Israelites afterwards refused to eat the sinew of the hip, even to the time of Moses (I here remark that the expression “unto this day” occurred 3 times previously in Gen. 19:37, 38; 26:33; it is clear that the inspiration of the Text shows that this a writer, editor, or author’s hand; the explanation, simple and correct is it is Moses; also we will see in Deuteronomy that this expression is used by Moses expressly)). Jacob with his family met Esau and his band, bowing 7 times to Esau his brother; Esau ran to him, embraced him, and held his neck, and kissed him, and they wept; he asked about his family, and Jacob told him that they were his children by God’s grace; the maids (subwives) and their children came and bowed; then Leah and her children, and last Joseph with Rachel; Esau ask what was all this about, and Jacob told him it was to find favor; Esau refused the gifts, and said he had enough, but Jacob begged him to take the gifts as proof of his favor to Jacob, since Esau is as God’s Face at their meeting, so Esau took the present. Esau offered to journey with Jacob together, but Jacob entreated him to make it easier and safer that he should go ahead and Jacob and his company with all the animals will follow at a slower pace till they arrive at Seir. Esau offered to leave some folks with Jacob, but Jacob said there was no need for that, so Esau returned towards Seir.
Jacob settled at Succoth, made home there, and stalls or booths (succoth, sukkoth) for his livestock, and he resided near the city of Shechem of Canaan after his migration from Padan-aram; and he purchased that parcel of land of his encampment from the children of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for 100 pieces of money (shekels, coins). He erected an altar and called it El-Elohe-Israel (God-Israel’s-God). Leah’s Daughter (now a teen), went out to watch the daughters of the land , that is, the Canaanite girls of Shechem, and Shechem ben-Hamor the Hivite, Prince of the land, saw her and raped her; Shechem loved Dinah after raping her, and spoke kindly to her, and demanded his father to get her as his wife; Jacob heard of the rape, and waited till his sons came in from the field; Hamor abi-Shechem asked Jacob to let Shechem marry Dinah; but Jacob’s sons were grieved and angry that folly and rape was committed against Israel; but Hamor pleaded with them to let Shechem marry Dinah, because he is in love with her.; Hamor offered that Israel and Hivites could intermarry, Shechem also entreated them to name whatever dowry they desired for the marriage; Jacob sons , because of the rape, in guile replied and demanded that all the Shechemites must be circumcised, only then they can mutually intermarry and be one people. Hamor and Shechem were pleased, and gladly agreed to the terms, for his delight in Dinah, and he was the most honored of Hamor’s house, they convinced the men of Shechem to agree with this proposal of circumcision, then can the two parties intermarry and become one people; so, they did. On the 3rd day while still recovering, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, came upon them with swords and killed all the males, and took Dinah from Shechem’s house. Jacob’s sons plundered the city of the slain because of Dinah’s rape, and took all as spoil, their stuff and the survivors as captives. Jacob accused Dinah’s brothers of trouble and offense among the Canaanites and the Perizzites, who outnumber him, and will attack and destroy him and his house; but they asked if their sister should be treated as a harlot.
God told Jacob to go and dwell at Beth-El, to make an altar to El (here the Lord as El and not Elohim, as in El Shaddai, El Elyon, etc., in midst of idolatry), Who appeared to him when he fled from Esau. Jacob ordered his house to get rid of the alien gods (’eth-’elohe hannekar= the gods (unknown, foreign, strange, etc.; that is, idols and vanities), and be clean, to go to Bethel to make an altar to God (El) Who saved and kept him; they gave him all their hand held idols, and their earrings, and he buried them under the oak tree near Shechem. They journeyed, and the inhabitants God struck with fear, and did not pursue them. Jacob came to Luz, Beth-El, in Canaan, built the altar, and renamed the place El-Beth-El, because of God’s revelation to him. Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, died and was buried under the oak tree (or terebinth) of Bethel, called Allon-Bacuth (Weeping-Oak, Terebinth-Tears). Again, God appeared to Jacob and told him his name is Israel; and God called him Israel, and as El Shaddai blessed him to be fruitful and multiply into a nation and a company of nations and kings, and He will give him and his descendants the land promised; and God left him after speaking. Jacob-Israel travelled from Bethel towards Ephrath, and pregnant Rachel was in hard labor, died while giving birth to her 2nd son, calling him Ben-oni (Son of Sorrow, Sad-Son, Weak-Son)) but Jacob called him Benjamin (Binyamin= Son-Right-hand, Strong-Son); they buried Rachel on the way to Ephrath or Bethlehem, and Jacob set up a pillar on her grave, still called Rachel’s Pillar to this day (Moses’ time). Israel journeyed and set up camp at beyond the Tower of Eder, there Reuben violated Bilhah, Jacob’s subwife (concubine, mistress, consort, slave, servant, help)), Rachel’s maid, Dan’s and Naphtali’s mother; and Israel heard about it. The 12 Sons of Israel: by Leah, 6 Sons: Reuben the 1st born, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon; by Rachel: 2 Sons: Joseph and Benjamin; by Bilhah, Rachel’s maid: 2 Sons: Dan and Naphtali; by Zilpah, Leah’s maid: 2 Sons: Gad and Asher; these were born to Jacob in Padan-aram before he resettled in Canaan (Benjamin born in route). Jacob came to Isaac at Mamre, Kiriath-arba or Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac were pilgrims. The days of Isaac were 180 years, and he died, was buried by his sons Esau and Jacob, and was gathered to his people, old and full of days.

We are finished with the Generations of Isaac which takes us to his death, Jacob and Esau at 120, and Joseph about 30, and Benjamin about 10. As we have said that we restrain our reflections of all that we read and understand of the Patriarchal Age till after Genesis is completed. The Generations of Isaac was the 8th generation, and we will now move on to the 9th and 10th generations which are really one in two parts, of Esau as Edom and Esau as Abi-Edomites. God continues to change and adapt to man in human development and changes. As El Shaddai He shows Himself unique and distinct in the dispensation of the Fathers, in which he focuses on three patriarchal families, along with all the families of the nations of the earth. Human culture and mankind’s civilization continued to grow and evolve, and we have immense remains of data and details of that ancient world. God’s involvement is measured by His eternal counsels and intentions which He reveals as He sees best.

GENESIS: Chapter 36: Generations of Esau-Edom (Canaan) & Esau Abi-Edom (Mount Seir):

Generations of Esau-Edom in Canaan:

Esau’s Canaanite wives were Adah bath-Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah bath-Anah bath-Zibeon the Hivite; then Basemath bath-Ishmael, Nebaioth’s sister. Adah’s son was Eliphaz; and Basemoth gave birth to Reuel; and Oholibamah’s sons were Jeush, Jalam, and Korah; these were all born in Canaan, before he resettled in mount Seir. Esau parted from Jacob in Canaan, taking all his families, possessions, livestock, and souls or servants, and moved to mount Seir in Edom; known today as Jibal-ash-Sharah, from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba, the southeastern borders of later Edom and Judah.

Generations of Esau Abi-Edom in Mount Seir:
Esau’s sons named: Esau’s wife Adah’s sons: Eliphaz’s sons, Esau’s grandsons: 5; Eliphaz’s concubine Timna’s son and Esau’s grandson: 1 (Amalek). Esau’s wife Basemath’s sons: Reuel sons, Esau’s grandsons: 4. Esau’s wife Oholibamah bath-Anah bath-Zibeon: 3 sons. Esau’s sons and Sheiks (Dukes, Princes, Chiefs): Eliphaz the 1st born: 7 Sheiks. Reuel ben-Esau: 4 Sheiks. Esau’ wife Oholibamah bath-Anah: 3 Sheiks. Esau’s (Edom’s) sons and Sheiks: Sons of Seir the Horite of the Edomites: 7 Sheiks. Lotan’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 2, Hori and Heman; Lotan’s sister was Timna. Shobal’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 5. Zibeon’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 2, Aiah and Anah; Anah ben-Zibeon found the hot springs in the wilderness (desert) while feeding his father’s donkeys. Anah’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 2, Dishon and Oholibamah bath-Anah. Dishon’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 4. Ezer’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 3. Dishan’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 2. Horites Sheiks: 7 Sheiks or Chiefs, Horites in the land of Seir. Edomites Kings (before any King ruled in Israel, that is to the time of Samuel): 8 Kings: Bela ben-Beor in Edom in Dinhabah; Jobab ben-Zerah of Bozrah; Husham of the Temanites; Hadad ben Bedad, who attacked Midian in the field of Moab; Samlah of Masrekah; Shaul of Rehoboth by the River; Baal-hanan ben-Achor; Hadar, his city was named Pau, his wife’s name was Mehetabel bath-Matred bath Me-zahab. Sheiks or Chiefs of Esau by families, places, and names: 11 Sheiks or Chiefs of Edom by their habitations and territory. Esau Abi-Edom.
The history of Esau’s generations of his descendants and progeny is seen in Edom and Idumea, also we see it mixed with that of Ishmael or the Arabs. Arabic history of the very ancient times before Moses was the formation of the people and cultures of both Ishmael and Esau, and Arabia and Edom-Idumea would be forever intertwined according to the words spoken by God to Abraham and Hagar. Their relations to ancient Israel as well as to modern Israel will play out as it did and will continue still.

GENESIS: Chapters 37-50: Generations of Jacob & Israel & Joseph:

Jacob continues as a pilgrim in Canaan. The Generations of Jacob is the last of the generations in the Book of Genesis, it is the 10th proper, the generations of Esau were numbered twice in two pars presentation of the history of Edom and the Edomites. We will see that Jacob’s generation as here given is not merely that of Jacob as Jacob, but rather it is Jacob as Israel, and as such starts off with Joseph as a teenager of 17, and a shepherd boy feeding the flock with his other brothers, the sons of Bilhah and of Zilpah, Jacob’s wives, and he told Jacob on them with an evil report. Israel loved Joseph most as the son of his old age and made for him a ‘coat of many-colors’ (kethoneh passim: tunic, chiton, garment, cloak, robe, etc.; it was a special quality coat or tunic or robe); his brothers seeing he was Jacob’s most favorite beloved, hated more, and did not speak to him peaceably. Joseph dreamed of binding sheaves in the field, his sheaf stood up and their sheaves bowed to his; and he related it, and they hated him and his words more, and they responded if he should truly rule or govern them. He dreamed again that the sun, the moon, and the 11 stars bowed to him; he related to his father, but Jacob rebuked him, saying, what is this dream, should your father and mother and brothers bow to you. His brothers were jealous and envied him, but Jacob reflected about it. His brothers were feeding the flock in Shechem, Jacob sent Joseph check if all is well, and bring him word; he sent him from the vale of Hebron to Shechem; a stranger saw he was lost, and asked to help, he said he was looking for his brothers, and he told him that they said they were going to Dothan; he went and found them at Dothan; they saw him approaching, and said among themselves, here comes the dreamer, let us kill him and throw him into the pit, and claim that a wild animal attacked him, then what will come of his dreams. Reuben rescued him from this plot, advising not to kill him, but only throw him in the pit, for he thought to rescue restore him later; they did as Reuben suggested, taking off his special coat, and threw him into the dry well; and they ate together nearby, then they saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead with camels of spices, balm, and myrrh, heading down to Egypt; Judah told his brothers it would be bad and useless to kill their own brother, instead he suggested to sell him to the Ishmaelites; they agreed, and handed him over to the Midianites merchantmen of the Ishmaelites for 20 pieces of silver, and they took him to Egypt. Reuben returned to find the dry well empty, and was troubled about Joseph, and they took Joseph’s coat and dipped it in goat’s blood, and brought it to Jacob, and he recognized it as Joseph’s, and said a wild beast must have killed him; and he tore his clothes and mourned for Joseph for many days; his children tried to comfort him, but he refused, saying he will go down to Sheol (hades, orcus, inferno, hell, pit, cell, grave, death, ‘place of the departed forefathers’, etc.; 1st occur., next in Gen. 42:38; 44:29; 44:31) to his dead son mourning in tears. The Midianites sold Joseph in Egypt to Potiphar, Pharaoh’s officer and captain of the guard.
About that time Judah was visiting his Adullamite friend Hirah, and he saw Shua a Canaanite girl, and he had sex with her, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Er; then again, she got pregnant and birthed Onan; and again, pregnant, she birthed Shelah, when he was living at Chezib. After they grew up, Judah arranged a marriage of Er his 1st born to Tamar; but Er was wicked and the Lord killed him; Judah told Onan to go with Tamar, as the custom of the husband’s brother, that she may conceive and give birth to a seed to Er’s name; but Onan rejected that custom, and instead, he caused his sperm to spill on the ground, which displeased the Lord, and He killed him also. Judah told his daughter-in-law (kallah: bride, ‘widow’, newlywed, young-wife, etc.) Tamar to wait in her father’s house as a widow till Shelah, about 2 or 3 years younger than Onan, that is in his mid-teens, is fully grown; but he was afraid that Shelah also might die early. Then Judah’s wife, bath-Shua, died, and after mourning her, he was with his sheep-shearers at Timnah, with his friend Hirah the Adullamite; Tamar was told her father-in-law (cham: relative, kin, family, in-law, etc.; Gesenius says from an ‘unused root’; not to be confused with Ham; 1st occur, next in Gen. 38:25) was going to Timnah, she put off her widow’s clothes, veiled and wrapped, and sat in the gate of Enaim as if a harlot, because she knew Shelah was fully grown and still Judah had not married her to him. Judah mistook her as a harlot, her face veiled, and desired to have sex with her, they agreed for a goat’s kid, she demanded a token as a payment pledge or deposit, to gave her his signet, his cord (waist-belt), and his staff; he gave them to her, and he was with her, and she got pregnant; she returned home, changed clothes to her widowhood. Judah sent the payment of a goat’s kid by his friend the Adullamite, to retrieve his pledge from the woman, but he didn’t find her, and he asked the men near Enaim of the prostitute (qadesh: harlot temple-prostitute, sex-offering, etc., compare with qodesh: sacred, holy, separate, devoted, etc.; 1st occurs as a name Kadesh (Qadesh) in Gen. 14:7, but here in 38:21,21 it 1st occurs as prostitution) but they said there was no harlot here; and he related to Judah, and he said let her have the pledge less we look like fools had by a harlot. 3 months later Judah was informed that Tamar was pregnant as a common harlot (zanah: fornication, prostitution, sexual-immorality, intercourse, vice, etc.), and he said bring her out and burn her to death. Tamar quickly sent word to Judah, that by the man whose pledge of signet, cord, and staff am I pregnant; Judah acknowledged them and declared that she was more righteous than himself for not giving her to Shelah. When she was giving birth, it was discovered she had twins, and the first put out his hands, the midwife tied a scarlet thread to confirm his place, but then the hand was withdrawn, and the other was born instead, and they named him Perez for this breach, then the other with the scarlet thread was born and named Zerah.
Joseph was now servant or slave to the Egyptian Potiphar, Pharaoh’s Officer and Guard Captain, who bought him from the Ishmaelites. The Lord (YHWH) (because El Shaddai must deal with man and Gentiles, that is, the world or Egyptians, as a Third Party, not intervening as He did with the Patriarchs, but still bound to Abraham’s seed) prospered Joseph as a servant, and granted him favor with his Egyptian lord, who trusted in as a faithful overseer and chief slave. Potiphar’s wife lusted for the youth Joseph, but he refused her demands to commit adultery with her, reasoning with her that it would be betrayal to his master, and sin against God; and he tried to ignore and to avoid her. One day while working, the other servants absent, she grabbed his clothes and demanded sex, but he fled leaving his clothes in her hand; she told her husband that the Hebrew slave tried to rape her, but she screamed, and he fled; Potiphar’s wrath was inflamed, and he incarcerated Joseph in the King’s Prison. The Lord (Jehovah) showed Joseph kindness and prospered him and granted him favor and blessing with the prison keeper or guard or warden., who trusted him to handle all the prisoners. After a while the King of Egypt’s chief butler and chief baker offended Pharaoh, who in anger threw them into the prison where Joseph was, who was charged with their care by the warden. Both Butler and Baker dreamed and were disturbed by their dreams, in the morning he ascertained from them why they were sad, and they told him their dream that no one could interpret, but Joseph reminded them that dream interpretations belong to God. The Chief Butler’s Dream: A Vine with 3 Branches, budded with blossoms with clusters of grapes, Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and gave Pharaoh the cup. Joseph’s Interpretation to the Butler: 3 Branches = 3 Days, in 3 Days Pharaoh uplift his head and restore him to his office to serve as before; and he asked him to remember Joseph to Pharaoh, since he was imprisoned wrongly as a Hebrew stolen from his land. The baker, pleased with the interpretation, told Joseph his dream. The Chief Baker’s Dream: 3 Baskets of white bread on the head, in the top basket was many baked foods for Pharaoh, but the birds ate the food in the basket. Joseph’s Interpretation to the Baker: 3 Baskets = 3 Days, in 3 days Pharaoh will uplift his head by hanging him on a tree, and the birds shall eat his flesh. And in 3 days was Pharaoh’s birthday, and he had a celebration feast with his servants, he restored the chief butler, but he hanged the chief baker, just as Joseph interpreted; but the chief butler forgot Joseph.
Two years later Pharaoh dreamed: He stood by the river (Nile), 7 Cows, came out of the river (Nile) healthy, fattened and well-fed, feeding by the reeds and grass; then 7 Cows, came out of the river (Nile) unhealthy, starved, and skinny, and they stood near the other 7 cows on the brink of the river; and the unhealthy and sickly cows ate up the 7 healthy cows; then Pharaoh awoke. Pharaoh’s second dream: 7 Ears of grain came up on one stalk, rank and good, then 7 Ears (Grain-heads) thin and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them; the thin ears (grain-heads) devoured the 7 rank and full ears (grain-heads); Pharaoh awoke from his dream; but his spirit was troubled in the morning; he summoned the magicians and wise men of Egypt; and he told them his dreams, but none could interpret them to Pharaoh. The chief butler remembered Joseph, he told Pharaoh that when he and the chief baker were in prison in the warden’s house, they both dreamed, and a young Hebrew servant of the warden interpreted accurately both dreams, and it happened as he interpreted. Pharaoh immediately summoned Joseph from prison, he shaved and changed clothes, and stood before Pharaoh; he told Joseph that he dreamed a dream that no one, not even the magicians, can interpret, and they say that he can easily; he said that it’s not in him, but God will give Pharaoh an answer of peace; so he related to Joseph the dreams of the 7 Cows and the 7 Ears (Grains). Joseph’s Interpretation: The dreams are one, God has revealed to Pharaoh what He is about to do. The 7 Good Cows and 7 good Grain-Ears = 7 Years of Plenty; the 7 lean sick Cows and the 7 empty stripped Grain-Ears = 7 Years of Famine. There will be 7 years of plenty and abundance in Egypt, then 7 years of severe famine will consume all food supply. The double dreams signify it is God’s work and revelation to Pharaoh. Pharaoh should prepare against the famine by appointing overseers (officers, deputies) to gather as much grain as possible in all the cities of Egypt in storages. Pharaoh and his servants were pleased, and he said that who is better and wiser than Joseph, who has God’s spirit in him, to reveal and interpret divine dreams; and Pharaoh set him over his house and people, 2nd in power to the throne under Pharaoh of Egypt. Pharaoh put his signet ring on Joseph’s finger, clothed in royal vestures, and put a gold chain around his neck, made him ride a 2nd royal chariot, and the people to shout Bow the Knee; and Joseph was royal Prince of Egypt. Pharaoh the King of Egypt named Joseph Zaphenath-paneah and married him to Asenath bath-Poti-Phera the Priest of On. Joseph was now 30 years old; he gathered all the food for 7 years in Egypt’s cities, and stored them. Joseph had two sons by Asenath the Priest of On’s daughter, the 1st born Manasseh (because God made him forget his slavery and family), and the 2nd was Ephraim (because God has prospered him in the land of his affliction). The 7 years of plenty ended (Joseph now 37), and the famine came upon all the lands near Egypt, but Egypt had food supply. The people cried to Pharaoh in the famine, and he sent them to Joseph; the famine was over “all the face of the earth” (kol-peney ha’aretz; we may here observe a remark and principle of interpretation on ancient or peculiar idioms; the expression or word ‘all’ and that of ‘all the earth’, has occurred frequently throughout Genesis from chapter 1 onwards, at times it is more universal than local, often it is generic and not specific or precise as to actual geographic locations; we are mistaken to build doctrines on the word itself, as if it carries exactness without context and details; ‘all the earth’ may mean only of Mesopotamia, Eden, Canaan or Palestine, and so forth; ‘all men’ may mean only the men and people understood in the Text; and many such applications or qualifications may be found), and Joseph fed the people from the store-houses, and he sold to them what they needed and could afford; all the surrounding countries also came and purchased grain in Egypt, because the famine was severe and widespread.
Jacob heard there was grain in Egypt and sent his 10 sons to buy grain but would not permit Benjamin to go along with them (Benjamin about 20 years old, Joseph about 40), he was afraid of the risk. The sons (or children) of Israel came from Canaan to Egypt to buy food, and Joseph recognized them, he remembered his dreams about them, and accused them as spies; they tried to defend themselves as true buyers of food, 12 sons of one man in Canaan, the youngest son is at home with their father, and another is gone. Joseph insists they are spies and requires proof of their innocence and honesty that they bring their youngest brother to him; and he imprisoned them for 3 days; then he ordered them, as fearing God, to keep one of them as prisoner, but the other 9 to return with grain, and return to Egypt with their youngest brother. They began in Joseph’s presence, not knowing that he knew Hebrew, to say to each other that they were guilty of persecuting Joseph and ignoring his distress, and Reuben reminded them that he tried to stop them, and now his blood is required; Joseph stepped away to cry at what he heard, then returned and bound Simeon in their sight. He commanded their vessels to be filled with grain, their money to be put in their sacks, and provisions given them for the trip, with their donkeys loaded up; along the way they discovered their monies in their sack and wondered in great fear shaking what God was doing to them. They came home and told Jacob everything that happened, and what the lord of Egypt said, then Jacob cried that they have bereaved him of Joseph and Simeon, and now they want Benjamin, all these things were against him. Reuben offered that his two sons may be killed if he does not bring back Benjamin safely to him, but Jacob stood firm and refused to let them take Benjamin, lest he also be killed as Joseph was, then he would truly go to hell (sheol) with sorry gray hairs. The famine continued into the 3rd year, the supply of grain was gone, so Jacob told his sons to return to Egypt and buy food; Judah reminded Jacob that the man made it clear not to return to Egypt without their youngest brother, Israel asked why they told him they had a younger brother at home, they told him the man was very specific about their family, how could they guess he would make such demands. Judah offered to be surety for the lad (Benjamin at about 22 or 23), and take all blame; Jacob yielded and told them to take with the best fruits of Canaan, gifts, and other good things, and the double money for the oversight, and take Benjamin, and may El Shaddai give mercy by the man to release Simeon and return Benjamin; if bereaved he is bereaved; and so they did as he said, and returned to Egypt, and stood before Joseph. Joseph saw Benjamin, and told his house steward to bring the men to his house and prepare a meal; but they were afraid, thinking the worse, they explained to the steward about the money from the first trip, and a mistake had been made by someone, but they have brought double money to buy grain on this trip, but he assured them that their God and the God of their father gave them treasure in their sacks, for he had their money; and he brought out Simeon. They were washed and refreshed, their donkeys fed, and were ready for Joseph to dine with them; when arrived they presented their gifts and bowed to him; he asked about their health and family and of their father the old man; they said he is alive and well, and they bowed; he said to Benjamin his brother, may God be gracious to you, but quickly left their presence to shed tears because of his younger brother; he washed his face and returned to dine with them. He arranged to eat alone, for his brothers by themselves, and for the Egyptians to eat by themselves, for the Egyptians to eat with Hebrews was an abomination. He arranged his brothers seating to be from the oldest to the youngest, they were surprised, he sent them portions of his own meal to them, but 5 times more for Benjamin; they drank and laughed. He ordered his steward to fill their sacks with food, and hide the money in their sacks, and put his silver cup in the youngest one’s sack; in the morn they were sent away; when they were outside the city Joseph sent his steward after them asking why they rewarded evil for good, this is my lord’s drinking cup for divining; they objected to the accusation of theft, and said let him die who stole, and they will be the lord’s slaves; but the steward said that the thief only will be enslaved and they will be blameless. The steward searched their sacks and found the cup in Benjamin’s sack; they tore their clothes, reloaded the donkeys and returned to the city. Judah prostrated himself before Joseph, and he told them he could divine, Judah told him they were guilty, and God has found out their wickedness, they will be the lord’s slaves along with the thief. Joseph said only the thief will be his slave, the rest may return home; Judah pleaded for a hearing by the lord, and rehearsed the details of the words between them and Jacob about Benjamin, of Judah’s promise of surety for Benjamin’s safe return, of Joseph’s death, of Jacob’s attachment to Benjamin, and that their father will die sad if Benjamin does not return. At this Joseph tears could not be restrained, and his emotions could not be refrained, he ordered everyone out while he revealed his identity to his brothers, crying loudly so that the Egyptians and Pharaoh’s house could hear. His brothers were shocked speechless, and he bid them to come near and consoled them not to be sad or afraid, because God designed his slavery in Egypt to preserve life, for salvation. There are 5 years left of the famine, and God has sent him to preserve them as a remnant in the earth, and to save life by a great deliverance and salvation. God has sent me to be a Father to Pharaoh, and Lord of his house, and Ruler over all the land of Egypt. He told them to return quickly to Canaan, tell Jacob that God has made Joseph Lord of all Egypt, and to come to him quickly, to live in the land of Goshen, to be near me, with all Jacob’s family of children, grandchildren, livestock and animals, and everything that belongs to Jacob; and Joseph promised him to nourish through the famine, and prevent starvation and poverty. He assured Jacob by his message and Benjamin, that he is Joseph. He told them to relate to Jacob all his glory in Egypt, and to bring his father. Joseph embraced and hugged and kiss all his brothers with tears and talked with them. Pharaoh’s heard the news, it pleased him and his servants, and he told Joseph to have his brothers load the donkeys to return to Canaan and bring Jacob and all his house and things to live in the best of Egypt; command them to take wagons from Egypt to carry the little ones, the wives, and Jacob; not to regard leaving anything behind, because all the good of all the land of Egypt is theirs. And the sons of Israel did as Pharaoh ordered, and Joseph gave them wagons as he commanded, he also game them clothes and money, but 5 times more to Benjamin; and to his father 20 donkeys loaded with gifts and grain from Egypt. He sent off and warned them not to quarrel. They returned to Jacob in Canaan and told him everything about Joseph alive as Ruler over all the land of Egypt, but he fainted in unbelief. They told him all the words of Joseph, and he the wagons sent him to carry him to Egypt, his spirit revived, and Israel said it is enough, Joseph lives, he will go see him before he dies.
Israel journeyed with his company, at Beer-sheba in offered sacrifices to the God of Isaac; and God (Elohim as El) the God of Isaac spoke to him in a dream vision by name, telling him not to be afraid to go down to Egypt, and promised him to make of him a great nation, to be with him in Egypt, and to again bring him back again, and Joseph will touch his eyes. Jacob travelled from Beer-sheba to Egypt, with his 66 souls of his house; 33 souls of Leah; 16 souls of Zilpah; 14 souls of Rachel; and 7 sons of Bilhah; his 12 (11, Joseph was already in Egypt) sons, his 48 grandsons (2 died in Canaan), and his 4 great grandsons. The 70 souls are given by the 4 wives or mothers: Leah 33, Zilpah 16, Rachel 14, and Bilhah 7. Joseph and his 2 sons are listed among the 70 souls and the 66 souls. The 10 women (6 named) also belong to Jacob’s house; there are unnamed, many wives, concubines, women, daughters, and servants (like midwives); many men, boys, and servants which are not listed as direct heirs or members of Jacob’s company. The list reveals direct lines or lineage, perhaps the total actual numbers of souls would approach 200, we do not know, and the Text is not concerned to indicate it; the story of the generations is what it is as it is. Further the fact that Benjamin at about 20 years of age and has 10 children in Rachel’s line is curious and inexplicable without more info. The genealogy recording the mother’s name is also instructive as to the prophetic Seed of the Woman in Genesis 3. Another note of interest in the genealogical names in Genesis, they reveal the experiences of the parents or persons and the times , many of their meaning are easily understood in the Hebrew roots from which they derive or are akin or cognate; but many more are dubious or uncertain; we are dependent on the text and context to have understanding; but all said, a world of history lies within the names. An example be given in some of these: Adam from or related to adamah (ground), and dam (red-blood); Eve (life, living); Enosh, Methuselah, Noah, Shem, etc. The generations and their genealogy, history, and biography, are all about souls and their lives and living, namely about life.
A last reflection before we continue the story of Jacob going to Egypt. As I mentioned in the Introduction of these Reflections that the Red Letter Bible, which contains the Divine utterances as direct speech or expressions are printed in red ink. The first words spoken by God, printed in red, is “Let there be light”; and we follow throughout the chapters in Genesis and find periodically and dispensationally that God continues to visit and interact directly with man, and the red ink makes it even more curious and conspicuous. Here we wish to note the last time God speaks in red ink in Genesis, namely in Gen. 46:2-4: ”Jacob, Jacob. And he said: Here am I. And He said: I am God, the God of thy father: fear not to go down into Egypt; for I will there make of thee a great nation: I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again: and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes.” We will continue throughout the rest of the Old Testament, the Tanakh or Mikra, to see how the red ink scriptures play a crucial role in biblical hermeneutics, especially in what some call their ‘documentary hypothesis’, which should be qualified and prefixed with the words conjectural hypothetical and presumptive. As with so many things of the Divine Word, many things are hidden deep within the heart of the words. (It’s a wonder that these scholars did not also invent the Jacob versus Israel Hypothesis and Theory; or that of ‘Jesus’ and ‘Christ’.)
We continue. Jacob sends Judah ahead to lead the way to Goshen; Joseph went riding in his chariot to meet Israel at Goshen, embracing and hugging and crying on his father’s neck for a long time; Israel told Joseph he can now die having seen Joseph’s face alive. Joseph tells them he will go tell Pharaoh that is kin are come from Canaan to stay with him in Egypt, in Goshen; that they are shepherds and herdsmen, and when Pharaoh asks them of their occupation, they should answer likewise; that he may let you reside in Goshen; because every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians. So Pharaoh met them, and told them to settle in Goshen, and asked that if any of them were capable to be put over his cattle also. Jacob was introduced to Pharaoh, who asked his age, and Jacob said 130 years, they are few and evil, and have not reached the years of my father’s age in their pilgrimage; and Jacob blessed Pharaoh and departed. Joseph located and settled his family in Rameses as Pharaoh commanded and nourished them through the famine in Egypt and Canaan. Joseph sold grain for money to all in Egypt and Canaan, and deposited the money in Pharaoh’s house, when the people no longer had money, Joseph bartered and traded their cattle in exchange for food, and the next year, when they had no more cattle, he traded for their bodies and their lands, buying them and their land for Pharaoh, to feed them and give them seed to sow seeds in the land, and he relocated from one end of Egypt to the other end; but he did not buy any of the priests’ land. For their portion was from Pharaoh. Joseph gave the seed to plant that at harvest 1/5th % should go to Pharaoh, and they agreed it was more than fair; Joseph made it a statute that Pharaoh gets 1/5th % of the harvest of the land, except of the priests. Israel prospered and flourished in Goshen. Jacob lived in in Egypt for 17 years, attaining to the age of 147 as he approached death. Israel made Joseph swear an oath to not bury him in Egypt but to bury him in Canaan in his burial-place and said he would do so; and Israel bowed at the bed’s head. Joseph was told that his father was sick, he took his sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, and went to see him, Jacob was told that Joseph is coming, so he strengthened himself and sat up. He told Joseph that El Shaddai (God Almighty, the Sufficient God) appeared to him at Luz in Canaan, and blessed him, promising to increase and enlarge him into a company of peoples, and to grant to his seed the promised land for an everlasting possession; Jacob told Joseph that he has adopted his two sons as his own, but any other children to be born to Joseph will be his own and named after their brothers in their inheritance. He related to him that after he left Paddan to go to Canaan, Rachel died on the way before he came to Ephrath, and he buried her at Beth-lehem. Israel asked him the boys, he told him that they were his sons given by God, he bid him to bring them near to be blessed, for Israel aged and near blind; he brought them near and he kissed and embraced them. Israel said he did not expect to see Joseph again, yet God has shown his seed to him; Joseph put his sons before Jacob, and he bowed; Israel extended his hand and crisscrossed them to put his right hand on Ephraim’s head, but his left hand on Manasseh’s head; he blessed Joseph by the God of Abraham and Isaac Who fed him all his life to this day, and by the Angel Who has redeemed him from all evil, that He bless the boys, that Israel’s name be on them with the name of Abraham and Isaac, and enlarge them greatly throughout the earth. Joseph noticed Jacob’s hands were crossed and tried to switch them to bless the 1st born as Manasseh, Jacob refused, both will be great, but the younger so will be greater, and Ephraim’s seed will become multitude of nations. He blessed them: “In thee will Israel bless, saying, God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh.” He told Joseph he was about to die, and God will be with them, and bring them again to Canaan; and he told him that has given an extra portion above his brothers, portions that he took by sword and now from the Amorite.
Jacob gathered his sons and foretold them of their latter days: Assemble sons of Jacob, listen to Israel your father: Reuben: my 1st born, first in dignity and power, as boiling water you will lose 1st place; you defiled your father’s bed by incest. Simeon and Levi: brothers, their swords are weapons of violence; my soul and glory avoid their council (Sanhedrin) and their assembly (Synagogue); in their anger, cursed and fierce, they killed a man, in their self-will, cruel wrath, they hocked an ox; I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel. Judah: thy brethren will praise thee, thy hand on thine enemies neck, thy father’s sons will to thee,; Judah is a lion’s whelp, a predator of the prey, who dares to rouse him; the Scepter will never leave Judah, nor a Ruler from him, not till Shiloh (Messiah) come: to Him shall the peoples’ obedience: his foal He binds to the vine, His donkey’s colt, He washed His garments and clothes in wine of the grapes’ blood, His eyes become red with wine, His teeth white with milk. Zebulun: haven of the sea for ships, his borders near Sidon. Issachar: strong donkey, burdened between stalls, he sees a good resting-place, a pleasant land; carrying his burden as a servant at work. Dan: his people’s judge in Israel, an adder in the path, to bite the horse and fell the rider; thy Salvation (Yeshua) I await Jehovah. Gad: a troop shall press him, but he will press their heel (like a snake). Asher: his bread shall be fat with royal dainties. Naphtali: a loose hind or wild deer with beautiful utterances. Joseph: a fruitful bough by a fountain, his branches cover the wall, the archers persecuted him, but his bow stayed strong by the Hands of the Mighty one of Jacob ( there the Shepherd and Stone of Israel), by El (God) of thy father they Helper, by Shaddai thy Blesser, blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep below, blessings of the breasts (shadayim, from shad, meaning breasts, paps, mammary glands; this is the true and proper meaning of Shaddai; the mammary glands is what characterizes mammals, a category of which man is identified) and the womb; blessings of thy father (Jacob-Israel) prevails over my progenitors (Isaac and Abraham), to the highest place of the eternal hills: theses blessings shall be on Joseph’s head and crown, the one separate from his brethren. Benjamin: a ravenous wolf, in the morn devours the prey, in the eve divides the spoil. These are the 12 Tribes of Israel, this is their prophetic blessing. He charged them after his death to bury him in the Cave of the Field of Ephron the Hittite, the Cave in the Field of Machpelah near Mamre in the Land of Canaan, which Abraham purchased as a burial-place, where they buried Abraham’s wife Sarah, there they buried Isaac and his wife Rebekah, and there I buried Leah; the Field and the Cave which was purchased from children of Heth. Jacob finished his charge to his sons, laid in his bed, and died, and was gathered to his people.
Joseph embraced his father, cried, and kissed him; he commanded his servants the physicians to embalm Israel; 40 days were taken to complete the embalming; and the Egyptians mourned Jacob for 70 days; Joseph asked Pharaoh’s house a favor of kindness to him, that they speak to Pharaoh that Jacob made Joseph swear to bury him in Canaan, and that Pharaoh let him go to bury him, and then he will return. Pharaoh told him to go, and he went along with all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and the elders of the land of Egypt, and with all the house of Joseph, but not the children or flocks or herds in Goshen; there went up chariots and riders, it was a very great company. They came to Atad beyond the Jordan with great lamentations, and there he mourned his father 7 days; the Canaanites saw and heard, and said it was a grievous mourning for the Egyptians, and it was named Abel-Mizraim. So his sons buried as he commanded them; then Joseph and all others returned to Egypt. Joseph’s brothers sent a message to Joseph, that Jacob before he died commanded that Joseph forgive his brothers for their evil transgression against him, to forgive them as servants of his father’s God; but Joseph wept on hearing them speak, and they also wept and repented. Joseph assured them that he was not in God’s place, that they meant evil to him, but God meant it for good, to save and preserve life; that he will nourish and care for them, and he spoke kindly to them. Joseph dwelt in Egypt with Jacob’s house, and lived to be 110 years; he saw Ephraim’s children to the 3rd generation, his great grandsons, even the children of Machir ben-Manasseh were raised on Joseph’s knees. Joseph told his brothers, that after my death God will visit Israel and bring them back to the promised land of Abraham of Isaac and of Jacob; he made the sons of Israel swear an oath that when God visits them that they take his bones from Egypt to Canaan. Joseph died at 110 years of age, they embalmed him, and put him in a coffin in Egypt.
We have completed the Book of Genesis, the Great Finger, the Thumb of the Book, and we need only to bring together some reflections and references or resources to better understand the 4 dispensations that have thus far transpired. We have earlier laid out the first two dispensations of the Creation and Adam. The Sons of Noah or the Gentiles in Noah’s three sons of the 70 nations named, Shem being the last listed leads to Abram the Hebrew. We pointed out in the reflections on the Text relevant to that period, that Lord as Jehovah involved Himself with man in the nations, but at a distance and in confusion, the times being regarded as ignorance and childish. The Patriarchal Age we followed very closely, as exhibiting light from a Lamp, in the center or central to the Lampstand or Candelabrum or Candelabra. These 4 dispensations are revealed and developed in the 50 chapters, with countless seeds and germinal kernels which will grow throughout human or world history, especially of the people of God. The correspondence will now become clearer because the half way point has been reached. Genesis stands as the Key to the Bible, for it contains all that the rest of Scripture treats in progression and formation. The 5th Dispensation is that of Israel as the Nation generated and nurtured by God as Jehovah, and answers to the Gentiles in the Sons of Noah and separated by the Fathers or Patriarchs as related to and covenanted with El Shaddai. 5th period covers the rest of the Old Testament from Joshua to Malachi. The 6th Dispensation is of Christ and is contained in the New Testament of the 27 Books, that is, minus the last 4 Chapters of the Apocalypse, which deals with the last and 7th Dispensation to answer to the Creation Week. But we must first finish our Genesis reflections and then move on more rapidly towards Deuteronomy.

GENESIS: Reflections, References, Resources:
It is helpful to see the chronology of the Bible Generations in Genesis, whether we can ascertain their accuracy or interpretations. Ny have set their hearts and hands to make charts and tables to present these details, of them Bullinger is as good and simple as we find. Here I give my edited PDF of the first part of Appendix 50.8, the Summary, from Adam’s creation to Joshua’s death; after we complete Deuteronomy I will edit the second part.
(From the Companion Bible of E.W. Bullinger, 1910. The PDF edited by mjm.)
Appendix 50. VIII. Summary of Principal Events: (1st half now. later the 2nd half)

B.C. (That is, from the Common Era A.D.)
4004 Adam created.
3874 Seth b. “Adam begat a son in his own likeness” (Gen. 5: 3).
3769 Enos b.
3679 Cainan b.
3609 Mahalaleel b.
3544 Jared b.
3382 Enoch b. “seventh from Adam” (Jude 14).
3317 Methuselah b.
3194 Adam’s “day of grace” begins when he is 810 (Gen. 6. 3).
3130 Lamech b.
3074 Adam d. (930).
3017 Enoch translated, fifty-seven years after Adam’s d.
2962 Seth d. (912).
2948 Noah b.
2864 Enos d. (905).
2769 Cainan d. (910).
2714 Mahalaleel d. (895).
2582 Jared d. (962).
2448 Japheth b.
2447 Ham b.
2446 Shem b. (Noah 502).
2353 Lamech d. (777).
2348 Methuselah d. (969) in the first month of the Flood year.
2348} The Flood year. (Noah’s 600th year. Gen. 7: 6, 11.)
2347} The Flood year. (Noah’s 600th year. Gen. 7: 6, 11.)
2346 Arphaxad b. ”two years after the Flood”.
2311 Salah b.
2281 Eber b.
2247 Peleg b. “In his days the earth was divided”(Gen.10: 25). See note on 50. ii.
2185 Serug b.
2155 Nahor b.
2126 Terah b.
2056 Terah’s ”generations” begin with the b. of Haran.
2008 Peleg d. (239).
2007 Nahor d. (148).
1998 Noah d. (950).
1996 Abraham b. (1,992 years from the Nativity).
1978 Reu d. (239).
1955 Serug d. (230).
1946? Abraham’s First “Call”, in Ur of the Chaldees (Acts 7: 2-4).
1921 Terah d. (205). Abraham’s Second “Call” (Haran). The 430 years of the sojourning begin. (See note on Gen.12: 1, and Ap. 50. iii).
1920 Abraham goes down into Egypt. Attempted destruction of the Seed
(see note on Gen.12: 10, and Ap. 23).
1912 Abraham returns from Egypt.
1911 Abraham (85) marries Hagar (Gen. 16: 3).
1910 Ishmael b. (Abraham 86).
1897 Covenant of Circumcision. (Abraham 99).
1896 Isaac b. (Abraham 100).
1891 Isaac becomes “the Seed” (Gen. 21: 10; 12: 7). Ishmael” cast out”. The 400 years of Acts 7: 6 begin.
1878 Salah d. (433).
1863? Isaac (33) offered up.
1859 Sarah d. (127). The only woman whose age is given in Scripture. For significance of this, cp. Gal. 4. In Sarah’s age we have, allegorically, the period of duration of the Old Covenant.
1856 Isaac (40) marries Rebekah.
1846 Shem (Melchizedek?) d. (600). Abraham (150) marries Keturah?
1836 Jacob b. (Isaac 60).
1821 Abraham d. (Isaac 75. Jacob 15).
1817 Eber d. (464), outlives Abraham by four years.
1812? The famine of Gen. 26: 1. The cause of sale of the birthright.?
1796 Esau (40) marries Hittite wives.
1773 Ishmael d. (137. Jacob 63).
1759 Jacob (77) gets the Blessing, and flees to Padan-aram.
1758 His “servitude” begins.
1752 His marriages.
1751 Reuben b.
1750 Simeon b.
1749 Levi and Dan b.
1748 Judah and Naphtali b,
1747 Gad b.
1746 Asher and Issachar b.
1745 Zebulun and Dinah (twins?) and Joseph b.
1742 Jacob’s bargain about the cattle.
1739 Jacob flees from Padan-aram.
1738 Jacob meets Esau.
1737 Jacob at Succoth.
1736 Jacob comes to Shechem.
1732 Dinah raped. Another attempt to destroy the ”Seed”, by raising the country against the “tribe”.
1726 Jacob (110) joins his father Isaac (170) at Hebron (after a separation of thirty-three years).
1717 Joseph (28) in Egypt. Interprets butler’s dream.
1716 Isaac d. (180. Jacob 120. Joseph 29).
1715 Joseph (30) interprets Pharaoh’s dream.
1707 First year of the famine.
1706 Second year of the famine. Jacob (130) goes down into Egypt. The 215 years of the sojourning in Egypt begin. (Half of the 430 years from Gen.12: 4.)
1705 Third year of the famine.
1704 Fourth year of the famine.
1703 Fifth year of the famine.
1702 Sixth year of the famine.
1701 Seventh year of the famine.
1689 Jacob d. (147), after seventeen years in Egypt. (Joseph 56. Benjamin 39.)
1635 Joseph d. (110).
1612 Levi d. (137).
1635} Gap of sixty-four years from d. of Joseph to b. of Moses.
1571} Gap of sixty-four years from d. of Joseph to b. of Moses.
1571 Moses b.
1544 Joshua b. (Moses 27).
1529 Caleb b.
1491 The Exodus. 430 years from Gen.12: 4, & 400 years from Gen.21:10.
1490 The Tabernacle set up. This year the people should have entered the Land.
1452 Miriam, Aaron, and Moses d.
1451 Entry into the Land.
1444 The “Wars of the Lord” end (Josh. 14. 15). Caleb 85. Joshua hands over the leadership to Eleazar.
1444} First Sabbatic year.
1443} First Sabbatic year.
1434 Joshua d. (110).

The Charts and Chronology of the Companion Bible by E. W. Bullinger, 1910:
The charts of Appendix 50 are presented in their order:
(From Levend Water site: © Levend Water. All rights reserved.)

I. a.-g. From the creation to the Flood, 4004-2348.
II. From the Flood to Abraham, 2348-1996.
III. a.-c. From Abraham to the Exodus, 1996-1491.
IV. a.-b. From the Exodus to the Kingdom, 1491-1000.
V. a.-e. From the Kingdom to the Captivities, 1000-426.
VI. From Ezra-Nehemiah to the destruction of Jerusalem.
1. Details of the Exodus Week in 1491 B.C.
2. General Plan of the Forty years.
3a. Details of the First two years 1491-1490.
3b. Details of the First two years 1491-1490.
4. Details of the Fortieth & Forty-first years.
5. Details of the Ezra-Nehemiah Period.
6. Details of the Prophets and Kings. The Prophets and Kings.
11. The “LO-AMMI” Periods.


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7: Chronologies: Secular and Sacred Calendars: (Infoplease Almanac. Ussher. Bedford.)
1. Infoplease Almanac: “History of the Calendar”: The purpose of the calendar is to reckon past or future time, to show how many days until a certain event takes place—the harvest or a religious festival—or how long since something important happened. The earliest calendars must have been strongly influenced by the geographical location of the people who made them. In colder countries, the concept of the year was determined by the seasons, specifically by the end of winter. But in warmer countries, where the seasons are less pronounced, the Moon became the basic unit for time reckoning; an old Jewish book says that “the Moon was created for the counting of the days.” Most of the oldest calendars were lunar calendars, based on the time interval from one new moon to the next—a so-called lunation. But even in a warm climate there are annual events that pay no attention to the phases of the Moon. In some areas it was a rainy season; in Egypt it was the annual flooding of the Nile River. The calendar had to account for these yearly events as well.
History of the Lunar Calendar: The lunar calendar became the basis of the calendars of the ancient Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks, and Jews. During antiquity the lunar calendar that best approximated a solar-year calendar was based on a 19-year period, with 7 of these 19 years having 13 months. In all, the period contained 235 months. Still using the lunation value of 291/2 days, this made a total of 6, 9321/2 days, while 19 solar years added up to 6,939.7 days, a difference of just one week per period and about five weeks per century. Even the 19-year period required adjustment, but it became the basis of the calendars of the ancient Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks, and Jews. This same calendar was also used by the Arabs, but Muhammad later forbade shifting from 12 months to 13 months, so that the Islamic calendar now has a lunar year of about 354 days. As a result, the months of the Islamic calendar, as well as the Islamic religious festivals, migrate through all the seasons of the year.
History of the Egyptian Calendar: The Egyptian year coincided precisely with the solar year only once every 1.460 years The ancient Egyptians used a calendar with 12 months of 30 days each, for a total of 360 days per year (In addition to the civic calendar, the Egyptians also had a religious calendar that was based on the 291/2-day lunar cycle and was more closely linked with agricultural cycles and the movements of the stars.). About 4000 B.C. they added five extra days at the end of every year to bring it more into line with the solar year. (1. The correct figures are lunation: 29 d, 12 h, 44 min, 2.8 sec (29.530585 d); solar year: 365 d, 5 h, 48 min, 46 secs (365.242216 d); 12 lunations: 354 d, 8 h, 48 min, 34 secs (354.3671 d). These five days became a festival because it was thought to be unlucky to work during that time. The Egyptians had calculated that the solar year was actually closer to 3651/4 days, but instead of having a single leap day, every four years, to account for the fractional day (the way we do now), they let the one-quarter day accumulate. After 1,460 solar years, or four periods of 365 years, 1,461 Egyptian years had passed. This means that as the years passed, the Egyptian months fell out of sync with the seasons, so that the summer months eventually fell during winter. Only once every 1,460 years did their calendar year coincide precisely with the solar year?
History of the Roman (Julian) Calendar: The Romans were superstitious that even numbers were unlucky, so their months were 29 or 31 days long. When Rome emerged as a world power, the difficulties of making a calendar were well known, but the Romans complicated their lives because of their superstition that even numbers were unlucky. Hence their months were 29 or 31 days long, with the exception of February, which had 28 days. However, four months of 31 days, seven months of 29 days, and one month of 28 days added up to only 355 days. Therefore, the Romans invented an extra month called Mercedonius of 22 or 23 days. It was added every second year. Even with Mercedonius, the Roman calendar eventually became so far off that Julius Caesar, advised by the astronomer Sosigenes, ordered a sweeping reform. 46 B.C. was made 445 days long by imperial decree, bringing the calendar back in step with the seasons. Then the solar year (with the value of 365 days and 6 hours) was made the basis of the calendar. The months were 30 or 31 days in length, and to take care of the 6 hours, every fourth year was made a 366-day year. Moreover, Caesar decreed the year began with the first of January, not with the vernal equinox in late March. This calendar was named the Julian calendar, after Julius Caesar, and it continues to be used by Eastern Orthodox churches for holiday calculations to this day. However, despite the correction, the Julian calendar is still 111/2 minutes longer than the actual solar year, and after a number of centuries, even 111/2 minutes adds up. The Gregorian Reform: The Julian calendar is phased out. By the 15th century the Julian calendar had drifted behind the solar calendar by about a week, so that the vernal equinox was falling around March 12 instead of around March 20. Pope Sixtus IV (who reigned from 1471 to 1484) decided that another reform was needed and called the German astronomer Regiomontanus to Rome to advise him. Regiomontanus arrived in 1475, but unfortunately, he died shortly afterward, and the pope’s plans for reform died with him. Then in 1545, the Council of Trent authorized Pope Paul III to reform the calendar once more. Most of the mathematical and astronomical work was done by Father Christopher Clavius, S.J. The immediate correction, advised by Father Clavius and ordered by Pope Gregory XIII, was that Thursday, Oct. 4, 1582, was to be the last day of the Julian calendar. The next day would be Friday, Oct. 15. For long-range accuracy, a formula suggested by the Vatican librarian Aloysius Giglio was adopted: every fourth year is a leap year unless it is a century year like 1700 or 1800. Century years can be leap years only when they are divisible by 400 (e.g., 1600 and 2000). This rule eliminates three leap years in four centuries, making the calendar sufficiently accurate. In spite of the revised leap year rule, an average calendar year is still about 26 seconds longer than the Earth’s orbital period. But this discrepancy will need 3,323 years to build up to a single day.
Reform Adopted Gradually: The Gregorian reform was not adopted throughout the West immediately. Most Catholic countries quickly changed to the pope’s new calendar in 1582. But Europe’s Protestant princes chose to ignore the papal bull and continued with the Julian calendar. It was not until 1700 that the Protestant rulers of Germany and the Netherlands changed to the new calendar. In Great Britain (and its colonies) the shift did not take place until 1752, and in Russia a revolution was needed to introduce the Gregorian calendar in 1918. In Turkey, the Islamic calendar was used until 1926.
A Better Calendar? Despite its widespread use, the Gregorian calendar has a number of weaknesses. It cannot be divided into equal halves or quarters; the number of days per month is haphazard; and months and years may begin on any day of the week. Holidays pegged to specific dates may also fall on any day of the week, and few Americans can predict when Thanksgiving will occur next year. Since Gregory XIII, many other proposals for calendar reform have been made, but none has been permanently adopted. In the meantime, the Gregorian calendar keeps the calendar dates in reasonable unison with astronomical events.
Adoption of the Gregorian Calendar: The Gregorian reform was not adopted throughout the West immediately: Year Country: 1582 Catholic states of Italy, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Holland, and Poland. 1584 German and Swiss Catholic states. 1587 Hungary. 1700 German, Swiss, and Dutch Protestant States, Denmark and Norway. 1752 Great Britain and its possessions (including the American colonies). 1873 Japan. 1875 Egypt. 1918 Russia. 1924 Greece. 1925 Turkey. 1949 China.”))
(History of Calendars (Egyptian, Lunar, Roman, Gregorian Reform — When & Where). Copyrights. Information Please® Database, © 2007 Pearson Education Inc. All rights reserved: (Awaiting permission. I still have not received reply. I’ll try again.)
2. Ussher: (Oxford’s Cyclopedic Concordance) “Remarks. The Chronology of the Old Testament, as given In the Hebrew text, is represented with much accuracy by the marginal dates inserted in many editions of the Authorized English Version. These dates, reduced to system by Archbishop Ussher (Annales Veteris Testamenti, 1650), were first added to the English Bible by Bishop Lloyd, in the great edition of 1701. The dates of Archbishop Ussher for this period are convenient for keeping the succession of events, but are not authoritative, as is agreed by the most conservative scholars. They are only one of several possible arrangements. Opinions of chronologers as to the ‘ era of Creation ‘ vary indeed by many centuries. (Ussher 4004, Hales (Sept.) 5411 B.C., Jewish reckoning 3760 B. C., Alexandrian 5503 B.C “The question is, in fact, insoluble.”
Annals of the World: Preface: “Despite his success as a churchman, Ussher is perhaps most famous for having dated the start of the creation to the evening before 23rd October, 4004 B.C. Ussher calculated this timing in his Annals, a work of biblical chronology which he published in Latin in 1650 (Hartlib noted its progress through the press with great interest), and which was translated into English in 1658. The book was the fruit of many years labour; as early as the summer of 1640, Ussher had been reported ‘spending constantly all the afternoones’ in the Bodleian working at it (Constantine Adams to Hartlib, Hartlib Papers, 15/8/3A–4B). In the Annals, Ussher developed the chronological work of many earlier scholars, in particular Joseph Justus Scaliger (who had pioneered the use of the Julian period in calendrical calculations) to provide a framework for dating the whole Bible historically. He argued that, although scripture itself only tended to take notice of entire years, the Holy Ghost had left clues in the Bible which allowed the critic to establish a precise chronology of its events, through the application to the text of the results of astronomical calculations and its comparison with the dates of pagan history. Ussher’s system had the advantage of preserving several attractive numerical symmetries, for example the ancient Jewish notion, adopted by Christians, that the creation anticipated the birth of the Messiah by 4,000 years, but it was also heavily dependent on classical chronologies and on an interpretation of the calendar which already seemed outdated to many scholars. Although not wholly original, Ussher’s work was nevertheless influential and became widely accepted, not least because its dates were later incorporated into the margins of some editions of the Authorized Version. However, Ussher’s chronology rested too heavily on the Hebrew text of Old Testament to escape controversy even in his own day. Its findings were attacked by those who were persuaded that the Greek translation of the Old Testament (the Septuagint) or the Samaritan Pentateuch (both of which presented different chronologies from the Hebrew) were more reliable witnesses to the dictation of the Holy Ghost, or that they concurred more closely with the evidence of astronomy and pagan history. Yet, in the opinion of Hartlib, and perhaps of many others, Ussher’s critics were churlish individuals who were unwilling to admit their own debts to his scholarship. Despite such debates, most seventeenth-century readers of the Bible would have agreed with Ussher that it ought, in principle, to have been possible to establish an accurate and detailed biblical chronology. Illustrated opposite is the title-page from the Annals, engraved by Francis Barlow and Richard Gaywood. This shows a number of the crucial figures and episodes from Ussher’s chronology. Adam and Eve are flanked by the figures of Solomon and Nebuchadnezzar, the builder and destroyer of the first Temple, which is also shown both in its glory and after its fall. The engraving also depicts the second Temple, built after Cyrus allowed the return of the Jews to Jerusalem, and its eventual destruction. The figures of Cyrus and of Vespasian (who was Emperor at the time of the destruction of Herod’s Temple, in A.D. 70) flank a depiction of the Last Supper. This copy of the Annals has also been extra-illustrated by the pasting in of a contemporary engraved portrait of Ussher, which shows him holding ‘God’s Word’, the Bible, in his hand. It was executed for the London printseller, Peter Stent, who advertised it for sale in 1653, 1658, 1662, and 1663.))
Annals: Letter to Readers ….”The first Christian writer, (that I have known of) who attempted from the Holy Bible to calculate the age of the world, was Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch. Concerning this whole account, he states: “All times and years are made known to them who are willing to obey the truth” (Theoph. ad Autolyc. l. 3.) But concerning the exactness of this calculation he later states: “And haply we may not be able to give an exact account of every year, because in the Holy Scriptures there is no mention of the precise number of months and days” For the Scripture normally notes only entire years and not the days and months in each instance. Hence summing the years may give an inaccurate total because the partial years were not included. But granting this one thing, (and this is a most reasonable assumption) that the Holy Writers had this purpose in noting the years of the world in their various places with such diligence. They sought to reveal to us the history of the world that otherwise, no one could know. This, I say, being granted, we affirm that the Holy Spirit has anticipated this doubt. He has started and ended each of the periods, on which a series of time depends and added the very month and day. For example, the Israelites left Egypt on the 15th day of the first month. Nu 33:3. In the 480th year after their exodus, in the second month on the second day, Solomon began to build the temple. 1Ki 6:1. The months and days given for the start and end of the period show that 11 months and 14 days are to be taken away. The period is not 480 whole years, but only 479 years and 16 days. 2Ch 3:2 “Those who promise to give us an exact astronomical table of time, from the creation to Christ, seem to me more worthy of encouragement than praise in that they attempt a thing beyond human capacity.” Thus states David Paraeus, who, among the most recent of our writers, calculated the number the years to Christ’s time from the Holy Scriptures. Therefore he says, abandoning astronomical calculations, he used the civil time of the Hebrews, Egyptians and Persians as the only way to do this accurately. But if I have any understanding in this matter, it does not matter what rule we use to measure the passing of time, as long as it starts and ends with a certain number of days. Anyone could with D. Paraeus, by some equal measure of years, define the time between the foundation of the world and Christ’s time. Also it would be very easy without the help of any astronomical table, to set down how many years happened during that interval. The passing of time in any civil year from a season to the same season again is simply a natural astronomical or tropical year. Anyone can do this who is well versed in the knowledge of sacred and profane history, of astronomical calculations and of the old Hebrew calendar. If he should apply himself to these difficult studies, it is not impossible for him to determine not only the number of years but even the days from the creation of the world. Using backward calculations, Basil the great, told us we may determine the first day of the world. “You may indeed learn the very time when the foundation of the world was laid. If you return from this time to former ages, you may endeavour studiously to determine the day of the world’s origin. Hence you will find when time began.” {Basil. in Hexamer. Homil. 1.} the nations in various ages used different methods of calculating time and years. It is necessary that some common and known standard be used to which these may be reconciled. The Julian years and months are most suitable to the common collation of times. These starts on midnight, January 1, A.D. Using three cycles, every year are uniquely identified. For example, the Roman indiction {a} of 15 years, the cycle of the moon {b}, or golden number of 19 and the solar cycle {c} (the index of Sunday or Paschal days) containing the period of 28 years. It is known that the year 1650 A.D. is identified with the numbers of 3 in the Roman indiction {a}, 17 in the lunar cycle and 7 in the solar cycle. (I do not say that of the year of the birth of Christ, which is still disputed among the learned.) Since our Christian period comes long after the creation of the world, counting years backward is difficult and error prone. There is a better way. Modern chronologers have extrapolated these three cycles backward to the year when all the cycles would start at 1 on January first. This creates an artificial epoch of length 7980 years based on the product of the three cycles multiplied together. Lunar Cycle Solar Cycle Years of Interdiction Total 19 times 28 times 15 = 7980 Years 19 Years 28 Years 15 Years I think this was first noted by Robert Lotharing, Bishop of Hereford, in England. 500 years later Joseph Scaliger adapted this to chronological use and called it by the name of the Julian Period, because it extended the cycle of Julian years back in time and forward. The cycle starts at noon, January 1, 4713 BC. and is a leap year. Here the lunar cycle is 1, the Solar cycle is 1 and the Interdiction cycle is also 1. Hence 1 AD is the year 4714 of the Julian period and is identified by the Roman Indiction of 4, lunar cycle of 2, solar cycle of 10. Moreover we find that the years of our forefathers, the years of the ancient Egyptians and Hebrews were the same length as the Julian Year. It consisted of 12 months containing 30 days. (It cannot be proved that the Hebrews used lunar months before the Babylonian captivity.) 5 days were added to the 12th month each year. Every 4 years, 6 days were added to the 12th month. I have noted the continual passing of these years, as set forth in the Bible. Hence the end of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign and the beginning of his son Evilmerodach’s reign was in the 3442 year of the world. (3442 AM) By collation of Chaldean history and the astronomical cannon it was in the 85 year of Nabonasar. This was 562 BC. or 4152 JP. (Julian Period) From this I deduce that the creation of the world happened in the beginning of the autumn of 710 JP. {d} Using astronomical tables, I determined the first Sunday after the autumnal equinox for the year 710 JP which was October 23 of that year. I ignored the stopping of the sun, in the days of Joshua and the going back of it in the days of Hezekiah. (See the notes in my Annals for 2553 AM and 3291 AM) From thence I concluded, that from the preceding evening of October 23, marks the first day of creation and the start of time. I ignored the difficulties raised by chronologers who are occupied by the love of contention, as Basil notes. Hence I deduce that the time from the creation until midnight, January 1, 1 AD. was 4003 years, 70 days, 6 hours. Also based on the death of Herod I conclude that the birth of our Saviour was four full years before January 1, 1 AD. According to our calculations, the building of Solomon’s temple was finished in the 3000th year of the world. In the 4000th year of the world, Mary gave birth to Christ Lu 2:6 (of whom the temple was a type). Joh 2:21 Hence Christ was born in 4 BC. not 1 AD. {e} But these things, (which I note at the present) God willing, shall be more fully explained in our “Sacred Chronology”. This I intend to write with a “Treatise of the Primitive Years” and the “Calendar of the Ancient Hebrews”. In the meantime I thought it best to publish the “Annals of the Old Testament”. Based on this foundation, I included a chronicle of all foreign affairs that happened in Asia and Egypt. These include events before the beginning of the Olympiads and matters relating to Greece and Rome and other areas. In doing the sacred history, I have followed the translation of Janius and Tremellius, using their Hebraism’s and the information from their work. In doing the secular history, I have noted the writings of their ancient authors or the best translation from the Greek of their works. In particular I used James Dalechamp translation in Athenaeus. Although in noting the chapters I observed the edition of “Natalis Comes”. From these I have written this history using material from Codomanes, Capellas Emmias, Pezelius, Eberus, Salianus, or any other chronologer, which I had. However, I always referred to the original authors and did most of my work directly from their writings and not second hand sources. Since my purpose was to create an accurate chronology, I may not have followed the exact wording of these writers in every case, but I have preserved the intent of their writings. Of the many historians, who lived before Julius Caesar, the passing of time leaves only four of note: Herodotus, Thucidides, Xenophon and Polibius. The last one is poor and inaccurate in many places. These I esteemed the most authentic for their antiquity. I used them to correct the frequent errors in chronology of Diodorus Siculus. However in matters that related to Alexander the Great, they are silent. For this period, I also followed not only Diodorus but Curtius and Arrian to try to determine the history of that period. I used the following abbreviations: ADYears from the start of the Christian era. AMYear of the World from creation. BCYears before the Christian era. JPJulian Year starting at January 1, 4713 BC. NKNorthern Kingdom of Israel. SKSouthern Kingdom of Israel. After the time denoted by AM, one of four letters may be affixed; aAutumn bWinter cSpring d Summer. Other things the prudent reader will figure out for himself. I wish you the enjoyment of these endeavours and bid you farewell. London, July 13, 1650 AD. Rev. James Ussher.))
“The Annals of the Old Testament from the Beginning of the World The First Age of the World 1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC 1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Ge 1:1 This beginning of time, according to our chronology, happened at the start of the evening preceding the 23rd day of October in the year of the Julian calendar, 710. 2. On the first day Ge 1:1-5 of the world, on Sunday, October 23rd, God created the highest heaven and the angels. When he finished, as it were, the roof of this building, he started with the foundation of this wonderful fabric of the world. He fashioned this lower most globe, consisting of the deep and of the earth. Therefore all the choir of angels sang together and magnified his name. Job 38:7 When the earth was without form and void and darkness covered the face of the deep, God created light on the very middle of the first day. God divided this from the darkness and called the one “day” and the other “night”. 3. On the second day Ge 1:6-8 (Monday, October 24th) after the firmament or heaven was finished, the waters above were separated from the waters here below, en-closing the earth. 4. On the third day Ge 1:9-13 (Tuesday, October 25th) when these waters below ran together into one place, the dry land appeared. From this collection of the waters God made a sea, sending out from here the rivers, which were to return there again. Ec 1:7 He caused the earth to bud and bring forth all kinds of herbs and plants with seeds and fruits. Most importantly, he enriched the garden of Eden with plants, for among them grew the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Ge 2:8,9 5. On the fourth day (Wednesday, October 26th) the sun, the moon and the rest of the stars were created. 6. On the fifth day (Thursday, October 27th) fish and flying birds were created and commanded to multiply and fill the sea and the earth. 7. On the sixth day (Friday, October 28th) the living creatures of the earth were created as well as the creeping creatures. Last of all, man was created after the image of God, which consisted principally in the divine knowledge of the mind, Col 3:10 in the natural and proper sanctity of his will. Eph 4:24 When all living creatures by the divine power were brought before him, Adam gave them their names. Among all of these, he found no one to help him like himself. Lest he should be destitute of a suitable companion, God took a rib out of his side while he slept and fashioned it into a woman. He gave her to him for a wife, establishing by it the law of marriage between them. He blessed them and bade them to be fruitful and multiply. God gave them dominion over all living creatures. God provided a large portion of food and sustenance for them to live on. To conclude, because sin had not yet entered into the world, God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. Ge 1:31 8. Now on the seventh day, (Saturday, October 29th) when God had finished his work which he intended, he then rested from all labour. He blessed the seventh day and ordained and consecrated the sabbath Ge 2:2, 3 because he rested on it Ex 31:17 and refreshed himself. Nor as yet (for ought to appears) had sin entered into the world. Nor was there any punishment given by God, either upon mankind, or upon angels. Hence it was, that this day was set forth for a sign, as well as for our sanctification in this world Ex 31:13 of that eternal sabbath, to be enjoyed in the world to come. In it we expect a full deliverance from sin and its dregs and all its punishments. Heb 4:4,9,10 9. After the first week of the world ended, it seems that God brought the newly married couple into the garden of Eden. He charged them not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil but left them free to eat of everything else. 10. The Devil envied God’s honour and man’s obedience. He tempted the woman to sin by the serpent. By this he got the name and title of the old serpent. Re 12:9 20:2 The woman was beguiled by the serpent and the man seduced by the woman. They broke the command of God concerning the forbidden fruit. Accordingly when sought for by God and convicted of this crime, each had their punishments imposed on them. This promise was also given that the seed of the woman should one day break the serpent’s head. Christ, in the fulness of time should undo the works of the Devil. 1Jo 3:8 Ro 16:20 Adam first called her Eve because she was then ordained to be the mother, not only of all that should live this natural life, but, of those also who should live by faith in her seed. This was the promised Messiah as Sarah also later was called the mother of the faithful. 1Pe 3:6 Ga 4:31. 11. After this our first parents were clothed by God with raiment of skins. They were expelled from Eden and a fiery flaming sword set to keep the way leading to the tree of life so that they should never eat of that fruit which they had not yet touched. Ge 3:21, 22 It is very probable, that Adam was turned out of paradise the same day that he was brought into it. This seems to have been on the 10th day of the world. (November 1st) On this day also, in remembrance of so remarkable an event the day of atonement was appointed Le 23:27, and the yearly fast, spoken of by Paul, Ac 27:9 termed more especially by the name of nhsteian. On this feast all, strangers as well as native Israelites, were commanded to afflict their souls that every soul which should not afflict itself upon that day should be destroyed from among his people, Le 16:29 23:29 12. After the fall of Adam, Cain was the first of all mortal men that was born of a woman. Ge 4:1 130 AM, 840 JP, 3874 BC 13. When Cain, the firstborn of all mankind, murdered Abel, God gave Eve another son called Seth. Ge 4:25 Adam had now lived 130 years. Ge 5:3 from whence it is gathered, that between the death of Abel and the birth of Seth, there was no other son born to Eve. For then, he should have been recorded to have been given her instead of him. Since man had been on the earth 128 years and Adam and Eve had other sons and daughters Ge 5:4 the number of people on the earth at the time of this murder could have been as many as 500,000. Cain might justly fear, through the conscience of his crime, that every man that met him would also slay him. Ge 4:14,15 235d AM, 945 JP, 3769 BC 14. When Seth was 105 years old, he had his son, Enos. This indicates the lamentable condition of all mankind. For even then was the worship of God wretchedly corrupted by the race of Cain. Hence it came, that men were even then so distinguished, that they who persisted in the true worship of God were known by the name of the children of God. They, who forsook him, were termed the children of men. Ge 4:26 6:1, 2 325d AM, 1035 JP, 3679 BC 15.
Now in the 10th day of the second month of this year (Sunday, November 30th) God commanded Noah that in that week he should prepare to enter into the Ark. Meanwhile the world, totally devoid of all fear, sat eating and drinking and marrying and giving in marriage. Ge 7:1, 4, 10 Mt 24:38 35. In the 600th year of the life of Noah, on the 17th day of the second month, (Sunday, December 7th), he with his children and living creatures of all kinds had entered into the Ark. God sent a rain on the earth 40 days and 40 nights. The waters continued upon the earth 150 days, Ge 7:4, 6, 11-13, 17, 24. 36. The waters abated until the 17th day of the 7th month, (Wednesday, May 6th) when the ark came to rest upon one of the mountains of Ararat. Ge 8:3, 4 37. The waters continued receding until on the 1st day of the 10th month (Sunday, July 19th) the tops of the mountains were seen. Ge 8:5 38. After 40 days, that is on the 11th day of the 11th month (Friday, August 28th) Noah opened the window of the ark and sent forth a raven. Ge 8:6,7 39. 7 days later, on the 18th day of the 11th month (Friday, September 4th) as may be deduced from the other 7 days mentioned in Ge 8:10, Noah sent out a dove. She returned after 7 days. 25th day of the 11th month, (Friday, September 11th) He sent her out again and about the evening she returned bringing the leaf of an olive tree in her bill. After waiting 7 days more, 2nd day of the 12th month, (Friday, September 18th) he sent the same dove out again, which never returned. Ge 8:8,12
The Second Age of the World 1657 AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC 40. When Noah was 601 years old, on the 1st day of the 1st month (Friday, October 23rd), the 1st day of the new post-flood world, the surface of the earth was now all dry. Noah took off the covering of the ark. Ge 8:13 41. On the 27th of the 2nd month, (Thursday, December 18th) the earth was entirely dry. By the command of God, Noah went forth with all that were with him in the ark. Ge 8:14, 15, 19 42. When he left the ark, Noah offered to God sacrifices for his blessed preservation. God restored the nature of things destroyed by the flood. He permitted men to eat flesh for their food and gave the rainbow for a sign of the covenant which he then made with man. Ge 8:15-9:17 43. Man’s lifespan was now half the length it was previously…….

3. Bedford’s The Scripture Chronology Demonstrated by Astronomical Calculations, and also by the Year of Jubilee, and the Sabbatical Year among the Jews: or an Account of Time from the Creation of the World, to the Destruction of Jerusalem as it may fed from the Writings of the Old and New Testament. by a Method hitherto Unattempted; and which was first proposed by the Learned Archbishop Ussher. In which the Hebrew Text is vindicated, and the Objections of it, as consisting of many Mutilations, and numerical Alterations, casionally considered 3 and the Authority of the Samaritan and against it, as consisting of many Mutilations, and numerical Alterations, are occasionally considered; and the Authority of the Samaritan and Septuagint Versions, in Opposition to the Original Copy, is confuted. Together, with The History of the WORLD, from the Creation, to the Time when Dr. Prideaux began his Connexion; Illustrated with a great Variety of Tables, Maps, and Copper Plates; by Arthur Bedford M. A. Rector of Newton……. M.DCC.XXX. (1730). London.
(Psal.19. 1,2,3,4,5. The heavens declare the glory of GOD, and the firmament sheweth his handy work. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard. Their line is gone out through all the earth; and their words unto the ends of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun; which is as bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoyceth as a giant to run his course. Psal. 89. 5. The heavens shall praise thy wonders, O LORD; thy faithfulness also in the congregation of the faints. Psal. 5.18. Known unto G O D are all his works, from the foundation of the world. Psal. 17. 24,25,26,27. GOD that made the world and all things therein, who is LORD of heaven and earth, who giveth to all life and breath and all things, hath determined the times before appointed That they should seek the L O R D, if haply they might seek after him, and find him, tho’ he be not far from every one of us.)
To the Reader: When it pleased GOD to remove me from Bristol to a private Living in Somersetshire, where I had more Leisure for my Studies, I happen’d to read over the Preface of the most learned Archbishop Usher to his Annal, in which he mentioned his Opinion concerning a more exact: Method of a Chronological System of the Sacred Scriptures by the Help of Astronomy, and a competent Skill in the Jewish Learning. I was far from thinking myself so well skilled in either of these Studies, as to undertake a Work of this Nature; however several Texts of Scripture coming into my Memory, made me endeavour to attempt it. I made many Calculations to no Purpose, and bestowed many an Hour about it, with this View, that if it was above my Ability to perform it, it could but be buried in Oblivion; but if GOD would enable me to do it, it might be useful. Sometimes I despair’d of Success, and laid the Design aside, at other Times I had Hope, and then fell to it again. At last I flatter’d myself, that I had succeeded, and then digested my Thoughts into some Method. After this, coming to London, to assist in the Correction of the Arabick Psalter, and New Testament, for the Benefit of the poor Christians in Asia, I shewed my Thoughts to some Friends, who advis’d me to publish them to which I comply’d, with a Design not to have exceeded fourscore or an hundred Pages in the whole. A few Sheets being printed off, I was informed, that a Work of this Nature was intended to be publish d from the Papers of the most famous Sir Isaac Newton. Upon this I stopp’d, expecting great Assistance in my Design from that most able Hand. When it was publish’d, I found his Astronomical Observations to be very few, and even those not to be satisfactory. And as the Septuagint and Samaritan Versions would destroy the Authority of the Hebrew Text, by Placing the Date of the Creation too far forward; so I found, that Sir Isaacs Hypothesis would have the fame Consequence, by bringing the History too far backward.
[Two instances of Isaac Newton’s poor Chronology of Scripture is given in which he had plainly contradicted Scripture (Animadversions on Sir Isaac Newton’s Book, titled, The Chronology of antient Kingdoms amended. London. Printed in the Year 1728.) Bedford writes: “Thus the Chronology of this learned Author puts the whole Scripture History into Confusion, and therefore he should not have mentioned in the least, that he had made his System agreeable to those sacred Writings…..So that when this learned Author saith, that he hath made his Chronology agree with Scripture, he can only mean the Scripture of his own Making.”]
But to return from this Digression; After a few Sheets of this Work had been printed off, I was advis’d by some Friends, contrary to my first Inclinations, to enlarge the Work by several other Additions, and particularly by a History of the World from the Creation, until the Time when Dean Prideaux began his learned Connection, and to add what could be found for this Purpose, in the Writings of the most authentick Eastern Historians, such as Sanchoniatho, Abul Pharagius, Elmachinus, Eutychius and Josephus; and Proposals for Subscriptions were printed accordingly. [Of the many booksellers and scholars, reverends and ministers, we find the names of John Gill, Samuel Wright, ….] As soon as Sir Isaac Newton’s Chronology was extant, I found it contrary to all Mankind, and utterly destructive of the Scripture History, which made me oblig’d to confute it (Animadversions on Sir Isaac Newton’s Book, entitled, The Chronology of antient Kingdoms amended. London, Printed in the Year 1728.); in a small Octavo printed for that Purpose, and this delay d the other Work for some Time. When I began to think on the Particulars promis’d in the Proposals, I found the Work to be much more difficult, and to require much more Time to finish it, then I at first imagin’d, and, as I fear, beyond my Abilities. However, I was oblig’d to perform what I had promised. I hope that I have reconciled the Differences of Numbers throughout the Old and New Testament, so that there is no need to alledge, that any of them were alter’d by Transcribers, but that the Original is still preserve! pure and entire. I hope, that I have reconciled the various Accounts of Time among the Chaldeans, Grecians, ‘Persians and Egyptians, and made them agree with those of the Hebrew Bible, in Opposition to the Septuagint, and especially the Samaritan Version, who place their Account too high, as well as others, who place it too low……. (Befford apologizes of some uncertain points, and explains more of his aim, one of which is to demonsrate that many or most of the ritual and ceremonies were observed on Sunday, the Christian Sabbath, and that only among the Jews from Moses to Christ was it altered to the 7th day Sabbath, and then restored by Christ’s resurrection and continued in the Church; and that the Feasts of the OT are types of the NT realities…..
(The large folio book is divided into 8 Books and an Appendix, and these are subdivided by chapters. From Creation to the Flood, of Ancient years and Months, Astronomical Time of the Moon, Years and Duration of the Flood, of Paradise, of Noah’s Ark, World History before the Flood from Eastern Historians, of the Ark, Objections and Observations. The History continues from the Flood to Abraham, then to the Exodus, onto the Christ. Bedford treats of the Exodus and the Wilderness, then to Canaan, to the Temple, to Babylonian Captivity, and from Destruction of Jerusalem to Christ. The 1st Appendix is on the Stature of Men of the Antediluvian World; and the 2nd, is an Abstract of World History from the Flood to the Assyrian Monarchy by Nimrod.) (Bedford is quite learned and devoted to Christ and God’s Word; he is meticulous and thorough, with many new views not generally known before, and some clearly original. He innovates the Year Zero separating the year before Christ and the Year after Christ; he explores the details of Genesis with painstaking diligence, bringing in science and history, astronomy and geography, and much more. The sizes of the giants of the pre-flood centuries he calculates to be 10 times that our in accordance to the longevity of the ages recorded; his research and studies in Biblical Chronology is unsurpassed even by Ussher. Many have benefited from his work, and many have produced like works inspired and encouraged by his, but none has surpassed him. From him we inherit a host of popular views of ancient Bible Times, too many to count; but we might mention Bullinger’s Companion Bible is the best example; works like the Schofield Reference Bible and Dakes Annotated Bible also are by-products. Of Commentators like Gill and Clarke and many others I need not remind the reader, my Reflections would swell if I gave some more extracts of this great work.)
8. Modern Works: I omit the many modern writers on the Book of Genesis and its many matters of great importance. I have examined a good number of this endless stream of Solomon’s “of writing many books there is no end” and see no need to extract or cite from them. This example alone I may give: “In the Beginning, the Opening Chapters of Genesis” by Henri Blocher, Translated by D.G. Preston, from the French to English, © Inter Varsity Press, 1984. This excellent work treats hundreds of doctrines (like the text, inspiration, interpretation, science, religion philosophy, and the like) in strict exegesis of the Text, from creation to man in Eden and the fall to the flood and the ancient world (Chapters 1-2, 2-3, 4-11). He contends for a enlarged view of inspiration and interpretation; he harmonizes whenever possible; he rejects what would deny or destroy scripture and faith. (I cannot understand his remark that Calvin was one of the best Hebraist of his day; although he studied Hebrew and Greek.) The book closes with an Appendix: Scientific hypotheses and the beginning of Genesis (pages 213-231) in which he argues against the mental defects of both scientism (naturalists) and anti-scientism (creationists). The catastrophe of the fall of man, and the flood of Noah, ruined creation, and they of the Creation Research Society and like groups (Fundamentalists, Catholics and Protestants) interpret the earth and the universe in the light of this divine change. The creationists in a literal and a restrictive interpretation of the Text, rejects the geo-chronology of science, although most ordinary Christians readily concede to science. They insist on an early or young earth and universe (10,000 years or so), with time-measurements untrustworthy, and are willing to say that God created the earth and the universe with the appearance of age. Blocher surveys the controversy of dating and the various views developed from the theories and data. He favors a non-literal interpretation of Genesis 1 and cannot rely on the unclear understanding of the present young geo-chronology, but regards that the evidence points to a very old earth and universe with not only catastrophe and entropy (classical) but transformations or evolution (non-Darwinian). He declares: ”Nothing in the idea of creation excludes the use of an evolutionary procedure” (p.226). He concludes that some form of evolution exists, that its exact definition and description is at best vague, and that faith does not rely on established science but revelation; and anti-scientism does harm and creates confusion or ignorance. Seeing we know little of what and how he created to deny what is in evidence. But man is in the Bible a unique animal, which with man share some basic natural affinities in varied ways and degrees, but far less in design and destiny. ((This last trend of evolutionary principles in creation, even an evolutionary God, has continued to surface in many recent works of the last few decades. Both orthodox fundamentalists and the unorthodox Bible believer are being compelled rationally to interpret and incorporate the new discoveries, science, and theology.))

GENESIS: Generations of the Sons of Noah: Gentiles:

The Generations of the Creation continues in its history, toldoth, after the Flood in Noah’s three Sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 7 sons or descendants of Japhet are given, and 7 grandsons of his are named; and these are said to have divided and populated their lands, in tongues, families, and nations (goim, 1st occur.). The sons and offspring of Ham were 5, and his grandsons were 5, and his great grandsons were 2; but Cush is first noticed as father of Nimrod the Mighty (Gibbor), and emphatically, the Mighty Hunter (Gibbor–Tzaiyid (Saidh) before or against the Lord (YHWH), whose kingdom extended from south Shinar or Sumer and Babel, to the north in Assyria and Armenia and Turkey; namely from Persian Gulf to the mountains of the very north, whence originates the Two Great Rivers of the pre-Flood age. Nimrod’s Kingdom being the first Mesopotamian power and civilization, which centuries later developes into Sumer and Accad, the Sumerian-Akkadian civilization and world. Ham’s generations is resumed: from his son Mizraim or Egypt he had 7 grandsons (and one of them progenerated the Philistines and Phoenicians); and from Canaan Ham’s grandsons were 11; and the Canaanites disseminated the east coast of the Great Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the land between the Great Sea and the Jordan River with the Sea of Galilee north, to the Dead Sea south, the country and land to be known as Canaan, Israel, and Palestine. Last we have Shem’s sons were 5; Shem’s grandsons were 5; one great grandson; one great great grandson (Eber or Hebrew); two great great great grandsons (Peleg and Joktan, in Peleg’s day the earth was divided (‘niphlegah, from palag); and Shem’s 4th great grandsons were 13, and these Joktanites settled and inhabited from Mesha to Sephar of the East (Sephorah Har haqQedem), which I am agreed with those who think the lands or countries of the Arabs, ancient Arabia and Saudi Arabia, or from Iraq to Yemen to Oman, and from Red Sea to Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, (a land mass that looks like a Big Boot. Iraq at the top, Yemen at the heel and back sole, and Oman the vamp and front sole, and the toe of the boot reaching to the Gulf of Oman and the United Arab Emirates).
The generations of Noah’s Sons are the families and nations, their history and languages, from the time of the Flood to days of Moses. These nations, the Goim or Gentiles or Ethnos or Ethne, or ethnic groups, are revealed in Genesis to have descended and originated from one common stock. Their genesis was the same in language and culture. They originated according to the Text in the Mesopotamian geography, and first established themselves as a simple civilization in the land of Shinar, which will later be called Summer, Accad or Akkad, and Babel and Babylonia or Babylon and Chaldea. They feared global or universal dispersion and migration beyond Mesopotamia, so they set about to build a city, and with a High Tower reaching to heaven, and with a name to match. Mankind at this time of human history, now some hundreds of years after the Flood, this based on the Genealogy of the Nations in chapter 10, is united in their effort to create a kingdom or domain which would prevent and protect against future crisis or catastrophe, human or divine. But God as Lord, not far removed from man, watches and judges to save, and that too, to fulfill His purposes for all generations and the dispensations therein. Man’s union will come to no good, and like before the Flood, so now, after the Flood, united mankind, global humanity, will not be able to be stopped from the impossible and unimaginable. Man is intent on evil. Man must not attain his progress in this way, and at this time of human experience, so he must be confused (balal) in speech to match his confusion in heart and mind. This confusion (babel) will naturally and of necessity scatter and disperse them in migration and exploration. Thus, the earth will be populated by the Gentiles in a new dispensation which will continue to the present, and its features and details will be unfolded in the pages of the Bible.
We will not review so many ancient records of the ancient peoples from the centuries before and after Abraham, but will reserve that treatment for the future, at the close of the times and generations of the Patriarchs, and the close of Genesis with Joseph and Israel in Egypt.

GENESIS: Generations of Shem and of Terah.


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8: Delitzsch’s System of Biblical Psychology. (1855.1861.1878).
(A System of Biblical Psychology by Franz Delitzsch, D.D., Prof Theology, Leipsic. Translated from German to English, 2nd Ed Thoroughly Rev & Enlarged; by Rev. Rob. E, Wallis, Phil.Dr.1861. Edinburgh, T&T Clark. 1885. From Translator Preface: “The peculiar difficulties with which the translator has had to contend, were not unanticipated by the learned author himself, and may therefore be reasonably pleaded in bar of severe criticism on the way in which the task has been accomplished. Dr Delitzsch, in a courteous reply to a communication in which he had been informed of the intention to translate his book, says: “You are right: that book of mine greatly resists translation into English; it is full of newly-coined words and daring ideas; and both its form and substance are most elaborately involved.” This witness is profoundly true; and should it approve itself so to the reader in the course of his perusal of the following pages, it is hoped that he will indulgently remember this testimony.”)
From Preface of 1st Ed., 1855. “My preparations for the subject are so old (1830-1840), that as early as the year 1846 I was endeavoring to arrange them. In a Latin dissertation upon the elements of man’s nature— sketched out at that time, but suppressed—I proposed to myself an answer to the fundamental question: Whether the soul, so far as it is distinguished from the spirit, belongs by its nature to matter or to spirit? This question I proposed to consider on the side of the ecclesiastical doctrine of dichotomy that had become prevalent, which, moreover, I defended in my Theology of Biblical Prophecy (1845), and in both editions of my Commentary on Genesis (1852 and 1853). (The first edition of the System of Biblical Psychology (1855), comes between the second (1858) and third (1860) editions of the Commentary on Genesis.) That dissertation, indeed, is absolutely right in maintaining the unity of nature of soul and spirit; but it suffers from the great defect, that it does not do justice to the substantial difference between the two that is everywhere presupposed in the Holy Scripture. If this defect were not remedied, the psychologic mode of speech and matter generally in the Holy Scripture would be an obscure and formless chaos. The key of biblical psychology is found in the solution of the enigma: How is it to be conceived, that spirit and soul can be of one nature, and yet of distinct substance? It was not until I was enlightened upon this question that my confused materials of biblical psychology formed themselves as if spontaneously into a systematic unity. My problem was an historical one, standing in a wholly different internal attitude to the psychologic views of the New Testament, from that in which it stood—say to those of Plato or of the Indian Vedanta. In seeking exegetically to ascertain these views, and to combine’ them into a whole which should correspond to their own internal coherence, I proceeded from the auspicious assumption, that whatever of a psychologic kind Scripture presents will neither be self-contradictory, nor be so confused, childish, and unsatisfactory, as to have any need to be ashamed in view of the results of late psychologic research. This favorable assumption has, moreover, perfectly approved itself to me, without my being afraid of having considered the psychologic statements of Scripture in any other than their own light. For while the Scripture testifies to us of the fact of redemption, which is the revealed secret of human history and the universe, it gives us also at the same time disclosures about the nature of man, which, as well to speculative investigation into the final causes and connections of things, as to natural and spiritual self-contemplation, manifest themselves to be divine suggestions. So far, perhaps, the book before us may claim some consideration from inquirers into natural science and philosophy—from such, namely, as are not concealing views of the same kind as were lately frankly avowed by Carl Vogt…..I have striven after this virtue; and as I seek at no point to overstep the limit of the church’s knowledge up to the present time, without at the same time assuring myself that I am abiding by the scripturally sound creed of my church, I shall not be blamed for some theosophic sympathies, especially as I have reduced what Jacob Bohme taught about God’s sevenfold nature to the more biblical conception of the divine glory (doxa), and, moreover, have only so far appropriated it as it commended itself to me on biblical grounds. It was just in the light of this conception that the solution of the psychological problem occurred to me. In it (scil. this conception)— hitherto unduly neglected, and, as Weisse (Philosophische Dogmatik, i. 617) not at all too strongly expresses it, emptied of soul and life as it was under the hands of dogmatic philosophy— there are still to be found undiscovered treasures of knowledge. I have still much to say to courteous readers. But I shrink from bringing myself any longer personally in the front of my book. In deeply conscious acknowledgment of its imperfection, but yet with a grateful retrospect to the enjoyment I have found in the inquiry, I resign it to the not less merciful than strict criticism of the divine Fire (1 Cor. iii. 11-15).”
From Preface 2nd Ed., 1861. “I therefore beg all my readers carefully to distinguish the unassailable historical matter that is here placed before them, from that which is submitted to them for examination, and especially from those merely individual attempts to arrange it in general consistency with the scriptural view of God and the world; and to combine it systematically, agreeably with the suggestions of the Bible. He who in this behalf will form a competent estimate of my work, must first occupy a similar dogmatic, or, which is the same thing, ecclesiastical position to mine. That critics who are unprepared to answer the question: What is the Son of man? and who cut down the holy truths of faith in which they were baptized, and on account of which they are called Christians, nay, evangelical Christians, for the greater glorification of their scientific integrity, — that such critics should be able to find no enjoyment in my book, is wholly natural; and that the exact critics, who have no taste for a gnosis exercised in biblical paths, and the materialist critics, who know of no other induction than one which is calculated by atoms, should reject my book as a senseless production, is neither more nor less than might be expected. I rejoice in another estimate on the part of those who regard everything earnest and without deception—not merely the book of nature, but also the book of the Holy Scripture—as the attestation of a divine revelation, and who acknowledge the ground upon which I build (not without taking heed HOW I build) as the one that endures forever. If my building on this ground should prove a failure, it is after all a first attempt, which still perhaps may supply many stones for a more solid and newer edifice. It is always something gained, that the doctrinal material of biblical psychology here at length more completely and successfully than formerly appears organically articulated, so that it claims to be regarded as a science. And if, moreover, many developments slip in, which appear to lose themselves in what is fanciful, and can pretend to no demonstrative force,—a reproach which no science will escape, which is concerned with the invisible, the spiritual,—it is a fault that may be easily atoned for by the instructive communications of most manifold contents presented in connection therewith……….The relation of the doxa to the personal nature of God is represented, as I hope, more convincingly, as well exegetically as speculatively (i. Sec. 3., iv. Sec. 6). The distinction of nature and substance, which in the first edition was assumed, is now discussed (n. Sec. 4). The trichotomy fundamental text, 1 Thess. v. 23 (n. Sec. 4), and that of creationism, Heb. xii. 9 (n. Sec. 7), are searchingly considered. And equally so, the interpretation of the foundation texts of the conscience, Rom. ii. 15 (m. Sec. 4); of the relation of the soul to the blood, Lev. xvii. 14 (iv. Sec. 11); and of the antinomy of the spirit and the flesh unadjusted in the world, Rom. vii. (v. Sec. 6), are investigated anew. The just claim of biblical psychology to be called a science (Proleg. Sec. 2); the ideal pre-existence of the historically actual (i. Sec. 2); the similitude in man of God, and not merely of the Logos (ii. Sec. 2); the dualism of spirit and matter (n. Sec. 4); the distinction of a wider and narrower conception of (pneuma), (iv. 4, 5, V. 6); the fundamentally of the will (iv. 7); the priority of the spirit over the soul (iv. 8); the conception in the evangelical history of the Kenosis (v. 1); the importance to the history of redemption of the Descent (vi. 3); the actual reality, in the sense of Scripture, of the conjuration of the dead, 1 Sam. xxviii. (vi. Sec. 5)—are all established a new, with reference to the objections that have been advanced. Language, as a psychological manifestation, is better appreciated than before, as well in accordance with Scripture as experience (iv. 4, 10); the nature of the dream is more sharply defined, and its biblical name explained (iv. Sec. 14); and more attention is directed, in the region of extraordinary phenomena of the life of the soul, to the individual degrees and conditions of prophecy (iv. 14, v. 5). The earlier view of the psychologic matter of fact of possession (iv. 16), and the view of the relation of the” resurrection-corporeity to the present one (vii. 1), are justified. Many psychologic definitions of relation, as soul, power, and matter (iv. 9), person (I) and nature (iv. 2), heart and brain (iv. 12), are newly examined, and the history of the views referring to them enlarged upon. In this manner the revision is extended to every paragraph. The substantial views, and the arrangement of the material, are nevertheless first and last the same……..To the doings of the later physiology, empirical psychology, and medical psychology, I have referred in this second edition, as compared with the former, not more frequently, but rather more seldom, because I have gained the experience, that the representatives of this school of inquiry do not quite approve of seeing themselves named by a theologian of my tendency. But such references might, moreover, easily be misunderstood, as though biblical views ought to be modeled according to the results of natural science (precarious though they are), or the latter according to the former. Yet they were not always to be avoided. But my task is one wholly unconfused with that of these inquirers. The book whose answers to the questions respecting the source, the operations, the conditions, and destinies of the soul I have undertaken to discover, is not the book of nature, but the book of Scripture; and I have written for those to whom the answers of this book of books are not indifferent, and who know not merely a natural world of experience, but also one that does not give place to that in reality of self-conviction. Thanks be to God for the capacity bestowed once again to accomplish this work. May He bless it, to the stimulating further labors in this field of biblical psychology. Should it, moreover, be impossible entirely to solve the problems which meet us here, still the Creator of all things is to be glorified, that He has granted to the human soul the capacity of raising itself above itself by self-investigation, and with the necessity for this investigation has imparted the blissful pleasure that proceeds there from.”
Delitzsch’s System Biblical Psychology: Contents: Prolegomena in 3 Sections of History, Idea, and Method; with Appendix of Caspar Bartholitus’ First Sketch of a Biblical Psychology. 7 Divisions: I: of Everlasting Postulates, in 3 Sections of Pre-existence False & True, and Divine Archetype, with Appendix of Letters of Molitor on Jacob Boehme’s Doctrine of a Nature in God; II: Creation in 7 Sec. of Man the Object of the Six Days Work; Divine Likeness; Process; Trichotomy, False & True; Origin of Psyche, Ethical View; Difference of Sex; Traducianism and Creationism; Appendix of R. vonRaumer on the Fundamental Import of the names “Geist” and “Seele”; III: Fall in 5 Sec. of Sin of Spirit and Flesh; Ethico-Physical Disturbance; Shame and Fear; Conscience and Remoteness from God; and Promise and Faith. Appendix: From Pontoppidan’s Mirror of Faith. IV. Natural Condition in 17 Sec. of Personality and the “I”; Personal and Natural Life; Freedom; Triplicity of the Spirit; Nous, Logos, Pneuma; Seven Powers of the Soul; Established View of Capacities of the Soul; Body as Sevenfold means of Self Representation of the Soul; Soul and Blood; Heart and Head; Within the Body (Intestines & Kidney); Sleeping, Waking, Dreaming; Health and Sickness; Natural and Demonical Sickness; Superstition and Magic. Appendix I: Passages from Physics of Comenius; Appendix II: Theses on Fire & Light, Soul & Spirit; by Jul. Hamberger. V. Regeneration in 6 Sec. of Divine Archetype; New Life & Spirit; Conscious & Unconscious Side of Work of Grace; Actus Directi & Reflexi of Life of Grace; Three Forms of Divinely Wrought Ecstasy & Theopneustia; and Unabolished Antinomy. Appendix I: Luther’s Trichotomy. Appendix II: Spirit of the Mind. (A) From H.W. Clemens’ Work on the Powers of the Soul. (B) From Mediaeval Tractate entitled Das Leben der Minnende Seele. VI. Death, in 7 Sec. of Soul & Spirit in midst of Death; true & False Immortality; Future Life and Redemption; False Doctrine of Sleep of Soul; Phenomenal Corporeity and Investiture; Relation of Souls to Soulless Corporeity. Appendix: Johann Heinrich Urainus on Intermediate State of Souls. VII. Resurrection and Consummation, in 4 Sec. of Spirit & Soul in Act of Resurrection; Metempsychosis; Doctrine of Restoration; Progress in Eternity. Appendix: From a Sermon of the Author’s on Rom.8:18-23.
Appendix: “Guide to a True Psychology and Anthropology, to be gathered from the Sacred Writings; Attempted by Caspar Bartholinus. Prooemium: Philosophers have taken credit to themselves and have almost triumphed in the course of many ages, in respect of human comments upon the nature of the soul, its diversities and faculties, and generally of dreams without sleep, and shadow without substance; closely written volumes having been published on this argument, to the great damage not only of paper, time, and labour, but also of truth. As soon, however, as we consult the Spirit of God in His oracles and in His most sacred records, it is very manifest that the wisdom of the age has attained to little or nothing of the truth. And how could it be otherwise in so sublime an argument, when those who are wise after the manner of men are blind even to things which lie in their path and are obvious to their senses, and who, as Scaliger says, lick the glass vessel, but never touch the pottage? Wherefore, although in this imbecility of our nature we neither can nor will promise an exact and accurate (psuchologian, psychologian), yet we will contribute a compendious introduction, with the hope of making the whole matter more fruitful to others, and of affording both the occasion and the subject for its discussion and elaboration. The first foundation, then, of the true doctrine of the human soul, appears as a sacred one in Gen. 2: 7, in these words: “Formavit Dominus Deus hominum pulverem de terra, et inspiravit in faciem ejus spiraculum vitarum, et fuit homo in animam viventem.” (Formavit), i.e. He constructed like a potter. Whence Job (x. 9),” Remember that Thou hast made me as the clay;” and Jer. xviii. 2, God is compared to the potter, and man to the day. The Hebrews will have the Hebrew word (wayyitser, vaiyitzer) written with a double Jod (yod), to signify the twofold formation, earthly and heavenly; for the reason that below, ver. 19 in the same chapter, W is found in reference to the construction of other animals with a single Jod, pointing to a single life, and that not immortal. (Dominus Deus hominem pulverem). Not only out of the dust of the earth, but man altogether was formed dust out of the earth. For which reason below. Dust thou art (not only “of dust”), and into dust shalt thou return. (De terra), or the mud of the earth. (Et inspiravit), i.e. He introduced breath with power. Where some persons are absurd who describe God anthropomorphically, as having blown into Adam’s nostrils like one with distended cheeks, the breath or spirit, as if a particle of His own Spirit. (In faciem ejus). Thus, the LXX and Vulg. For in and by his countenance, man is chiefly seen, and his various affections, as anger, joy, sadness, etc. Therefore, although the inspiration was communicated to the whole body, yet that body is characterized from the most noble and conspicuous part—to wit, the countenance. In other respects, in the largest signification, (aph) and (anaph) mean that by which any kind of a thing is beheld, what and what like it is, except when (trope), it is taken for other things. Hence it is taken also for anger or rage; because chiefly this affection is manifest, and especially in the face. Moreover, it is taken for the nostrils, by which the face is largely characterized; for an injury to the nose disfigures the entire face. Mercerus, therefore, takes needless trouble to induce us to understand nostrils as the actual meaning in this passage, since it cannot be denied that in many places of Scripture this word implies the countenance. (Spiraculum vitarum), doubtless of more than one, and certainly of a twofold life, Heb. (nishmath chaiyim) (for (neschama) is the same which in Greek is (pnoe), breath, blowing, breathing, respiration, and in construction (nischmat)), which two words placed conjointly Paul seems to repeat separately, Acts xvii. 25, where he says that God gives to all (zoen kai pnoen), i.e. life and breath. Whence Forster, in his Lexicon, infers a distinction between the natural man who eats, drinks, begets, etc., and the spiritual and heavenly man regenerated by faith in Christ, who performs spiritual actions, such as are knowledge of God, love and praise and joy in God, —such a one as shall be in perfection in life eternal. (Et fuit homo in animam viventem). This is repeated in these words in 1 Cor. xv. 45: “The first man Adam was made a living soul.” And thus, in that verse Moses impresses upon us all the causes of man. The efficient cause, the Lord God; the matter, earth; the form, the breath of lives; the object that he might become a living soul. Then, in the way of foundation, are to be adduced what things are said about the formation of man in God’s image, in or according to His likeness (Gen. i. 26, 27). Finally, to this fundamental place is to be added what has been observed from the concordances of the Hebrew Bibles, that the words (neshamah), (nephesh), and (ruach) are so different, that neschama is the efficient soul, or the spirit with the idea of efficiency (although sometimes it is put for nephesch): nephesch is the spirit or soul, not simply, but efficient in dust, or the soul efficient in respect of the subject or the efficient subject (for which reason also it is sometimes taken for a corpse, or a lifeless body, as Lev. xix. 28): ruach is efficiency itself, or energy, or the force and efficacy of power. Wherefore, in the most sacred memorials, neschama and ruach are attributed to God, but not nephesch.
From these three words in the holy writings, as if b, priori, the nature of the soul is aptly shown by the Spirit of God; that nature which the philosophers are compelled to investigate only a posteriori; and thus, the foregone foundations being given up to this point, we will approach the matter itself.
Chap. I. That Vegetables are not animated or living, notwithstanding the assertions of Philosophers. Those things which philosophers call living things—to wit, endowed with a vegetating soul as they call it, as roots, plants, trees, etc.—are not classed by God’s Spirit among animate or living things; nay, they are absolutely distinguished and separated from these (Gen. i. 30); and therefore, we most correctly say that herbs and trees are not animate or living. For the more abundant confirmation of which assertion, I adduce other passages of Genesis. Gen. i. 24, the living soul is classified according to whatever species the earth produces; but herbs and trees are not enumerated, but cattle, reptiles, and beasts of the earth; and therefore in ver. 30 the herb is distinguished from the living soul by its being appointed for its food. In Gen. vi.-ix. it is plain what things are said to have the spirit of life, or are said to be living things, or a living animal. For when God had determined to destroy every living soul that was on the dry land, He comprehended nothing under this designation except animals—winged, and living on the earth— beasts, and men; and these species He very often calls omnem animam viventem, sciL in the dry land (vi. 7, vii. 22). Wherefore the Hebrews never consider the vegetative life worthy of being called by philosophers by the name of soul or life.
Chap. II. — Of the Senses. The instruments and servants for the bodily, and, in like manner, for the mental functions, are the senses. In brutes I say they are for the purposes of nutrition; in man correspondingly, they subserve the intellect.
Chap. III. — What Man is and concerning his Origin. Although philosophers accustomed to human speculations do not speak with the Spirit of God, since they are left destitute of suitable words in so sublime a matter, yet we most rightly say, following the Spirit of God, that man is a soul, that man is a spirit in the dust, etc. Thus, also cattle, reptiles, and beasts of the earth, are called living souls. But man is called a soul, not by synecdoche, but by a scriptural phrase in which nephesch is not a part of a man, but a spirit in the dust, or the spirit of dust, i.e. man. Besides, man is often called the world in the sacred writings, because he is, as it were, the nucleus of creatures (that which, when it putrefies in the fruit, the rest also putrefies), and (aparche ton ktismaton), or chief of them all. Man, especially is (ktisis) and (kosmos), adorned and elaborated (and that not tropically or figuratively only) by God. But every (ktisis) has shown forth in God the Spirit, either that they may become only entities, or at the same time living entities, i.e. either entities potentially, or potentially living. For the efficacy of the Spirit of God is sometimes one thing, sometimes another, as some things may have received the spirit by which they are, others that they may live. All things, however, were made by the spirit of His mouth, i.e. by speaking. Hence being and living differ in the intensity of spirit, which indeed is plain from the intensity of the letters in the Hebrew words (hayah) and (chayah), (hawah) and (chawah) (conf. Ps. civ. 29; Job xii. 10; Ezek. xviii. 4; Neh. ix. 6). Moreover, law and life have, according to Forster’s Annotations, a great affinity between them. Living things are divided, in respect of motion, into flying things, creeping things, and walking things (Gen. vi. 19). But a certain (ktisis)? shone forth in the embrace of love in the moulded dust, to which, as there was its own face and form (species) (whereby it is looked at, so to speak, or known), the Lord, by the efficacy of His own Spirit, gave the spirit of lives, and then man was made a living soul; which peculiar efficacy is in this (ktisei) beyond the rest, that to them it is not said that He breathed into them, although He made them by His own Spirit, and gave them the spirit of life. And how intimately it shone forth in God, Moses declares (Gen. i. 26, 27), even into the very image of God with His likeness, to wit, the (apaugasma) and character of God giving itself as an image, in whose close embrace it might obtain the image of God Himself; that, as God Himself in His essence is an act of light knowingly true, of love mightily willing, and of the Holy living Spirit, so this (ktisis), in its essence mighty, might exist in light knowingly true, in love mightily willing, and in the Holy Spirit living. Wherefore, as far as the spirit of lives is chiefly the spirit of this era’s, its proper potentiality is noted by the designation of God’s image; but as far as it is of bodily dust, it is described in words of fructifying and subduing. For the life of the mental functions is to see God, (en ouranois); that of the bodily functions is (exousiazesthai, etc., en oikoumene}. Finally, we must observe that soul and spirit are sometimes distinguished, as Heb. iv. 12 and elsewhere. For the soul is so called in its natural powers; but in so far as it is enlightened by the light of the Holy Spirit, it is called spirit.
Chap. IV. —Of the Image of God in Man. Thus, man shone forth even in the image of God, which before the fall was like, afterwards unlike. The likeness of the image was, that his spirit beamed with love, or that it was light, love, and spirit, as God is. After the fall the light indeed remained, but unlike; the love remained, but unlike, etc. Thus, that likeness must be restored in holiness in regard of ourselves, and in justice in regard of (logismou tou Theou). Before the fall God shone forth in a fitting image, that man might reflect God, which light was the life or the to live of man; and this life obtained from that light, that it might reflect God fittingly, by which very thing man was (eneikos), and moreover (eudokimos) (who in himself was (entheos), and a partaker of the divine nature) and (ennomos). For he was a law unto himself, his own essential conformity and perfection from within dictating to him what God in other cases from without dictates and prescribes; and that life was in very deed the vision of God, while God was shining forth in our spirit, and was thus being seen. This light perished in the fall, and man died with death, and thus became (aeikos and anomos). The fallen Adam indeed retained his essence, and that a living one (Heb. ii. 14), but dead in respect of the perfection of its position. Hence Adam died. What life was left to him in life was a dead life. And we all received from Adam such a flesh: dead we are, certainly, born of dead flesh. Wherefore it is necessary that we be transformed and daily assimilated to God, which assimilation, in proportion as we realize, in that proportion we see God; and because man has lost the likeness of the image of God, that is to be restored in Christ, in whom, as if in an image, we are built, and in whom intimately made to shine forth again, we have received (eikona), from whom, I say, as if the head and beginning, the image of God Himself, the spirit living, although in moulded dust, has subsisted. For God’s counsel remains one and constant, and is not changed on account of the fall, scil. that we ought in (logo) to return (eikona), and thus to be united to God in an eternal covenant. That real change was made in the fall and by the fall, that what we had before by nature is now conceded to us by grace.
Chap. V. — What (stasis and hupostasis) are in Man. Stasis is in its nature nothing else than that in which the internal perfection of everything consists, and, moreover, that by which the thing itself is made to stand perfect: it is the internal status of the thing itself which the apostolic language designates either by a simple expression (staseos) (Heb. ix. 8), or a compound one, whether (sustaseos); (2 Pet. iii. 5) or (hupostaseos) (Heb. i. 3, xi. 1). Stasis and perfection, therefore, are one and the same thing, in such a way, however, that perfection may be said to belong to (staseos), as that which is of stasis. But (stasis) and (hupostasis) are different, although they sometimes concur in one. For mixed things, as this or that plant, this or that brute, have their (stasin), but not (hupostasin), because they have not yet attained to that (stasin and teleiosin), beyond which it is not permitted them to ascend. For a living form, generally considered, is not restricted to the form of a plant, but may ascend to a nobler grade. In God (teleiosis or stasis) is called hypostasis, in whom all things are said to have (sustasin and stasin), not (hupostasin), man alone excepted, who is next under God, or His (stasei), and in whom the image is reflecting God; wherefore man is called both (sustatos and hupostatos). (Sustatos) by reason of God, in whom all things have their (sustasin, but hupostatos) in himself, and in respect of our inferior (ktiseos). Hence in this same (aparche ton ktismaton, huparxis and hupostatis are different. For the rest of the (ktisis) is (huparktos and sustatos); man, over and above, is (hupostatos), on account of (teleiosin), whereby he excels the inferior (ktisin). Hence Christ, in respect of His human nature, is called, not (hupostatos, but sustatos), although He had an ulterior perfection differently from us men. For the natural (statis) of Christ, in which He was made like to us, is, that His human nature should be equally perfect as ours; whence it has the quality of being something, and not being reduced to nothings otherwise He would not have assumed perfect human nature. But Christ in the divine (stasis is hupostatos), which is a higher (stasis and teleiosis), intimately in God, in whom it subsists in the most internal manner; whence His humanity obtains far greater things than the privilege of not being reduced into nothing. But because every essence consists of a threefold (stasis)? —as there will elsewhere be an opportunity of saying— completing its (teleiosin), certainly also the human essence does so, essentially considered in its universal amplitude. And since, as regards the condition of matter when it is divisible, the individual is divided into various parts, even the units are called (hupostata or huphistamena).
Chap. Vi. —Of the Human Reason and its Acts. (Logos), or human reason, is that (teleiosis and stasis) of man, or of the human soul, by which, by its own internal essential light, he can both receive, consider, and acknowledge, and embrace, retain, and approve, whatever has any light to shine by. Therefore (logikoi) acts are (excipere and amplexari). Some call them (intellectum and voluntatem). But that essential light of human reason, in which it was first established potentially efficacious by God, by that great judgment of God, has even perished and become deprived of its original perfection of brightly efficacious power, so that there has remained to it only a certain spark of light. Wherefore all men are exhibited by God’s Spirit as (te dianoia eskotismenoi) (Eph. iv. 18), and in that respect are alienated from the life of God by the ignorance that is in them. Hence it is not sufficient for vividly embracing things, and bringing them before one’s self in the light,—the things, indeed, which refer to the life of God,—and it plainly has no light left by which they can shine forth to itself; but occult in perpetual mysteries, secret and profound, they will be able to be revealed by no spirit but that of God Himself, to be expounded or to be sought out by inquiry, concerning which thing we have spoken in our orations concerning the use of the human reason in divine mysteries.
Chap. VII. —Of the Twofold Life in Man. Moreover, we have to determine how manifold that life is, in such a way as that the number may not be needlessly great. Some people ridiculously understand by many lives the two openings of the nostrils. Others generally understand a threefold life—vegetable, sentient, and rational. But we have already shown above, that the vegetable is not anywhere called a life in the Holy Scriptures, but that rather the contrary is suggested. Wherefore, since there is said to be in man the breathing-place of many lives, it cannot be thought that they are either other or more than (corporis vita) and (mentis vita), since nothing else in man can be said to live. That one spirit, breathed into the dust from the earth, lives and pervades each life for the safety of the body and the mind; or, which is the same thing, one living soul lives the life of either kind with one spirit. But that the spirit of lives is also given to brutes (Gen. vi. 17), is an objection which may be answered: (1) That they have not (neschama, but ruach chajim); (2) That in the same expression men are comprehended; (3) That there is in brutes also a certain other life than the merely nutritive, yet not mental, but sensual, and in everyone according to its kind (comp. Prov. xxx. 25, vi. 6-8). The spirit of man is so sublime, that in Prov. xx. 27, (nischmat Adam) is said to be the light or lamp of Jehovah.
Chap. VIII. —Of the Power of the Soul: in what way one, or manifold. Since, then, the essence of one soul is one, and if, where the essence is, the essence is potential, and that, moreover, in the one potentiality essential to itself its essentially potential essence is potential, and moreover one, it’s essentially one essential potentiality is living, or actually able to live, with a twofold life. But that the essence is created in which there is such a potential essence, is manifest because of existent creatures. It is one thing (einai), another thing (stenai): the former is to be; (stasis) is to be able, or potentiality. Whence, moreover, on human ground, wise men concede that all created things, in respect to God, are a potentiality. But in God (stasis) is an act, yea, it is to act itself; and when we speak of God, who gives (stasin), then (stenai) also signifies to ordain, or to constitute. In order that this may be better understood, we must know that of every essence it is the essential condition to be prepared for action, or acting, which, if it is not prepared for not acting, then that essence is a mere act, or merely to act, because to act must always be thought of in an act, so that it may not be called potential in this sense that potentiality is opposed to act. But if, moreover, it is essentially prepared for not acting, and thus it is not a mere act, then it is understood and said to have a potentiality to act, so that it is not less essential to it not to act than to act, if the condition of the essence is turned to action; which potentiality of every essence, and, moreover, even of human essence, is preserved and sustained by God in His (stasei). But that one essence, with a certain universality and generic amplitude in proportion to the variety of objects around which either life is occupied, is potential to perform actions distinct in kind, although essentially participating in a generic community, as far as the actions are of an essence essentially potential, with its own only potentiality; which actions the one essence of the soul and of either life controls. Wherefore, although in itself the essential potentiality is one in unity of essence, yet, in respect of its various effect in various objects, potential in various manners and in distinct actions, it is also invoked by distinct names; so that sometimes it is called the power of understanding, now of nourishing, of increasing, of changing, etc., that essential communion of the various actions in proportion to the variety of the objects mental and corporeal remaining meanwhile in the essential potentiality, as if with a general origin and general nomenclature, on account of the condition of the common essence. As mind and body, as far as they are to be vivified by the power of the spirit of lives, are able to agree on many sides in this respect in a certain general community, but in respect of the special condition of every one, to differ also on many sides; thus also the destined objects of their life, and the actions of the same objects for either life and ample community, agree, and in special conditions differ. Whence, also, actions in either life, and in respect of the community indeed, are like to one another both in fact and in name, and for the special condition of everyone are different. As mental life alone is truly human life, so the potentiality which is called of the mental life in objects and actions is primarily potential; secondarily, it subserves the objects and actions of the bodily life. Hence, when in any action man or human soul is set forth as powerful, it will principally bear the appellation when around the mental life it is occupied in act; secondarily, when it serves the bodily life, unless in respect of either the one or the other, whether of mind or of body, from some special condition it is only peculiar to the other.
Chap. IX. —Of Death. Death is the destruction of actions, or the defluxion (not perishing and annihilation) of the perfection of every (staseos), as well of that which is common to man with the brutes, as of that in which he lives to God; and in respect of the latter, death is sin: for as far as it is (anomon) it is called sin, as far as it is (aeikon) it is called death. For all sin is death, but not the contrary. For death, as it is the privation of life by which we externally live, is not considered as sin. Before the fall, God communicated to man that he might be a (nomos) to himself; but afterwards, because he became (aeikos), he became also (anomos); and it is called sin as far as man is (anomos). This interchange of death and sin may be seen from Rom. v. 12, where it is said, “All have sinned,” only it is not intended to refer to actual sin. As soon as Adam fell, at that moment he began to die with death, or to sicken to death; for the potential essence was at once cast down from its status on account of the threatening uttered: In the day in which thou shalt eat of the forbidden tree, (morte morieris). Therefore the human soul is not only mortal, but also most certainly dead, in a sense, not philosophical, —as if after death commonly so called it should survive, —but sacred. For any one is called dead by reason of the deficient image and (doxes tou Theou), and of that vital image by which any one is called living. For this reason, as soon as man is born, he is in the same position in which the fallen Adam was, as rightly said the poet, although ignorantly: (Nascentes morimur), etc. Man dies, I say, daily; that is, he is subject to successive waste and abolition of his bodily actions, even to that sensible death, which death in this life is common as well to the pious as to the impious. But mental actions in the pious are renewed in this life gradually by regeneration, by which actions the pious are perfected in Christ and through Christ; and moreover, the soul is spiritualized, until at length in the last day, joined with a spiritual body (which was sown an animal body), it becomes one spirit with God. In the wicked, neither is the soul spiritualized in this life, nor the body in the last day: it will not be subtle, agile, etc.; and although they rise again, yet they abide in that death in which they were before they were buried. Thus, in the Holy Scripture, resurrection of the dead is attributed to them, but not resurrection from the dead. But if you should ask whether Adam, if he had not fallen, would not have been mortal also? I answer, To be mortal is said of the power of dying, or of the necessity. Any one may be in his essence prepared for the power of dying, and nevertheless of freeing himself from death. Because Adam was of the dust, he certainly had the capacity of dying; but if he had wished, he had at the same time before the fall the perfection of vindicating himself from death. But now, from the fall, necessity of dying has taken hold upon him.
Chap. X.—Of the State of the Human Soul after Death. When man dies by what is commonly called death, the soul of the pious is carried into Abraham’s bosom; and where this is, since Scripture says nothing on it, it is fit that we also should be silent. It seems fitter to be said that the soul is at rest, than that it is locally moved by deserting the body (as the common people imagine), as a body from a body, since the soul is a spirit, not a body. Certainly, as in the good, everything which is corruptible perishes and becomes spiritual; in the wicked, that even that perishes and leaves the body which hitherto was as if good, in respect to future evil. In the resurrection the wicked will not indeed be so well off as they have been in the tomb; although, moreover, they may feel horrible sufferings immediately after death and burial, which before they were not able to feel on account of this carnal life, in which they were able in some measure to discharge bodily functions. What things may be objected to the matters brought together in these few chapters, will be able to be solved from the foundations laid in the prooemium.” (Moniti meliora sequemur) ((Be admonished to follow better things)).

(Delitzsch rejects, with Kantian logic and Biblical dogma, pre-existence of eternal souls outside of Adam, and that the notions of the Greek philosophers are false and against Scripture. But as the Lord said to Jeremiah, “Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee”, and Paul in Romans. He calls those things which be not as though they were so; there preexistence in God and with God that takes in all mankind both as individuals and collective. This eternity of the soul belongs to and resides with God and fashioned after the Son of God the eternal Word and Wisdom of God. This likeness of God’s image is a Trinity, as God is Father and Son and the Holy Spirit, so too man in his nature and constitution is a trinity after the like manner, the Divine Archetype. To understand human nature, we must understand the Divine Nature. He concludes:” God is All. All has its original in Him. He is I, and Thou, and He, and It. As I, the Father is the primal source of the Son. The Son, as Thou, is the object of the Father’s love. The Spirit, as He, is the emanation of the love of the Father and the Son. The Doxa, as It, is the reflection of the Triune, and the origin of the Kosmos. We apprehend now the threefold personal and the sevenfold dynamical, the personally living, and the living archetype of the everlasting Ideal-Model, —in itself, indeed, impersonal, but effected by the personality of God, and wholly interpenetrated thereby,—including, moreover, the human soul and humanity in the image of God. We apprehend now, according to the measure of our knowledge, the everlasting postulates which precede psychological facts.”)
(In Jacob Bohme’s doctrine we probe into this eternal nature in God in His triuneness, but must shun as defective that the Godhead from all eternity had subordination of Persons, and with this a limitation of essence One from the Other. The creation of man in Genesis chapters one and two is reexamined considering modern knowledge. The angels being peculiar to creation, God’s sons and man’s superior. The creation of six days, and its perfection in the seventh, reveals Man as the Divine Object. Creation consists of grades and man shares this characteristic, so that in nature we see evolution by common likeness, but man immensely above and beyond other creatures. In the Process of Creation many enigmas are cleared up, and many false interpretations, influenced by philosophy, are silenced. He says: “But, moreover, to the reproach of J. P. Lange, when he says that it is a trifling bondage to the letter, to regard the narrative of Gen. ii. 7 as implying successive acts, we reply with a downright “It is written!” For when he maintains that the soul was created at the same moment with the body, and even goes beyond v. Rudloff, in the fact that he regards the formation of the body, the origination of the soul, and the inspiration of the spirit, as actual contemporary impulses of one act of creation, —it may be philosophical, but it is not biblical. Not as though it only contradicted the fundamental passage (Gen. ii. 7): it contradicts the entire Scripture, it contradicts its representation of man’s natural condition—of his life, his destiny, and his history; for everywhere the Scripture assumes that man is a nature originating first of all in respect of his earthly corporeity, composite, and on that account a limited and mortal nature.” Scripture distinctly presents man’s body was made without soul, and that the inspiration of God’s breath of life produced a living soul. Thus, the soul is related to the spirit as the body is to the soul. The human soul is in a manner the human spirit, but we must not deny the distinction, as found in Scripture, and lose truth as to man’s trichotomy. (“Similarly, the English physician, George Moore, “The Power of the Soul over the Body” (translated into German by Susemihl, 1850), S. xxv.: “As the dust was formed by immediate contact of Jehovah’s finger, the human figure took the impression of the Godhead. But that this figure of earthly form and heavenly meaning might not remain like a temple without its indwelling glory, God breathed into the body of man the continuing spirit of separate life, and this enlightened it with the moral reflection of the divine character.”) This dual nature of man composed in three persons or substance, body, soul, and spirit is explored in the New Testament, mainly in Paul, and early Christian writers along with some moderns. All of which prepares the reader to consider the system of psychology as found in the Bible and compare it to all else.)

9. Bible Doctrine of Man or the Anthropology and Psychology of Scripture, John Laidlaw, 1879, 1895. Six Divisions on Man’s Origins, Nature, Psychology, Fallen Nature under Sin, Psychology of New Life, Man’s Nature and Future State.
After a brief Introduction to his work, Laidlaw examines and selects examples of the debate between Hoffman and Delitzsch, with special focus on Delitzsch’s System of Biblical Psychology, says: On the other hand, Delitzsch, though premising that no system of “psychology propounded in formal language is to be looked for in the Bible, any more than of dogmatics or ethics, zealously contends that a system can be found and constructed. Under the name of Bible psychology, he understands a scientific representation of the doctrine of Scripture on the psychical constitution of man as he was created, and on the ways in which this constitution has been affected by sin and by redemption. It seems as if Hofmann had overlooked the importance and the purpose of that consistent idea of man’s constitution which underlies the Scripture teaching; while Delitzsch slightly misstates its purpose rather than exaggerates its importance. That purpose is not to teach the science of man, but it has a vital use in subservience to theology, nevertheless. To trace that use, in an induction of Scripture utterances, does the proper scope and form of any study deserve the name of biblical psychology”(p15) (p17-18) “Our aim, then, in the following pages is to give prominence to the psychological principles of Scripture, —to those views of man and his nature which pervade the sacred writings. It does not appear, however, that the psychology of the Bible, or what may be called its philosophy of man, can be successfully treated as an abstract system.”
Laidlaw considers a wealth of sources and references in conflicting views of trichotomy and dichotomy and seek to harmonize them into a single nature of man without an exact system and prefers to think of the soul-spirit not having essential differences. His words are: “That neither the familiar antithesis, soul and body, nor any other pair of expressions by which we commonly render the dual elements in human nature, should expressly occur in this locus classicus, is a fact which may help to fix attention on the real character of the earlier Old Testament descriptions of man. The fact is not explained merely by the absence of analysis. Rather is it characteristic of these Scriptures to assert the solidarity of man’s constitution, —that human individuality is of one piece, and is not composed of separate or independent parts. This assertion is essential to the theology of the whole Bible—to its discovery of human sin and of a divine salvation. In a way quite unperceived by many believers in the doctrines, this idea of the unity of man’s nature binds into strictest consistency the Scripture account of his creation, the story of his fall, the character of redemption, and all the leading features in the working out of his actual recovery from his regeneration to his resurrection.” (p56-57)
(p66-68)”Having considered the Unity which Scripture attributes to the human constitution, and the dual elements acknowledged by it, in common with almost all human psychologies, we have now to inquire whether this duality has to be further modified in favour of a threefold division of man’s nature. Here, as before, everything turns on interpretation of terms. There is a pair of expressions for the inner or higher part of man’s nature which occurs plentifully in the Old Testament, as Nephesh and Ruach, in the Greek Scriptures as Psyche and Pneuma, in the modern languages as Seele and Geist, Soul and Spirit. The distinction implied in this usage may be said to be the crux of biblical psychology. The controversy concerning it has been, not unnaturally, though rather unfairly, identified with that concerning the possibility of a Bible psychology at all. On the other hand, the revival of this whole science in recent times is coincident with the recall of attention to the fact of a distinction in Scripture between these two terms. The real controversy, however, concerns the precise force of that distinction. Does it indicate two separable natures, so that, with the corporeal presupposed, man may be said to be of Tripartite Nature? Or, is it rather such a view of the inner nature of man as sunders that nature into two functions or faculties? Or, finally, is it a nomenclature to be explained and accounted for on principles entirely peculiar to the biblical writings? We shall here sketch the theory of Tripartition, and in next chapter point out the historical explanation of the scriptural usage. I. The Theoretical Constructions.—The Trichotomy of body, soul, and spirit held an important place in the theology of some of the Greek Christian Fathers; but, in consequence of its seeming bias towards a Platonic doctrine of the soul and of evil, still more because of its use by Apollinaris to underprop grave heresy as to the Person of Christ, it fell into disfavour, and may be said to have been discarded from the time of Augustine till its revival within a quite modern period. It has recently received the support, or, at least, the favourable consideration, of a respectable school of evangelical thinkers on the continent, represented by such names as those of Eoos, Olshausen, Beck, Delitzsch, Auberlen, and Oehler. In our own country, such writers as Alford, Ellicott, Liddon, and Lightfoot fully recognise the importance of the Trichotomic usage in Scripture, but none of them has investigated its real meaning. Most of them adopt the mistaken interpretation that the distinction between soul and spirit is that between a lower and a higher essence or nature, and accordingly lean to the foregone conclusion of this exegesis, namely, that Scripture is committed to the affirmation of a tripartite nature in man. Yet their utterances on this point are little more than (obiter dicta). Not one of these authors has seriously or consistently taken up this peculiar psychology. There exists among us a small school of writers who have done so. Their leading representative is Mr. J. B. Heard, whose Tripartite Nature of Man has now been before the public for some considerable time.1 (This psychology has been largely adopted by those who maintain the peculiar eschatological position known as that of Conditional Immortality, although Mr. Edward White, the main exponent of this view, makes comparatively little of the Trichotomy. That it has furnished a favourite scheme of thought for mystics and sectaries has not helped its fair investigation in our theological schools. The pretension put forth for it by some of its votaries, that as a theological panacea it would heal the strife of centuries, has had the effect on the professional mind which is always produced by the advertisement of a quack remedy, not without that other effect on the common apprehension that, after all, there is probably something in it. Its crudest and most frequently quoted form is that which, taking body for the material part of our constitution makes soul stand for the principle of animal life, and spirit for the rational and immortal nature. This is plainly not the construction which any tolerable interpretation can put upon the Scripture passages, though it is often presented in popular writing as an account of the Trichotomy. It is not unusual, indeed, to identify the whole topic with this boldly unscientific statement.”
He concludes: (p85)”Before proceeding to examine the origin and explanation of this usage, we may here sum up what has already appeared on the face of Scripture to be its mode of viewing human nature as one, as dual, or as trinal. There is evidence enough to show that while maintaining with strong consistency the Unity of the human being, Scripture confirms the usual dual conception that his two natures are flesh and spirit, or soul and body, yet makes use quite consistently of a trichotomy depending on a distinction between soul and spirit, which distinction, in some New Testament passages (especially the Pauline), is charged with a religious or doctrinal significance. “Anyone who does not force on Scripture a dogmatic system, must acknowledge that it speaks dichotomously of the parts viewed in themselves, trichotomously of the living reality, but all through so as to guard the fact that human nature is built upon a plan of unity.”

10. Other Writers: Mystics, Swedenborg; Heard, Moore, Bush, Pember, Larkins; Wolff, Nee, Jung and many medical and psychology authors.
The knowledge of man in body and soul and spirit has continued to increase to such degrees that it is difficult to consider much of it in any brief discussion. As a Christian I read from time to time any literature that has influenced modern knowledge in an acknowledged way. Both in philosophy and theology, old and modern, general or special, allured me in seeking to understand Scripture in light of the Church. Secular views did not lay hold on me at any time that I occupied myself with them, not Plato or Aristotle in the Socratic doctrines; not Freud and Jung and those of that science, except I grew fond of Jung and despised Freud. The writers on myths and symbols ever made me take note and compare the Bible. Swedenborg’s works of many volumes treating the soul and the spirit, that is the spiritual life and world did fascinate me for about ten years, but in time parted with the doctrines as extreme if not mild insanity. His clear partition of the soul and spirit of the spiritual world and the body and soul of the natural world did instruct me in several difficult points. Christian scholars like Heard in “Tripartite Nature of Man” 1882, as with Moore and Bush, and many others, shows that no area or element of the Biblical doctrine has been ignored. Pember’s “Earth’s Earliest Ages” 1876 and 1911, along with many other dispensationalists, before and after, especially Larkin’s “Dispensational Truth” making the doctrines popular and well known. Bullinger’s writings did the same; even among Baptists men like Graves spread the new doctrines. Unusual works not widely known outside of smaller circles like Nee’s “Spiritual Man”, or Wolff’s “Changing Concepts of the Bible”, along with countless 20th century writers and scholars have altered the church and the world views of human nature. Freud altered many ideas; Jung, following Kant, corrected Freud and his many followers. After Jung men like Campbell in comparative religion and cultures have dominated the new doctrines. And with these remarks I leave the general influences on my upon my mind and return to the Bible Reflections hoping to record for others what has passed through me without need to detail the many resources affecting me.

(Recently I reread some of my Reflections on these chapters in an unpublished book (manuscript) that I had laid aside as being too technical and restrictive to a selective audience of the academic sort. I found in writing and understanding these chapters than I explored an immense amount of literature during ten years of writing. The reward of those who devout themselves to Scripture is very rewarding and gives great insight of human origins. The word studies in English and the Hebrew and Greek and Latin, along with other resources produced untold treasures of the things of God.) Here follows some of these.
1: Some have interpreted the Creation as existing eternally, that God creates from this eternity the universe; others say from nothing comes nothing, and that all things originate from God as an extension of His expression. The world was formed from what did not exist but from God, and all creatures of life of that substance in God and of God, with man partaking of the divine nature and not merely the effect of the divine nature. The ages of the world are not easily or properly understood but all things are intertwined and interrelated from the least to the greatest. Man is unique of all God’s creatures and occupies a special place in creation. Man’s nature is nurtured and formed by God by His word and power and spirit. Man, quickly acquired his abilities and knowledge in human development into families and tribes or clans. His universal corruption is seen from his earliest beginnings, and his struggle between good and evil is never-ending. God continues to save man in ever changing conditions through all generations. Man, most advanced and present state is not a isolative or independent to his past, but rather reveals his exception to all animals, both in vice and virtue. The will of God, His way and word, is discovered and declared in the Bible, and every item and instance lead to greater understanding of the fulfilling of His purpose. Christ is the eternal Word and as such He is the Son of God by Whom all things came to be, and in Whom God deals with all men, applying His worth and blood as the satisfaction for sins and the vindication of His righteousness, to bring eternal life to all who turn to Him and receive him. Israel and the Christian Church along with Islam are tools and means for God to rescue mankind. The world of all nations and peoples in all ages are alienated from God and removed from their origins with God. The Bible is God’s account of His involvement and operation by His Holy Spirit
2: Targums: (Etheridge, 1862) “I have acquired the man from before the Lord…. If thou doest thy work well. Is it not remitted to thee? And if thou doest not thy work well, thy sin unto the day of judgment is reserved, when it will be exacted of thee, if thou convert (repent) not; but if thou convert (repent), it is remitted to thee….the blood of generations which were to come from thy brother complaineth….his wife, who had desired the Angel….I have acquired a man, the Angel of the Lord…..bear from her husband Adam his twin….Come, and let us two go forth into the field….Kain answered and said to Habel, I perceive that the world was created in goodness, but it is not governed according to the fruit of good works, for there is respect to persons in judgment; therefore it is that thy offering was accepted, and mine not accepted with good will. Habel answered and said to Kain, to goodness was the world created, and according to the fruit of good works is it governed and there is no respect of persons in judgment; but because the fruits of my works were better than thine, my oblation, before thine, hath been accepted with good will. (Kain countered and Habel replied and they argued till Kain arose and killed his brother with a stone….), (the invocation of God’s name is explained as making and naming of idols….).
3: Apocrypha: (Platt. 1927) (In Adam’s Conflict, Book 1: Chapters 73-79 Adam and Eve being betrothed 7 months after the banishment; Cain and Luluwa are born twins, boy and girl, 9 months later; in Adam’s 5th year the twins are weaned, then Abel and Aklia are born boy-girl twins; Cain and Abel are described from toddler to teens, one bad the other good. Cain at times to kill Abel; Adam concerned at the enmity parts the boys in their 15th and 12th year; Cain continues in rebellion, tempted by Satan to hate and violence, he beats Eve and Curses his parents for wanting to marry off his twin sister to Abel, filled with malice and schemes; Cain premeditates murder, but God tries to turn him from sin and to judge him for sin, and to make him an example by 7 plagues to last seven generations, and Cain returns his parents’ home. Book 2 begins with Luluwa, Cain’s twin sister, in grief over Abel’s death, Cain takes her away to live with him as his wife near the field of the murder, Cain being about 18 years of age; Cain’s descendents multiply; Adam and Eve abstained for 7 years in grief over Abel, in fasting and prayers with Abel’s corpse in the Cave of Treasures, till his 27th year; Eve is pregnant in Adam’s 28th year and births Seth, attended by Abel’s sister; Adam never again has sexual relations with Eve after their 5th 5th child. Adam’s 7 years before Set’s birth is described, his 40 days of fasts and prayers, tempted by the Devil. Seth’s grows to perfection and godliness, and in Adam’s 35th-37th years Seth contends with the Devil being 7-9. Seth married Aklia in his 15th year and she was 40, his son Enos was born in his 20th year.)
(Sparks, 1984) (Adam’s Life: Eve, about to give birth, in Adam’s 1st year, is visited by 12 angels and 2 powers with Michael the archangel, who standing to her right, strokes her from face to breast, blessing her concerning the child’s birth. Cain was a beautiful and intelligent baby, who as a newly born infant arose and fetched a blade of grass and gave it to Eve. The family removes eastward. Michael is sent with seeds to teach Adam to till the ground; Eve again conceives and bears Abel, in time Eve tells Adam of her dream of Cain drinking Abel’s blood; Adam separates them, and the grow to manhood, Cain a farmer, Abel a shepherd; Cain murders Abel in Adam’s 132nd (32) year, Abel’s 122nd (22) and Cain’s 132nd (32). Seth is born and grows.)
(Jubilees, Sparks) (Recounts the history from creation to the giving of the law at Sinai, by means the 50 years Jubilee Chronology. The review of 7 days of creation, of Adam and Eve 7 years in the garden, of the serpent tempting, their disobedience, judged and exile; they being childless till the 1st jubilee; Cain is born in first month of the 2nd jubilee, Adam’s 71st year, Abel born in Adam’s 78th year, a daughter, Awan, in his 85th, Abel murdered by Cain in the 100th; concerning the Heavenly Tablets; Adam and Eve mourns Abel till the 128th yr., Seth’s birth in 130th, a daughter, Ayura, born in the 142nd, In the 4th Jubilee, 200th yr., Cain and Awan births Enoch, and in the 5th Jubilee, 250th yr., houses are built, and Cain builds the City of Enoch.)
4: Philo and Josephus: (I have referred to these two earlier but here examine the writings.)
(Philo: 1st cent. A.D. Alexandria. Loeb Classic Lib. 2vol. In volume 1 book 1 covers Genesis 1-3, the Mosaic Cosmology or the World’s Creation; Moses reveals the true Creator of Creation by a form of reason and philosophy, using numeric and allegory to show mystic and arcane symbolic truth; recounts the creation elements , God’s unity and nature; the visible a copy of the invisible, the world is God’s mind and reason or word (logos), the creation both physical and mental is the word of God; time exists with creation as measured space, geometrical or numerical, all being an allegory of the true and unknown. Philo follows the Greek text and explores many doctrines; first five verses constitute Day One; he often drifts from the text explain allegorical philosophic mysteries. Man is the image of the Divine Mind, thus his mind is the principle element of the soul; following Platonic doctrine of the soul and reason, he teaches man’s mind to be archetype, and as God to the universe so man is to the world; after the 6 days of creation he explores the world of numbers, in math and astronomy, and the perfection of 7; Philo avoids the Hebrew names, especially of Adam, uses grammar to support his ideas of nature of the Internal Man; woman is man’s other half, being defective, making man worldly in desires and pleasures; scripture is not merely literal but symbolic or typical; the allegorical interpretation is the only right way to understand the writings, and thus ignoring any use of Hebrew to balance his Greek notions, he gives examples of the doctrines in allegory. He continues in this manner to explain man in the garden, the temptation and fall and exile is filled with allegory. In book 2 Philo covers man’s exile, the Cherubim and Flaming Sword, and Cain as the first man from man, of Abel and Cain, their offerings, Cain’s attack on Abel; Cain’s prosperity and exile. Philo ends on the Giants. Philo is a principle source for the Gnostic mystics against Judaism and Talmud; he is a Jewish Hellenist and Platonic in doctrine.))
(Josephus: 1st cent. A.D. Loeb Class Lib. Josephus writes for the Greeks to understand the Hebrew records and Divine origins and culture, being the oldest. He reviews the early chapters of Genesis, He follows the Greek text; uses some Hebrew, but not reliable, as the name Eve meaning Mother of all, rather than of all life or being. The creation, man’s formation, the garden, the fall, and the first civilization are examined. It’s apparent that Josephus uses the Apocrypha and Rabbinic lore to interpret certain passages, especially of the age before the flood. He is historical and paraphrases the entire Old Testament or Covenant, with more or less embellishment for outside traditions. He establishes the general canon and its spread in the Greek world, with clear testimony of the Hebrew doctrines as superior to the nations. He like Philo follows a liberal and reformed doctrine of Judaism, and to that extent supports the age of the New Testament.)

5: Kabala and Zohar: The Kabbbalah or Cabala (Qabalah): Edersheim’s Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, Appendix 5 on Rabbinic Theology and Literature, Jewish mysticism, he translates for the first time the Book of Creation or Formation (Sepher Yetsirah) as the first and oldest Kabala text from the Kabala and the Zohar springs, flowing along with Mishnah and Talmud. Beginning at Genesis 2:7 of man’s formation the doctrine unfolds into 6 Pereqs, after the Mishnah’s divisions; first the 12 mishnahs, from the mystic and allegoric sense of the Hebrew text and numeric significance. Yetsirah begins: “In 32 wonderful paths of wisdom, Jah, JehovahTsebhaoth (YHWH, the Lord of Hosts), the God of Israel, the Living God, and King of the World, God merciful and gracious, High and Exalted, Who dwelleth to Eternity, high and holy is His Name, hath ordered (arranged, cosmically) by 3 Sepharim: by Sepher,Sephar and Sippur.” The dualism of nature and life is carried out throughout, heaven and earth, male and female, life and death, good and evil, and all such. There are 10 Sephiroth Belimah (Fearful Sephers); 22 Letters of Foundation (Hebrew Alphabet, the Written Word), composed of 3 Mothers (Aleph, Mem, Shin) and 7 Doubles (Dual Form Letters) and 12 Simples (Single Form Letters). There are 10 Fingers (5+5 of the Hands or Feet) of His Covenant and Word of Tongue and Sex; and 10 of Wisdom and Reality of God and Heaven; 10 Measurements, etc; 10 Appearances, etc; 10 Joints, etc; 10 Silence, etc; and 10 of the One, the Spirit of the Living God, Voice, Spirit, Word, Holy Spirit and Wind: 22+3+7+12= One Spirit. Finally it concludes:”And when Abraham our Father beheld and considered, seen, drawn, hewn, and obtained, then the Lord of all revealed Himself to him, and called him His friend , and covenanted with him and his seed: and he believed in Jehovah (YHWH), and it was imputed to him for righteousness. He covenanted with him between ten toes, and that is circumcision; between the ten fingers of his hands, and that is the tongue; and He bound 22 letters on his tongue and showed him their foundation. He drew them with water, He kindled them with fire, He breathed them with wind; He burnt them in seven; He poured them forth in the 12 constellations.” (For further details see Ginsburg’s Kabbalah: its Doctrines, Development, and Literature, 1863; and Waite’s Secret Doctrine in Israel, 1942; and of course, many more recent works.)
(Zohar: Waite’s Chapter 18, The Occult Sciences, expels some false notions of the Zohar and the Kabala. “The Practical Kabala, in which are included the artificial methods of Gematria, Notaricon and Temura, which are principles of exegetical interpretation.” The reader of Kabala and Zohar vision the Sephiroth Tree with 10 Points or Circles as a Man: Head to Feet; Arms and Legs; Eyes, Ears, Nostrils, and Lips as One; Breasts and the Sexes of Male and Female; and extends to 10 Fingers and Toes. The Ein Soph is the Highest and Endless One and Only. The Creation Week in Genesis 1 and 2, both Gen.1:1 and John 1:1, in the in 10 Words as the Seed contains the Tree. The work is, I believe, the Zohar of Moses de Leon of the 13th cent; and disguised as the work of Rabbi Simon ben Jochai of the 2nd cent. (Sperling’s and Simon’s translation in 5 vols. Soncino, 1933.) Ginsburgh’s outline and analysis the Zohar is most instructive in reading this confusing work. It begins with a Rabbi’s comment of the verse in Solomon’s Song of Songs about the Lily among Thorns, 13 leaves for 13 tribes, symbol of Israel, interpreted or extracted from the Hebrew nuances of the Text. The Zohar explores very intensely the Creation Week and what follows. His doctrine is developed by grammatics, numerics, and Gnosticism with one eye partly closed, on Scripture, and the other eye partly open on Sepher Yitsirah, Talmud, and Apocrypha. The Zohar then restarts several times by going back to the early chapters of Genesis and developing new doctrines. It uses the Targums and Apocryphal interpolations to promote its Gnosticism and mysticism. It continues from the Fall to the Cainite and Sethite races; introduces the sexual relations between Adam and female spirits fathering spirits and demons as plagues in the world, and so too at present such female spirits in human form bald-headed in men’s dreams conceive and birth such creatures; likewise, male spirits copulate with women in dreams in birth the same plagues among men…….)
6: Milton’s Paradise Lost and Regained: Milton in 12 Books poetically expounds the Creation of the World and the Fall of Man, Gen.1-3, being the first attempt of this kind. With much learning and creative sagacity, he intertwines ancient philosophy, Jewish and Christian Theology, to show how God saves and renews. Milton’s Arguments follows the Hebrew Text with Greek and Latin always before. Books 1-8: pictures to us God’s Vindication to Man and Angels, with great speculations of the pre-creation state of angels and the spiritual world; from Genesis 1.1 to chapter 2. Books 9-12: Satan lurks and disguises himself in the mist then in the serpent asleep; Adam and Eve attend to their labors with some conflicts between themselves as to how and where to work. Eve alone is tempted and fascinated by the snake, she finds Adam and gives him the forbidden fruit and reluctantly he eats and sins, sensing nakedness and shame with variance and accusations. Adam’s transgression is considered by God and His Son and the Angels, the Father turns judgment to the Son Who submits to take man’s condition and state, to remedy before God, and pay the price for justice and righteousness, vindicating God. God foretells the Son’s victory and man’s salvation; of the renewal of all things, and of the universe being changed by angelic administration. Eve desires to avoid the curse, and Adam determines to await in prayer and repentance, the Promised Seed to destroy to Serpent. The Son intercede to the Father on their behalf, God banishes them, and Michael sent escort them out, and to reveal the future of the human race up to the Flood. Finally, Michael continues with the vision of man from the Fall to Abraham, of the Seed of the Woman, His incarnation, death, resurrection, his ascension, and of the state of the church till His second coming. Adam is gladdened and leaves Paradise till it is regained by Christ.


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4. Science and the Bible:
The Day of God is the Creation of Seven Days. Scripture says that to the Lord one day is as 1,000 years, and a thousand years as one day. We reason also that adding more zeros does not change this truth, and millions and billions of years to Him is but a day. My understanding is that 1:1 takes in the billions of years of the history of the cosmos, that 1:2 covers the billions and millions of years in preparation to this present world as made suitable for man. Therefore, I am not troubled by science and modern understanding of cosmological and geological history in whatever way He has done it, and what ways we might interpret the evidence and details. At present we may sum up the scientific doctrine as the Seven Days of the Cosmos, the Creation Week of Science. It goes like this:
In the beginning, billions of years ago, the Big Bang, the Cosmic Explosion, created the Universe at a point of time and space of infinite energy and speed barely understood. All before this is unknown. (1:1) The cosmos at the point of origin in innumerable elements and fragments of the super atomic genesis expands at incredible speed and power, changing and cooling, slowing and solidifying, forming many systems of super-galaxies and systems within and without, and our own solar system with earth and other planets with their moons, and other space particles and debris which was in chaos and formlessness, without order and structure suitable for life, but ever changing over many millions of years to produce or evolve simple life forms and all that is a by-product and essential to its stability. This and many such things barely understood but quite fascinating and wondrous; leading to the Days or Periods of Eons and Ages from Hadean to Holocene. (1:2)
Day One: Post-Big-Bang, the Birth of the Universe. (10-20 Billion Years Ago, BYA)
Day Two: Post-Big-Bang, the Development of Galaxies of Stars and Planets, etc… (5-10, BYA)
Day Three: Precambrian Eon: Hadean (hades, hell, grave, death). (4-5, BYA)
Day Four: Precambrian Eon: Archean (archaic, ancient, azoic, prezoic). Consisting of 4 Eras:
Eoarchean, Paleoarchean, Mesoarchean, and Neoarchean. (2.5-4, BYA)
Day Five: Precambrian Eon: Proterozoic: 3 Zoic Eras: Paleo, Meso, Neo. (.5-2.5, BYA)
Day Six: Phanerozoic (Visible Life) Eon: 3 Eras: Paleo, Meso, Ceno (Recent, New). (500-0, MYA)
The Paleozoic: 7 Periods: Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous Mississippian, Carboniferous Pennsylvanian, and Permian. (250-500 Million Years Ago, MYA)
The Mesozoic: 3 Periods: Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. (70-250, MYA)
The Cenozoic: 2 Periods: Tertiary and Quaternary. (70 MYA to Present)
Day Seven: Future?

The Ages or Times or Days of Geologic Life shows varieties of life forms in countless species, with life from the simplest to the most complex, small to great, and all kinds of intermediary forms. Science begins the evolutionary time-scale some 5 billion years ago shortly after the formation of the Earth in the Solar System in forming a solid crust, then the oceans and continents. They call this period Hadean, after the Greek Hades or Hell, single cell organisms and algae appear, with photosynthesis, emitting oxygen as by-product. Then invertebrates and vertebrates appear, then fishes, then plants and vegetation, then insects, fishes, and trees, mountains, and climate changes, reptiles, continents change, and mammals, then mountains, dinosaurs, and birds. At this time 65 million years ago the Earth becomes ruined in chaos from a super-giant asteroid impacting the Caribbean bringing death and destruction and extinction to most or all life forms. This followed by more severe climate changes. More climate and weather changes and the appearance of new life forms and the primates and diverse mammals, with earth flourishing with grass and vegetation and plant life. More mountains formed and the ice ages. And last of all appears humans and civilization and written history.
We see that the Creation Week of Science follows the pattern of the Creation Week of the Bible. The general stages of the six days are in fashion similar, the evolution of one is the design of the other, within the limits that are unknown, and details not understood. I cannot dismiss the evidence, and I try to understand the ways and work of God. It is certain that Scripture reveals God in His progression and production of the world.
I think it fitting to hear a well-respected man of Science, an Astronomer whose honest skepticism and fair presentation of facts I have always appreciated since the early 80’s. (Robert Jastrow,Ph.D. (1948), from Columbia University; Chief of the Theoretical Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (1958-61), is an internationally known astronomer and authority on life in the Cosmos. He is the founder and director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Professor of Astronomy and Geology (Geophysics) at Columbia University, Professor of Earth Sciences at Dartmouth College. Writings include: Astronomy: Fundamentals and Frontiers (Wiley, 1972); God and the Astronomers (Norton, 1978); The Enchanted Loom (Touchstone, 1983); Has been described by Paddy Chayevsky as “the greatest writer on science alive today.” Dr. Jastrow is widely known for his TV appearances on astronomy and space exploration. He has been hosted on more than 100 CBS Network-TV programs on space science. BBC-TV and ITN-TV brought him to London for coverage of the Apollo flights. He is the author of RED GIANTS AND WHITE DWARFS, a Book of the Month Club alternate that sold 400,000 copies in several editions and languages. Dr. Jastrow’s last book, UNTIL THE SUN DIES, was also a Book of the Month Club alternate and was widely acclaimed by reviewers.):
“God and the Astronomers: “Strange developments are going on in astronomy,” writes Dr. Robert Jastrow: “They are fascinating partly because of their theological implications, and partly because of the peculiar reactions of scientists.” The essence of the strange developments is that astronomers have proven the Universe was created in a fiery explosion twenty billion years ago. In the searing heat of the first moment, all the evidence was melted down and destroyed that science might have used to determine the cause of the great explosion. Dr. Jastrow writes, “This is the crux of the new story of Genesis.” According to Dr. Jastrow, scientist did not expect to find evidence for an abrupt beginning. When the evidence began to accumulate, they were repelled by their own findings. Einstein wrote, “Such possibilities seem senseless,” and the great English astronomer Eddington declared, “The notion of a beginning is repugnant.” Dr. Jastrow comments, “There is a strong ring of feeling and emotion in these reactions. They come from the heart, whereas you would expect the judgments to come from the brain. Why?” This book contains his answer. At the end he writes, “The scientist has scaled the mountains of ignorance; he is about to conquer the highest peak; as he pulls himself over the final rock, he is greeted by a band of theologians who have been sitting there for centuries.”
“Recent developments in astronomy have implications that may go beyond their contribution to science itself. In a nutshell, astronomers, studying the Universe through their telescopes, have been forced to the conclusion that the world began suddenly, in a moment of creation, as the product of unknown forces. The first scientific indication of an abrupt beginning for the world appeared about fifty years ago. At that time American astronomers, studying the great clusters of stars called galaxies, stumbled on evidence that the entire Universe is blowing up before our eyes. According to their observations, all the galaxies in the Universe are moving away from us and from one another at very high speeds, and the most distant are receding at the extraordinary speed of hundreds of millions of miles an hour. This discovery led directly to the picture of a sudden beginning for the Universe; for if we retrace the movements of the moving galaxies backward in time, we find that at an earlier time they must have been closer together than they are today; at a still earlier time, they must have been still closer together; and if we go back far enough in time, we find that at a certain critical moment in the past all the galaxies in the Universe were packed together into one dense mass at an enormous density, pressure and temperature. Reacting to this pressure, the dense, hot matter must have exploded with incredible violence. The instant of the explosion marked the birth of the Universe. The seed of everything that has happened in the Universe was planted in that first instant; every star, every planet and every living creature in the Universe came into being as a result of events that were set in motion in the moment of the cosmic explosion. It was literally the moment of Creation. From a philosophical point of view, this finding has traumatic implications for science. Scientists have always felt more comfortable with the idea of a Universe that has existed forever, because their thinking is permeated with the idea of Cause and Effect; they believe that every event that takes place in the world can be explained in a rational way as the consequence of some previous event. Einstein once said, “The scientist is possessed of a sense of infinite causation.” If there is a religion in science, this statement can be regarded as its principal article of faith. But the latest astronomical results indicate that at some point in the past the chain of cause and effect terminated abruptly. An important event occurred-the origin of the world-for which there is no known cause or explanation within the realm of science. The Universe flashed into being, and we cannot find out what caused that to happen. This is a distressing result for scientists because, in the scientist’s view, given enough time and money, he must be able to find an explanation for the beginning of the Universe on his own terms-an explanation that fits into the framework of natural rather than supernatural forces. So, the scientist asks himself, what cause led to the effect we call the Universe? And he proceeds to examine the conditions under which the world began. But then he sees that he is deprived-today, tomorrow, and very likely forever-of finding out the answer to this critical question. Why is that? The answer has to do with the conditions that prevailed in the first moments of the Universe’s existence. At that time, it must have been compressed to an enormous-perhaps infinite-density, temperature and pressure. The shock of that moment must have destroyed every relic of an earlier, pre-creation Universe that could have yielded a clue to the cause of the great explosion. To find that cause, the scientist must reconstruct the chain of events that took place prior to the seeming moment of creation and led to the appearance of our Universe as their end product. But just this, he cannot do. For all the evidence he might have examined to that end has been melted down and destroyed in the intense heat and pressure of the first moment. No clue remains to the nature of the forces-natural or supernatural that conspired to bring about the event we call the Big Bang. This is a very surprising conclusion. Nothing in the history of science leads us to believe there should be a fundamental limit to the results of scientific inquiry. Science has had extraordinary success in piecing together the elements of a story of cosmic evolution that adds many details to the first pages of Genesis. The scientist has traced the history of the Universe back in time from the appearance of man to the lower animals, then across the threshold of life to a time when the earth did not exist, and then back farther still to a time when stars and galaxies had not yet formed, and the heavens were dark. Now he goes farther back still, feeling he is close to success-the answer to the ultimate question of beginning-when suddenly the chain of cause and effect snaps. The birth of the Universe is an effect for which he cannot find the cause. Some say still that if the astronomer cannot find that cause today, he will find it tomorrow, and we will read about it in the New York Times when Walter Sullivan gets around to reporting on it. But I think the circumstances of the Big Bang-the fiery holocaust that destroyed the record of the past-make that extremely unlikely. This is why it seems to me and to others that the curtain drawn over the mystery of creation will never be raised by human efforts, at least in the foreseeable future. Although I am an agnostic, and not a believer, I still find much to ponder in the view expressed by the British astronomer E. A. Milne, who wrote, “We can make no propositions about the state of affairs [in the beginning]; in the Divine act of creation God is unobserved and unwitnessed.”

5. Evolution and the Origins of Man:

1. The Smithsonian Institution on their website has a Human Family Tree chart exhibiting human evolution, from a chain of links backward or downward to a single unknown trunk as a common ancestor, extending beyond 6 million years ago (mya). The Tree branches upward with some unknown Families, then the earliest Ardipithecus group of four identifiable primates, some 4-6 mya. Next is the Australopithecus group, consisting of primate types, more advanced, 2-4 mya; then this follows the Paranthropus group of three types, 1.5 – 2.5 mya. The last large group at top is Homo group of 6 types before modern man, called Homo sapiens-sapiens from 2 mya to the present.
The general scheme is the same in almost all institutions of learning in the world of science. The past twenty years have seen some modifications of the hominid lineage, adding and dropping, classification changes, and especially dates adjusted. Encyclopedia Britannica, Scientific America, and so many others offer the same theory of human origins. I give the National Geographic Society construction of the fossil remains.

2. “The Human Origins Project, a joint initiative of the National Geographic Society and the Turkana Basin Institute, will utilize cutting-edge technology to become the largest and most informative multilingual resource available on the subject of human evolution. Over the past 35 years, the Koobi Fora region in northern Kenya’s Turkana Basin has yielded a wealth of fossil material that has revealed a great deal of information about human history and origins. Some 16,000 fossils, including 350 hominid specimens, have been collected from the basin. The findings help scientists understand hominid behavior like tool use, piece together basic hominid lineages, and understand hominid diversity. Based on past successes in the Turkana Basin, researchers are hopeful that the next five to ten years of fieldwork will yield important new finds. Paleontologists are frequently discovering new sites, and greater numbers of students and professionals are now devoted to this project. Additionally, advances in technology are making paleontological and archaeological research more efficient and accurate. Using new methods of analyzing oxygen and carbon isotopes in fossils, scientists are now able to study the diet of extinct herbivores and the environments in which they lived. Satellite technology has also improved collection techniques and advanced computers can analyze and store more complex sets of data.
Project Goals: The Human Origins Project is the most ambitious and comprehensive undertaking of its kind; and researchers has high hopes for its outcomes. Goals of the mission include creating a Web resource that contributes to our understanding of human origins; educating and inspiring the next generation of scientists; providing means of research for global and indigenous paleontologists, geologists, scientists, and students; creating a collaborative community and virtual meeting space for anyone interested in human origins; and presenting a prehistory of early humans. Scientists in the field and in the lab are working hard to ensure the vast potential of the Human Origins Project is realized.
What Genes and Fossils Tell Us: Scientists have long held that modern humans originated in Africa because that’s where they’ve found the oldest bones. Geneticists have come to the same conclusion by looking at Africa’s vast genetic diversity, which could only have arisen as DNA mutated over millennia. There’s less consensus about the routes our ancestors took in their journey out of Africa and around the planet. Early migrations stalled but left behind evidence such as a human skull from 92,000 years ago at Qafzeh, Israel. Those people may have taken a northern route through the Nile Valley into the Middle East. But other emigrants who left Africa tens of thousands of years later could also have taken a different route: across the southern end of the Red Sea. Scientists say these more recent wanderers gave rise to the 5.5 billion humans living outside Africa today. “I think the broad human prehistoric framework is in place,” says geneticist Peter Forster of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research in Cambridge, England, “and we are now fitting in the details.”.

1. African Cradle: Most paleoanthropologists and geneticists agree that modern humans arose some 200,000 years ago in Africa. The earliest modern human fossils were found in Omo Kibish, Ethiopia. Sites in Israel hold the earliest evidence of modern humans outside Africa, but that group went no farther, dying out about 90,000 years ago.
2. Out of Africa: Genetic data show that a small group of modern humans left Africa for good 70,000 to 50,000 years ago and eventually replaced all earlier types of humans, such as Neanderthals. All non- Africans are the descendants of these travelers, who may have migrated around the top of the Red Sea or across its narrow southern opening.
3. The First Australians: Discoveries at two ancient sites—artifacts from Malakunanja and fossils from Lake Mungo—indicated that modern humans followed a coastal route along southern Asia and reached Australia nearly 50,000 years ago. Their descendants, Australian Aborigines, remained genetically isolated on that island continent until recently.
4. Early Europeans: Paleoanthropologists long thought that the peopling of Europe followed a route from North Africa through the Levant. But genetic data show that the DNA of today’s western Eurasians resembles that of people in India. It’s possible that an inland migration from Asia seeded Europe between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago.
5. Populating Asia: Around 40,000 years ago, humans pushed into Central Asia and arrived on the grassy steppes north of the Himalaya. At the same time, they traveled through Southeast Asia and China, eventually reaching Japan and Siberia. Genetic clues indicate that humans in northern Asia eventually migrated to the Americas.
6. Into the New World: Exactly when the first people arrived in the Americas is still hotly debated. Genetic evidence suggests it was between 20,000 and 15,000 years ago, when sea levels were low and land connected Siberia to Alaska. Ice sheets would have covered the interior of North America, forcing the new arrivals to travel down the west coast.

3. “. . . documents summarizing the hominid fossil record and hypothesized lines of human evolution from 5 million years ago to the present. Under the current taxonomy (based on genetic rather than behavioral criteria), the term “hominid” refers to members of the biological human family Hominidae: living humans, all human ancestors, the many extinct members of Australopithecus, and our closest primate relatives, the chimpanzee and gorilla. According to The Tree of Life by Guillaume Lecointre and Hervי Le Guyader (Harvard University Press: 2006), the similarly named and easily confused categories of humans and near human apes, in order of increasing inclusiveness, are: Hominini: -modern humans and all previous human, australopithecine, paranthropine and ardipithecine ancestors. Homininae: – all of the above, plus chimpanzees (Panini), our closest living biological kin (a genetic kinship so close that some scientists have suggested their genus name should be changed from Pan to Homo). Hominidae: – all of the above, plus gorillas (Gorillinae). Hominoidae: – all of the above, plus orangutans (Pongidae). Hominoidea: – all of the above, plus gibbons (Hylobatoidae).”

6. Biblical Historical Criticism: Spinoza:
We read in Spinoza’s Tractate (Treatise) Theological-Political of 1670, he seeks freedom of speech. Cites 1st John 4:13: Hereby know we that we dwell in Him, and He in us, because He hath given us of His Spirit.”
He writes in the Preface: Without rules or fortune men are lead to superstition; they become insulted by others questioning them or they go begging and praying for any counsel from anyone. Superstition preys on the victims of greed and slanders Reason, and breeds fear. He attempts to expose false Religion with its countless misconceptions which seeks to enslave man. The causes that that led to the Treatise: are the mutual hatred of Christians for one another, Jews against Jews, Turks against Turks, and all against each other, and Heathen against each. The Religious intolerance and hypocrisy. The Churches commerce of God’s religion. The Pretense of admiration and belief in Holy Writ, but instead teaching philosophies of Plato and Aristotle guised in divine inspiration, mere formal faith and ignorance of the Bible itself, but adherents of its teachers. The hatred against human reason made him, he says he “determined to examine the Bible afresh in a careful, impartial, and unfettered spirit, making no assumptions concerning it, and attributing to it no doctrines, which I do not find clearly therein set down. With these precautions I constructed a method of Scriptural interpretation, and thus equipped proceeded to inquire. . .”
“Now, as in the whole course of my investigation I found nothing taught expressly by Scripture, which does not agree with our understanding, or which is repugnant thereto, and as I saw that the prophets taught nothing, which is not very simple and easily to be grasped by all, and further, that they clothed their teaching in the style, and confirmed it with the reasons, which would most deeply move the mind of the masses to devotion towards God, I became thoroughly convinced, that the Bible leaves reason absolutely free, that it has nothing in common with philosophy, in fact, that Revelation and Philosophy stand on totally different footings. In order to set this forth categorically and exhaust the whole question, I point out the way in which the Bible should be interpreted and show that all knowledge of spiritual questions should be sought from it alone, and not from the objects of ordinary knowledge. Thence I pass on to indicate the false notions, which have arisen from the fact that the multitude—ever prone to superstition and caring more for the shreds of antiquity than for eternal truths—pays homage to the Books of the Bible, rather than to the Word of God. I show that the Word of God has not been revealed as a certain number of books, but was displayed to the prophets as a simple idea of the Divine mind, namely, obedience to God in singleness of heart, and in the practice of justice and charity; and I further point out, that this doctrine is set forth in Scripture in accordance with the opinions and understandings of those, among whom the Apostles and Prophets preached, to the end that men might receive it willingly, and with their whole heart.”
First, he gives his detail analysis and hermeneutical opinions of Prophecy, definition and distinction, of Moses superior to other prophets, of Christ superior to Moses, but all by mental process of mind or imagination. The ambiguity of “Spirit” or spirit allows for many senses. The Prophets use prophetic imagination and trances only to direct men to God and from evil. Divine Laws are the best in humanity and aligns with God’s dignity and nature as understood by reason. Ceremonial Laws are temporary and partial as attested by both Old and New Testaments. Miracles cannot be a violation of natural, which is absurdity, but may appear so, or so interpreted in ignorance, for edification. God’s providence is the course of nature. Scripture miracles are a matter of the systems of interpretation, which is limited and partial at the present. The various interpretations among Jews and Christians rival each other to the negation of the supernatural, which refutes, along with the teaching of Maimonides, and the traditions of Pharisees and Papists. After dealing with the prophetic books, he examines the Pentateuch, advocating that that Moses authorship is only in Deuteronomy, and that all the other books as well as the rest of the older historical books are of late authorship, and suggests that Ezra compiled them along with Deuteronomy which appears to be the first written and edited, and later still others added and edited. He continues his criticism of the rest of the books of the Old Testament, pointing out as he had earlier all the passages suggesting editorial hands, unknown authorship, dubious origins, partial revision and harmonization, as well as legends added to the corpus, along with a host of examples of scribal and textual variants, and peculiarities of Hebrew grammar. He declines to examine the New Testament as he has the Old but offers his version of apostolic inspiration and the letters and the Gospel accounts are not prophetic revelation but human illumination, and the same development formed its books. The Word of God is not limited to exact transmission of text in letters or books, but the Divine Word will always abide despite the fallibility of man and church. Reason and faith are not in conflict except in misunderstandings; faith and love are for good works, scripture is not completed except by theologians and philosophers. Reason and faith have each their independent domain which allows acceptance to Scripture authority, but not subservient to it or the other accommodated to it. Authority belongs to God and Nature as co-equal and co-extensive, and this applies to man’s state as in nature, and his subjection is not slavery, and it is applicable to the state and religion. . . “ Throughout Spinoza admits his novelty and speculation, his partial understanding, and his novel theories, and he denies that he has in any way said anything contrary to Scripture or to God.

7. Higher Criticism of the Old Testament: Documentary Theory: (I recently collected for uploads the Works of Bishop Colenso and thought of selecting from his publications of the Pentateuch and Joshua examples of Old Testament higher criticism as they call it, since he was in many ways a father of this modern documentary theory. But after going through his volumes, it appears that others have perfected their craft better than he, even if with a more anti and critical spirit. Dillmann still seems to be a better example, though tedious reading, of the school that to this day, though greatly diluted, continues antagonistic to the historical veracity of the Bible, breeding little scholars, like serpents, speaking of what they know not.)
“”Genesis Critically and Exegetically Expounded” by Dr. August Dillmann, late Professor of Theology in Berlin Translated from the last German Edition by WM.R. Stevenson, B.D. Two Volumes, Published in 1897 by T&T Clark in Edinburgh. [Student and friend of Ewald and Baur, co-author with Knobel’s commentaries. He was an accomplished Ethiopic scholar influencing modern Ethiopic Biblical studies.] (“The name of August Dillmann (1823-1894) and the value of his work have long been familiar to English students of Old Testament Literature. A translator of his Commentary on Genesis has therefore only to speak of the editions of the original, and of any features of the translation which require remark. The edition (1892) from which the present translation is made is generally quoted as the sixth. It is, however, only the fourth from Dillmann’s own hand. His first edition was a revision of a commentary by August Knobel, which had already passed through two editions. What still remains of this original is indicated in the text by quotation marks, with or without mention of Knobel’s name. The present translation is in two volumes, for the whole of which the writer of the Preface is finally responsible; but the general form of the first volume and nearly all the additional matter in it (in square brackets) is due to another hand. This has occasioned a certain want of uniformity in minor matters (style, use of footnotes, spelling of proper names), and the retention of Dillmann’s “Jahve” for Yahweh or Jehovah, and of his symbols A, B, and C, which hoped that the lexical indexes may prove to be of special value, as facilitating study of the sources of Genesis, and of Dillmann’s contribution to that study. The spelling adopted in the case of proper names may also be referred to. It seems to the writer that there must be compromise, following Dillmann’s example, between traditional spelling and accurate transliteration. But though this may be acknowledged, there can be little hope meantime of general agreement in actual practice. The spellings adopted are therefore tentative, and even inconsistency may be pardoned. . . . . His views regarding the composition of the Hexateuch are contained in a most valuable treatise printed as an appendix to Num. Deut. u. Josh. might otherwise have been replaced by P, E, and J. Regarding the last point, it seems to the writer that the substitution ought still to be made by any future translator of Dillmann. In the author’s own preface he says that it was the need of maintaining uniformity with the other volumes of his Hexateuch commentary which compelled him to retain the symbols A, B, and C instead of those now customary (P, E, and J). . . . The chief external feature of the translation, as compared with the original, is the more readable form in which it appears. Contractions have largely been dispensed with, except in the case of the numerous references to periodicals, the use of footnotes has greatly relieved the text, and the division into paragraphs makes reference easier. These changes of form have in some cases made slight transpositions of the text advisable (e.g. vol. ii. p. 14, lines 4—7 occur further down in the German text). Where misprints, principally of figures, have been detected, they are in general silently corrected (but see, e.g., vol. ii. p. 13, note 1). Dillmann’s references are generally to the German translations of English and French works. In these cases, so far as possible, references to the originals have been added in square brackets, or have sometimes been directly substituted (frequently in the case of Robinson’s Palestine). All other additions by the translator are in square brackets. On p. 22 ff. and on pp. 36, 37 of vol. i. there are, however, square brackets which have been retained from the German edition.”)
From Preliminary Remarks and Chapters 1 and 2:
Genesis, like the rest of the Hexateuch, notwithstanding that in it a distinct literary plan is carried out, is not the uniform work of a single author, but is a combination of several works which at one time circulated independently. [Note: I was going to change the archaic usage of Roman numerals which was so popular for far too long, to the modern practice, but I figured it was best to let the scholarly practice stand as is, since it matches their intellectual conceit.]
That it is not a literary unity is already apparent after a more exact examination of the actual contents of the book. There are found in it all sorts of seemingly needless repetitions (e.g. xxi. la alongside of 16, or iv. 25 f. alongside of v. 1-6, or xlvii. 29 ff. alongside of xlix. 29 ff.); also, two or more accounts of the same thing, not merely such as might, with a stretch, be explained by supposing that the author actually assumed different occurrences or wished to indicate the wavering of tradition (e.g. the varying legends about the seizure of the patriarch’s wife, xii. 10 f., xx. 1 ft’., xxvi. 7 ff.; or about Hagar and Ishmael, xvi. 1 ff’., xxi. 12 fi’.; or the double covenant of God with Abram, chs. xv. and xvii.; the double blessing of Jacob by Isaac, xxvii. 1 ff. and xxviii. 1 ff.; the double promise of a son to Sarah, xvii. 17 and xviii. 10 ff.; the triple explanation of the name Isaac, xvii. 17, xviii. 12, xxi. 6; the double explanation of the names Edom, xxv. 25, 30, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, xxx. 16-18, 20, 23 f., or Mahanaim, xxxii. 3, 8; comp. also on Ishmael, xvi. 11 ff. and xxi. 17, on Peniel, xxxii. 31 and xxxiii. 10), but also such as mutually exclude one another, because the thing can have happened only once, or in one way (see, e.g. on the course of creation, chs. i. and ii.; on the number of the animals taken into the ark, and the duration of the Flood, ch. vi. f.; on the scattering of the peoples, chs. x. and xi. 1 ff., also x. 2 5; or on the origin of the names Beersheba, xxi. 31, xxvi. 33, Israel, xxxii. 29, xxxv. 10, Bethel, together with the consecration of the Bethel pillar, xxviii. 18 f., xxxv. 14 f.; or on the encounter with the Shechemites, chs. xxxiv. and xlviii. 22; or the treatment of Joseph by his brethren and the merchants who brought him to Egypt, xxxvii. 19-36). But other irreconcilable statements also are not wanting, e.g. about the reduction of the duration of man’s life to a hundred and twenty years (vi. 3 against ch. v. 11, etc.); or that Abraham, after the death of Sarah, still begat many sons (xxv. 1 ff. against xviii. 11 f., xvii. 17); that Esau on Jacob’s return from Mesopotamia was already settled in Seir (xxxii. 4 ff. against xxxvi. 6); that Rebecca’s nurse first comes with Jacob from Mesopotamia (xxxv. 8 against xxiv. 59); that all the sons of Jacob were born in Padan-Aram (xxxv. 26 against ver. 16 ff.); or the different names of the wives of Esau (xxvi. 34, xxviii. 9 against xxxvi. 2 f.); or about Joseph’s Egyptian master, xxxvii. 36, xxxix. 1—xl. 4, or the statement xlii. 27, xliii. 21, beside xliii. 35. Notices like iv. 14 f., 17, are, in the place where they now stand, enigmatical. In particular, the chronology which lies at the basis of the book does not fit in with all the parts of the narrative, e.g. that of the age of Sarah, xvii. 17, comp. xii. 4, does not agree with xii. 11, xx. 2 ff.; nor that of Ishmael, xvii. 24, xxi. 5, 8 with xxi. 15 ff.; nor that of the nearness of Isaac’s death, xxvii. 1f., 7, 10, 41 with xxxv. 28 and xxvi. 34; nor that of Rachel, xxxvii. 10 with xxxv. 19. Further, xxx. 25 ff. does not agree with xxxi . 38, 41 (see notes on ch. xxx. 25 ff.), nor the ages of Jacob’s sons given or presupposed in xxxii.-xxxvii., xxxix — xlv. with xlvi. 8-27 (see notes on ch. xxxv. 22 ff.). See also on ch. 1. 21. Indeed, narratives are even to be met with in which particular parts do not agree with the rest (e.g. xxxi. 48-50), or the conclusion with the beginning (xxiv. 62-67).
Such repetitions, disarrangements, contradictions, and chronological difficulties, are not explicable on the assumption that the book was composed as a unity; or are so only by help of most improbable suppositions constructed ad hoc. But further, the critical labour of scholars during a whole century has with certainty led to the recognition in the accounts of this book of different groups or strata, of which the several pieces are as closely related to each other, formally and materially, as they are distinguished from those of the other strata. More precisely there are three different writings, differentiated in respect of time and place of origin, contents, arrangement, aim, mode of representation and language, which have been discovered as lying at the basis of Genesis, and also as continued into the other books of the Hexateuch. The more precise proofs of this state of things are given in the Introductions to the exposition of the several sections. A summary of the results of these detailed investigations, together with a characterization of the individual writings and a discussion of their origin, will be found in the concluding treatise of this whole work, after the Book of Joshua. (Dillmann, Num. Deut. and Josh. p. 599 ff.) Here only thus much.
The writing designated by us A is that which was formerly called the writing of the Elohist because in it, down (Dillmann, Num. Deut. and Josh. p. 599 ff.) to the passage Ex. vi. 3, the divine name Jahve is avoided, and only Elohim, or on occasion El Shaddai, is used, or foundation-document—Grundschrift—because it forms the framework into which the other parts are laid, but recently for the most part the Priestly Writing (therefore designated P or PC, i.e. Priests’ Code, whereas the designation as Q, i.e. Quatuor, by Wellhausen,(So in Kautzsch-Socin, Die Genesis, 1891.) rests on the inapt assumption that the author reported four covenants).(See, on the contrary, Zeitschrift fur altt. Wissenschafi, xii. 1 and 20.) It is in the main a law writing; it seeks to lay down the laws, ordinances, institutions, and customs which prevail, or should prevail, among God’s people, and to explain their origin. It deals with the historical almost only in so far as that is useful or necessary for the understanding of the origin of these laws, etc. While therefore it gives indeed a sketch of the whole Preliminary and Primitive History from the Creation, it does so only to show how and wherefore, and by what stages and by means of what divine arrangements, the chosen people were gradually formed and taken out from the other and especially related peoples, and it enters into fuller descriptions only in connection with epoch-making occurrences (such as the Creation, Flood Covenant with Noah, Covenant with Abraham, Descent of the Patriarchs to Egypt), or with reference to occurrences on which laws are based (such as Gen. xvii. 23, xlviii. 3—8); for the rest, it narrates the facts, or the incidents held to be facts, only in a brief and dry (annalistic) style, partly in the form of genealogies (chs. v., xi. 10 ff., xxxv. 22 ff.) and statistical surveys (chs. x., xxv. 12 ff., xxxvi.), all the time, however, giving special attention to the working out of a fixed and orderly chronology. Its mode of statement is broad, circumstantial (because aiming at the utmost possible accuracy and definiteness), and juristically precise and formal; its language somewhat stiff and monotonous, confining itself within a rather limited circle of expressions, with many technical terms, by no means late Hebrew, but in many respects peculiar: just as the prophets, the gnomic poets, and the Psalmists, also formed their own peculiar speech. Its treatment of the material is pre-eminently of an erudite character, resting upon research, calculation, and reflection, and turning to account varied stores of knowledge, (E.g. chs. i., v., x. f., xxxvi., xlvi.; in matters of detail, e.g. chs. xxv. 16, xxxvi. 15.) but with a strong tendency to systematize and schematize. Its manner of speaking of God is austere and worthy, and makes no use even of the belief in angels, still less of that strongly anthropomorphic style of thinking and speaking, which came so near to being mythological, and which poets and popular speech delighted in. Without doubt its author belonged to the circle of the priests at the central sanctuary in Jerusalem. A simple statement of the date of its composition cannot be given on account of the gradual remodeling and enlargement which it underwent (especially in Exod. Lev. and Num.) in exilic and post-exilic times. Yet the original writing undoubtedly dates back to the times of the kings of Israel. In Genesis, where it appears in its relatively purest form, chs. xvii. 6, 16, xxxv. 11, xxxvi 31 ff., and especially its description of the relations of the peoples in chs. x. and xxxvi., supply data for judging its date.
Of quite another character, in respect of their origin and their aim, are the two other writings. Only in the account of the activity of Moses do they to some extent deal with laws; otherwise, they are properly books of legend or history, whose purpose was, in the form of a survey attractively written, to give contemporaries, for their entertainment and instruction, information regarding what was still known or told about the olden times. In contrast to the sober intellectuality of the Priestly Writing, they are books of lifelike directness and poetic beauty. One of them, B, which, because it likewise calls God not Jahve but Elohim, is by many styled the writing of the Elohist (and therefore now by most designated E), may be named The Book of Israel’s Legendary History. It derives its contents partly, indeed, from older written documents, but mainly from orally transmitted legends as they existed among the midland, northern, and eastern tribes (Israel in distinction from Judah), and it preserves unchanged in its narratives the manner, tone, and color of this living legendary lore of the people. In the details of its contents this writing is the richest (in Gen. we know, e.g., only from it the names Eliezer, Deborah, Potiphar), and it gives much quite peculiar information, and many short utterances of the very oldest stamp (e.g. xxi. 27 ff., xv. 2, xx. 16, xlviii. 22). It is therefore much to be regretted that it has not been preserved for us in a more complete form. Many local legends of particular districts (e.g. also xxxi. 51 ff., xxxiii. 19, xxxv. 8, 20) were conjoined in it, and it has a special fondness for pointing out the origin of the ancient sanctuaries of the midland and eastern parts, as well as (comp. Amos v. 5, viii. 14) those of the far southwest (xxi. 31, xxii. 2 in its original form, xxviii. 17 f., xxxii. 2, 31, xxxiii. 20, xxxv. 4, 7, xlvi. 1 f.); but this does not entitle us to call it a priestly writing. (Stade, Gesch. 582.) A subject to which B devotes special attention is the glory of Joseph (Ephraim-Manasseh); in it the old standing of Reuben shines more distinctly through (xxxvii. 21, 29, xlii. 22, 37); Bethel is represented as a sanctuary at which tithes are paid (xxviii. 22); Shechem is expressly pointed out as the possession of Joseph (xxxiii. 19, xlviii. 22); and Joseph receives a special blessing from Jacob (xlviii. 15 f., 20). These facts alone leave no room for doubting (comp. also ch. 1. 25 with Josh. xxiv. 32) its origin in Israel (in the narrower sense). It is demonstrable as a documentary source of Genesis, certainly from ch. xx., and with high probability it is also the source of ch. xv. In support of the position that the narratives wrought up in ch. xiv, as well as those in iv. 17 ff., vi. 1-4, ix. 20, belonged originally to it, much may be advanced; especially in chs. iv. and vi. the close approach shown to the Phoenician theories of the development of the earliest races of man, which is most easily explained in the case of a North-Israelite document. An account of the Flood it certainly never contained. In matters of worship it still shows quite the older free manner of the Israelitish tribes with their many sanctuaries (also Masseboth, xxviii. 22, xxxiii. 20; comp. xxxi. 51 f.), but it condemns the teraphim and other idolatrous things (xxxv. 2 £f.; comp. Josh. xxiv.). It speaks much of revelations of angels, and revelations by dreams or visions, expressly calls Abraham a prophet (xx. 7), and likes to point out the gradual realization, in the dispensations of Divine Providence, of God’s plan unveiled beforehand by revelation. It belongs, doubtless, to the age when the prophetic order nourished among the midland tribes, i.e. to the ninth century. (See Dillmann, Num. Deut. Josh. p. 621.) It is no longer comprehensible as a product of the time after the destruction of the northern kingdom, or as late as the seventh century, (Lagarde, Nathrichten der k. Geselhchaft d. Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, 1889, p. 321 f.) nor is this hypothesis aided by the Egyptian names in xxxvii. 36, xli. 45 (see note on ch. xli. 45). Much of its contents are no longer extant in its original form, but only as wrought up in combination with C.
The third writing, C, usually called that of the Jahvist [Jehovist] (because from the beginning it makes use of the name Jahve, therefore now mostly designated J), for a long time also, though wrongly, called the Supplementary Document—Erganzungsschrift—as if it had been written with the intention of supplementing A, was, no less than the others, originally an independent document, and may be distinguished from A as a prophetical, and from B as a Judaic writing. That it proceeded not from Ephraim (De Wette-Schrader, Lehrb. d. Einl* § 205; Reuse, Gesch. d. AT. § 213; Kuenen, Onderzoek1 i. § 224 f.) but from Judah, is demonstrable with certainty, even within Genesis itself, from its assigning the district of Hebron as the residence of Abraham (xiii. 18, xviii. 1) and of Jacob (? xxxvii. 14), from the prominence which it gives to Judah in the history of Joseph (xxxvii. 26 ff., xliii. 3 ff., xliv. 16 ff., xlvi. 28), as well as from ch. xxxviii. This is not refuted by the fact that, like B, and probably following the lead of B, it purposely takes notice of the holy places of northern Israel (xii. 6-8, xxviii. 13-16) and of the Negeb (xxi. 33, xxvi. 23-25). See, further, introd. notes to ch. xlix. and observe xxxiii. 17 as well as xxxii. 8 against xxxii. 2 f., where in the mention of such places it shows only an antiquarian, not a religious interest. In the primeval histories there is an unquestionable relationship between it and A both in respect of arrangement and of contents (history of creation, the original state, the genealogy of Noah, the story of the Flood, the ethnographical table). Also, in the Abraham section and onward, it has some narratives in common with A (separation from Lot, destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, the story of Dinah; also xlvii. 1-11, xlvii. 29 ff. with xlix. 29 ff.). But elsewhere in the history of the patriarchs, especially in that of Jacob and Joseph, it shows itself most closely related to B; so much so, that most of its narratives from ch. xxvii. onwards have their perfect parallels in B, and it is necessary to assume the dependence of the one upon the other.
And, indeed, it is C that borrowed from B. This may be proved from the general consideration that just in the circle of legends about Jacob and Joseph, which must originally have been developed in Israel not in Judah, the relationship is most complete. It is established further by a comparison of the several parallel passages, which almost always shows, on the side of B more realistic detail, on that of C more scene painting, set speeches, and wealth of ideas, if there be left aside such isolated cases as those in which B has the more definite statements (e.g. xv. 2 against 3, xxxvii. 36 against xxxix. 1) and C the more general (e.g. xxvi. 1, 8, Philistines; xxxvii. 25 Ishmaelites, against 28 Midianites). Unquestionably this writer worked with the written material of B lying before him; and this fact often betrays itself even at points where no parallel narrative has survived from B (e.g. Gen. xii. 6-9, ch. xxvi.), especially in turns of expression (e.g. xxvi. 32, xxx. 35, 38, 41, etc.). The opposite view, (Wellhausen, Stade, Budde, Kuenen, Onderzoek, – 226 ff.) that C is older than B, cannot be proved in Genesis from a detailed comparison of the parallel accounts of the two narrators; (NDt. Jos. 630 f.; Kittel, Gesch. der Hebr. i. 69 ff. s NTH. Jos. 630 f) it can only be in some measure established by appeal to the fact that C, especially in the history of Moses and Joshua, has in many cases more ancient accounts than B. But, in truth, this is rather to be explained from the fact (NDt. Jos. 630 f.) that he has there followed older and better sources. For, of course, B is not his only source. Narratives like xii. 10 ff., xvi. 1 ff. (alongside of xxi. 9-21), xxv. 29 ff. etc., show that he has drawn much of his material, quite independently of B, either from current legend or from written documents lying before him; and this apart from the many passages which he and A have peculiar to themselves. On the whole, one may safely say that he represents the legendary history as it was told in Judah, or from the Judaic point of view. But yet more important peculiarities are discovered, if one looks to the contents and form of his narratives. For in the same measure in which, in respect of realistic contents, he falls short of B, he surpasses him (and much more so A) in thoughtful apprehension, vivid lively description, smooth, and, at the same time, charming and interesting delineation and artistic rounding off of his narratives. Many of his passages that we still have complete (e.g. ch. ii. f., xi. 1-9, xviii. f., xxiv., xliii. f.) are masterpieces of the art of narration, with which only a few passages from B, like ch. xxii., can be compared. Not less distinguished, however, are they by the fullness of fine instructive thoughts, and of weighty, ethieoreligious truths which the author had the skill to breathe into his legendary histories, or rather to elicit from them, without taking away anything of their poetic character and the childlike simplicity of expression, which adhered to them as they came from the lips of the people. Especially of all three narrators does he show the deepest knowledge of the nature, origin, and growth of sin in mankind; of the counter action of God against it; of His plan of salvation (iii. 15 f., v. 29, viii. 21 f., ix. 26 f., xii. 2 f., xviii. 19); of the calling and training of the divinely chosen instruments to faith, obedience, and virtuous conduct; of the destination of Israel to be a blessing to the nations. So, it is already in Genesis, where he represents the patriarchs as essentially types and patterns. In the course of the work these more profound ideas come out yet more distinctly and make themselves strongly felt also in the polemic against the idolatrous and disobedient character of the people of Israel.1(In opposition to the judgment passed on him by Stade, Geseh. 547.) The ideas and knowledge by which the author is influenced are those of the prophets; and as we may therefore call himself in a certain sense a prophetic narrator, so we may also from this conjecture his era to be the time of the activity of the great prophets; which conjecture is then abundantly confirmed by many other indications. No particularly high antiquity need be demanded for him, neither because of the naive way in which he speaks of God, (Ch. ii. f. (see p. 97), vi. 6, vii. 16, viii. 21, xi. 5 f., xviii 1 ff., 17-21.)—for that does not uniformly characterize all his passages and is therefore conditioned rather by the subject and the source, —nor even because of the “unrestrainedness” with which from the beginning of things onward he makes use of the name Jahve, (Ch. ii. f. contrasted with Ex. vi. 3 ff. from A and Ex. iii. 13 ff. from B.) and makes mention of, or presupposes, even in the earliest times, sacrifice (iv. 3 f.), altar (viii. 20 f.), the distinction of clean and unclean (vii. 2 ff.), and the oracle of Jahve (xxv. 22 f.); for the passages quoted in the notes on ch. iv. 26 plainly show that, in his case also, there is already implied and carried out a theory of the origin of the service of the true God.
In language, too, as well as in his whole style of narrative, C stands much closer to B than to A; and although between them also all sorts of finer distinctions are to be found, yet it is often very difficult or impossible to make a complete separation between them, where their narratives have been worked into each other by later editors, and material criteria are wanting. The assumption that B as well as C, before they came into their present connection with one another, passed through several editions, (Kuenen, Ondarzoek, * 242 ff.) might be in itself possible, but with reference at least to B in Genesis (and in the other books) is not supported by any satisfactory proofs. In C we no doubt meet with heterogeneous sections, (See on chs. iv., vi. 1-4, xi. 1-9.) which might recommend that hypothesis, but only in the primitive history, not in the further course of the work; (See especially notes on xii. 10 ft’., and notes on xviii. 17 ff.) and since, for the rest, throughout all these passages the marks of C, in respect of form and language, are uniformly present, another explanation of that phenomenon is to be preferred. (See on chs. iv., vi. 1-4, xi. 1-9.) Under C, therefore, in what follows we shall include the whole of the sections of this document, without raising the question of its sources or prior stages.
If one inquires as to the manner in which Genesis has been worked up out of the three original documents, it may be said generally that A’s writing, with its continuous chronology and its sharply-marked division of sections, forms the framework or outline into which the accounts of the others are introduced; but also that in the choice and combination of the material, Cs range of ideas was the standard, and that his prophetic conceptions of sin and grace, of the saving purpose of God, of the divine training of the patriarchs to be ancestors of the people of God, are repeatedly made still more conspicuous by express remarks;2 and, generally, that attention is directed for the most part to that which seemed most serviceable for the religious discipline and instruction, as well as for the moral and national culture, of the people. In the preliminary remarks to the explanation of the several sections, a description is given of the way in which on these lines the work took shape in respect of connection and general plan. We anticipate that much which did not serve the purpose held in view was set aside or abbreviated: passages like iv. 17—24, vi. 1-4, xxx. 32-42, mere excerpts from fuller accounts, had perhaps been already shortened by 0 himself; but, e.g., the isolated mention of Isaiah (xi. 29), of the consanguinity of Abraham and Sarah (xx. 12), of the vow of the tenth (ch. xxviii. 22) without mention of fulfillment in ch. xxxv. 7, or the information given in xlviii. 22, plainly point to omissions in the compilation. On examination we find that up to ch. xi. 26 the accounts of A are doubtless given completely; that, on the other hand, the beginning of his history of Abraham which stood before……
If one inquires as to the manner in which Genesis has been worked up out of the three original documents, it may be said generally that A’s writing, with its continuous chronology and its sharply-marked division of sections, forms the framework or outline into which the accounts of the others are introduced; but also that in the choice and combination of the material, Cs range of ideas was the standard, and that his prophetic conceptions of sin and grace, of the saving purpose of God, of the divine training of the patriarchs to be ancestors of the people of God, are repeatedly made still more conspicuous by express remarks; (Especially chs. xv. 6 f., 12-16, xxii. 15-18, xxvi. 36-5.) and, generally, that attention is directed for the most part to that which seemed most serviceable for the religious discipline and instruction, as well as for the moral and national culture, of the people. In the preliminary remarks to the explanation of the several sections, a description is given of the way in which on these lines the work took shape in respect of connection and general plan. We anticipate that much which did not serve the purpose held in view was set aside or abbreviated: passages like iv. 17—24, vi. 1-4, xxx. 32-42, mere excerpts from fuller accounts, had perhaps been already shortened by 0 himself; but, e.g., the isolated mention of Isaiah (xi. 29), of the consanguinity of Abraham and Sarah (xx. 12), of the vow of the tenth (ch. xxviii. 22) without mention of fulfillment in ch. xxxv. 7, or the information given in xlviii. 22, plainly point to omissions in the compilation. On examination we find that up to ch. xi. 26 the accounts of A are doubtless given completely; that, on the other hand, the beginning of his history of Abraham which stood before ch. xii., the revelation of God to Isaac (see xxxv. 12), the residence of Jacob in Padan-Aram, and the whole of the history of Joseph before the removal of Jacob into Egypt, are left out, perhaps because in part they were too little in accord with the narratives of the other documents used. Vice versa, the sections of C are abbreviated. In the primitive histories (Chs. ii. 5 f., iv. 25 f., in the story of the Flood, in the ethnographical table; elsewhere xvi. 15 f., xxi. 2 ff., xxv. 7 ff., xxxii. 4, xxxv. 28 f.) and in the undernoted passages, the abbreviation is in favor of A, elsewhere in the patriarchal histories mostly only in favor of B. From the source B itself, apart from the history of Joseph (which, it seems, was one of the most beautiful parts of the work), relatively fewer passages are communicated word for word (from ch. xx. onward); usually they are expanded by notices from C, or what was remarkable in them has been incorporated into the sections of C.
Wherever it was at all practicable, or seemed requisite, the very words of the sources have been reproduced in the compilation, and it is just to the many pieces of narrative retained unchanged that we are indebted for a more accurate knowledge of the character of these sources. But a simple placing of their sections alongside of one another 2 (As we have ch. ii. f. alongside of ch. i., ch. xxvii. alongside of xxvi. 34 f., and xxviii. 1-9, xlviii. 3-7 alongside of xlviii. 9-22.) was not always possible and would not always have served the end in view. Facts, such as the birth or death of a man, even if they were narrated in all the sources, could only be told in the words of one of these. But even where the original narratives agreed only in the main while divergent in details, simple juxtaposition of the documents would have involved many repetitions. In such cases the documents used have been worked into one another, the one most suitable for the end in view being made the foundation, and what was peculiar in one or both of the others being inserted in it in the place best suited. (Chs. vii. f., x., xvi., xxv., xxvii.-xxviii., xxxix.-l.) But, naturally, it was not always possible that the several passages, culled from two or three writings, should without more ado allow of being placed alongside of one another, or fitted into each other. Either the most contradictory statements occurring in one or other must be omitted, (E.g. ch. xxi. 17ff., the etymology of the name Ishmael; ch. xxxii. 8, that of Mahanaim; ch. xxxiii. 10, that of Peniel; a proper name, ch. xxxi. 25.) or parts manifestly separate must be stitched together by little interspersed additions or remarks, and what was still in contradiction harmonized. Many such joinings and other artificial devices are quite perceptible. (E.g. in chs. iv. 25, x. 24, xxi. 14, xxvi . la, 15, 18, xxxv. 9, xxxvii. 56, 86, xxxix. 1, 20, xliii. 14, xlvi. 1.)
Among these artificial devices for the purpose of producing a readable whole, are to be classed, e.g., the employment before ch. xvii. of the names Abram and Sarai throughout all the sections or of the double name Jahve Elohim throughout ch. ii. f., or the change of Elohim into Jahve, xvii. 1, xxi. 1. An expedient often employed for the same purpose was the transposition of whole passages, (As chs. xi. 1-9, xii. 10-20, xxv. 5f., 116, xxv. 21 ff., xlvii. 12 ft) or of shorter statements, (As chs. ii. 4a, xxxi. 45-50, xxxvii. 26, etc) which then again made all sorts of short additions by the compiler necessary. (As chs. i. 1, ix. 18, xiii. 1, 3f., xxiv. 62.) In other passages the statements of the documents used are epitomized in a free manner, (E.g. chs. vii. 7-9, 22, xv. 7 f., xxxi. 45 ff., xxxvi., xlvi. 8-27.) and here and there detached sentences are added by way of bringing about a harmony. (E.g. chs. xxi. 34, xxxv. 5, xxvii. 46, xlvi. 12-20) Explanatory glosses also were occasionally inserted, (E.g. chs.xx. 18, xxxi. 47, xxxv. 6, or inch. xiv. where many such are found. (Chs. xv. 12-16, xxii. 15-18, xxvi. 3b-5.) , perhaps also iv. 15a.) some of them, perhaps, first from a later hand. Besides, all sorts of smaller insertions are found which are not derived from the sources but were made only during or even after the redaction, partly in order to provide standard points of view for the conception of the subject, (Chs. xv. 12-16, xxii. 15-18, xxvi. 3b-5.) partly in order to bring about harmony with statements occurring elsewhere, (Chs. xxv. 186, xxxv. 22a, perhaps also iv. 15a.) and partly in order to introduce detached notices, or new aspects of the legend not noted in the chief sources. (Chs. x. 9, xxxii. 33; perhaps ii. 10-14, and in x. 14 ; xi. 286, 316, xxxvii. 2*; further, chs. xv. 7, xxii. 2, 14, xv. 19-21, xxxiv. 136, 27-29, xlv. 19 f., 21* xlvi. 5*.)
That finally, notwithstanding all these methods, all kinds of incompatibilities and contradictions, especially in chronological matters, have still been left standing in the work thus originated, is not surprising. But they are for the most part discernible only upon a more careful examination, and could, in contrast to the importance of the contents of the inserted sections, be regarded as of secondary importance. Though in itself quite conceivable, it seems unnecessary to assume that during or after the redaction entirely new passages also, which had nothing corresponding to them in the three sources, were inserted; (See on Gen. xiv.) but certainly passages like chs. xiv. and xv. belong to those which have been most freely recast.
Finally, the further question still arises, as to whether the three documents ABC have been wrought up by one or by several redactors (R). Formerly, (Hupfeld and others.) the former hypothesis was the prevalent one. Recently, it has been contested by all who hold A to be the latest document in the Hexateuch and post-exilic, and it is maintained rather that B and C, after each of them separately had passed through several enlarged editions, were at length combined, and that at a later period by yet another hand they were joined to D (Deuteronomy), before a final redactor, R, wrought A into this composite work. (E.g. Bleek-Wellhausen, EM. in das AT* 118; Kayser, Kuenen, Budde.) This view of the process is at bottom only an inference from the opinion held regarding the age of A, and its validity can therefore be tested only in connection with the discussion of the origin of the documentary sources of the Hexateuch. (See Dillmann, Num. Deut. Josh. 675 ff.) Only this much may here be said, that if not D, then certainly if (who incorporated Deut. into the Pentateuch), knew A and made use of his writing. But even apart from this particular representation of the process, there would still remain the possibility that B and C were first of all worked together, and that only subsequently was A combined with BC.
What may be inferred from Genesis itself as to this question is the following. It is admitted that in the redaction not only was BC enlarged or enriched by additions from A, but also that C was mutilated in favor of A (e.g. chs. i.-xi.), as, conversely, A in favor of C (chs. xii.—l.). This is very well explained if R looked upon the whole three documents as merely private writings. On the other hand, the depreciation and mutilation of BC would be in the highest degree strange, if it were already an integral part of a work become almost sacred, which included in itself also the publicly acknowledged Deuteronomy and had now been read for more than a century. An explanation might be attempted by such an assertion as that it is a matter of the introduction of a stricter chronology, or the insertion of additions regarded as in other respects important. It would be remarkable enough, on such a supposition, that just these latest incorporations often contain the most ancient representations of things; (See on i. 2, 5, 7, 29 f., vii. 11, x. 2-5, 22 f.) it would be quite indiscoverable for what purpose disconnected fragments or repetitions which added nothing to the narrative (As xiii. 6, 116, 12, xix. 29, xxi. 16, xxxi. 18, xxxiii. 18, xxxv. 6.) had been introduced from A, or why, in relating facts like the birth (xvi. 15, xxi. 2 f.) or death (xlix. 33) of a man, which surely BC had also mentioned, the words of BC should be replaced by words of A, or why from the quite new document A there should be inserted, by way of revision, such contradictions as stand in xxvi. 34, xxviii. 9, contrasted with xxxvi. 2 f. When, further, it is urged that C and B are combined in a way altogether different from that in which they are united with A, and that consequently this was done by another hand and at an earlier time, (Wellhausen, JBDTh. xxi. 425. [See p. 25.]) this proof also cannot be regarded as sufficient. The pieces of C and B are indeed much more frequently fused into one single piece; yet not because another hand worked them together, but because C stood fundamentally in the closest relationship with B (§ 3), and in many of its narratives the differences were concerned with mere trifles, where it was sufficient to reproduce one of the two, and to add from the other only a few words or sentences. (As, e.g., chs. xxvii., xxix., xli. f.) But neither is it true that this has been always possible with C and B, 2 (For, e.g., xxvi. 25-33 from C stands alongside of xxi. 22-32 from B, or xxx. 31-43 from C alongside of xxxi. 7-13 from B, just as from G chs. ii. f. or xv. stand alongside of chs. i. or xvii. from A.) nor are there wanting between C and A, where the similarity of contents admits of it, mixed passages fused together like a mosaic. (E.g. Gen. vi. 9-ix. 17, or xxi. 1-7, or ch. xxxiv.; others in Ex.) It is just the thorough similarity in the method of combining C with B and C with A, which is equally seen in Ex., etc., that speaks strongly in favor of the idea that the same hand effected both combinations. Further, there are sections of A, like chs. xxxvi. or xlvi. 8—27, which are quite evidently not worked into a text of Bcb, but rather corrected according to BC (comp. also xlviii. 5); just as in xlix. 33, in the midst of the text of A, a fragment of C appears. Moreover, even in such passages as certainly do not belong to A (like xiv. 11 f., xvi.-xxi.), and in the harmonistic junction of B and C (xliii. 14), or in the redaction of the C sections (xxvi. 1), the redactor R often writes the language of A, just as in the incorporating of A he uses the language of C (xxvii. 46), quite apart from cases like chs. vi. 7, xiii. 3, xv. 14 f., where in redactional additions to sections of C or BC (which, however, are occasioned by the incorporation of A sections into Genesis) we find the language of A. Accordingly it seems, if one takes Genesis into consideration by itself, that a simultaneous working together of the three documents is not excluded but rather recommended, and hence in what follows we speak only for brevity’s sake of B.
On the other hand, it must be admitted as a possibility that, not indeed the insertion of whole large passages like chs. xiv., xxxiv., but that certain of the supplements, adjustments, glosses, and other alterations, were first introduced by later hands. In regard to several passages it is almost certain that the text, at a later period (in part only after the time of the LXX.), was altered, (E.g. iv. 18, xxi. 14, 16, xxxi. 45, xlvii. 5-7, also partly the numbers in ch. v. 11.) or corrupted, (E.g. iv. 8, x. 5, xxiv. 22, 29 f., xxx. 32, xxxviii., xli. 456, 48, 56, xlvii. 21, xlix. 26.) or glossed. (Ch. xlv. 23; perhaps also elsewhere in chs. xxxix.-xlv. and xlvii. 12-26. by Lange, 1874; vol. iii. Deut., by F. W. J. Schroder, 1866; vol. iv. Josua, by Fay, 1870 [Eng. trans., i. Gen., ii. Ex. and Lev., iii. Num. and Deut., iv. Josh. Jud. and Ruth]; Ed. Keuss, La bible, traduction nouvelle, etc., Paris, 1875 ff. (pt. iii. L’histoire sainte et la loi, Pentat. et Jos. 1879, 2 vols.); F. C. Cook, The Holy Bible with an explanatory and critical Commentary (also called The Speaker’s Commentary), in 6 vols. [on 0. T.] Lond. 1871-1876 (for present purpose, vols. i. 1, 2, ii.); D. Steel and J. W. Lindsay, Comm. on the Old Test., New York, 1891 (vol. ii. Lev. Num. Deut).) The critical proof does not reach down to the most minute particulars, e.g. as to whether, in ch. xxx. 18, already R, or only a later hand, wrote sifhati for amati. In passages like chs. xxvi. 3-5, xlv. 20* are seen traces even of the hand of P*.”
(We have taken pains to look at the critics’ criticisms, not only what is cited but many thousands of pages with their thousands of instances of objections to the full or divine inspiration of the Bible. If the Biblical textual critics are correct we have a human Bible without the Divine authorship at work, for Scripture, says the Lord Jesus, cannot be broken, that not a dot or letter of the law shall disappear, that His words last forever. If Moses did not receive from God the words and teachings that are recorded in his five books, then we are done with a Holy Bible, we would have only a common book, a vulgar scripture, and all that is witnessed of God from Moses to Malachi and the New Testament is made void, Christ rejected and shamed, and we are still in our sins and sorry state. I do not deny the peculiarities that they point out, nor do we need to fear all the human elements that come along with the divine word. Like nature the Bible is not just spirit and life, not only sense and symbols, but like the soul is clothed in a body suited to its order and use, a divine vessel. As with the universe, we have in human progress of sciences, as formerly with philosophies, and before them religion and theology, come to understand books and writings in a way to uncover many secrets and dispel superstition and fictions. I have had to examine myself and my beliefs repeatedly and now before my departure I set my own seal and witness that God is true if all else are lies. We have not spared our own search and research, investigating the investigators. In Genesis One we have God and cosmology, in chapter Two we have the Lord God and anthropology, we cannot here reflect on psychology properly without searching out the origins of fallen human nature which has changed the relations and condition of man. We move on to chapter three still dealing with the Generations of the Heavens and Earth in regards to man from Adam to Noah.)


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