Christian Biblical Reflections.27

     (Here is submission or part 27 of CBR, pages 171-232, of Jeremiah & Lamentations. mjmselim.Oct.2019.)

      Here are the Selections that I found very useful to explore the Book of Jeremiah and his Lamentations. I have not tried to insert objections to those things in these writings that I reject or object to, but both the good and the bad to present a fuller picture in the hermeneutics of the Prophet and his Prophecies.

Jeremiah’s Selections (10): Jeremiah’s & Lamentations Selections: Blayney, Henderson, Naegelsbach (Lange’s-Schaff), Keil-Delitzsch, Streane (CBS), Wordsworth, Smith (Scot), Driver, Brown, & Binns.

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Literal Translation of Prophets, Isaiah-Malachi, v2. Jeremiah & Lamentations, by Benjamin Blayney, D.D., Prof. of Hebrew Oxford; Notes, Critical, Philological, & Explanatory, etc. New Ed. (1836). gs

{{ Preliminary Discourse: “When it was first proposed to me to revise the text of Jeremiah, and to attempt a new translation of it, with notes and illustrations, after the manner of the Bishop [Lowth] of London’s Isaiah, it appeared to me a matter of so much difficulty and importance, as justly to merit the most mature deliberation. Though sincerely disposed to pay all due deference to the authority of my friends, and earnestly desirous, at a time when I had no immediate call in the line of my profession, to find myself engaged in some worthy occupation, whereby I might have a chance of promoting the glory of God, and the spiritual good of mankind; it could not but occur to me, that, in following the plan of an author of such distinguished eminence, from a disparity of talents a most mortifying disparity might reasonably be apprehended in the execution. On the other hand, it seemed much to be regretted, that a design of such singular utility, and for which such ample materials had been lately provided, should at once be relinquished and laid aside. The learned and venerable Prelate, with whom it began, it was but too well known, had neither leisure nor health to prosecute it farther. And were it necessary to wait till another of equal qualifications should take it up, it were possible that many generations might elapse before the world might enjoy the wished-for satisfaction. But from inferior abilities some, at least, though not equal, benefit might arise; and this in particular, that, whilst the thoughts and attention of mankind were turned upon the subject, the discussion of such errors and mistakes as would be committed might gradually tend to an elucidation and discovery of the truth. And, therefore, upon these principles, when I found no other person likely to stand forth, I determined, at length, to comply with what had been recommended to me; trusting to the candour of the public, which I had heretofore experienced; and claiming no other indulgence, than, out of regard to my good intentions, to have my faults animadverted on with that gentleness and benignity which every liberal-minded person will be inclined to exercise towards others, because he must naturally wish to be so treated himself……I should still think myself guilty of a most unpardonable omission, were I not at this time to seize the opportunity of testifying my respect for the memory of another lately deceased friend; the learned Dr. Kennicott I mean, whose name the Hebrew critic ought ever to hold in the highest veneration. I account it a singular honour and happiness to myself to have conversed familiarly with him, and to have derived much solid information and improvement from that fund of knowledge which his laborious researches enabled him to lay in, and which the friendliness of his mind disposed him freely to communicate. Of such a nature were my personal obligations to him. His public merit was more conspicuous; being attested by his astonishing collation of seven hundred Hebrew and Samaritan MSS. and printed editions of the most early date, anxiously sought out through all the different quarters of the and examined with the nicest care: A work of which he was the first that had the penetration to discern the important utility; and which he was at length fortunate enough, after a course of twenty years of indefatigable application and industry, to bring to a happy conclusion, under the patronage of the greatest names in Europe. From this ample magazine what invaluable stores may be extracted, every day’s experience tends to furnish more convincing indubitable proofs. The various readings that are produced and applied in the notes which follow, though not all of equal importance, will, many of them, I trust, be deemed far from immaterial. But let me indulge a hope, that the time is not very far distant when the task of bringing forward these materials to their proper use will not be left, as hitherto it hath been, altogether in the hands of a few well-intentioned individuals, but will be undertaken on a more extensive plan, by a select assembly of the most learned and judicious divines, commissioned by public authority to examine into the state of the Hebrew text, to restore it, as nearly as possible, to its primitive purity, and to prepare from it a new translation of the Scriptures in our own language, for the public service……Are we not taught to believe, that “all” and every part of “Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is,” according to the intention of the Donor, “profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness?” But can any Scripture be profitable, except it be understood? And if not rightly understood, may not the perversion of it be proportionably dangerous? Or is it nothing, to deprive the people of that edification which they might have received, had a fair and just exposition been submitted instead of a false one? Do we not know the advantage that is commonly taken by the enemies of revelation, of triumphing in objections plausibly raised against the Divine word upon the basis of an unsound text or wrong translation? And though these objections have been refuted over and over again by the most solid argumentation of private religionists, do they not still continue to ring them in the ears of the vulgar and unlettered Christian, as if they were owned and admitted to be unanswerable So that it requisite for the honour of God and His true religion, that these stumbling-blocks should be removed out of the way as soon as possible by an act of solemn and public disavowal. Influenced by these and such like considerations, His Swedish Majesty hath already set the example, by commanding a new revisal and more perfect translation of the Scriptures to be immediately begun in his dominions. And, which may more excite our wonder, we are credibly informed, that a similar work is set on foot in our own language, at the sole expense of a single nobleman of princely spirit, for the use of the English Roman Catholics. And shall the British nation, so deservedly famous throughout the world for its magnificence and public-spirited exertions, be less active and forward than others upon so glorious an occasion? Shall the church of England, ever accustomed to rank with the foremost in learning and piety, be the last to hold forth to her members those sacred writings in their utmost perfection and purity, the free use of which she has ever taught them to consider as the most invaluable of their privileges? Or will our governors, after having in their private capacities contributed so largely above all others to the means of reformation, stop short on a sudden, and refuse to give a public sanction to the application of them?…..” }}

{{ Historical Sketch: “…..The idolatrous apostasy and other criminal enormities of the people of Judah, and the severe judgments which God was prepared to inflict upon them, but not without a distant prospect of future restoration and deliverance, are the principal subject-matters of the following prophecies; excepting only chapter 45, which relates personally to Baruch; and the six succeeding chapters, which respect the fortunes of some particular heathen nations. It is observable, however, that, though many of these prophecies have their particular dates annexed to them, and others may be tolerably well guessed at from certain internal marks and circumstances, there appears a strange disorder in the arrangement, not easy to be accounted for on any principle of regular design. There is, indeed, a variation between the Hebrew copies and those of the LXX version, in the arrangement of those particular prophecies concerning the heathen nations; which in the Hebrew are disposed all together, and, as I conceive, in their proper order of time with respect to each other, at the end of the book; intentionally, as it should seem, not to interrupt the course of Jewish history; whilst the authors of the LXX, have inserted them, with some difference of order among themselves, though, perhaps, no very material one, after verse 13 of chapter 25. But the disorder complained of lies not here; it is common to both the Hebrew and Greek arrangements; and consists in the preposterous jumbling together of the prophecies of the reigns of Jehoiakim and Zedekiah, in the seventeen (17) chapters which follow the twentieth (20th) according to the Hebrew copies; so that without any apparent reason many of the latter reign precede those of the former; and in the same reign the last delivered are put first, and the first last. As such an unnatural disposition could not have been the result of judgment, nor scarcely of inattention, in the compiler of these prophecies; it follows that the original order has most probably, by some accident or other, been disturbed. To restore which, as it may be of some use to the reader, I shall venture to transpose the chapters, where it appears needful, without altering the numerals, and shall assign the motives of every such transposition in the particular place where it is made. The following historical sketch of the times in which Jeremiah lived is given with a view to throw light upon his prophecies in general, and may help to explain sundry circumstances and allusions that are found therein. In the reign of Manasseh every species of impiety and moral corruption had been carried to the highest pitch under the encouragement of royal example. And so thoroughly tainted were the minds of men by this corrupt influence, as to baffle all the endeavours of the good Josiah to bring about a reformation. This well-disposed prince, having, in the eighteenth (18th) year of his reign, accidentally met with the book of the law, was stricken with horror at the danger to which he found himself and his kingdom exposed by the violations of it. He therefore immediately set about removing all the abominations that were in the land, and engaged his subjects to join with him in a solemn covenant to be more dutifully observant of the Divine commands for the time to come. But though the king’s heart was right, and his zeal fervent and sincere, it was all hypocrisy and dissimulation on the part of the people; their hearts were incorrigibly turned the wrong way; and God, who saw clearly the real bent of their dispositions, was not to be diverted from His designs of vengeance. He began with depriving them by a sudden stroke of their excellent prince, under whose government they had enjoyed much happiness and tranquillity, of which they were altogether unworthy. He was slain in a battle with Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, whom Josiah had gone out to oppose on his march against the Babylonian dominions, being himself in alliance with the king of Babylon; and his death, however fatal to his kingdom, was, as to his own particular, a merciful disposition of providence, that his eyes might not see all the evil that was coming upon his land. The twelve (12) first chapters of this book seem to contain all the prophecies delivered in this reign. Josiah being dead, his sons who succeeded him were not of a character to impede or delay the execution of God’s judgments. It is said in general of them all, that they did that which was evil in the sight of Jehovah. The first that mounted the throne was Shallum, or Jehoahaz, the second son, by designation of the people. But his elevation was not of a long continuance. Pharaoh Necho, having defeated the Babylonian forces, and taken Carchemish, on his return deposed Jehoahaz, after a reign of three months, and, putting him in chains, carried him to Egypt, from whence he never returned. In this short reign Jeremiah does not appear to have had any revelation. Pharaoh Necho made use of his victory to reduce all Syria under his subjection; and having imposed a fine upon the kingdom of Judah of one hundred talents of silver and one talent of gold, he received the money from Jehoiakim, the eldest son of Josiah, whom he appointed king in his brother’s stead. Jehoiakim was one of the worst and wickedest of all the kings of Judah; a man totally destitute of all regard for religion, and unjust, rapacious, cruel, and tyrannical in his government. In the beginning of his reign he put Urijah, a prophet of God, to death, for having prophesied, as was his duty to do, of the impending calamities of Judah and Jerusalem. And having either built for himself a new palace, or enlarged the old one that belonged to the kings of Judah, by a strain of authority not less mean than wicked he withheld from the workmen the wages they had earned in building it. In short, he set no bounds to his evil inclinations and passions; and his people, freed from the wholesome discipline which had restrained them in his father’s time, were not behindhand with him in giving way to every sort of licentious extravagance. Three years he reigned without molestation or disturbance from abroad. But towards the latter end of his third (3rd) year, Nebuchadnezzar being associated in the government by his father, Nabopollassar, king of Babylon, was sent into Syria to recover the dismembered provinces of the Babylonish empire. In the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim he beat the Egyptian army at the river Euphrates, retook Carchemish, and, having subdued all the intermediate country, he appeared before Jerusalem, of which he soon made himself master. Jehoiakim was at first loaded with chains, with an intention of sending him to Babylon (* In our author’s note on chapter 22:19, this assertion, and a subsequent one at the close of the next paragraph, are modified and corrected,–J. N.). He was, however, released upon his submission, and again suffered to reign on taking an oath to be a true servant of the king of Babylon. But numbers of his people were sent captives to Babylon, together with several children of the blood royal, and of the first families of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar proposed to breed up in his own court, in order to employ them afterwards in the affairs of his empire. At the same time many of the sacred vessels were taken away, and deposited in the temple of Belus at Babylon; so that from this date the desolation of Judah may fairly be reckoned to have had its beginning. After the king of Babylon’s departure, Jehoiakim continued to pay him homage and tribute for three years. In the mean time both he and his people persisted in their evil courses, undismayed by the mischiefs which had already befallen them, and making light of the threatenings, which God by the ministry of his prophets repeatedly denounced against them. At length Jehoiakim refused to pay any longer the tribute assigned him, and broke out into open revolt. To chastise him, the king of Babylon, not being at leisure to come in person, directed his vassals of the neighbouring provinces, the Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, to join with the Chaldean troops that were on the frontiers, and to ravage the land of Judah. They did so for three years together, and carried off abundance of people from the open country, who were sent to Babylon. Jehoiakim, in some attempt, as it should seem, made by him to check these depredations, was himself slain without the gates of Jerusalem; and his dead body having been dragged along the ground with the greatest ignominy, was suffered to remain without burial in the open fields. The prophecies of this reign are continued on from chapters 13 to 20, inclusively, to which we must add chapters 22,23, 25,26, 35, & 36, together with 45,46,47, & most probably 48, and as far as to verse 34 of chapter 49. Jeconiah, the son of Jehoiakim, a youth of eighteen (18) years old, succeeded his father in the throne, and followed his evil example, as far as the shortness of his reign would admit. From the beginning of it, Jerusalem was closely blocked up by the Babylonian generals. At the end of three months Nebuchadnezzar joined his army in person, and upon his arrival Jeconiah surrendered himself, and his city, at discretion. He was transported directly to Babylon, with his mother, his family, and friends, and with them all the inhabitants of the land of any note or account. The treasures also of the temple, and of the king’s house, and all the golden vessels which Solomon had provided for the temple-service, were at this time carried away. We read of no prophecy that Jeremiah actually delivered in this king’s reign; but the fate of Jeconiah, his being carried into captivity, and continuing an exile till the time of his death, was early foretold in his father’s reign, as may be particularly seen in chapter 22. The last king of Judah was Zedekiah, the youngest son of Josiah, whom Nebuchadnezzar made king, and exacted from him a solemn oath of allegiance and fidelity. He was not perhaps quite so bad a man as his brother Jehoiakim; but his reign was a wicked one, and completed the misfortunes of his country. His subjects seem to have but little respected him, whilst they considered him in no other light than as the lieutenant or viceroy of the king of Babylon, whose sovereignty they detested, and were continually urging him to throw off the yoke. Nor had he been long in possession of the kingdom, before he received ambassadors from the kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyrus, and Sidon, soliciting him to join in a confederacy against the Babylonish power. But he was wise enough at this time to hearken to the prophet Jeremiah’s advice, and to reject their propositions; and for some years continued to send regularly his presents and ambassadors to Babylon, in token of his obedience. But the iniquities of his people were now ripe for punishment, and their idolatries, as the prophet Ezekiel describes them, (chap 8,) were become so enormously profligate, that the stroke of vengeance could no longer be suspended. Zedekiah, therefore, was last prevailed on by evil counsel, and the promise of assistance from Egypt, to break his oath, and renounce his allegiance; by which he drew upon himself the arms of the king of Babylon, who invaded Judah, took most of its cities, and invested Jerusalem. The Egyptians made a show of coming to his relief; and the Chaldean army, informed of their approach, broke off the siege, and advanced to meet them; having first sent off the captives that were in their camp. This produced a signal instance of the double-dealing of the Jews. For in the first moments of terror they had affected to return to God, and in compliance with His law had proclaimed the year of release to their Hebrew bondservants, and let them go free. But on the retreat of the Chaldeans, when they believed the danger was over, and not likely to return, they repented of their good deed, and compelled those whom they had discharged to return to their former servitude. The Egyptians, however, durst not abide the encounter of the enemy, but faced about, and returned to their own land, leaving the people of Judah exposed to the implacable resentment of the king of Babylon. The siege was immediately renewed with vigour, and the city taken according to the circumstantial account which is given of it in chapter 52. The prophecies, which were delivered in the reign of Zedekiah, are contained in chapters 21 & 24, 27 to 34, & 37 to 39, inclusively, together with the six last verses of chapter 49, & chapters 50, & 51, concerning the fall of Babylon. The subsequent transactions of the murder of Gedaliah, of the retreat of the Jews that remained into Egypt, and of their ill-behaviour there, are so particularly related in chapters 40-44, that it were needless here to repeat them. But it may be of use to observe, that, in the second year after the taking of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Tyre; and, in the course of that siege, which lasted thirteen (13) years, he sent part of his forces against the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Philistines, and other neighbouring nations, to desolate and lay waste the country, as the prophets of God had foretold. At the same time Nebuzaradan, the Babylonish general, again entered the land of Judah, and carried off a few miserable gleanings of inhabitants that were found there. In the next year after the taking of Tyre, the king of Babylon invaded Egypt, which he plundered and ravaged from one end to the other; and, on this occasion, all the Jews that had fled into that kingdom for refuge were almost entirely cut off, or made prisoners. Such was the state of affairs in general, till, in the course of time, and precisely at the period which had been foretold, the Babylonian monarchy was itself overturned by the prevailing power of the Medes and Persians; and the Jewish nation once more returned to their own land. It may be expected, that something should be said concerning the discriminating style and genius of this prophet’s writing. But, instead of offering an opinion of my own, which in point of judgment may be questionable, the public in general will perhaps be better gratified, if I present them with the translation of a character already drawn by a very superior hand, to which I doubt not every reader of discernment will heartily subscribe. “Jeremiah,” says this admirable critic [Lowth], “is by no means wanting either in elegance or sublimity; although, generally speaking, inferior to Isaiah in both. Jerome has objected to him a certain rusticity in his diction, of which I must confess I do not discover the smallest trace. His thoughts indeed are somewhat less elevated, and he is commonly more large and diffuse in his sentences; but the reason of this may be, that he is mostly taken up with the gentler passions of grief and pity, for the expression of which he has a peculiar talent. This is most evident in the Lamentations, where those passions altogether predominate; but it is often visible also in his Prophecies, in the former part of the book more especially, which is principally poetical; the middle are for the most part historical; but the last part, consisting of six chapters, is entirely poetical; and contains several oracles distinctly marked, in which this prophet falls very little short of the lofty style of Isaiah. But of the whole book of Jeremiah it is hardly the one half which I look upon as poetical.” (‘Lowth’ ‘De Sacrá Poesi Hebraeorum, Praelec. xxi.)” }}

{{ Jeremiah’s Lamentations: Introduction: “The Lamentations of Jeremiah are very properly distributed into five chapters, each of them containing a distinct elegy, consisting of twenty-two periods, according to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet; although it is in the four first chapters only that the several periods begin, acrostic-wise, with the different letters following each other in alphabetical order. By this contrivance the metre is more precisely marked and ascertained, particularly in the third chapter, where each period contains three verses, which have all the same initial letter. The two first chapters in like manner consist of triplets, excepting only the seventh period of the first, and the nineteenth of the second, which have each a supernumerary line. The fourth chapter resembles the three former in metre, but the periods are only couplets. In the fifth chapter the periods are couplets, but of a considerably shorter measure. It has been surmised by some men of eminence in literature, both among the ancients and moderns, (*Josephus, Jerome, Archbishop Usher, &c.) that these were the funeral lamentations composed by Jeremiah on the death of the good king Josiah, which are mentioned, 2nd Chron. 35:25, and there said to have been perpetuated by an ordinance in Israel. But whatever is become of those lamentations, these cannot possibly be the same; for their whole tenor from beginning to end plainly shows them not to have been composed till after the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, and the depopulation of the country by the transmigration of all its inhabitants; which events are described not at all in the style of prophetic prediction, but alluded to and bewailed as what had been already fully accomplished and brought to pass. And that this was the most ancient opinion held concerning them, appears from the introductory title prefixed to the Greek version of the LXX, and from thence probably transmitted to the Latin Vulgate; but which, not being found in any of the Hebrew copies, I have inserted at the head of the first chapter between crotchets, ([And it came to pass after that Israel had been carried captive and Jerusalem was become desolate, that Jeremiah sat weeping, and lamented with this Lamentation over Jerusalem, and said:]) as being somewhat doubtful of its original authority. The internal evidence is, however, sufficient to ascertain both the date and the occasion of these compositions; nor can we admire too much the full and graceful flow of that pathetic eloquence, in which the author pours forth the effusions of a patriotic heart, and piously weeps over the ruins of his venerable country. “Never,” says an unquestionable judge of these matters, (*’Lowth’ ‘De Sacrá Poesi Hebraeorum’ , Praelect. xxii.) “was there a more rich and elegant variety of beautiful images and adjuncts arranged together within so small a compass, nor more happily chosen and applied.” But it was before observed, that the prophet’s peculiar talent lay in working up and expressing the passions of grief and pity; and unhappily for him, as a man and a citizen, he met with a subject but too well calculated to give his genius its full display.” }}

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Book of Prophet Jeremiah & Lamentations, Translated from Orignal Hebrew, with Commentary, Critical, Philological, & Exegetical. by E. Henderson, D.D. (1851).gs

{{ Introductory Dissertation: “…..It was the fate of Jeremiah after the death of Josiah, to live in the reigns of a succession of kings whose conduct and policy were directly the reverse of that prescribed by the theocracy; and, urged by Divine authority strenuously to oppose their wicked projects, he found himself almost incessantly in collision with them and their counsellors, and exposed to their displeasure. By Zedekiah, who appears to have shown him personal respect, and to have consulted him with reference to the national affairs, he would in all probability have been better treated, had it not been for the influence which the courtiers had over that monarch, in consequence of which our prophet was committed to prison, where he remained till Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar. This monarch ordered him to be liberated, and gave him his option whether to go with him to Babylon or to remain in his native country. Preferring the latter, he strongly protested against the emigration to Egypt of those of his countrymen who had been left in the land, and who were afraid of the vengeance of the king of Babylon on account of the murder of Gedaliah, whom that monarch had appointed governor. Determined to carry their purpose into effect, they compelled Jeremiah and Baruch to accompany them. We now find the prophet delivering predictions at Tahpanhes, a strong boundary-city on the Tanitic or Pelusian branch of the Nile; but with as little success, as it respects any real reformation, as that which had attended his labours previous to the captivity. How long he lived in Egypt we know not, but according to tradition he died in that country, and was buried at Tahpanhes. After the exile the Jews attached the highest importance to his memory, and such was their veneration for him, that they cherished the belief he would rise again from the dead, and make his appearance as a forerunner of the Messiah. See Matt. 16:14. What rendered the half century during which Jeremiah flourished, a period of peculiarly eventful and disastrous character, was the prevalence of internal disorders resulting from the obstinate refusal of the princes to listen to the admonitions of Jehovah, and the alienation of their confidence from him to their Egyptian ally. The Chaldeans, having succeeded to the rule in Asia, threatened Egypt with invasion; in consequence of which the Jews who were situated between the two powers were exposed alternately to the inroads of the one or the other of their hostile armies. The first calamity which befell them was the defeat and death of Josiah, when giving battle to Pharaoh Necho; and when they afterwards sided with the Egyptians against the Chaldeans, they became involved in all the miseries of a war with that power. Though solemnly warned by the prophet of the destructive consequences that would result from their alliance with Egypt, and repeatedly advised to submit to the Chaldean conqueror, they persisted in rejecting the Divine messages to that effect, and brought upon themselves the calamities attendant upon the capture of their city, and their subjugation by a barbarian foe. How these circumstances affected the mind of the prophet is obvious from the whole strain of his predictions. He appears to have been naturally of a mild and timid disposition, easily susceptible of sorrow and melancholy, but intrepid and unintimidated in the public discharge of the duties of his office, denouncing in unsparing language the wicked conduct of persons of all ranks, from the meanest of the subjects up to the monarch on his throne. This combination of characteristic features Havernick justly considers as furnishing a strong proof of the Divine origin of his mission; –the Spirit of prophecy acting powerfully upon his mind, controlling his natural temper, and qualifying him for his hazardous undertaking, without doing violence to his peculiar individuality. The length of time during which he prophesied in Judea was exactly forty years and a half (40 & 1/2), as appears from the following estimate: Years & Months Under: Josiah: (18 yrs); Jehoahaz: (3 mnths); Jehoiakim: (11 yrs); Jechoniah: (3 mnths); Zedekiah: (11 yrs). Total Years = 40 & 6 Months”……

Section III: Arrangement of Prophecies: “The slightest glance at the economy of the book must convince the reader, that it could not have come from the prophet in the condition in which we now find it. Even supposing that he did not pay any particular attention to chronological arrangement, but that his object was simply to furnish a collection of his different prophecies, and some of the principal historical events both of a public character and relating to his own personal circumstances, yet we can scarcely conceive it possible, that there could originally have been such instances of the (husteron proteron, hysteron proteron, [“later earlier”, i.e. the most important messages placed first though given later]) as we now meet with in his composition. According to the history of the Jewish monarchs, furnished by the Books of Kings and Chronicles, the following is the order of time in which the five last kings reigned: Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jechoniah, and Zedekiah. Under all these monarchs Jeremiah flourished; but, as the second and fourth reigned only three months each, no date is taken from the period of their occupancy of the throne. The only reigns which are thus recognised are those of Josiah, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah. Instead, however, of the prophetic discourses being arranged in this order, we find, contrary to expectation, those which were delivered in the reign of Josiah, and which are contained collectively in chapters 1-20, immediately followed by a portion belonging to the time of Zedekiah, chap. 21. Again, instead of continuing what relates to Jehoiakim, and his brothers Jehoahaz and Jechoniah, in chap. 22 & 23, by inserting the section contained in 25, which is specially referred to the fourth (4th) of Jehoiakim, we find in chap. 24:8-10, a prediction belonging to the time of Zedekiah. We have likewise chaps. 27-29, 33 & 34 referred to the reign of Zedekiah, whereas chaps. 35 & 36 relate to transactions which occurred in that of Jehoiakim. There is also the introduction of a passage, chap. 45, dated from the fourth (4th) of Jehoiakim, after the predictions relating to the Jews who had fled to Egypt subsequent to the destruction of Jerusalem. With these exceptions, however, there is a general consecutiveness in the arrangement of the contents of the book. The main part, consisting of chaps. 1-45, is occupied with home affairs, –that portion which takes a brief glance at the fate of foreign nations, chap. 25:12-28, being introduced merely in consequence of what had just been mentioned respecting their treatment of the Jews. The remaining part, chaps. 46-51, is occupied with special predictions relative to the punishment of those foreign nations which had been hostile to the Jewish state, especially Babylon, the most formidable and destructive of all. Chap. 52 was written as an appendix by a later hand, to complete what had been narrated respecting the fate of the city, and of the Jewish exiles.

Section IV: Greek LXX Version: “…..The different arrangement in the order of the chapters, as exhibited in the Hebrew Bible and the copies of the LXX, will be seen on comparing the following columns, which begin where the discrepancy first takes place: Table: Hebrew Massoretic Text & Greek LXX Text:
Hebrew: Chapters: Order: 25:15-38; 26; 27:1-18, 19-22; 28-32; 33:1-14, 14-25; 34-38; 39:1-3, 15-18, 4-14; 40-47; 48:1-45, 46-&c; 49:1-5, 7-22, 23-27, 28-34, 35-39; 50-51.
LXX: Chapters: Order: 32-34; [27:19-22]; 35-40; [33:14-25]; 41-46: [39:4-14]; 47-50; 51:1-31, 31-35; 26; 29:1-7; 31; [48:46-&c.]; 30:1-5; 29:7-22; 30:11-16, 5-11; 25:15-21; 27-28.
On comparing the above Table it will be seen, that not only is there a transposition of the chapters, especially as it respects the prophecies against the foreign nations –these having been removed by the LXX from their position at the end of the book, and placed after chap. 25:13,– but that there is likewise a change in the order in which these prophecies are arranged. This the following Table will show:
Hebrew Text: Egypt. Philistines. Moab. Ammon. Edom. Damascus. Kedar. Elam. Babylon.
LXX Text: Elam. Egypt. Babylon. Philistines. Edom. Ammon. Kedar. Damascus. Moab.” }}

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Book Prophet Jeremiah, Theologically & Homilectically Expounded, by Dr., C. W. Eduard Naegelsbach, Pastor in Bayreuth, Bavaria. Translated, Enlarged, & Edited by Samuel R. Asbury. (1870). Jeremiah’s Lamentations by Naegelsbach Translated, Enlarged, & Edited by Wm. H. Hornblower, D.D.(1870). vol. 12. Com. Holy Script. CDH, etc. J.P. Lange & P. Schaff. CHS. (1870. 1878). gs.

{{ Preface by General Editor (Lange’s-Schaff’s Commentary): “Jeremiah was the most prominent personage in a period of deepest distress and humiliation of the Jewish theocracy. He witnessed one by one the departure of all prospects of a reformation and deliverance from impending national ruin. Profoundly sympathizing with the calamities of his people and country, he is emphatically the prophet of sorrow and affliction. The first quotation from him in the New Testament is “a voice of lamentation and weeping and great mourning” (Mat. 2:17,18). In his holy grief over Jerusalem and his bitter persecutions he resembles the life of Christ. Should he, instead of David, be the author of the 22nd Psalm, as ‘Hitzig’ plausibly conjectures, the resemblance would even be more striking; but the superscription is against it. Standing alone in a hostile world, fearless and immovable, he delivered for forty years his mournful warnings and searching rebukes, dashed the false hopes of his deluded people to the ground, counselled submission instead of resistance, denounced the unfaithful priests and false prophets, and thus brought upon himself the charge of treachery and desertion; yet in the midst of gloom and darkness be held fast to trust in Jehovah, and in the stormy sunset of prophecy he beheld the dawn of a brighter day of a new covenant of the gospel written on the heart (31:31). He is therefore the prophet of the dispensation of the Spirit (Heb. 8:13; 10:16,17). The character and temper of Jeremiah is reflected in his strongly subjective, tender, affecting, elegiac style, which combines the truth of history with the deepest pathos of poetry. It is the language of holy grief and sorrow. Even his prose is “more poetical than poetry, because of its own exceeding tragical simplicity.” Jeremiah has proved a sympathizing companion and comforter in seasons of individual suffering and national calamity from the first destruction of Jerusalem down to the siege of Paris in our own day.”……
Section 1. Historical Background: Jeremiah’s Prophet Labors: …..”If now we survey at a glance the whole character of the historical position in which Jeremiah was placed, we see in him the herald of the first precursory catastrophe of the external theocracy. At the same time he had also a mission to Babylon, the power which was appointed, after Egypt and Assyria, to engulf the theocracy, and thus in a certain sense to be the first universal monarchy. He was first to prepare the way for the divine mission of this power as the instrument of judgment on the theocracy, and then to announce its appointed judgment, after a brief respite of seventy years, and the redemption of the theocracy. This he could do only in the form of that perspective fore-shortening, which is peculiar to prophetic pictures of the future, and which has to be rectified by the fulfilment. Thus we may say that Jeremiah stands at that epoch in universal history, at which the first precursory judgment is inflicted by worldly power on the kingdom of God, and here he has to announce to both judgment and redemption; to the kingdom of God first judgment and afterwards redemption, to the world first victory and glory, but afterwards judgment (chaps. 50, 51).”…..
Section 3. Literary Character: …..”The transitions are frequently abrupt, but there is still a logical progression, and the repetitions are a necessary feature of the tableauesque style. There is, however, another kind of repetition very frequent in Jeremiah: –he not only quotes himself very often (there is a table of these self-quotations in my work, S. 128, ‘etc’.), but he likes also to introduce the sayings of others. Jeremiah is especially at home in the Pentateuch, [& Job,] and most of all in Deuteronomy. It is on account of this reproduction of the thoughts of others that he has been reproached with a want of originality. But this is as true as that he was deficient in poetry. In power he is certainly not equal to Isaiah. But he is not wanting in originality, for who could say that he has himself produced nothing or only an insignificant amount? To lose himself in his predecessors is necessary even for the most original author. As to a deficiency in poetry I point to ‘Umbreit’, who says: “The most spiritual and therefore the greatest poet of the desert and of suffering is certainly Jeremiah. But we have maintained yet more than this, having boldly asserted that of all the prophets his genius is the most poetical.” I fully subscribe to this judgment. For assuredly universal sympathy and deep and pure emotion are the qualities of a poet, and we undoubtedly find these elements of poetic inspiration, in the highest degree, in the finely-strung nature of Jeremiah. The circumstances of his life caused his emo¬tions to be predominantly sad, hence in the whole range of human composition there is scarcely a poetical expression of sorrow so thrilling as that of this prophet (viii. 23, ‘Eng. Bib’. ix. 1): “O that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people.” ‘Umbreit’ remarks that these words form the portrait of the prophet, and ‘Bendemann’, in painting his celebrated picture, seems really to have had this passage especially in view.”…..
Section 4. Book of Prophet: …..”Thus it is evident, as it seems to me, that the present form and arrangement are not those of Jeremiah, for he would certainly have given the whole a title corresponding to its contents. Some other circumstances, to be mentioned hereafter, also favor this view.
2. As to the arrangement or plan of the book, as we have it, it has been accused of endless confusion, (*Even ‘Luther’ (‘Preface’ to the prophet Jeremiah) says: “We often find some of the first part in the followlng chapter, which happened before that in the previous chapter, which looks as though Jeremiah did not arrange these books himself, but that they were composed piecemeal from his discourses , and compiled in a book. We must not trouble ourselves about the order, or allow the want or order to hinder us.”) and the most various theories have been broached to account for this confusion. Compare, to name only the most eminent, (‘Eichhorn, Bertholdt, Movers, Hitzig, Ewald, Umbreit, Haevernick, Keil, Schmeider, Staehelin, & Neumann’). In my opinion, the case is not so bad as represented, but a reasonable arrangement will at once present itself, if we only take the following points into consideration. I. In general, the principle of chronological order is followed, but admitting, in some cases, a certain order of subjects, which is sometimes suggested by external occasions (comp. ch. 21:1-7). 2. With respect to the chronological order in particular, we have a safe guide in the fact that before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, viz., before the battle of Carchemish and Nebuchadnezzar’s accession to the throne, Jeremiah never mentions the latter or the Chaldeans, while after this time he presents them constantly in all his discourses as appointed by God to be the instrument of His judgments on Israel and the nations. Until shortly before the battle of Carchemish, Assyria was at war with the Medes and Babylonians, and it was undecided which of the three would obtain the supremacy. After the fall of Nineveh and the defeat of Pharaoh Necho, the star of Nebuchadnezzar rose above the horizon like an all-prevailing sun. Jeremiah now knew definitely that the people coming from the North (1:13, ‘etc’.) were the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar, and he could no longer speak to the people without counselling submission as the only means of safety. I think, then, that I may lay down this canon distinctly, that all parts of the book in which the threatening enemies are spoken of generally, without mention of Nebuchadnezzar or the Chaldeans, belong to the period before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, viz., before the time represented in ch. 25 as that of Jeremiah’s first acquaintance with them; while all the portions in which Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans are named belong to the subsequent period; so that a passage which mentions the Chaldeans and is yet dated in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim (ch. 27), may be safely regarded as bearing a false superscription, as likewise one that is dated in the reign of Zedekiah, and does not mention the Chaldeans (49:34 sqq.). In the first place, it is quite clear that our Hebrew recension, omitting chapters 1 and 52 as introduction and conclusion, falls into two principal divisions: I. The portions relating to the theocracy (ch. 2-45). 2. The prophecies against the nations (ch. 46-51). Chapter 14, the promise given to the writer of the book, the faithful Baruch, is to be regarded (as it is by ‘Keil’) as an appendix to the first division. To attach this chapter to the second division, as ‘Haevernick’ does, is entirely unsuitable. The first division may evidently be divided again into two subdivisions, the collection of discourses, with appendices, ch. 2-35, and the historical portions, ch. 36-44. In speaking of a collection of discourses, it should be remarked that, according to the intention of the arranger of the book, we must not always understand by a discourse one which forms a rhetorical unit, but also a complexus of rhetorical and historical passages, if in its fundamental thought, its form or its chronology, it presents a connected whole. In this sense our collection contains eleven (11) (or ten (10)) discourses, the beginning of each of which is designated by a superscription (comp. 3:6; 7:1; 11:1, ‘etc’.). The first two pertain to the reign of Josiah (ch. 2 & 3-6:3). It is natural that in the earliest period the proportionally smallest amount of matter should be committed to writing, so that in the passages mentioned, especially in ch. 2, only the quintessence of the discourses of the earliest period is given. The discourse pertains to the reign of Jehoiakim (ch. 7-10). These two, ch. 3-6 & ch. 7-10, are distinguished from the rest by their length, and may therefore, with ch. 25, which is inferior in length, but far superior in importance, be designated as the principal discourses. Ch. 11-13, which also pertain to the reign of Jehoiakim, have a common title, but only ch. 11 & 12 form a rhetorical whole. For ch. 13 (4th) is entirely independent, though of the same date with the preceding, and on account of its brevity, added as an appendix. The fifth (5th) discourse, though somewhat inferior to the second and third, is still one of the most important. It belongs to the period before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim. The passage 17:19-27 is related to the fifth discourse as ch. 13 to the fourth (4th). I regret that by an oversight I have not designated them in the same way in the text. The seventh (7th) discourse is an account of two symbolical occurrences, to which is appended that of a personal experience and the outburst of feeling thus occasioned. Although these occurrences belong to different periods, before and after the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, they are brought together because both symbols are derived from pottery and on account of the unity of the subjects. All is here brought into connection which the prophet spoke at different times against the false shepherds of the people (kings and prophets). The opening passage (21:1-7) though in general, as ‘oratio contra regem’, not altogether unsuitable for this place, is doubtless placed here chiefly on account of the name Pashur, which it has in common with the preceding. The transitional words (21:11-14) seem also to be a fragment which is subjoined here not altogether appropriately. But in what follows we have a well-ordered series of denunciations against the evil kings of Judah. The first, in which no name is mentioned, seems to stand first as a colleotive admonition, though the king addressed in ver. 2 can be no other than Jeboiakim (22:1-9). The second is a prophecy relating to the person of Jehoahaz. It is of earlier date than that which precedes it, and is evidently an interpolation (22:10-12). The third is directed against Jeboiakim by name (22:13-23). The fourth relates to Jeboiachin (22:24-30). As a foil to these dark pictures of the kings of the present, the prophet, by an antithes reminding us of ch. 3, gives us a bright picture of the King of the Messianic future (23:1-8). The second part of the main discourse (23:9-40) is an earnest rebuke of the false prophets. The conclusion is formed by ch. 24, a vision which the prophet had in the reign of Zedekiah, and which is added here evidently in order that the fourth bad king Jeremiah had lived to see might not fail to receive his appropriate denunciation. The ninth discourse is that highly important one which Jeremiah pronounced in the fourth year of Jeboiakim after the great catastrophe which made an epoch in the prophet’s ministry, the battle of Carchemish and the succession of Nebuchadnezzar. To this are attached a series of three historical appendices, of which the first falls before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, the second in the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah, the third somewhat earlier than the preceding. All three appendices, however, relate to the conflict of the ‘true’ prophet (it should be noted, however, that Jeremiah is called (hanNabia’) for the first time in 25:2) with the false prophets. Here also is a pre-arranged antithesis. Ch. 26 standing before ch.27 & 28 has a clear chronological basis, while ch. 29, which in time is somewhat earlier than ch. 27 & 28 coming after them, has a topical basis, since thus the prophet’s conflict with the false prophets at home is first shown, and then his conflict with those at a distance. The tenth passage occupies an independent (sepher), ‘viz.’ the book of consolation, which consists of two discourses, with a double appendix. Ch. 30 & 31, originally written specially, and not as a part of the first writing, ch. 36:2-10, form a rhetorical unit, certainly contemporary with ch. 3-6, and therefore pertaining to the reign of Josiah. The second consolatory discourse consists of two separate passages, which, however, are most closely connected. The first relates to the purchase of a field which, at the command of the Lord, Jeremiah made while confined in the court of the prison, at the time of his greatest affliction. The second is connected with the demolition of many houses in Jerusalem for defensive purposes. On this double, gloomy background the prophet presents the most glorious Messianic salvation. It is not, as I have already said, a connected discourse; in ch. 32 we have first the account of the purchase of land, then the prayer expressing the prophet’s astonishment, then the Lord’s consolatory promises. Ch. 33 is, however, from beginning to end, a connected prophetic discourse.
This book of consolation is followed in chaps. 34 & 35 by a double appendix, the second half of which (34:8-35:19) itself consists of two independent parts. The short passage 34:1-7 is only a more exact account of the occurrence narrated in 32:1-5, in consequence of which Jeremiah was confined in the court of the prison, and therefore refers only to the contents of chaps. 32 & 33. The two facts however which are related in 34:8-22, & 35:1-19, are to be regarded as an appendix to the whole collection. For they show by a striking example, the accomplished but immediately revoked emancipation of the Hebrew slaves, how entirely indisposed the people of Israel were to obey the commands of their God, while a contrast to this shameful disobedience is given in the example of affecting obedience forded by the Rechabites to the commend of their earthly progenitor. We thus see that the arrangement is by no means without plan, and may in general have been made by the prophet himself. Only the mere juxtaposition of 21:1-7 for the sake of the name Pashur, and the inser¬tion of the heterogeneous passage 21:11-14 in this place, seem to betray a different hand. With chap 36 begins the second subdivision of the first main division. Historical passages follow each other in chronological order, which have for their subject partly personal experiences of the prophet, and partly the history of the fatal catastrophe of the theocracy in general. There is no difficulty here. Chap. 14, as already remarked, is an appendix to the first main division. The second part contains the prophecies against foreign nations in an order to which there is nothing to object (46-51). Chap. 52 finally forms the conclusion, which is not from the prophet himself.” }}

{ The following Table may serve to facilitate a review: (Chapters & Verses):
I: Introduction: (1). Items: 2.
II. 1st Division: (2-44): Passages Relating to Theocracy & Appendix Chap. 45.

A. 1st SubDivision: Collection of Discourses, chaps. 2-33. & Appendices, Chaps, 34 & 35.
1. 1st Discourse, (2). Items: 5.
2. 2nd Discourse, (3-6). 1st Division (3-4): Items: 4. 2nd Division (5-6): I: Items: 4. II: Items: 6.
3. 3rd Discourse, (7-10). I: 1st Charge: (7-8:8). Items: 6. II: 2nd Charge: (8:4-28). Items: 3. III: 3rd Charge (9:1-21): Items: 3. IV: Conclusion: (9:22-25; 10:17-25). Items: 3. 4. 4th Discourse, (11-12 & Appendix, 13). Items: 7. Chapter 13: Items:
5. 5th Discourse, (14-17:18). 1st Main Division (14:1-15:9). Items: 5. 2nd Main Divison (15:10-16:9). Items: 3. 3rd Main Division (16:10-17:4). Items: Conclusion (17:5-18). Items: 2.
6. 6th Discourse, (17:19-27).
7. 7th Discourse, (18-20). Symbols: Pottery: 1st Symbol: Clay & Potter (18). Items: 3. 2nd Symbol: Broken Vessel (19-20). Items: 3.
8. 8th Discourse, (21-24). Against Wicked Shepherds. I: Preface (21). Items: 2. II: Main Discourse (22-23): Against Wicked Kings & Prophets. Items: 2. III: Appendix (24): Postscript to 22:18-30: 4th King.
9. 9th Discourse, (25 & 3 Appendices, 26-29). A. Central Prophecy (25): Items 3. B. 3 Historical Apendices (26-29): Items: 2.
10. Book of Consolation:
(A). 10th Discourse, (30 & 31). I: Theme (30:1-8) . II: Delverance of Entire Israel (30:4-22). III: Special Distribution of Salvation to 2 Halves of Nation (31:1-26). (a) Ephraim’s Share (31:1-22). Items: 3. (b) Share of Judah (31:23-26). IV: Entire Renovation (31:27-30, 31-40). Items: 2.
(B). 11th Discourse, (32 & 33. & Appendix, 34:1-7). I: Chapters 32. Items: 3. II: Chapters 33. Items: 6.
11. 11th Discourse (32-33). Historical Appendix to 32:1-5 (34:1-7): Collection: Disobedience of Israel Offset by Obedience of Rechabites, (34:8-35:19).
A. Disobedience of Israelites: Servants Freed & Rebound (34:8-22).
B. Counterpart to Disobedience of Israelites: Obedience of Rechabites (35). Items: 2.

B. 2nd SubDivision: Historical Presentation of Most Important Events from 4th Year of Jehoiakim to Close of Prophet’s Ministry, (36-44). (B.C. 605-570): Chapters 36-45.
(A) Events Before Fall & Capture of Jerusalem, (36-38).
I: Writing Out Prophecies: 4th Year of Jehoiakim (36). Items: 4.
II: Events in 10th & 11th Years of Zedekiah (37-38).
(B) Events After Fall & Capture of Jerusalem, (39-44). Items: 10.
I: Appendix to First Division, (45). Promise made to Baruch.
II. 2nd Divison: (46-51): Prophecies Against Foreign Nations: Against:
1. Egypt I, (46:2-12).
2. Egypt II, (46:13-26, & Appendix, 46:27-28).
3. Philistines, (47).
4. Moab, (48).
5. Ammon, (49:1-6).
6. Edom, (49:7-22).
7. Damascus, (49:23-27).
8. Arabians, (49:28-33).
9. Elam, (49:34-39).
10. Babylon, (50 & 51). Items: 20.

IV. Conclusion: (52). Historical Appendix: Brief Survey: Events from Beginning of Zedekiah’s Reign to Jehoiachim’s Death. Items: 5. }

{{ Lamentations: Introduction: Sect. 1: Name, Place in Canon, Liturgical Use: “In Hebrew MSS. and editions this book is called (’ekah) i.e., ‘How!’ from the first word in it (as Proverbs and the Books of the Pentateuch are designated by their initial words), which word also begins chs. 2 & 4, and thus appears to be a characteristic of the Book. The Rabbins called it (qinoth), i.e., ‘neniae’, dirges, ‘elegiae’, elegies, lamentations. (Qinah) is found in the Old Testament….. The Septuagint always translates this word (thrënos, thrënoi) whence are derived the Latin names ‘Threni, Lamentationes, Lamenta’. [*Syriac, Arabic & later versions bear similar titles.]……Sect. 2: Contents & Structure: 1. The general subject of the Lamentations is the destruction of Judah and Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. That this book is a ‘prophecy’ of the destruction of Jerusalem, as Tremellius and otbers have asserted (see ‘Forster’, ‘Comm. in Thr.’, p. 5), is an utterly groundless opinion [?], which we mention only for curiosity’s sake. Similar Songs of lamentation, having for their subject the death of individual persons, or political catastrophes, occur in the Old Testament. See the citations in §1, 1. But no lamentation of equal length and so artistically constructed is now extant. The peculiar structure which is common to all these songs shows that they all have one general subject. In Song I, the poet himself is the first speaker, 1:1-11b, whilst he introduces to us Zion [Jerusalem] as an ideaI person. He pictures here the sad consequences of the destruction, whilst he indicates the causes of the same (1:8). In the second half of the chapter (1:11-22) the personified Jerusalem herself speaks, portraying her misfortunes under manifold images, explaining their causes and praying for help and vengeance. In Song II, in the first part of it, the poet himself speaks, (a) ascribing the destruction to the agency of the Lord (2:1-9), (b) depicting the consequences of the destruction (2:10-12), (c) addressing the opinion as to the causes of the catastrophe, and exhorting her to prayer (2:13-19). To this exhortation Zion, here represented by the wall of Jerusalem [Zion], responds in a prayer breathing the deepest and acutest sorrow (2:20-22). In Song III, which evidently forms the climax of the whole, the poet introduces as speaking ‘that man’, who in those troublous times had suffered more than all others, and consequently had attained, as it were, to the very summit of the common calamity, for he had suffered not only from the enemy what was common to all, but also from his own people and associates, a thing unheard of save in this particular instance. This sufferer was the Prophet Jeremiah. He does not name him, it is true, and it is evident that he has in his eye, not the person of the prophet merely, but rather the servant of the Lord as a representative of the (Israël pneumaticos) spiritual Israel, yet all the particular features of this Lamentation are borrowed from the history of that prophet (3:1-18). This section ends with a cry of despair (3:18). But immediately the poet lets a morning twilight, as it were, succeed this night of despair, (3:19, 21), which through the utterances of united believing Israel soon expands into daylight, beaming with the most radiant consolation (3:22-38). In what follows successively, the evening twilight gathers, and then the poem sweeps back into such a night of grief and mourning, that Israel begins to confess his sins (3:39-42), but then gives vent to lamentations on account of those sins (3:43-47), until finally, in the last and third part, Jeremiah again takes up the word in order to weep out his grief over Zion’s misery and sins, (those sins which were likewise the source of his own misfortunes), and to implore the Lord, in beseeching prayer, for protection and for righteous avengement upon his enemies (3:48-66). In Song IV, the poem loses more and more of its ideaI character. In the beginning indeed we find an ideal and well sustained description of Israel, as if it were the nobility of the nations, and then, further, of the princes of Israel, as the noblest among the noble , and then, appearing in sharper relief by standing out on such a background, a delineation of the sufferings endured by those nobles (4:1-11); but in the second half of the chapter the poem becomes more prosaic: the chief guilt is imputed to the prophets and the priests, whose well-deserved punishment is then portrayed in the gloomiest colors (4:12-16). Then follows a description, graphic in the highest degree in spite of its brevity, of the events occurring from the extinction of the last gleams of the rays of hope kindled by the Egyptians, till the imprisonment of the king (4:17-20). The conclusion is a short address to Edom, which is ironically congratulated at the downfall of Jerusalem, while, at the same time, the punishment of its malicious joy is foretold (4:21, 22). In Song V, the style is almost entirely prosaic. For, with the exception of 5:16a no poeti¬cal expression is found in the whole chapter, rather only a concrete graphic picture of the naked reality. The alphabetical acrostic is entirely wanting in this chapter. The whole chapter is intended as a prayer; for it begins and end with words of petition (5:1, 19-22). What lies between is only a narration of the principal afflictions, which had befallen those who had been carried to Babylon and those who had fled to exile in Egypt (5:2-18). The concluding prayer expresses the hope that the Lord, who cannot Himself change, nor altogether reject His people, will bring them back again to Himself and to their ancient splendor (5:19-22).
2. As regards its ‘external structure’, the composition of this book, both as a whole and in its several parts, is so artistic, that anything like it can hardly be found in any other book of Holy Scripture. First of all it is significant, that there are five Songs. For the uneven number has this advantage, that the middle part of the whole Poem is represented by a whole number, and does not fall between two numbers, as it would in case there were an even number of songs [i.e., the middle part of the whole poem is represented by one Song, and is not composed of parts of two songs]. By this means the prominence of the middle Song and, in connection with that, an ascent and a descent, a ‘crescendo’ and ‘decrescendo’ movement, with a clearly marked climax, is made possible. Thus it is manifest that the third chapter constitutes the climax. And this is truly and really so in two respects, both as to matter and form. As to the first, we have already shown that the first two chapters bear an ideal and highly poetical character. They constitute only the front-steps to the third chapter, which, externally, as the middle of the five songs and by its internal character, conducts us into the very middle of the night into which Israel sank, and then of the day which rose over Israel. For are not the frightful sorrows which the Prophet Jeremiah, the servant of God and representative of the spiritual Israel, had endured, and which rose at last to that terrible exclamation –’My strength and my hope is perished from Jehovah’ (3:18), the expressions of the highest outward and inward temptation which can befall a true servant of the Lord’? Here it should be observed that in 3:1-17, there is no reference to God except as the author of those sorrows which are represented, on that account, as Divine temptations; while the name of God is not even mentioned till at the end of 3:18, where, as the last word, with startling vehemence, the name “Jehovah” is pronounced. Here then we see the servant of the Lord, in the deepest night of his misery, on the brink of despair. But where exigency is greatest, help is nearest. The poet could lay up in his heart everything that be had against God, but he could not shut God Himself out of the heart. On the contrary it was proved, that after he had given the fullest expression to what he had in his heart against God, God Himself was deeply rooted therein. The night is succeeded by the dawn of morning, as represented in 3:19-21. With 3:22, breaks the full day. This ushers in with full effulgence the light of Heavenly consolation. Suffering now is seen to be the proof of God’s love. In this love, that suffering finds its explanation, its limit, and its remedy. As the pyramid of Mont Blanc, seen at sunset from Chamouny, its summit gleaming with supernal splendors, whilst below, the mountain has already disappeared wrapped in deepest darkness (See Gothe’s ‘Letters from Switzerland’, Nov. 4. 1779; Aug. 12, 1840), so, out of the profound night of despair and misery, this middle part of the third song and of the whole book towers upward, radiant with light. From this culmination point, the poet again sets out upon his downward track. Evening twilight follows the bright day (3:40-42) and passes into a night dark with misery (vers. 43-47), From the beginning of the section, so full of hope and enrouragement (3:22), the poet speaks in the plural number, as if he would make it most emphatically apparent, that this was common property. He continues to speak in the plural number till after the beginning of the third and last part of the Song, when the night has begun again. Then once more (3:48), the poet speaks in the singular number. But he no longer speaks of those highest temptation , which were the subject of 3:1-18, but of those inferior ones, which men inflict upon us. He treats of them also much more briefly; and from 3:55 to the end of the chapter, finds relief in a prayer for help and avengement. –It is evident that this chapter consists of three parts. The first part includes 3:1-21; the second, 3:22-42; the third, 3:43-66. The second part represents the culmination point of the whole book. It constitutes the point of separation between the ‘crescendo’ and ‘decrescendo’ movement. The latter continues in chapter fourth, in which the ideal and poetical sensibly subside, until at last in chapter fifth the style changes into plain prose. –With this artistic arrangement of the matter, the external form or structure corresponds. Every one of the five Songs has 22 verses, according to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, only in the third Song every verse is divided into three members, hence it has 66 (masoretic) verses. The first four Songs are acrostics. In the first two Songs the verses consist of three distiches. It has been usual to recognize four distiches in 1:7 & 2:9, but improperly: for there is no fixed measure for the length of each member of the distich; and there are, therefore, in the places referred to, only three distiches, some lines of which are composed of a greater number of syllables than the others have. The third chapter shows by its external dress that it is the middle and climax of the whole. The three distiches of each verse (corresponding to three Masoretic verses successively) begin with the same alphabetical letter. The middle part, namely 3:19-42, is still further distinguished, as the dome crowning the whole building, as follows: (1). Every verse-triad constitutes a finished whole with respect to sense [is one complete sentence]. (2). In 3:25-39, each distich begins with the same word, or with a similar word (see Intr. to chap. 3). (3). While in 3:1-18, the name of God is mentioned only once, and then with peculiar emphasis at the end of 3:18, in 3:19-42 we read the names of God repeatedly, and so arranged that in 3:22, 24,25,26 we have (Yehowah), in 3:31, 36,37 (’Adonai) alternating with (‘Elyon) in 3:35, 38, in 3:40 again (Yehowah) and at last in 3:41 (’El baShamaim). Observe here, particularly, that (‘Elyon) occurs in the Lamentations only in the two places named above, and (’Adonai) occurs only once, in the beginning of the ‘decrescendo’ movement, 3:58, whilst in chapter first it is used three times, 1:14, 15 (twice), and in chapter second seven times, 2:1,2, 5, 7, 18,19,20. Chapter fourth is indeed an acrostic, but the decline of the poetical afflatus is indicated externally by the verses being composed of only two distiches. The solemn names of God (’Adonai) and (’Elyon) occur no more, on the other hand (Yehowah) occurs three times, 4:11, 16, 20. The fifth chapter indicates its relation to the four preceding ones only by the number of verses (22). The acrostic dress entirely disappears. The style has become prose. Yet the name of God (Yehowah) is found three times in the words of prayer, 5:1, 19, 21.
We have here only one other matter to remark upon, the question why in chapters 2, 3 & 4 (P, Peh, 17th letter) is placed before (‘, ‘Ayin, 16th let.). This is usually explained as a copyist’s mistake. In fact some Codd. in ‘Kenicott’ and ‘De Rossi’ have these verses in their usual places. The Peschito also gives these verses in their proper alphabetical order. The Septuagint places the letters in their proper order in the margin, but leaves the verses themselves to follow each other in the order of the original. But this supposition of an error of transcriber is refuted, (1) by the fact that it is repeated three times, (2) by the impossibility of supposing that in chap. 3 three verses could have been transposed by mistake, (3) by the interruption of the sense which would result in chapters 3 & 4 [if the present order were changed]. If some Codd. and Versions have the letters in their right order, this is evidence of revision and correction. Others (as ‘Riegler’) explain this irregularity as merely arbitrary, others again (‘Berthholdt’) as the result of forgetfulness on the part of the author. ‘Grotius’ holds the singular opinion that the order in chapters 2, 3, 4 may be that of the Chaldaic alphabet, and therefore that Jeremiah in chap. 1 “speaks as a Hebrew, in the following chapters as a subject of the Chaldeans.” ‘Thenius’ would explain the alphabetical difference by a diversity of authors, but the unity of the plan, already proved above, and the unity of the language used, which will be proved in § 3 (to which also belongs the threefold (’Ekah, [How]) at the beginning of chaps. 2, 3, 4) contradict this most decidedly. ‘Ewald’ is (even still in his Second Edition, p. 326) of the opinion that the (‘Ayin) in chapter 1 “might have been transferred to its own place by later hands.” But this would be a manifest interruption of the connection: for 1:16 is directly connected in the closest manner with 1:15 by (‘al ken) ‘therefore’, [‘al-’elleh,’for these things’?], whilst 1:18 [17 ?] begins a new thought. The liberty which the older poets especially allowed themselves in pursuing the alphabetical order (see Ps. 9, 10, 25, 37, 145, and ‘Keil’ in ‘Haevernick’s’ ‘Introduction to Old Testament’, III., p. 50) are manifold [See ‘Barnes’ ‘Introduction to Job’, pp. 44, 45]. Whether they were influenced in this by a then prevailing diversity of method in respect to the succession of the letters, is not yet by any means sufficiently ascertained, but is nevertheless the most likely explanation of that liberty. See ‘Delitzsch’ on Ps. 145, p. 769.” }}

{ Jeremiah’s Lamentations: outline & Analysis: Chapters: Songs:
I: Lamentation of Zion’s Daughters: Ruin of Jerusalem & Judah: (Destruction of City, Nation & Temple):
1: (1:1-11, Aleph-Kaph): Description: City’s Wretched Condition. Poet Speaks as City (Zion, Jerusalem).
2: (12-22, Lamed-Tau): Lamentation over Condition. Zion’s Sorrows, Cries, Sins, Judgment, Calamity, etc.
II: Lamentation of Zion’s Destruction: Jehovah’s Destruction on Zion. Extent. Land, People, Temple, etc.
1: (2:1-10, Aleph-Yod): Lord’s Judgment Inflicted. All Israel & Judah. Enemy. Kings, Princes, Prophets, etc.
2: (2:11-22, Kaph-Tau): Zion Lament’s Calamity. Jeremiah’s & Israel’s Sufferings & Sorrows. Divine Doom.
III: Middle Song: Poem’s Climax: Israel’s Brighter Day of Consolation Contrasted with Gloomy Night of Sorrow Experienced by God’s Servant Jeremiah.
1: (3:1-18, Alephs-Waus (3×6=18)): Poet’s Sufferings, Sorrows, Complaints, Wounds, Assaults, Insults, etc.
2: (3:19-42, Zains-Nuns (3×8=24)): Poet’s Transition, Comfort, Prayers, Hope, Faith, Love, etc.
3: (3:43-66, Ayin-Tau (3×5=15; Peh omitted)): Poets as Israel: God’s Wrath, Calamity, Prayer, Hope, etc.
IV: Zion’s Guilt & Punishment: Described by Eye-Witness: Sufferings: All Peoples, Grades, Ranks, etc.
1: (4:1-6, Aleph-Wau): Elegy: City of Jerusalem, Zion & Temple, Prophets & Israel, & All Peoples, etc.
2: (4:7-11, Zain-Kaph): Princes of Judah, Rape of Zion, National Devastation, Divine Punishment, etc.
3: (4:12-16, Lamed-Peh): Causes of Catastrophe, Sins of Peoples, Prophets, Priests, Princes, etc.
4: (4:17-22, Ayin-Tau): Final National Catastrophe & Egypt & Chaldea & Edom, etc.
V: Distress & Hope of Prisoners & Fugitives: (Expressed in Prayer & Pitiful Complaint to God, etc.: Non-Alphabetical (5:1-22): Post-Captivity Condition of Jerusalem: Poet as Zion, Lord Entreated, Sorrows & Tragedy, Total Devastation, Anquish, Starvation, Poverty, Slavery, Genocide, Mourning, Prayers, Exile, etc. }

(4)
Biblical Commentary on Old Testament, Edited by C. F. Keil, D.D. & F. Delitzsch, D.D., Professors of Theology. Prophetical Books. Greater Prophets. Jeremiah, Prophcies & Lamentations. v1-2. v1, Keil. Translated from German by David Patrick, (1889). v2, Keil. Translated by James Kennedy, (1874). CFTL. TTC. (1889). as.

Book of Jeremiah’s Prophecies: Outline & Analysis & Exposition: (Chapters & Verses):
(1): Heading: Call & Consecration of Jeremiah to be Prophet.
I. General Admonitions & Reproofs: Time of Josiah. (2-22)
(2:1-3:5): Lord’s Love & Faithfulness & Israel’s Disloyalty & Idolatry.
(3:6-6:30): Rejection of Impenitent Israel.
(7-10): Vanity of Trust in Temple & Sacrificial Service, & Way to Safety & Life.
(11-13): Judah’s Faithlessness to Covenant Obligations, & its Consequences.
(14-17): Word concerning Droughts.
(18-20): Figures of Potter’s Clay & of Earthen Pitcher.

II. Special Predictions of Judgment: Accomplished by Chaldeans, & of Messianic Salvation. (21-33)
A. Predictions of Judgment on Judah & Nations. (21-29)
(21-24): Shepherds & Leaders of People.
(25): Judgment on Judah & All Nations.
(26): Accusation & Acquittal of Jeremiah: his Prophesying Threatenings. Prophet Urijah Put to Death.
(27-29): Babylon’s Yoke upon Judah & Neighbouring Peoples.
B. Announcement of Deliverance for All Israel. (30-33)
(30-31): Israel’s Deliverance & Glorious Future Condition.
(32): Purchase of Field as Symbol: Restoration of Judah After Exile.
(33): Renewed Promise of Restoration & Glorious Condition of People of God.

III. Prophet’s Labour & Suffering Before & After Jerusalem’s Conquest & Destruction. (24-45)
A. Prophecies Delivered under Zedekiah, & Events of Jehoiakim’s Time. (34-36)
(34): Concerning Zedekiah & Emancipation of Men- & Maid-servants.
(35): Example of Rechabites.
(36): Jeremiah’s Discourses are Written Down, & Read in Temple.
B. Jeremiah’s Experiences & Utterances During Siege & Capture of Jerusalem. (37-39)
(37): Declaration Regarding Issue of Siege; Imprisonment of Jeremiah & Conversation with King.
(38): Jeremiah in Miry Pit. Last Interview with King.
(39): Capture of Jerusalem; Fate of Zedekiah & Jeremiah. Consolatory Message to Ebedmelech.
C. Jeremiah’s Predictions & Experiences after Destruction of Jerusalem. (40-45)
(40-41): Liberation of Jeremiah. Murder of Gedaliah by Ishmael, & its Results.
(42): Word of God concerning Flight to Egypt.
(43): Flight to Egypt: Conquest of Egypt predicted.
(44): Warning Against Idolatry, & Intimation of its Punishment.
(45): Promise Addressed to Baruch.

IV. Prophecies Directed Against Foreign Nations. (46-51)
(46): On Egypt.
(47): Concerning Philistines.
(48): Concerning Moab.
(49): Concerning Ammon, Edom, Damascus, Kedar, Hazor, Elam.
(50-51): Against Babylon.

V. Appendix:
(52): Historical Account of Capture & Destruction of Jerusalem, Fate of Zedekiah & People, & Liberation of Jehoiachin from Imprisonment.

Lamentations of Jeremiah: (Chapters): Exposition:

(1): Sorrow & Wailing Over Fall of Jerusalem & Judah.
(2): Lamentation Over Judgment of Destruction that has come on Zion & Desolation of Judah.
(3): Suffering & Consolation of Gospel.
(4): Submission under Judgment of God, & Hope.
(5): Prayer to Lord by Church, Languishing in Misery; for Restoration of her former State of Grace.

{{ Prophecies of Jeremiah: Introduction:
Section 1: Jeremiah’s Times: “It was in the thirteenth (13th) year of the reign of Josiah, B.C. 629, that Jeremiah was called to be a prophet. At that time the kingdom of Judah enjoyed unbroken peace. Since the miraculous destruction of Sennacherib’s host before the gates of Jerusalem in the fourteenth (14th) year of Hezekiah’s reign, B.C. 714, Judah had no longer had much to fear from the imperial power of Assyria. The reverse then sustained before Jerusalem, just eight (8) years after the overthrow of the kingdom of Israel, had terribly crushed the might of the great empire. It was but a few years after that disaster till the Medes under Deioces asserted their independence against Assyria; and the Babylonians too, though soon reduced to subjection again, rose in insurrection against Sennacherib. Sennacherib’s energetic son and successor Esarhaddon did indeed succeed in re-establishing for a time the tottering throne. While holding Babylon, Elam, Susa, and Persia to their allegiance, he restored the ascendency of the empire in the western provinces, and brought Lower Syria, the districts of Syria that lay on the sea coast, under the Assyrian yoke. But the rulers who succeeded him, Samuges and the second Sardanapalus (II), were wholly unable to offer any effective resistance to the growing power of the Medes, or to check the steady decline of the once so mighty empire….Under Esarhaddon an Assyrian marauding army again made an inroad into Judah, and carried King Manasseh captive to Babylon; but, under what circumstances we know not, he soon regained his freedom, and was permitted to return to Jerusalem and remount his throne (2nd Chron. 33:11-13). From this time forward the Assyrians appeared no more in Judah. Nor did it seem as if Judah had any danger to apprehend from Egypt, the great southern empire; for the power of Egypt had been greatly weakened by intestine dissensions and civil wars. It is true that Psammetichus, after the overthrow of the dodecarchy, began to raise Egypt’s head amongst the nations once more, and to extend his sway beyond the boundaries of the country; but we learn much as to his success in this direction from the statement of Herodotus (ii. 157), that the capture of the Philistine city of Ashdod was not accomplished until after a twenty-nine (29) years’ siege. Even if, with Duncker, we refer the length of time here mentioned to the total duration of the war against the Philistines, we are yet enabled clearly to see that Egypt had not then so far recovered her former might as to be able to menace the kingdom of Judah with destruction, had Judah but faithfully adhered to the Lord its God, and in Him sought its strength. This, unhappily, Judah utterly failed to do, notwithstanding all the zeal wherewith the godly King Josiah laboured to secure for his kingdom that foremost element of its strength. In the eighth (8th) year of his reign, “while he was yet young,” ‘i.e’. when but a lad of sixteen (16, his 8th yr) years of age, he began to seek the God of David his father; and in the twelfth (12th, age 20) year of his reign he began to purge Judah and Jerusalem of the high places and Astartes, and the carved and molten images (2nd Chron. 34:3). He carried on the work of reforming the public worship without intermission, until every public trace of idolatry was removed, and the lawful worship of Jahveh was re-established. In the eighteenth (18th, age 28) year of his reign, upon occasion of some repairs in the temple, the book of the law of Moses [Deuteronomy] was discovered there, was brought and read before him. Deeply agitated by the curses with which the transgressors of the law were threatened, he then, together with the elders of Judah and the people itself, solemnly renewed the covenant with the Lord. To set a seal upon the renewal of the covenant, he instituted a passover, to which not only all Judah was invited but also all remnants of the ten tribes that had been left behind in the land of Israel (2nd Kings 22:3-23:24 ; 2nd Chron. 34:4-35:19). To Josiah there is given in 2nd Kings 23:25 the testimony that like unto him there was no king before him, that turned to Jahveh with all his heart, all his soul, and all his might, according to all the law of Moses; yet this most godly of all the kings of Judah was unable to heal the mischiefs which his predecessors Manasseh and Amon had by their wicked government created, or to crush the germs of spiritual and moral corruption which could not fail to bring about the ruin of the kingdom. And so the account of Josiah’s reign and of his efforts towards the revival of the worship of Jahveh, given in 2nd Kings 23:26, is concluded: “Yet Jahveh ceased not from His great wrath wherewith He was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations wherewith Manasseh provoked Him; and Jahveh said: Judah also will I put away from My face as I have put away Israel, and will cast off this city which I have chosen, Jerusalem, and the house of which I said, My name shall dwell there.” The kingdom of Israel had come to utter ruin in consequence of its apostasy from the Lord its God, and on account of the calf-worship which had been established by Jeroboam, the founder of the kingdom, and to which, from political motives, all his successors adhered. The history of Judah too is summed up in a perpetual alternation of apostasy from the Lord and return to Him. As early as the time of heathen-hearted Ahaz idolatry had raised itself to all but unbounded ascendency; and through the untheocratic policy of this wicked king, Judah had sunk into a dependency of Assyria. It would have shared the fate of the sister kingdom even then, had not the accession of Hezekiah, Ahaz’s godly son, brought about a return to the faithful covenant God. The reformation then inaugurated not only turned aside the impending ruin, but converted this very ruin into a glorious deliverance such as Israel had not seen since its exodus from Egypt. The marvellous overthrow of the vast Assyrian host at the very gates of Jerusalem, wrought by the angel of the Lord in one night by means of a sore pestilence, abundantly testified that Judah, despite its littleness and inconsiderable earthly strength, might have been able to hold its own against all the onsets of the great empire, if it had only kept true to the covenant God and looked for its support from His almighty hand alone. But the repentant loyalty to the faithful and almighty God of the covenant hardly lasted until Hezekiah’s death. The heathen party amongst the people gained again the upper hand under Hezekiah’s son Manasseh, who ascended the throne in his twelfth (12th) year; and idolatry, which had been only outwardly suppressed, broke out anew and, during the fifty-five (55) years’ reign of this most godless of all the kings of Israel, reached a pitch Judah had never yet known. Manasseh not only restored the high places and altars of Baal which his father had destroyed, he built altars to the whole host of heaven in both courts of the temple, and went so far as to erect an image of Asherah in the house of the Lord; he devoted his son to Moloch, practised witchcraft and soothsaying more than ever the Amorites had done, and by his idols seduced Israel to sin. Further, by putting to death such prophets and godly persons as resisted his impious courses, he shed very much innocent blood, until he had filled Jerusalem therewith from end to end (2nd Kings 21:1-16; 2nd Chron. 23:1-10). His humbling himself before God when in captivity in Babylon, and his removal of the images out of the temple upon his return to Jerusalem and to his throne (2nd Chron.33:11 ff., 15 ff.), passed by and left hardly a trace behind; and his godless son Amon did but continue his father’s sins and multiply the guilt (2 Kings 21:19-23; 2nd Chron. 33:21-23). Thus Judah’s spiritual and moral strength was so broken that a thorough¬going conversion of the people at large to the Lord and His law was now no longer to be looked for. Hence the godly Josiah accomplished by his reformation nothing more than the suppression of the grosser forms of idol-worship and the restoration of the formal temple-services; he could neither put an end to the people’s estrangement at heart from God, nor check with any effect that moral corruption which was the result of the heart’s forsaking the living God. And so, even after Josiah’s reform of public worship, we find Jeremiah complaining: “As many as are thy cities, so many are thy gods, Judah; and as many as are the streets in Jerusalem, so many altars have ye made to shame, to burn incense to Baal” (2:28, 11:13). And godlessness showed itself in all classes of the people. Go about m the streets of Jerusalem,” Jeremiah exclaims, “and look and search if there is one that doth right and asks after honesty, and I will pardon her (saith the Lord). I thought, it is but the meaner sort that are foolish, for they know not the way of Jahveh, the judgment of their God. I will then get me to the great, and will speak with them, for they know the way of Jahveh, the right of their God. But they have all broken the yoke, burst the bonds ” (Jer. 5:1-5). “Small and great are greedy for gain; prophet and priest use deceit” (6:13). This being the spiritual condition of the people, we cannot wonder that immediately after the death of Josiah, unblushing apostasy appeared again as well in public idolatry as in injustice and sin of every kind. Jehoiakim did that which was evil in the eyes of Jahveh even as his fathers had done (2nd Kings 23:37; 2nd Chron. 36:6). His eyes and his heart were set upon nothing but on gain and on innocent blood, to shed it, and on oppresssion and on violence, to do it, Jer. 22:17. And his successors on the throne, both his son Jehoiachin and his brother Zedekiah, walked in his footsteps (2nd Kings 24:5, 19; 2nd Chron. 36:9, 12), although Zedekiah did not equal his brother Jehoiakim in energy for carrying out evil, but let himself be ruled by those who were about him. For Judah’s persistence in rebellion against God and His law, the Lord ceased not from His great wrath; but carried out the threatening proclamation to king and people by the prophetess Hulda, when Josiah sent to consult her for himself, and for the people, and for all Judah, concerning the words of the newly found book of the law: “Behold, I bring evil in this place, and upon its inhabitants, all the words of the book which the king of Judah hath read: because that they have forsaken Me, and burnt incense to other gods, to provoke Me with all the works of their hands; therefore My wrath is kindled against this place, and shall not be quenched” (2nd Kings 22:16 ff.). This evil began to fall on the kingdom in Jehoiakim’s days. Josiah was not to see the coming of it. Because, when he heard the curses of the law, he humbled himself before the Lord, rent his raiment and wept before Him, the Lord vouchsafed to him the promise that He would gather him to his fathers in peace, that his eyes should not look on the evil God would bring on Jerusalem (2nd Kings 22:19 f.); and this pledge God fulfilled to him, although they that were to execute God’s righteous justice were already equipped, and though towards the end of his reign the storm clouds of judgment were gathering ominously over Judah. While Josiah was labouring in the reformation of public worship, there had taken place in Central Asia the events which brought about the fall of the Assyrian empire. The younger son of Esarhaddon, the second Sardanapalus, had been succeeded in the year 626 by his son Saracus. Since the victorious progress of the Medes under Cyaxares, his dominion had been limited to the cradle of the empire, Assyria, to Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Cilicia. To all appearance in the design of preserving Babylonia to the empire, Saracus appointed Nabopolassar, a Babylonian by birth and sprung from the Chaldean stock, to be governor of that province. This man found opportunity to aggrandize himself during a war between the Medes and the Lydians. An eclipse of the sun took place on the 30th September 610, while a battle was going on. Both armies in terror gave up the contest; and, seconded by Syennesis, who governed Cilicia under the Assyrian supremacy, Nabopolassar made use of the favourable temper which the omen had excited in both camps to negotiate a peace between the contending peoples, and to institute a coalition of Babylonia and Media against Assyria. To confirm this alliance, Amytis, the daughter of Cyaxares, was given in marriage to Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar; and the war against Assyria was opened without delay by the advance against Nineveh in the spring of 609 of the allied armies of Medes and Babylonians. But two years had been spent in the siege of that most impregnable city, and two battles had been lost, before they succeeded by a night attack in utterly routing the Assyrians, pursuing the fugitives to beneath the city walls. The fortification would long have defied their assaults, had not a prodigious spring flood of the Tigris, in the third year of the war, washed down a part of the walls lying next the river and so made it possible for the besiegers to enter the city, to take it, and reduce it to ashes. The fall of Nineveh in the year 607 overthrew the Assyrian empire; and when the conquerors proceeded to distribute their rich booty, all the land lying on the western bank of the Tigris fell to the share of Nabopolassar of Babylon. But the occupation by the Babylonians of the provinces which lay west of the Euphrates was contested by the Egyptians. Before the campaign of the allied Medes and Babylonians against Nineveh, Pharaoh Necho, the warlike son of Psammetichus, had advanced with his army into Palestine, having landed apparently in the bay of Acco, on his way to war by the Euphrates with Assyria, Egypt’s hereditary enemy. To oppose his progress King Josiah marched against the Egyptian; fearing as he did with good reason, that if Syria fell into Necho’s power, the end had come to the independence of Judah as a kingdom. A battle was fought in the plain near Megiddo; the Jewish army was defeated, and Josiah mortally wounded, so that he died on the way to Jerusalem (2nd Kings 23:29 f.; 2nd Chron. 35:20 f.). In his stead the people of the land raised his second son Jehoahaz to the throne; but Pharaoh came to Jerusalem, took Jehoahaz prisoner, and had him carried to Egypt, where he closed his life in captivity, imposed a fine on the country, and set up Eliakim, Josiah’s eldest son, to be king as his vassal under the name of Jehoiakim (2nd Kings 23:30-35; 2nd Chron. 36:1-4). Thereafter Necho pursued his march through Syria, and subjected to himself the western provinces of the Assyrian empire; and he had penetrated to the fortified town of Carchemish (‘Kirkesion’) on the Euphrates when Nineveh succumbed to the united Medes and Babylonians. –Immediately upon the dissolution of the Assyrian empire, Nabopolassar, now an old man no longer able to sustain the fatigues of a new campaign, entrusted the command of the army to his vigorous son Nebuchadnezzar, to the end that he might wage war against Pharaoh Necho and wrest from the Egyptians the provinces they had possessed themselves of (cf. Berosi ‘fragm. in Joseph. Antt’. x. 11. 1, and ‘c. Ap’. i. 19). In the year 607, the third year of Jehoiakim’s reign, Nebuchadnezzar put the army entrusted to him in motion, and in the next year, the fourth of Jehoiakim’s reign, B.C. 606, he crushed Pharaoh Necho at Carchemish on the Euphrates. Pursuing the fleeing enemy, he pressed irresistibly forwards into Syria and Palestine, took Jerusalem in the same year, made Jehoiakim his dependant, and carried off to Babel a number of the Jewish youths of highest rank, young Daniel amongst them, together with part of the temple furniture (2nd Kings 24:1; 2nd Chron. 36:6 f.; Dan. 1:1 f.). He had gone as far on his march as the boundaries of Egypt when he heard of the death of his father Nabopolassar at Babylon. In consequence of this intelligence he hastened to Babylon the shortest way through the desert, with but few attendants, with the view of mounting the throne and seizing the reins of government, while he caused the army to follow slowly with the prisoners and the booty (Beros. ‘I.c’.). This, the first taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, is the commencement of the seventy (70) years of Judah’s Chaldean bondage, foretold by Jeremiah in 25:11, shortly before the Chaldeans invaded Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim; and with the subjection of Judah to Nebuchadnezzar’s supremacy the dissolution of the kingdom began. For three years Jehoiakim remained subject to the king of Babylon; in the fourth (4th) year he rebelled against him. Nebuchadnezzar, who with the main body of his army was engaged in the interior of Asia, lost no time in sending into the rebellious country such forces of Chaldeans as were about the frontiers, together with contingents of Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites; and these troops devastated Judah throughout the remainder of Jehoiakim’s reign (2nd Kings 24:1,2). But immediately upon the death of Jehoiakim, just as his son had mounted the throne, Nebuchadnezzar’s generals advanced against Jerusalem with a vast army and invested the city in retribution for Jehoiakim’s defection. During the siege Nebuchadnezzar joined the army. Jehoiachin, seeing the impossibility of holding out any longer against the besiegers, resolved to go out to the king of Babylon, taking with him the queen-mother, the princes of the kingdom, and the officers of the court, and to make unconditional surrender of himself and the city. Nebuchadnezzar made the king and his train prisoners; and, after plundering the treasures of the royal palace and the temple, carried captive to Babylon the king, the leading men of the country, the soldiers, the smiths and artisans, and, in short, every man in Jerusalem who was capable of bearing arms. He left in the land only the poorest sort of the people, from whom no insurrectionary attempts were to be feared; and having taken an oath of fealty from Mattaniah, the uncle of the captive king, he installed him, under the name of Zedekiah, as vassal king over a land that had been robbed of all that was powerful or noble amongst its inhabitants (2nd Kings 24:8-17; 2nd Chron. 36:10). Nor did Zedekiah either keep true to the oath of allegiance he had sworn and pledged to the king of Babylon. In the fourth (4th) year of his reign, ambassadors appeared from the neighbouring states of Edom, Ammon, Moab, Tyre, and Sidon, seeking to organize a vast coalition against the Chaldean supremacy (Jer. 27:3, 28:1). Their mission was indeed unsuccessful; for Jeremiah crushed the people’s hope of a speedy return of the exiles in Babylon by repeated and emphatic declaration that the Babylonian bondage must last seventy (70) years (Jer. 27-29:27). In the same year Zedekiah visited Babylon, apparently in order to assure his liege lord (overlord, baron, feudal lord) of his loyalty and to deceive him as to his projects (Jer. 51:59). But in Zedekiah’s ninth (9th) year Hophra (Apries), the grandson of Necho, succeeded to the crown of Egypt; and when he was arming for war against Babylon, Zedekiah, trusting in the help of Egypt (Ezek. 17:15), broke the oath of fealty he had sworn (Ezek. 17:16), and tried to shake off the Babylonian yoke. But straightway a mighty Chaldean army marched against Jerusalem, and in the tenth month of that same year established a blockade round Jerusalem (2nd Kings 25:1). The Egyptian army advanced to relieve the beleaguered city, and for a time compelled the Chaldeans to raise the siege; but it was in the end defeated by the Chaldeans in a pitched battle (Jer. 37:5 ff.), and the siege was again resumed with all rigour. For long the Jews made stout resistance, and fought with the courage of despair, Zedekiah and his advisers being compelled to admit that this time Nebuchadnezzar would show no mercy. The Hebrew slaves were set free that they might do military service; the stone buildings were one after another torn down that their materials might serve to strengthen the walls ; and in this way for about a year and a half all the enemy’s efforts to master the strong city were in vain. Famine had reached its extremity when, in the fourth month of the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah, the Chaldean battering rams made a breach in the northern wall, and through this the besiegers made their way into the lower city. The defenders withdrew to the temple hill and the city of Zion; and, when the Chaldeans began to storm these strongholds during the night, Zedekiah, under cover of darkness, fled with the rest of his soldiers by the door between the two walls by the king’s garden. He was, however, overtaken in the steppes of Jericho by the pursuing Chaldeans, made prisoner, and carried to Riblah in Coele-Syria. Here Nebuchadnezzar had his headquarters during the siege of Jerusalem, and here he pronounced judgment on Zedekiah. His sons and the leading men of Judah were put to death before his eyes; he was then deprived of eyesight and carried in chains to Babylon, where he remained a prisoner till his death (2nd Kings 25:3-7; Jer. 39:2-7, 52:6-11). A month later Nebuzar-adan, the captain of the king of Babylon’s guard, came to Jerusalem to destroy the rebellious city. The principal priests and officers of the kingdom and sixty (60) citizens were sent to the king at Riblah, and executed there. Everything of value to be found amongst the utensils of the temple was carried to Babylon, the city with the temple and palace was burnt to the ground, the walls were destroyed, and what able-bodied men were left amongst the people were carried into exile. Nothing was left in the land but a part of the poorer people to serve as vinedressers and husbandmen; and over this miserable remnant, increased a little in numbers by the return of some of those who had fled during the war into the neighbouring countries, Gedaliah the son of Ahikam was appointed governor in the Chaldean interest. Jeremiah chose to stay with him amidst his countrymen. But three months afterwards Gedaliah was murdered, at the instigation of Baalis the king of the Ammonites, by one Ishmael, who was sprung from the royal stock; and thereupon a great part of the remaining population, fearing the vengeance of the Chaldeans, fled, against the prophet’s advice, into Egypt (Jer. 40-43). And so the banishment of the people was now a total one, and throughout the whole period of the Chaldean domination the land was a wilderness. Judah was now, like the ten tribes, cast out amongst the heathen out of the land the Lord had given them for an inheritance, because tliey had forsaken Jahveh, their God, and had despised His statutes. Jerusalem, the city of the great King over all the earth, was in ruins, the house which the Lord had consecrated to His name was burnt with fire, and the people of His covenant had become a scorn and derision to all peoples. But God had not broken His covenant with Israel. Even in the law –Lev. 26 and Deut. 30– He had promised that even when Israel was an outcast from his land amongst the heathen, He would remember His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and not utterly reject the exiles; but when they had borne the punishment of their sins, would turn againtheir captivity, and gather them together out of the nations.”…..
Section 2: Prophet’s Person: “Concerning the life and labours of the prophet Jeremiah, we have fuller information than we have as to those of many of the other prophets. The man is very clearly reflected in his prophecies, and his life is closely interwoven with the history of Judah. We consider first the outward circumstances of the prophet’s life, and then his character and mental gifts”……(‘b’). His Character & Mental Qualities: –If we gather togetlier in one the points of view that are discovered in a summary glance over Jeremiah’s work as a prophet, we feel the truth of Ed. Vilmar’s statement at p. 38 of his essay on the prophet Jeremiah in the periodical, ‘Der Beweis des Glauhens’. Bd. v. Gütersloh 1869: “When we consider the prophet’s faith in the imperishableness of God’s people, in spite of thier inevitable ruin which is to overwhelm the race then living, and his conviction, firm as the rock, that the Chaldeans are invincible until the end of the period allotted to them by Providence, it is manifest that his work is grounded in something other and higher than mere political sharp-sightedness or human sagacity.” Nor is the unintermitting stedfastness with which, amidst the sorest difficulties from without, he exercised his office to be explained by the native strength of his character. Naturally of a yielding disposition, sensitive and timid, it was with trembling that he bowed to God’s call (1:6) ; and afterwards, when borne down by the burden of them, he repeatedly entertained the wish to be relieved from his hard duties. ” Thou hast persuaded [‘deceived’, (AKJV of 1611) ] me, Lord,” he complains in 20:7 ff., “and I let myself be persuaded [‘I was deceived’ (‘ibid’)]; Thou hast laid hold on me and hast prevailed. I am become a laughing-stock all the day long: the word of Jahveh is become a reproach and a derision. And I thought: I will think no more of Him nor speak more in His name; and it was in my head as burning fire, shut up in my bones, and I become weary of bearing up, and cannot.” Though filled with glowing love that sought the salvation of his people, he is compelled, while he beholds their moral corruptness, to cry out: “O that I had in the wilderness a lodging-place of wayfarers! then would I leave my people, and go from them; for they are all adulterers, a crew of faithless men” (9:1). And his assurance that the judgment about to burst on the land and people could not be turned aside, draws from him the sigh: “O that mine head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears I then would I weep day and night for the slain of my people” (8:23). “He was no second Elijah,” as Hgstbg. Christol. ii. p. 370 happily puts it: “He had a soft nature, a susceptible temperament; his tears flowed readily. And he who was so glad to live in peace and love with all men, must needs, because he has enlisted in the service of truth, become a second Ishmael, his hand against every man, and every man’s hand against him; he whose love for his people was so glowing, was doomed to see that love misconstrued, to see himself branded as a traitor by those who were themselves the traitors to the people.” Experiences like these raised bitter struggles in his soul, repeatedly set forth by him, especially in 12 and 20. Yet he stands immovably stedfast in the strife against all the powers of wickedness, like “a pillar of iron and a wall of brass against the whole land, the kings of Judah, its rulers and priests, and against the common people,” so that all who strove against him could effect nothing, because the Lord, according to His promise, 1:18 f., was with him, stood by his side as a terrible warrior (20:11), and showed His power mighty in the prophet’s weakness……
Section 3: Book of Jeremiah’s Prophecies: (‘a’) Contents & Arrangement: The prophecies of Jeremiah divide themselves, in accordance with their subjects, into those that concern Judah and the kingdom of God, and those regarding foreign nations. The former come first in the book, and extend from chap. 1-45; the latter are comprised in chap. 46-51. The former again fall into three groups, clearly distinguishable by their form and subjects. So that the whole book may be divided into four sections; while chap. 1 contains the account of the prophet’s consecration, and chap. 52, furnishes an historical supplement……(‘b’). Origin of the Compilation or Book of Jeremiah’s Prophecies: “Regarding the composition of the book, all sorts of ingenious and arbitrary hypotheses have been propounded. Almost all of them proceed on the assumption that the longer discourses of the first part of the book consist of a greater or less number of addresses delivered to the people at stated times, and have been arranged partly clironologically, but partly also without reference to any plan whatever. Hence the conclusion is drawn that in the book a hopeless confusion reigns……The first notice of a written collection of the prophecies occurs in 36. Here we are told that in the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim’s reign, Jeremiah, by divine command, caused his assistant Baruch to write in a roll all the words he had spoken concerning Israel and Judah and all nations from the day he was called up till that time, intending them to be read by Baruch to the assembled people in the temple on the approaching fast. And after the king had cut up the roll and cast it into the fire, the prophet caused the words Baruch had taken down to his dictation to be written anew in a roll, with the addition of many words of like import. This fact suggests the idea that the second roll written by Baruch to Jeremiah’s dictation formed the basis of the collected edition of all Jeremiah’s prophecies. The history makes it clear that till then the prophet had not committed his prophecies to writing, and that in the roll written by Baruch they for the first time assumed a written form. The same account leads us also to suppose that in this roll the prophet’s discourses and addresses were not transcribed in the precise words and in the exact order in which he had from time to time delivered them to the people, but that they were set down from memory, the substance only being preserved. The design with which they were committed to writing was to lead the people to humble themselves before the Lord and turn from their evil ways (36:3, 7), by means of importunately forcing upon their attention all God’s commands and warnings……If we are desirous not to add by new and uncertain conjectures to the already large number of arbitrary hypotheses as to the compilation and origin of the book before us, we must abide by what, after a careful scrutiny of its subject-matter and form, proves to be certainly established. And the result of our examination may be epitomized in the following propositions: 1. The book in its canonical form has been arranged according to a distinct, self-consistent plan, in virtue of which the preservation of chronological order has been made secondary to the principle of grouping together cognate subjects. 2. The book written by Baruch in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiakim’s reign, which contained the oracles spoken by Jeremiah up till that time, is doubtless the basis of the book as finally handed down, without being incorporated with it as a distinct work; but, in accordance with the plan laid down for the compilation of the entire series, was so disposed that the several portions of it were interspersed with later portions, handed down, some orally, some in writing, so that the result was a uniform whole. For that prophecies other than those in Baruch’s roll were straightway written down (if they were not first composed in writing), is expressly testified by 30:2, 29:1, and 51:60. 3. The complete edition of the whole was not executed till after the close of Jeremiah’s labours, probably immediately after his death. This work, together with the supplying of the historical notice in chap. 52, was probably the work of Jeremiah’s colleague Baruch, who may have survived the last event mentioned in the book, 52:31 ff., the restoration of Jehoiakim to freedom after Nebuchadnezzar’s death, B.C. 563.”…..Appendix: Chapter 52: Historical: Capture & destruction of Jerusalem, Fate of Zedekiah & People & Liberation of Jehoiachin from Imprisonment: “By the closing formula, 51:64, the contents of chap. 52 are separated from, and marked as an appendix to, the prophecies of Jeremiah; yet nothing is said regarding the author of this chapter. However, if we keep in mind the nature of its contents, then, from the very fact that it gives an account of the liberation of King Jehoiachin from prison, and of his elevation to royal honours, it necessarily follows that it cannot have been composed by Jeremiah, because the prophet can scarcely have lived till this occurred, which was less than 561 B.C. It must further be considered that the contents of this chapter also agree, almost word for word, with 2nd Kings 24:18-25, 30; moreover, the introductory notice regarding Zedekiah’s ascension of the throne, his age, and the character of his rule, given vers. 1-3, was unnecessary for the object of this appendix. The same holds true of the notice regarding the liberation of Jehoiachin from prison, at the close, vers. 31-34, which does not seem to stand in any close and intimate connection with the history of the destruction of Jerusalem and the fate of Zedekiah, while both of these events are closely connected with the plan and aim of the Books of Kings, and are written quite in their spirit. On these grounds, most expositors, both ancient and modern, assume that this historical appendix to the prophecies of Jeremiah has been derived from the Second Book of Kings. But weighty reasons oppose this assumption. (1.) The very fact that ‘the name of th king of Babylon is throughout written Nebuchad-rezzar makes it unlikely that the narrative was derived from 2nd Kings 24:18 ff., because the name is there constantly written Nebuchad-nezzar, –a form which also occurs in Jeremiah, though not often (see vol. i. p. 397, note). (2.) This chapter contains notices which are not found in 2nd Kings 24 and 25. Thus, it is stated, in ver. 10, that Nebuchad¬rezzar also caused all the princes of Judah to be executed at Riblah, and King Zedekiah, who had been carried to Babylon, to be put in prison till his death; in vers. 19-23 we find a whole series of special remarks as to the vessels of the temple and the ornaments of the brazen pillars, –observations which are not met with either in 2nd Kings 25, or in the description of the building of the temple, 1st Kings 7. We further find, in vers. 28-30, a notice regarding three deportations of the people, giving the numbers, not roundly, but precisely, as they are nowhere else given in the historical books of the Old Testament. Were this statement the only additional detail given by this chapter, as compared with 2nd Kings 25, one might perhaps suppose that it was an interpolation from another source, added to the rest of the account that has been derived from 2nd Kings 24 and 25; but this opinion, which even in itself is not very probable, is excluded by the other additions found in ver. 10 and in 19-23. If the author of this chapter had been able to derive, and had actually derived, these additional particulars from a historical source, treating of the later times of the kingdom of Judah, which has not come down to us, and which contained more than our canonical books of Kings and Chronicles, he would no doubt have also found there the account of the three deportations, and taken it from that source. We must therefore assume that this chapter, and 2nd Kings 24:18 on to 25:30, have both a common origin, in which the fall of the kingdom of Judah was more fully described than in the historical books of the canon; in this way, the remarkable coincidence, almost word for word, between the narrative portions which are common to the two extracts, is accounted for quite as easily as the differences that have just been mentioned.”…..}}

{{ Jeremiah’s Lamentations: Introduction: Section 1: Book: Name, Contents, & Arrangement: “Name: The five Lamentations composed on the fall of Jerusalem and the kingdom of Judah, which have received their position in the canon of the Old Testament among the Hagiographa, have for their heading, in Hebrew MSS. and in printed editions of the Hebrew Bible, the word (’Echah) (“alas! how…”), which forms the characteristic initial word of three of these pieces (1:1, 2:1, & 4:1). The Rabbis name the collection (Qinoth) (Lamentations), from the nature of its contents: so in the Talmud (‘Tract. Baba Bathra’, f. 14’b’); cf. Jerome in the Prol. ‘galeat’, and in the prologue to his translation : “‘incipiunt Threni, i.e. lamentationes, quae Cynoth liebraice inscribuntur.'” With this agree the designations (Thrëni) (LXX), and ‘Threni’ or ‘Lamentationes’, also ‘Lamenta’ in the Vulgate and among the Latin writers. Contents: The ancient custom of composing and singing lamentations over deceased friends (of which we find proof in the elegies of David on Saul and Jonathan, 2nd Sam.1:17 ff., and on Abner, 2nd Sam. 3:33 ff., and in the notice given in 2nd Chron. 35:25) was even in early times extended so as to apply to the general calamities that befell countries and cities; hence the prophets often speak of taking up lamentations over the fall of nations, countries, and cities; cf. Amos 5:1, Jer. 7:29, 9:9, 17 f., Ezek. 19:1, 26:17, 27:2, etc. The five lamentations of the book now before us all refer to the destruction of Jerusalem and of the kingdom of Judah by the Chaldeans; in them are deplored the unutterable misery that has befallen the covenant people in this catastrophe, and the disgrace which the falien daughter of Zion has thereby suffered. This subject is treated of in the five poems from different points of view. In the ‘first’, the lamentation is chiefly made over the carrying away of the people into captivity, the desolation of Zion, the acts of oppression, the plundering and the starvation connected with the taking of Jerusalem, the scoffing and contempt shown by the enemy, and the helpless and comfortless condition of the city, now fallen so low. In the ‘second’, the destruction of Jerusalem and Judah is set forth as an act of God’s wrath against the sins of the people, the impotency of human comfort in the midst of the terrible calamity is shown, and the people are exhorted to seek help from the Lord. In the ‘third’, the deep spiritual sufferings of God’s people in the midst of the general distress form the subject of grievous com¬ plaint, out of which the soul endeavours to rise, and to see the compassion of the Lord, and the justice of His dealings on earth generally, as well as in this visitation of judgment; and on this is founded the confident expectation of help. In the ‘fourth’, the dreadful misery that has befallen Zion’s citizens of every class is represented as a punishment for the grievous sins of the people and their leaders. And lastly, in the ‘fifth’, the Lord is entreated to remove the disgrace from His people and restore them to their former state of grace. According to this view, one may readily perceive in these poems a well¬ cogitated plan in the treatment of the material common to the whole, and a distinct progress in the execution of this plan…..}}

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Book of Prophet Jeremiah & Lamentations. Map Notes & Introduction by Rev. A. W. Streane; M.A.; Edited for the Syndics of Univ. Press. Cambridge Bible for Schools & Colleges; Edited by J. J. S. Perowne, D.D. (1881).gs

{{ Introduction: Chapter II: Character & Style of Book:
“1. Jeremiah is personally the most interesting to us of all the prophets; because, unlike the others, he shews us the inmost recesses of his mind. The various qualities which made up the man are quickly and easily gathered from his own lips. There is hardly a clearer illustration of the Providence of God in raising up men for special sorts of work than is afforded by Jeremiah. We have just seen that they were no ordinary times in which he lived. ‘The snake’ of idolatry had been ‘scotched not killed’ by Hezekiah and Josiah. The spirit of disobedience and rebellion, which had been so long working in his countrymen, was now past remedy by all common means. Nothing but the nation’s total overthrow, at least for a time, could effect a radical cure.
2. Glowing appeals, such as had been made by an Isaiah, a Hosea, a Micah in former days, would now have been of no avail. Those prophets had fulfilled their task, and the Holy Spirit had employed their special gifts for the work which belonged to their age. Jeremiah’s office on the other hand was to utter and reiterate the warning, though sensible all the while that the sentence of condemnation was passed and would speedily be put into execution. It was not for him as for those who had preceded him to proclaim the certainty of God’s protection, to urge resistance to the foe, to present scarce any but bright pictures of the future. Hopes like these, bestowed through Isaiah, had since been forfeited, and now hardly anything remains save to mourn the downfall of the kingdom, to point again and yet again to the canker that had eaten out the vitals of the nation……
6. Belonging to the orders both of Priest and Prophet, and living at the very time when each had sunk to its lowest state of degradation, he was compelled to submit to the buffeting which they each bestowed upon a man who was by his every word and deed passing sentence upon themselves. He saw them permitted to vent their rage upon his person, he saw them held in esteem by the people, their way prospering, those that dealt treacherously happy. “For the greater part of his mission he ‘had no man likeminded with him.’ From the first moment of his call he was alone, amidst a hostile world.” But through it all conscientious devotion to duty maintained its place within his heart. The promise that he should be as a brasen wall made at the time of his call and renewed later never failed him……
8. His style corresponds closely with what we should expect from his character. It displays (‘a’) Absence of ornament…..(‘b’) Frequent repetition……(Table of Repetitions: Chapters & Verses:
2:28 & 11:13. 5:29 & 9:9. 6:13 & 8:10-12. 7:14 & 26:6. 10:12-16 & 51:15-19. 11:20 & 20:12. 15:2 & 43:11. 16:14,15 & 23:7, 8. 17:25 & 22:4. 23:19,20 & 30:23,24. 30:11 & 46:28. 31:35,36 & 33:25,26.
List of Places in which the same Thought or Image is Repeated:
‘The brasen Wall’, (1:18; 15:20). ‘The turned back’, (2:27; 7:24; 32:33).
‘Fury that burns like fire’, (4:4; 21:12).
‘The travailing woman’, (4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 22:23; 30:6).
‘Rising up early’, (7:13, 25; 11:7; 25:3,4; 26:5; 29:19; 32:33; 35:14,15; 44:4).
‘Water of gall,’ (8:14; 9:15; 23:15).
‘The incurable wound’, (15:8; 30:12).
‘The fig, too bad to be eaten’, (24:8; 29:17).
Phrases which often Recur:
‘Walking in the stubbornness of the heart’, (3:17; 7:24; 9:14; 11:8; 13:10; 16:12; 23:17).
‘The evil of men’s doings’, (4:4; 21:12; 23:2, 22; 25:5; 26:3; 44:22).
‘The voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride’, (7:34; 16:9; 25:10; 33:11).
‘Men dying in the siege by the sword, by the pestilence, and by famine’, (14:12, 15,16; 15:2; 18:21; 21:7, 9; 24:10; 27:13; 29:17; 32:24, 36; 34:17; 38:2; 13:17, 22; 43:11; 44:13).
(Taken with slight additions from the ‘Speaker’s Commentary’.)

(‘c’) Frequent cases of coincidence in language with earlier prophets, as well as especially with the Book of Deuteronomy……(‘d’) Numerous images used by way of illustration……

Chapter III: Contents & Arrangement:
1. The prophecies of Jeremiah cover, as we have seen, a period of at least some thirty years (30)……
2. So far as any order is observable, it is an order not of time but of subject-matter, The following is a Summary of the Contents of the Book: (Chapters & Verses):
(i) (1-45): Prophecies mainly relating to Home Events & History of Times.
(ii) (46-51): Prophecies relating to Foreign Nations.
(iii) (52): Supplementary & Historical.
(i) Subdivided thus:
(a) (1-20): Prophecies mostly from Time of Jeremiah’s call (13th year of Josiah) to 4th year of Jehoiakim.
(b) (21-25:14): Prophecies directed at various times Against Kings of Judah & Against False Prophets.
(c) (25:15-38): Kind of summary of Fuller Predictions Against Foreign Nations which occur (46-51); perhaps placed here as suggested by the announcement of Approaching Overthrow of Babylon, which ends (b).
(d) (26-28): Prophecies concerning Fall of Jerusalem, with Historical Notices interspersed. These belong to Different Periods of Jeremiah’s Life, and seem Grouped Together here in accordance with the Principle of Arrangement mentioned above.
(e) (29): Letter & Message to Captives in Babylon.
(f) (30-31): Prophecies mainly of Comfort & Hope.
(g) (32-44): History of Two Years Preceding Capture & Destruction of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans, & Prophecies of Jeremiah during that time. (35-36) Break Chronological Order here.
(h) (45): Supplementary Notice on the part of Baruch.
(ii) Subdivided thus:
(a) (46:1): Superscription. (b) (46): Against Egypt. (c) (47): Against Philistines. (d) (48): Against Moab, (e) (49:1-6): Against Amnion. (f) (49:7-22): Against Edom. (g) (49:23-27): Against Damascus. (h) (49:28-33): Against Kedar & Hazor. (i) (49:34-39): Against Elam. (j) (50,51): Against Babylon. ” }}

{{ Lamentations: Introduction: Chapter III: Subject-Matter & Purpose of Book:
I. The subject, as we have seen already, is undoubtedly the capture of the city under Nebuchadnezzar, and the sorrow and suffering which were thereby entailed. Herewith is united both the confession that this has come upon the people on account of their sins, and entreaties for deliverance.
2. Taking the poems severally: Chap. i. (‘Miseries of Jerusalem’) dwells upon the solitary condition and grief of the city; Chap. ii. (‘God’s judgments upon City. Lamentation. Supplication’) sets forth the destruction that has come upon lier, and acknowledges that it is the result of sin; Chap. iii., (‘Prophet, as Representing Nation, bewails their Sufferings. Words of Submission & Hope. Renewed Expressions of Suffering joined with Appeal to God for Help. Thanksgiving & Prayer for Vengeance.) which although framed for the most part in the singular number, yet includes the nation throughout, complains of the bitter cup which God’s people have to drink, and yet acknowledges that the trials which are come upon them are inflicted by a Father’s hand; Chap. iv. (‘Sufferings of People are consequent on Sin’. ) describes the reverses in fortune that have been brought about by recent events, and again acknowledges sin; Chap. v. (‘Sorrowful Enumeration of Insults heaped on Zion because of her Sins’.) recapitulates the pitiful details of their condition, and ends by an earnest prayer for deliverance.
3. The Book from an historical point of view thus forms a supplement to the Book of Jeremiah. There we traced the life and thoughts of the prophet while events were gradually leading to the final catastrophe. Here we see him after that catastrophe has been reached, and mark that it is the same man still, clearly recognizing the sin of his fellows, but as full as ever of sympathy for them and of love for his country. “All feeling of exultation in which, as mere prophet of evil, he might have indulged at the fulfilment of his forebodings, was swallowed up in deep overwhelming sorrow” (Prof. Plumptre in ‘Sm. Bib. Dict’.).
4. It was not in one who had faithfully warned his country-men for so long, to keep silence now, and doubtless the very pouring out of his heart in this form gave his sorrow a certain relief. As he had probably lamented for Josiah in some such I manner (2nd Chron. 35:25), so now he was moved to come forward and embody in language those thoughts which an inspired prophet like him would be guided to publish and record.
5. “There are perhaps few portions of the Old Testament which appear to have done the work they were meant to do more effectually than this.” It has not been connected with the theological or ecclesiastical disputes of any age, while it has supplied the earnest Christian of all times with words in which to confess his sins, and shortcomings, as well as with a picture of Him Who bore our sins and carried our sorrows, on Whom was ” laid the iniquity of us all.”
6. The Book is annually read among the Jews to commemorate the burning of the Temple. The following is Schaff’s description (‘Through Bible Lands’, pp. 250—252) of the scene at the ‘Wailing Place of the Jews’ at Jerusalem. “There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon and on festivals to bewail the downfall of the holy city. I saw on Good Friday a large number, old and young, male and female, venerable rabbis with patriarchal beards and young men kissing the stone wall and watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and Prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms. . . . The key note of all these laments and prayers was struck by Jeremiah, the most pathetic and tender hearted of prophets, in the Lamentations, that funeral dirge of Jerusalem and the theocracy. This elegy, written with sighs and tears, has done its work most effectually in great public calamities, and is doing it every year on the ninth of the month Ab (July), when it is read with loud weeping in all the synagogues of the Jews and especially at Jerusalem. It keeps alive the memory of their deepest humiliation and guilt and the hope of final deliverance. The scene of the Wailing Place was to me touching and pregnant with meaning.” }}

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Holy Bible. Vol. 5 Old Testament. Authorized Version & Notes & Introductions: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, & Ezekiel. Christian Wordsworth,D.D., Bishop of Lincoln. (1871).

{{ Introduction to Book of Prophet Jeremiah: “There are two Prophets in the Hebrew Canon of Holy Scripture, whose history and writings may best be studied in connexion, as illustrative of each other. Both of them were Priests as well as Prophets; both foretold the destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; both were contemporary with that event; both survived it. The one dwelt among Hebrew exiles and captives at the river Chebar in Babylonia, and echoed the voice of the other, prophesying at Jerusalem. Both were signal types of the Lord of all the prophets, the Incarnate Word of God; both pre-announced the graces and glories of His Advent, and the building up of His Church Universal; both are exemplary and instructive to all, especially to pastors and priests of the Church of Christ, who are commissioned to maintain and to declare the truth in evil days, and to cheer fainting hearts with hopes of future victories, and who, though feeble in themselves, are assured of strength and support from above, if they are faithful witnesses to Him Who has called them to their work. One of these two prophets is ‘Jeremiah’: the other, ‘Ezekiel’. The prophetic mission of Jeremiah at Jerusalem lasted about forty (40) years, dating from the thirteenth (13th) year of the good King Josiah (*B.C. 627; Jer. 1:2; 25:3) and closing with the fall of Jerusalem in the eleventh (11th) year of his son Zedekiah. These forty (40) years of probation, granted to Jerusalem during Jeremiah’s prophetic ministry, may be compared with the forty (40) years beginning with our Lord’s mission, inaugurated at the river Jordan, and continued in His Apostles, sent by Him and filled with the Holy Ghost (Spirit) given by Him from heaven, and preaching of coming judgments to Jerusalem, until the time of its destruction by the armies of imperial Rome. After the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans, Jeremiah prophesied in a heathen land, Egypt; and, similarly, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, the prophetic work of Christ was extended to the heathen world. There is no Hebrew prophet with whose personal character and history we are so intimately acquainted as Jeremiah. But the time, place, and manner of his death are not known. He vanishes from the sight in a mysterious manner. The Jewish rabbis supposed that he would reappear as a herald of the Messiah; and in the ancient Christian Church it was a prevalent opinion, that Jeremiah would come again in the latter days to fight against Antichrist (*’Victorinus Pet’., in Apocalypsim, xi. 3; ‘Sixtus Senensis’, Bibl. Sanct., vi. ann. 316; ‘, Eiuleit. pp. 68-72.) There is a moral significance in these popular traditions. The spirit which animated Jeremiah breathes and moves in all faithful witnesses, who prepare the way for the Second Coming of Christ; and among the prophets of the Old Dispensation none affords more instruction than Jeremiah, both by his history and writings, how they may contend against the Antichristianism of the last times before the Second Advent of Christ. Let us contemplate him in this light.”…..
”Such theories as these, however groundless, have their uses to the reverent and thoughtful student of Holy Writ. The allegation just specified may serve to remind us of an important truth. Not only is there a striking resemblance between the prophecies of Jeremiah and the Book of Deuteronomy, but the spirit of Moses lived and moved in Jeremiah (See below Wordsworth-Kueper’s Index of examples.). Jeremiah’s mission began as the mission of Moses began, and as the mission of all true prophets begins –in a confession of personal weakness, and in words of humility: “Ah! Lord God, behold I cannot speak, for I am a child.” Jeremiah’s prophecies are impregnated with the Pentateuch. Many of the phrases and portions of them are not intelligible without reference to it, especially the Book of Deuteronomy. The Book of Deuteronomy is like that written roll, of which his brother prophet Ezekiel speaks, which he was commanded to take into his hands and eat. Deuteronomy was such a roll to Jeremiah. He took it and ate it. It passed into his life-blood, and assimilated itself to bis spiritual being. Jeremiah had a special mission to show to the Hebrew nation that the Pentateuch bad a living power for himself and for his own age. He throws himself back upon the Law, and grounds himself upon it; he appeals to its code as a divine standard of moral and spiritual truth; and be declares that the curses for disobedience which had been denounced in Deuteronomy nearly a thousand years before were now growing up and springing forth in vigorous energy, and were about to be fulfilled in all their terrible reality. But he also comforts them with the assurance that the promises made in Deuteronomy would be accomplished, if they turned to God with contrite hearts. Hence the prophecies of Jeremiah ring with a clear note of power which sounded forth in the book of the Law at Horeb and in the wilderness of Arabia. 2. A like use may be made of another sceptical allegation of modern times, with regard to Jeremiah’s prophecies. It bas been observed with truth, that a great portion of these predictions, especially those concerning Babylon, Moab, and Edom, are reiterations or amplifications of the prophecies of his great predecessor, Isaiah. Hence it has been inferred by some, that either the prophecies of Isaiah were interpolated by the author of those predictions in Jeremiah, or that those prophecies in Jeremiah are due to an unknown author, whom some critics dignify by the name of “the second Isaiah” but who never had any existence. Such theories as these vanish before the light of truth.”
Compare: Genesis & Jeremiah: G 1:2 & J 4:23. G 1:28 & J 3:16. G 6:7 & J 9:9. G 8:22 & J 31:36. G 11:3 & J 51:25, &c. G 15:5 & J 33:22, & 34. G 17:14 & J 32:17. G 19:15 & Jer. Ii. 51:6, 50. G 19:25 & J 20:16. G 25:26 & J 9:3. G 30:18, 20 & J 31:16,17. G 37:35; 42:36 & J 31:15. G 49:17 & J 8:16.
Compare: Exodus & Jeremiah: E 4:10, &c. & J 1:6,7; 15:19. E 7:14 & J 50:33. E 16:9 & J 30:21. E 20:8; 11 & J 17:21. E 22:20 & J 5:28. E 32:9 & J 7:26. E 32:16 & J 17:1. E 34:7 & J 30:11; 32:18.
Compare: Leviticus & Jeremiah: L 13:45 & Lam. 4:15. L 19:12 & J 5:2. L 19:16 & J 6:28; 9:3. L 19:27 & J 9:25. L 19:32 & Lam. 5:12. L 26:6 & J 14:13. L 26:13 & J 2:20. L 26:33 & J 4:27.
Compare: Numbers & Jeremiah: N 5:11-31 & J 2. N 6:5, &c. & J 7:29. N 16:22 & J 32:27. N 21:6 & J 8:17. N 21:28; 24:17, &c. & J 48:4-5, 46; 4916. N 24:14, 16 & J 26:8, 9. N 36:7,8 & J 6:12; 8:10.
“Vides, nullam Pentateuchi esse partem, quin in usum vocata sit. Simul consequitur, omnia, quae de lege divina antiquitus data apud Prophetam dicantur, ad Pentateuchum referenda esse, ita ut Jeremiae saltem aetate Judaeis nihil de posteriori legis origine compertum esse potuerit.” –’Aug. Kueper’, Jeremias Librorum Sacrorum Interpres, atque Vindex, p. 48. Berlin, 1837. [‘Yu see, none of the Pentateuch to be a part, which in usage is called; such it follows, all, that’s of Divine Law, anciently spoken by the Prophet, in response to the Pentateuch referred to, such as in Jeremiah’s age at least of Judaea, nothing of the Law of latter origin ascertained was possible.’ -‘Aug. Kueper’ Holy Book of Jeremiah, Interpretation & Index. p. 48, Berlin, 1837.]
….. Jeremiah, in the last days of Jerusalem, discharged a sacred office in repeating and authenticating the prophetic oracles of former generations. By his ministry the Holy Spirit gathered together His own Words, uttered by former Prophets, and gave them new life and light. Jeremiah’s prophecies are like a fair tesselated pavement, in which the enamelled glasswork, and precious stones, and rich jewels, of divine truth are inlaid and incrusted as in a sacred mosaic spread before the altar of some beautiful temple. (*See on Jer. 48:1. It is well said by a recent German Expositor, that Jeremiah leans throughout upon utterances of the earlier Prophets, and reproduces their thoughts, figures, and words. Thus, for example, nearly all his prophecies against foreign nations are founded upon utterances of the earlier Prophets: that against the Philistines (Jer. 47), upon Isaiah’s prophecy against that people (Isa. 14:28-32); that against the Moabites (Jer. 48), upon that of Isaiah, in chaps. 15,16; that against the Ammonites (Jer. 49:1-6), upon the prophecy of Amos against the same (Amos 1:13-15); that against Damascus (Jer. 49:23-27), upon that of Amos against this kingdom (Amos 1:3-5); and lastly, that against Babylon (Jer. 50,51), upon the prophecy of Isaiah against Babylon, in Isa. 13-14:23. To this we may add (1) that the prophecy of Isaiah against Edom contains a number of expressions peculiar to himself and characteristic of his style, not a single one of which is to be found in Obadiah; whilst nothing is met with elsewhere in Jeremiah, of that which is common to Obadiah and him (for the proofs of this, see ‘Caspari’, pp. 7, 8); and (2) that what is common to the two Prophets, not only forms an outwardly connected passage in Obadiah, whereas in Jeremiah it occurs in several unconnected passages of his prophecy (compare Obad. 1-8 with Jer. 49:7, 9,10; 14-16); but, as the exposition will show, that in Obadiah it is more closely connected, and apparently more original than in Jeremiah. But if it be a fact, as this unquestionably proves, that Obadiah’s prophecy is more original, and therefore older, than that of Jeremiah, Obadiah cannot have prophesied after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans, but must have prophesied before it, since Jeremiah’s prophecy against Edom belongs to the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim. See ‘Caspari’, p. 14, sqq., and ‘Grafs’ Jeremias, pp. 558—559, compared with p. 506 (‘Keil’, Die zwolf Kleinen Propheten, p. 243. ‘Introd’. to Obadiah).)…..
3. Another arbitrary assertion of the same recent criticism may also be specified here, in order that it may be converted to good by reminding us of another remarkable attribute of Jeremiah’s character, which renders it specially instructive and exemplary to the champions of the truth in days of public trial and distress. It has been alleged, that some of the prophetic portions of Holy Scripture which foretell the sufferings of Christ, especially the fifty-third (53rd) chapter of Isaiah, and the sixty-ninth (69th) Psalm, have no reference to Jesus of Nazareth, but were fulfilled in the person of Jeremiah. True it is, that the language of that fifty-third (53rd) chapter of Isaiah, and of that sixty-ninth (69th) Psalm, had a remarkable applicability to Jeremiah. But why was this? Because Jeremiah was not only a prophet, but a prophecy. Jeremiah is among the prophets what Job is among the patriarchs. Jeremiah is the ‘suffering’ prophet. He was a signal type of “the Man of sorrows.” He was a figure of Him Who suffered on the cross, and Who conquered by suffering. When therefore we read in Isaiah, “He is brought as a lamb to the slaughter;” and when we hear Jeremiah saying, “I was like a lamb brought to the slaughter; ” and when we hear the Psalmist say, “I sink in deep mire where is no standing” and “let not the pit shut her mouth upon me;” and when we read of Jeremiah the prophet, that “they took him and cast him into the dungeon or rather the pit (it is the same word in the original as in the Psalm, and is repeated no less than six times in the seven verses of that narrative concerning Jeremiah), “and they let down Jeremiah with cords, and in the pit there was no water, but mire; so Jeremiah sank in mire:” when we hear and read such words as these, and many others in Jeremiah’s history, and when also we remember that Jeremiah was cast into the pit and left to die there (as far as they were concerned) by the rulers of Jerusalem, and was drawn out of the pit by a Gentile stranger, the Ethiopian eunuch Ebed-melech (as the Gospel of Christ, rejected and put to death by the Jews, was gladly received by the Gentiles), we are brought to the conclusion, which is confirmed by countless incidents in Jeremiah’s life, that in his history we have a foreshadowing of the Gospel, and that in seeing the struggles of Jeremiah standing alone against princes, prophets, priests, and people, and contending as a faithful witness of the truth, amid scorn, calumny, and insult, injury and violence; and foretelling the fall of Jerusalem in his prophecies, and yet weeping amid its ruins in his Lamentations, we have a vision of the agony in Gethsemane, and of the arraignment in the hall of Caiaphas, and of the precious death on Calvary, of Him Who shed tears of compassion over Jerusalem, and Who shed His Blood upon the Cross, to redeem her from her sins.” }}

Chronological Table to Illustrate Jeremiah & Ezekiel.
[For Earlier Chronology, see Intr. to Kings, p. xx; and for later, see Intr. to Ezra, p. 295. Received Chronolgy is lowered by two years in the following Table, in accordance with the results of recent investigations.]
B.C.: Judah. Assyria & Babylon. Egypt. Other Nations. (Table: B.C. 650 – 600 – 550 – 500 = 150 Yrs.)
650}|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|{500
650:
639: Josiah Comes to Throne & Reigns 31 Years. Religious Reformation. (Saracus, Last King of Assyria).
633: (Median Empire Founded by Cyaxares).
627: Jeremiah Prophesies at Jerusalem 40 Years.
625: Habakkuk & Zephaniah Prophesy in Reign of Josiah. (Nabo-Polassar Founds Babylonian Empire; & with Cyaxares Takes Nineveh before the year B.C. 610.). (Alyattes, King of Lydia.).
616: (Tarquinius Priscus at Rome.).
615: (Media & Lydia; War of Cyaxares & Alyattes Ended by Mediation of Nabo-Polassar.).
610: (Neko (or Pharaoh Necho) Marches Against Babylonia.).
608: Josiah is Killed in Battle Against Pharaoh Necho. Jehoahaz, or Shallum, Succeeds Josiah, & Reigns 3 Months, & is Deposed by Pharaoh Necho, & Dies in Egypt. Jehoiakim is Set Up by Pharaoh Necho, & Reigns 11 Years.
605: Jeremiah’s Prophecy of 70 Years’ Captivity, & of 70 Years’ Supremacy of Babylon, Ending B.C. Nebuchadnezzar Takes Jerusalem, & Carries Away Sacred Vessels of Temple to Babylon. 1st Captivity of Judah. (Nebuchadnezzar sent Against Necho by his Father Nabo-Polassar, & Defeats him in Battle of Carchemish; & Succeeds his Father on Throne of Babylon.).
604: Jeremiah’s Roll Read.
603: (Daniel at Babylon.).
602: Jehoiakim Revolts from Nebuchadnezzar.
600:
599: (Cyaxares Aids Nebuchadnezzar.).
598: Nebuchadnezzarn Marches Against Jerusalem; Resumes Siege of Tyre, & thence Returns to Jerusalem.
597: Jehoiachin, Jeconiah,or Conlah, Succeeds Jehoiakim, & Reigns 3 Months. Jerusalem Again Taken. King Jehoiachin (Jeconiah or Coniah) is Deposed by Nebuchadnezzar. Great Captivity. Ezekiel Carried Captive to Babylon with Jehoiachin. King Zedekiah Succeeds & Reigns 11 Years.
594: (Solon at Athens.)
593: Jeremiah’s prophecy against Babylon. (Ezekiel’s Vision of Temple, Holy City, & Holy Land.) (Psammetichus II.) (Astyages King of Media.)
588: Jerusalem Besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. (Nebuchadnezzar Marches Against Jerusalem & Against Egypt.) (Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) Takes Gaza, but Retreats before Nebuchadnezzar.)
587: Jerusalem’s Vain Hope of Relief from Egypt (Pharaoh Hophra).
586: Jerusalem is Taken & Destroyed. End of kingdom of Judah. Zedekiah is Carried to Babylon, where he Dies. Gedaliah, Son of Ahikam, is Set Up as Governor by Babylonians. Gedaliah is Treacherously Murdered by Ishmael, Son of Nethaniah, of Seed Royal. Jeremiah & Other Jews Go into Egypt.
585: (Nebuchadnezzar Takes Tyre.)
582: Further Captivity by Nebuzar¬adan, Generalissimo of Babylon.
581: (Nebuchadnezzar Overruns Egypt.) (Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) Defeated by Nebuchadnezzar.)
572: (Destroys Tyre.)
570: (2nd Invasion of Egypt.)
569: (Madness of Nebuchadnezzar?) (Amasis.)
568: (Croesus King of Lydia.)
561: Jehoiachin, at Babylon, is Released. (Evil Merodach.)
560: (Epoch of Greek Tyrants. Pisistratus at Athens.)
559: (Neriglissar.)
558: (Cyrus Deposes Astyages.)
556: (Laborosoarchod.) (Alliance of Babylon, Egypt, & Lydia.)
555: (Nabonedus.)
554: (Cyrus Conquers Lydia.)
550:
539: Daniel’s Dream of Four Beasts. (Nabonedus Associates Belshazzar as Viceroy with himself. Cyrus Defeats Nabonedus. Belshazzar’s Feast. Babylon Taken by Cyrus. Belshazzar Slain.)
538 Daniel’s Vision at Shushan of Ram & He-Goat. Daniel’s Prophecy of Seventy (70) Weeks. (Darius Median. Daniel Governor of Babylon. Edict of Cyrus (in his 1st Year when Sole Monarch) for Restoration of Jews & Rebuilding of Temple.)
536: Return of Jews to Jerusalem.
500:

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Holy Bible According to Authorized Version(A.D. 1611). Explanatory & Critical Commentary, & Revision of Translation, by Bishops & Other Clergy of Anglican Church; Edited by F.C. Cook. M.A., Canon of Exeter, Preacher at Lincoln’s Inn, Chaplain in Ordinary to Queen. Vol. 5. Isaiah – Jeremiah – Lamentations. (1883) gs. Jeremiah & Lamentations: Introduction, Commentary & Critical Notes, by R. Payne Smith, D.D., Dean of Canterbury.

Contents. Commentary & Critical Notes.
Introductory: 1st Prophecy: ‘Call of Jeremiah’.
Jeremiah’s 2nd Prophecy: ‘Expostulation with Israel because of Idolatry’.
His 3rd Prophecy: ‘Call to Repentance’.
Jeremiah’s 4th Prophecy, or Group of Prophecies: ‘God’s Judgment upon Unrepentant’.
2nd Portion of Jeremiah’s 4th Group of Prophecies: 5th: ‘Sermon in Temple upon Fast-Day’.
Jeremiah’s 6th Prophecy: ‘Curse of Broken Covenant’.
His 7th Prophecy: ‘Linen Girdle’.
His 8th Prophecy: ‘Drought’.
His 9th Prophecy: ‘Punishment of Judah by Pestilence & Exile’.
His 10th Prophecy: ‘Sabbath’.
His 11th Prophecy: ‘Potter’.
His 12th Prophecy: ‘Broken Vessel, with Events which Followed thereon’.
His 13th Prophecy: ‘Zedekiah’s Roll’.
His 14th Prophecy: ‘Wine-cup of Fury’.
His 15th Prophecy: ‘Prophet in Danger of Death’ .
His 16th Prophecy: ‘Babylonian Yoke’.
His 17th Prophecy: ‘Israel’s Hope’.
His 18th Prophecy: ‘Fate of Zedekiah, & Jeremiah’s Rebuke of People for Breaking Faith with Their Slaves’.
Emancipation of Hebrew Slaves.
Jeremiah’s 19th Prophecy: ‘Rechabites’.
Historical Events Connected with Collection of Jeremiah’s Prophecies into Volume, & with His Personal History Immediately Before & After siege of Jerusalem: 20th: (1) ‘Burning of the Roll’. (2) ‘Events During Siege of Jerusalem’. (3) ‘Capture of Jerusalem’. (4) ‘Jeremiah’s History After Capture of Jerusalem’.
Baruch’s Disappointment. Prophecies Against Nations.
Destruction of Babylon & Return of Israel From Captivity.
Historical Appendix to Prophecies of Jeremiah.

Book of Prophet Jeremiah: 1:1-3:
1: ‘The words of Jeremiah’: The usual title of the prophetical books, occurring no less than eight times, is The Word of the Lord: on the contrary the two books of Amos and Jeremiah are called the words of those prophets, probably, as Kimchi, Abravanel, and other Jewish commentators suggest, because they contain not merely prophecies, but also the record of much which belongs to the personal history of the writers. In Hebrew historical works are regularly called ‘the words’, rendered ‘acts’ in 1st Kngs 11:41; 2nd Chron. 23:18; but ‘book’ thrice in 1st Chron. 29:29. So also “The Life of Moses,” quoted by Bp Pearson on the Creed, is called in the original (dbry Mshh), the words of Moses. More exactly, therefore, this title might be translated the life or acts of Jeremiah. Graf however and others understand by it a collection of the prophecies of Jeremiah, supposing the phrase to be taken from ch. 36:10, but the other view is more in accordance with Hebrew idiom.
‘Jeremiah’: Most commentators render this name ‘Jehovah shall throw down’, in proof of which Hengstenberg refers to Exod. 15:1, where the verb to throw down is ‘ramah’. A name so ill-omened would scarcely have been in such common use, for seven or eight Jeremiahs are mentioned in the Bible, and a more reasonable derivation is from ‘ram’, high, giving as the meaning ‘God exalteth’.
‘the son of Hilkiah’: As the proper names of the Jews were comparatively few, their bearers were further distinguisheq by the addition of the father’s name. Could we keep the Hebrew form ben-Hilkiah, we should escape the danger of applying to the father what belongs to the son, and of inaccuracies such as occur in the translation of the rest of the verse. This Hilkiah may have been the high-priest of that name. See Introduc¬ tion, p. 311.
‘of the priests that’ were: More correctly, who was, ‘i.e.’ dwelt. The right meaning is that Jeremiah was a priest, who dwelt at Anathoth. The Vulgate makes the same mistake as the A.V., but the LXX. and the Targum render it correctly. The Syriac, like the Hebr., is ambiguous, the pronoun being indeclinable, and neither language using a copula. Hitzig supports the rendering of the A.V.
2: ‘To whom the word of the LORD came’: The simple Hebr. phrase is ‘to whom the word of the Lord was’; but as the verb ‘to be’ is seldom in Hebr. a mere copula, but has a strong meaning, signifying ‘to abide, to exist’, the phrase implies that Jeremiah possessed God’s word from that time onward, not fitfully as coming and going, but constantly.
‘the thirteenth (13th) year of his reign’: According to the ordinary reckoning this would be B.C. 629, but if the Ptolemaic canon is right in putting the capture of Jerusalem in B.C. 586, it would be two years later, namely B.C. 627. According however to the Assyrian chronology it would be B.C. 608. It was the year after that in which Josiah began his reforms.
3: ‘It came also’: Literally, And it was. In the subsequent enumeration of the kings in whose time Jeremiah prophesied, two are omitted, Jehoahaz and Jeconiah, probably on account of the shortness of their reigns. The whole period contained in the verse is no less than forty (40) years and six (6) months, namely, eighteen (18) years under Josiah, two periods of eleven (11) years each under Jehoiakim and Zedekiah, and three (3)
months under each of the omitted kings Jehoahaz and Jeconiah. Few prophets were God’s witnesses for so long a period, and under such trying circumstances, as Jeremiah.
‘in the fifth (5th) month’: The capture of Jerusalem took place in tbe fourth (4th) month, but its destruction in the fifth (5th), called Ab (2nd Kng. 25:3, 8), the ninth (9th) day of which was subsequently kept as a fast-day in remembrance of this sad event (Zech. 7:3).

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Book of Prophet Jeremiah, Revised Translation, Introduction & Short Explanations. Rev. Samuel Rolles Driver, DD. Regius Prof.Hebrew & Canon of Christ Church, Oxford; etc. (1907).gs [This volume of Driver’s labor on the Book of Jeremiah in his Translation, Notes & Comments is highly recommended for the serious student of the Scriptures.]

{ “Preface: The aim of the present volume is to assist an ordinary educated reader to read the Book of Jeremiah intelligently, and to understand the gist and scope of its different parts. For this purpose I have given a revised translation of the Book, in the general style of the Authorized Version, as clear and exact as English idiom would permit; the text has been divided into paragraphs, with headings prefixed to each, summarizing the argument or narrative which follows; and a minimum of short notes has been added sometimes illustrating from other passages the terms used, more frequently explaining briefly historical or other allusions, difficult passages (so far as this was possible), technical expressions, and other things not likely to be familiar to any but special students. It is from being unacquainted with things such as these, that the writings of the prophets are, it is to be feared, found by many readers to be frequently difficult to understand, and consequently unattractive. A few words are, however, often all that is required to remove the obscurity, and render them intelligible. It is especially of importance, if the prophets’ writings are to be properly understood, that attention should be paid to the history and circumstances of the age which gave them birth. For the prophets, however far they rose above the mass of their contemporaries in spirituality and moral force, were essentially, one and all, the children of their time: they spoke out of, and to, the circumstances of their own time ; it was the aim of their life to guide, to reform, or to encourage, as the case might be, their countrymen among whom they lived; and their writings reflect throughout the impression which the movements and circumstances of their own age made upon them. I have accordingly made it my endeavour to acquaint the reader, at least in outline, with the history and circumstances of Jeremiah’s age; and to help him to understand, wherever this was possible, the bearing of his various prophecies upon the events or circumstances which called them forth. Although, however, the volume is intended primarily for readers unacquainted with Hebrew, I have not been forgetful of the needs of Hebrew students; and both the translation, and also the explanatory notes upon some of the renderings at the end of the volume, will, I hope, be found interesting and useful by them. A detailed discussion of exegetical or other difficulties (except in so far as some of them form the subject of the notes just referred to), as also of the deeper literary problems presented by the Book of Jeremiah, I have considered to lie beyond the scope of the present volume. S. R. Driver. Aug. 25, 1906.” }

Book of Jeremiah: Translation & Notes: (Chapters & Verses):
(1): Jeremiah’s Call.
(2-6): Condition & Prospects of Judah under Josiah.
(7-9:26; 10:17-25): Judah’ s Persistent Disregard of Yahweh, & Coming Doom.
(10:1-16): Israel not to Dread Gods of Heathen.
(11:1-12:6): Obedience to Yahweh Inculcated; Consequences of People’s Return to Sins of Their Forefathers; Plot of Men of Anathoth Against Jeremiah’s Life, & Prophet’s Complaint at Their Escape from Justice.
(12:7-17): Lamentation on Desolation of Judah by its Neighbours.
(13): Judah’s Unworthiness, & Approaching Doom, Taught by Symbolism of Marred Waistcloth, & Parable of Filled Wine-Jar.
(14-15): Dialogue between Prophet & Yahweh, Arising out of Drought, on (1) Future Fate of Judah, & (2) Prophets Personal Trials.
(16:1-17:18): Further Predictions of Coming Disaster.
(17:19-27): Exhortation to Observe Sabbath.
(18): Lesson from Potter. Jeremiah’s Predictions of Misfortune Lead to Plots being Formed Against His Life.
(19-20): Lesson of Broken Cruse, & its Consequences to Jeremiah.
(21): Jeremiah declares to Zedekiah Issue of Seige of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans.
(22-24): Jeremiah’s Judgement on Kings & Prophets of His Time: On Kings (22:1-23:8). On Prophets (23:9-40).
(24): Vision of Two Baskets of Figs.
(25): Babylonian Supremacy Foretold.
(26): Jeremiah, Warning People: Temple is likely to Share Fate of Shiloh, Escapes Narrowly with His Life.
(27-29): No Prospect of Speedy End of Babylonian Supremacy: Yoke of King of Babylon Not Yet to be Broken
(27). No Hope of Immediate Restoration of Sacred Vessels (28). Jeremiah’s Letter to Exiles in Babylonia, Bidding Them Dwell Contentedly in Their New Home, & Not Listen to Prophets who Deluded Them with Hopes of Speedy Return to Judah (29).
(30-33): Prophecies & Promises of Restoration.
(34): People Rebuked by Jeremiah for having Promised to Emancipate Their Hebrew Slaves, & then Refusing to Do so.
(35): Lesson from Rechabites.
(36): How Jeremiah’s Prophecies were First Committed to Writing.
(37:1-38:28a): Incidents in Jeremiah’s Life During Siege of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans.
(38:28b-39): Capture of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans, & Favour shewn to Jeremiah Afterwards.
(40-44): Events in Jeremiah’s Life After Fall of Jerusalem: Gedaliah made Governor of Judah; Jeremiah & Other Jews Join him at Mizpah; His Assassination by Ishmael (40-41). Jeremiah Compelled by Other Jews to Accompany Them into Egypt; His Prediction of Invasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar (42-43). He Rebukes the Jews Resident in Egypt forb Their Idolatries & Threatens Them with Disaster (44).
(45): Jeremiah’s Prophecy to Baruch.
(46-51): Prophecies Against Nations: On Egypt (46:2-26). On Philistines (47). On Moab (48). On Ammonites
(49:1-6). On Edom (49:7-22). On Damascus (49:23-27). On Kedar & Hazor (49:28-33). On Elam (49:34-39).
On Babylon (50:1-51:58). Message Sent by Jeremiah to Babylon in 4th Year or Zedekiah (51:59-64).
(52): Capture of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans, & Exile of its Inhabitants.

Chronological Table: 100 Years: B.C. 639-537:
‘Josiah’s’ Accession-Year (639) & His 1st ‘Full’ Year (638). ‘Jehoahaz’ & ‘Jehoiakim’ Reign (608). Jehoiakim Tributary to Nebuchadnezzar (c. 600-598). Jehoiachin Reign (597). Zedekiah’s Accession-Year (597). Capture of Babylon by Cyrus (538). Return of Exiles under Zerubbabel (537).

Driver’s Summary & Outline of Jeremiah: (Chapters & Verses):

(1): Jeremiah’s call, in Josiah’s thirteenth year (B.C. 626). (*V. 2, fixing a specific date, forms the title to ch. 1. V. 3 must be an addition by a later hand, intended to extend the terms of v. 2, –though with disregard of prophecies belonging to the period between the thirteenth (13th) year of Josiah (B.C. 626) and the end of his reign (B.C. 608),– so as to include all the prophecies delivered by Jeremiah down to the time of the fall of Jerusalem, B.C. 586 (2nd Kings 25:8, 11).) The vision of Jeremiah’s call to be a prophet of Yahweh. A vision of reassurance for the prophet: Yahweh’s word, though the time may seem long, will not fail of its fulfilment. A vision showing that the judgement will break upon Judah from the north. Jeremiah is encouraged to deliver his message fearlessly, in spite of the opposition which he will provoke by it.

(2-6): The condition and prospects of Judah under Josiah, probably during the years between the prophets call (B.C. 626) and shortly after Josiah’s reformation (B.C. 620). (These chapters contain presumably Jeremiah’s first prophetical discourses, as they were reproduced in a written form in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiakim (B.C. 603). We learn, namely, from ch. 36, that none of Jeremiah’s prophecies were committed to writing till the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim (B.C. 604); and also that when, in the following year, the king burnt the roll, and it was rewritten by Jeremiah, it was rewritten ‘with additions’ (36:32). Although, therefore, these chapters no doubt, as a whole, reproduce the discourses delivered between 626 and c. 620, it is quite possible that they do not throughout reproduce them ‘verbatim’, but that they are coloured in parts by allusions to the course of subsequent events.)
(1): (2:1-4:4). (Probably shortly after B.C. 626.) The Verdict on Israel’s History. The devotion and happiness of Israel’s youth. Israel’s ingratitude and defection. The bitter consequences of Israel’s unfaithfulness. Israel’s inveterate propensity to idolatry. These gods will give no help in time of need. Israel’s persistent refusal to listen to her prophets. Judah compared to a faithless wife, whose promises of amendment are but as empty words. Judah contrasted unfavourably with Israel. (Vv. 6-18 (in which Judah and Israel are ‘contrasted’) seem to introduce a thought foreign both to 2:1-3:5, and to 3:19-4:4; and have probably been introduced here from a different context.) (* ‘Judah’: So Sept. The Heb. text has, ‘her faithless sister Judah’, which suggests an incorrect sense, as the pronoun can only naturally be understood of the subject in v. 9, which, however, is in fact not Israel, but Judah.) An offer of pardon and restoration, addressed to Israel. The future glory of Jerusalem, in which Judah, as well as Israel, is ultimately to share. How Yahweh’s gracious purpose towards His people had been frustrated (the sequel to 3:1-5). The prophet pictures Judah returning in penitence to Yahweh. Yahweh’s reply to Judah’s words: if Judah is truly penitent, the heathen will be brought to own Yahweh as their God. Let Judah begin a new life, before it is too late.
(2): (4:5-6:30). The approaching judgement. The foe is at the door; and Judah’s heedlessness and sin are working out their natural consequences. (The prominence in this prophecy of the foe from the north (cf. 4:6; 6:1, 22) makes it probable that it is somewhat later than 2:1-4:5, in which no such specific danger is referred to. The foe whom Jeremiah had in mind when he originally delivered the prophecy was in all probability the Scythians, a wild and fierce people, whose proper home was on the north of the Crimea, but who often made predatory incursions into distant parts, and who actually, Herodotus tells us (i. 105-8) overran Western Asia at about 625 B.C., and advanced through Palestine as far as Ashkelon, intending to invade Egypt. When, however, the prophecy was committed to writing, and, as it were, re-edited, in 604 (see above, p. 5), the descriptions were probably intended to refer to the Chaldaeans, who in the interval had become Judah’s most formidable enemy, the phraseology being possibly modified in parts, so as to be more suitable: the ‘lion’ and ‘destroyer of nations’ in 6:7, for instance, are terms more applicable to an individual leader like Nebuchadnezzar than to a horde.) A foe from the north is on his way, and will ere long fill the country with dismay. Description of the enemy’s approach. The prophet, speaking in the people’s name, describes the terror which thrills through him at the prospect of war. The reason of these woes. The prophet’s vision of the desolation about to fall upon Judah. (*’formless and empty’: The two words found in Gen. 1:2: cf. Isa. 34:11 ‘and he shall stretch over it (Edom) the line of formlessness, and the plummet of emptiness.’) Judah’s doom is irrevocable; no arts or blandishments will avail to divert the invader. Gladly would Yahweh have pardoned, had the nation shown itself worthy of forgiveness; but all, high and low alike, are corrupt. Let the appointed ministers of judgement, then, complete their work. The moral cause of the coming disaster; prophet and priest unite in the furtherance of evil. Description of the danger as drawing nearer. The completeness of the ruin. The cause in the corruption of the people. In vain has Israel been warned beforehand by its prophets. Renewed description of the invader (cf. v. 5:15-17). Jeremiah’s report on the character of the people; all his efforts to refine them had been in vain. (*’separated’: A fig. description of the vain efforts made by the prophet to remove the evil elements from his people. In refining, the alloy containing the gold or silver is mixed with lead, and fused in a furnace on a vessel of earth or bone-ash: a current of air is turned upon the molten mass (not upon the ‘fire’); the lead then oxidizes, and acting as a flux, carries away the alloy, leaving the gold or silver pure (J. Napier, ‘The Ancient Workers in Metal’, 1856, pp. 20, 23). In the case here imagined by the prophet, so inextricably is the alloy mixed with the silver, that, though the bellows blow, and the lead is oxidized in the heat, no purification is effected: only impure silver remains.)

(7-10): (except 10:1-16): (A group of prophecies belonging probably to the early years (B.C. 608-5) of Jehoiakim’s reign.)
(1): (7:1-28). Not the presence of Yahweh’s Temple in Judah, but amendment of life and obedience to Yahweh’s moral commands, is the condition of His favour and protection. (The occasion seems to be the same as that of 26:1-9, which is assigned (v. 1 ) to the ‘beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim’ (B.C. 608-7).) Yahweh threatens to do to His temple in Jerusalem as He did formerly to His Temple at Shiloh. Yahweh will accept no intercession on behalf of His people; for it is wholly given to idolatry. Yahweh has demanded of His people not sacrifice, but loyalty to Himself, and obedience to His moral commands. But to these demands Israel has never responded. (*The words must be supposed to be spoken with irony and contempt. The burnt-offering was not eaten by the worshipper, but only parts of the peace-offering. Yahweh however cares so little for either, as offered by these idolatrous Israelites, that they may, if they please, eat both together; they are nothing really sacred, but only ‘flesh.’) (* When Jeremiah wrote, the priestly parts of the Pent. had in all probability not yet been combined with the rest of the Pentateuch, and the reference here is to the latter. Sacrifices are indeed enjoined in JE (Ex. 23:14-19), and Deuteronomy: but little stress is laid upon them; and the ‘promises’ (as here, ‘in order that it may be well with you’) are annexed more generally to loyalty to Yahweh and the refusal to follow after other gods. See Ex. 15:26; 19:5, 6; 23:21 ff.; Deut. 28:1,2; and cf. Deut. 4:40, v. 33 (which particularly resembles v. 23’b’ here), 6:3, 18; also 10:12-13.) Nor will the people respond to them now.
(2): (7:29-8:3). Let the nation mourn over the idolatry which has caused Yahweh to cast off His people. A terrible judgement will overtake the people. Even the bones of the buried Israelites will suffer indignities: their graves will be opened and desecrated by the enemy.
(3): (8:4-17). Judah’s utter refusal to repent and return to Yahweh. (*Or, ‘hath made’ (it) ‘of falsehood’. The priests gave ‘törah’, or ‘direction,’ on cases. The retribution of ceremonial or other usage submitted to them (Deut. 24:8 [where ‘teach’ means ‘direct how to act’], Hag. 2:11-13 [render in v. 11 ‘Ask, now, ‘direction’ of the priests’]); and they declare here that they possess the legitimate traditional body of directions, or ‘law,’ respecting religious practice (cf. 2:8, 18:18). Jeremiah replies that the scribes have falsified this body of directions, –exactly in what way we do not know: perhaps by claiming to have Yahweh’s sanction for practices or ceremonial usages, of which in reality He did not approve.) which will fall upon them. Another description of the approach of the invader from the north.
(4): (8:18-9:22; 10:17-25). Jeremiah bewails the desperate condition and prospects of his country. The corruption of society in Judah. The judgement upon this corruption. The desolation destined shortly to come upon Judah. The bitter consequences of Judah’s abandonment of Yahweh. Let the mourning women come, and chant a dirge over Judah’s fall. (9:23-26): (Two short prophetic utterances, in no apparent connexion with the context, and probably (like 3:6-18) misplaced.) Only the right knowledge of Yahweh, and of His will for men, will profit a man. If Judah has only the circumcision of the flesh, it will be treated by Yahweh as no better than other nations. (10:1-16): No need to dread the gods of the heathen. (This section (10:1-16) interrupts the connexion (for 10:17-25 carries on the train of thought of 9:1-22); and in all probability is the work not of Jeremiah himself, but of some later prophet, probably of one living in the latter part of the Babylonian captivity, when the exiles were in danger of being overawed by the elaborate idol-worship carried on by the Babylonians around them. Cf. the similar descriptions and arguments of the second Isaiah, Is. 40:19-22; 41:7, 29; 44:9-20; 44:5-7.) (9:26-10:6): Let Israel not be tempted to stand in awe of the idols of the heathen. An idol is a thing of nought: it is Yahweh who made heaven and earth. (10:17-25): (Continuation of 9:22). The prophet sees in spirit the capital invested by the foe, and bids the inhabitants prepare to depart into exile. Jeremiah, speaking in the name of the people, prays for a mitigation of the judgement.

(11:1-12:6): (11:1-8). (The date is apparently shortly after the discovery of Deuteronomy in Josiah’s 18th year (B.C. 621).) Jeremiah is instructed to exhort the people to live in accordance with the Deuteronomic Law. Jeremiah instructed again to exhort the people to like effect, and to remind them of the consequences of disobedience. (11:9-17). (This part of the chapter belongs probably to the reign of Jehoiakim, when it had become clear (v. 10) that Josiah’s reformation had led to no lasting results.) The present generation has returned to the sins of their forefathers, and the prophet therefore reaffirms against them the sentence of judgement. (* Viz. after the reformation (2nd Kings 23), following the discovery of the ‘Book of the Law’ (i.e. the discourses of Deuteronomy) in Josiah’s eighteenth year, B.C. 621 (2nd Kings 22).) Yahweh will accept no intercession on behalf of His people; and hypocritical service will not avail to avert the doom. (11:18-12:6) Jeremiah’s discovery of a plot formed against his life by the men of his native place, Anathoth; and the judgement pronounced by him upon them in consequence. Jeremiah is surprised at the prosperity enjoyed by the wicked; and demands upon the conspirators summary vengeance. His impatience is rebuked: he may have in the future still greater trials to endure.

(12:7-17): (The prophecy dates probably from c. 598 B.C., when, after Jehoiakim’s revolt from Nebuchadnezzar, the territory of Judah was overrun by bands of Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites (2nd Kings 24:1,2).) A lamentation on the desolation of Judah by its evil-disposed neighbours (v. 14). (The speaker is Yahweh; and the sorrow and reluctance with which He gives up His heritage are pathetically depicted.) Judah’s evil-disposed neighbours will be taken into exile; but if they adopt from the heart Judah’s religion, they mll be restored to their own lands.

(13): (Vv. 18,19 belong clearly to the reign of Jehoiachin (B.C. 597), the rest of the chapter dates, probably, from that of Jehoiakim (B.C. 608-597).) Jeremiah performs a symbolical act, illustrating the corrupt condition of the people, and its consequences. Explanation of the symbolical act. A parable declaring the disaster about to fall upon Judah. Take this message to heart betimes. A lamentation on the approaching fate of Jehoiachin (B.C. 597), and his Queen-mother, Nehushta. The prophet laments the disaster which the sins of Jerusalem are bringing upon her.

(14-15): A dialogue between the prophet and Yahweh, arising out of a drought in Judah. The distress of men and animals occasioned by the drought. The prophet, interpreting the drought as a sign of Yahweh’s anger, utters a confession and supplication in the name of his people. Yahweh’s reply: He will accept no intercession on behalf of the people. Jeremiah endeavours to excuse the people, laying the blame upon their prophets. Yahweh replies again: the prophets to whom Jeremiah refers have spoken lies in His name: and the doom of Jerusalem will not be deferred. Jeremiah, in more beseeching tones, renews his supplication and confession in the name of his people. The prophet’s intercession is rejected even more decisively than before: the fate of Judah is sealed. Jeremiah laments the hard fate which has made him, through the message of evil which he bears, an object of ill-will to all men. Yahweh reassures him: The time will come when his enemies, crushed by the Chaldaean power, and with exile imminent before them, will come to implore his help. Jeremiah entreats Yahweh to interpose on his behalf: why should he be persecuted for having delivered his message faithfully? Yahweh’s final reply. Jeremiah, if he desires happiness and success, must turn back from following the false path of distrust and despair.

(16:1-17:18): Further predictions of the coming disaster; Jeremiah is not to be the father of a family: for a terrible end will ere long overtake the families of Judah. He is to take no part in either the domestic sorrows or the domestic joys of his people: for a time is coming in which there will be no place for either. The reason for these threatened judgements is the people’s idolatry. A promise of ultimate restoration. (The two following verses recur (with slight verbal differences) in 23:7,8, where they form a suitable close to the preceding prophecy. It is hardly possible that they can have originally stood here at all; for the context, on both sides, relates to Judah’s approaching exile, and vv. 16-18 continue the line of thought of vv. 10-13.) The fate which ere long will overtake the people. (Continuation of w. 10-13.) Yahweh is the prophet’s hope and strength; and the time will come when He will be recognized, even by the heathen, as the true God. Meanwhile Judah will be taught by Yahweh, who it is that they have rejected. Judah’s sin is indelible; and will be followed by condign punishment. It is useless to trust in man: Yahweh, to those who put their trust in Him and act righteously (vv. 9-11), is the sole source of strength in the hour of trouble. The prophet prays to be delivered from those who taunt and persecute him.

(17:19-27): An exhortation to observe the Sabbath.

(18): A lesson from the potter. As the potter, if the need arises, can change the vessel that he is making into another, so can Yahweh deal with His people: if it repents, He can withdraw His threats; if it does evil, He can revoke His promises. Let Judah, then, repent, in order that the threatened doom may be averted. But Judah refuses to repent; and so the judgement originally pronounced is re-affirmed. The people, resenting this unwelcome conclusion of the prophet’s, propose to form plots against his life. Jeremiah’s prayer that their plots against him may be frustrated.

(19-20): The lesson of the broken cruse, and its consequences. (The date, to judge from the distinctness with which Babylon is mentioned (20:4-6), will be after Nebuchadnezzar’s victory at Carchemish (see on 25:1), though probably still in the reign of Jehoiakim, i.e. between 605 and 597 B.C.) Jeremiah, prophesying in the Valley of the son of Hinnom, teaches, by an effective symbolism, that the disaster, impending upon the nation, will be final and irretrievable. Jeremiah repeats in the court of the Temple the substance of what he had said in the Valley of the son of Hinnom. Pashhur, the superintendent of the Temple, has Jeremiah thrown into the stocks, on account of his predictions of disaster. After his release, Jeremiah again emphatically repeats his predictions, pointing them in particular against Pashhur himself. (*Pashhur and his friends represented a policy opposed to that of Jeremiah: they believed that fear of the Chaldaeans was groundless, and that with the help of Egypt Judah would be able to resist them successfully. The name here given to him is intended to describe partly the consternation of which he will be the centre, partly the consternation which he will experience himself, when the fatal consequences of his policy have become apparent to all in the fall of the city, and exile of the nation, at the hands of the Chaldaeans.) Jeremiah complains bitterly of his lot: he could not but give utterance to the Divine word burning within him, yet it had brought him nothing but hostility and misrepresentation. Nevertheless, he is sustained and encouraged by the conviction that Yahweh is with him, and will in the end grant him justice against his persecutors. A renewed outburst of grief and despair, which now wring from him the wish that he had never been born (cf. Job 3).

(21): Zedekiah, shortly after the Chaldaeans began to besiege Jerusalem (B.C. 588), inquires of Jeremiah respecting the issue of the siege. Jeremiah’s reply: the city will be delivered into the hands of the Chaldaeans. The only hope of safety is to submit to the Chaldaeans. (*The policy here inculcated by Jeremiah was due ultimately (cf. ch. 25 and the introduction to ch. 46) to his conviction of the role which the Chaldaeans were destined to play in history; but it seemed to many of his fellow-countrymen to be unpatriotic, and led shortly afterwards, indirectly, to his arrest and imprisonment (37:13 ff.), and to a demand for his death (38:2, 4 ff.).) A warning addressed to the royal house. Only by the strict observance of justice can the coming doom be averted. (Apparently a misplaced fragment. V. 12 is parallel in general thought to 22:3, 5, but is out of connexion with either 21:1-10 or 21:13-14.) Yahweh is against Jerusalem, and will punish her inhabitants for their wrong-doing. (A poetical epilogue to vv. 1-10.)

(22-23): Jeremiah’s judgement on the kings and prophets of his time.
(1) (22:1-23:8). The kings. Exhortation to the king and princes to do justice in the land (cf. 2nd Sam. 8:15, 1st Kings 10:9), if they desire its continued prosperity. A lament on the approaching fall of the house of David. Jehoahaz (2nd Kings 23:31-35), who succeeded Josiah, but after a reign of three months (B.C. 608) was taken captive by Pharaoh Necoh, and carried into Egypt, where he died. Jehoiakim (2nd Kings 23:36-24:7: B.C. 608-597), whose selfish and oppressive luxury is contrasted bitterly with the just rule of his father Josiah. Jehoiachin (2nd Kings 24:8-16; 25:27-30), who, after a reign of three months, was carried captive to Babylon, with the flower of the nation, by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 597). A denunciation of the unworthy rulers of Judah, and promise that Yahweh will raise up faithful rulers in their place. A promise of the ideal King, or ‘Messiah.’ Those now in exile will have a share in these promised blessings; and the memory of their deliverance will eclipse that of the Exodus from Egypt.
(2) (23:9-40). The prophets. The judgement to come upon both prophet and priest. Concerning the prophets. The prophets of Jerusalem are worse than were formerly the prophets of Samaria. A warning not to listen to their delusive promises of peace: Yahweh has not sent them. Yahweh’s purpose of judgement upon the wicked. (vv. 19-20 recur, with unimportant differences, in 30:23,24; and it is doubtful if they are here in their original place. If they are, they will be intended as an announcement of Yahweh’s real purpose, as contrasted with those made by the false prophets, v. 17. vv. 21-22 carry on the thought of vv. 16-18.) Yahweh sees and knows what these prophets do; and will punish them accordingly. The word massä (‘oracle,’ ‘burden’), which was applied mockingly to the prophecies of the true prophets, to be no more used in Judah. (To understand the following paragraph, it is necessary to remember the double sense of the Heb. ‘massä’. ‘Massä’ means something ‘lifted’ or ‘taken up’, i.e. either literally a burden, or fig. something ‘taken up’ upon the lips, a ‘solemn utterance’, or ‘oracle’ (see IRVm. of 2nd Kings 9:26 [where ‘uttered’ is lit. ‘took up’]. Is. 13:1; 15:1, etc.). It seems that on account of Jeremiah’s prophecies being so constantly of coming disaster, this term was applied to them derisively in the sense of ‘burden’, and hence it is forbidden to be in future used in Judah: people are not to ask a prophet, ‘What ‘massä’ have you? ‘ but ‘What hath Yahweh answered’? or ‘What hath Yahweh said?’ At the same time Yahweh retorts the people’s word upon themselves by saying, ‘Not My words, but you yourselves, are the “burden”; and I will no longer be burdened with you; I will cast you from Me!’)

(24): The different characters and destinies of the Jews taken into exile with Jehoiachin (B.C. 597), and of those remaining in the city with Zedekiah, as symbolized by two baskets of figs, seen by Jeremiah in a vision. (*In explanation of the contrast here drawn between the two sections of the people, see the Introduction, p. xxx Ezekiel agrees with Jeremiah in judging Zedekiah and the Jews left with him in Jerusalem unfavourably (ch. 12; 17:1-21; 21:25-27; ch. 22), and in fixing his hopes for the future upon the exiles with Jehoiachin (11:17-21; 20:37, 38).)

(25): The Babylonian supremacy foretold. (Jeremiah, in accordance with the view to which he was led by the defeat of the Egyptians at Carchemish, B.C. 605 (see the Introduction to ch. 46), that the Chaldaeans were destined to become the rulers of Western Asia, declares here, first that Judah and the surrounding nations (vv. 1-14) will be subject to them for seventy years (70), and afterwards that the then known world generally (vv. 15-38) will fall into their hands.) How the people had refused to listen to the warnings of the prophets. Judah, therefore, not less than the neighbouring countries, will be laid waste, by the Chaldaeans, and be subject to them for seventy years (70). (*vv. 12-14, or, in any case, vv. 13-14, cannot have formed part of the original prophecy of Jeremiah delivered in the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, but must have been added when the book of Jeremiah was completed, and stood substantially in its present form. For (1) vv. 15, 16 (notice ‘For’) give the reason, not for vv. 12-14 (the punishment, after seventy years, of Babylon), but for v. 11 (the subjugation of Judah and surrounding nations to Babylon); and (2) the terms of v. 13 presuppose the completion of Jeremiah’s book, and in particular the inclusion in it of the prophecy against Babylon in 50:1-51:58, which, in all probability, is not by Jeremiah at all, and, even if it is, was certainly not incorporated in the book of his prophecies till long after B.C. 604 (the short prophecy against Babylon in 51:59-64 is assigned by its title to the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah, B.C. 593). V. 12 is based most probably upon 29:10, and (at the end) upon 51:26, 62; v. 13 refers expressly to the prophecies against the nations contained in chaps, 46-51, and esp. to chaps. 50-51; v. 14 is based upon xxvii. 27:7’b’, and 50:29, 51:24. Cf. Davidson, in Hastings’ ‘Dict. of the Bible’, ii. p. 574.) Jeremiah (in a vision) gives the cup of Yahweh’s fury to the nations to drink. A figurative and hyperbolical description of what Yahweh will accomplish in the world by the agency of the Chaldaeans. Let kings and nobles wail over the doom that is about to fall upon them.

(26): Jeremiah, warning the people publicly that, unless they mend their ways, the Temple will share the same fate which of old befel the sanctuary of Shiloh, escapes narrowly with his life. (The occasion is generally considered to be the same as that which forms the subject of ch. 7, ch. 7 reporting more fully what Jeremiah said, and this chapter describing at length what is not mentioned in ch. 7, the personal consequences to Jeremiah himself. V. 1 fixes the date to B.C. 608, or shortly after.) The warning addressed by Jeremiah to the people. Jeremiah is attacked on account of what he had said by the priests and prophets opposed to him. He is saved from death only by the intervention of the princes and the people, who endorse his plea that he has simply spoken as Yahweh had commanded him. Certain elders also recall the very different treatment accorded a century before to Micah, when he announced the coming destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple. Jeremiah thus escapes with his life; but Uriah, a prophet like-minded with him, falls under the displeasure of the king, and is put to death.

(27-29): (Jeremiah, on three separate occasions, insists that there is no prospect of a speedy deliverance from the yoke of the king of Babylon, or of a speedy return of the sacred vessels which Nebuchadnezzar had carried away with Jehoiachin in 597 to Babylon.)
(1) (27). The yoke of the king of Babylon not yet to be broken. (In the fourth (4th) year (see 28:1) of Zedekiah (B.C. 593), the kings of Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, Tyre, and Zidon, having invited Zedekiah to join them in revolting from Nebuchadnezzar, Jeremiah sends to warn them of the futility of making any such attempt.) The warning sent to the five kings. Jeremiah addresses a similar teaming to Zedekiah. The prophets who promise the speedy restoration of the sacred vessels delude the people with false hopes: even the vessels still left in Jerusalem will also be carried away, and restored only in a still undetermined future.
(2) (28). No hope of a speedy restoration of the sacred vessels. Hananiah, one of the prophets alluded to in ch. 27, announces that within two years the yoke of the Chaldaeans will be broken: the sacred vessels will then be restored, and the exiled Jews will return. (*For the restoration of various gold and silver bowls, etc., by Cyrus in 536, see Ezr. 1:7-11. The pillars, the brasen sea, and the bases (v. 19), were never restored, for these, being too heavy to be transported entire to Babylon, were broken up by the Chaldaeans before being removed from Jerusalem (52:17).) Jeremiah meets Hananiah’s promises with an emphatic contradiction.
(3) (29). The letter sent by Jeremiah to the exiles in Babylonia, exhorting them to settle down where they are, and not to listen to the prophets who promise them a speedy return to Judah. Settle down contentedly in your new home. Give no heed to the prophets who promise a speedy return to Judah. For no restoration will take place till the seventy (70) years of Babylonian domination are ended, when those now in exile with Jehoiachin will turn to Yahweh, and He will bring them back (cf. 24:5-7). For Zedekiah and the Jews left with him in Jerusalem are beyond hope of amendment, so that they will go into exile and remain there permanently (cf. 24:8-10). (*Vv. 16-20 are not in the Sept., and may not have formed part of Jeremiah’s original letter. The digression on the fate of the Jews in Jerusalem seems out of place in a letter of advice written to the exiles in Babylonia; and it is possible that, in the recension of his letter which found its place in the Heb. text of his book, it was not reproduced with literal exactness, but expanded in parts with additions taking account of the Jews in Jerusalem as well as of those already in exile.) But the false prophets in Babylonia, who fill you with vain hopes of restoration, will meet with an untimely end. (*This verse stands here in Lucian’s text of the Sept. (which contains vv. 16-20): in the ordinary text of the Sept. (which is without w. 16-20), also, it of course stands immediately before v. 21. In the Heb. text it stands before v. 16, where it yields no sense agreeable to the context (for it cannot give a reason for anything contained either in vv. 10-14 or In vv. 16-19); standing before vv. 21-23, it gives the reason why the exiles are to listen to what is said in these verses.) Shemaiah, one of the false prophets in Babylonia, displeased by this letter of Jeremiah’s, writes to Jerusalem, with the view of procuring the prophet’s arrest.

(30-33): Prophecies and promises of restoration.
(1) (30). Judah, though she has suffered greatly for her sins, will nevertheless be restored; her exiles will return, and Jerusalem will be rebuilt. A day of judgement is coming upon the world, out of which, however, Israel will be delivered. Israel, for her sins, has suffered greatly: ruin and exile have fallen upon her: but now Yahweh will heal her wounds, and she will be freed from her oppressors. The exiles will return, Jerusalem will be rebuilt, and again enjoy prosperity, under the rule of an independent prince of David’s line. The approach of the judgement upon the wicked.
(2) (31). A promise of restoration to the Israelites of the northern kingdom. The prophecy of the New Covenant. The territory of Ephraim to be again re-peopled and cultivated. Ephraim’s happy return from exile. The prophet hears in imagination Rachel, the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, bewailing from her grave near Ramah the exile of her sons: but Yahweh bids her stay her grief; there is still hope for her sons’ return. The ground of this hope is Ephraim’s penitence, which enables Yahweh to welcome his prodigal home with affection. Let exiled Ephraim, then, bethink herself of her journey homewards. Judah, also, will be restored, as well as Ephraim. Yahweh will then be watchful over His restored people; and will so transform the constitution of society that, whereas now the children suffer for their fathers’ sins, then the bitter consequences of sin will be confined to the sinner. The prophecy of the New Covenant. Israel, in the ideal future, is to be ruled, not by a system of observances imposed from without, but by a law written in the heart, a principle operative from within, filling all with the knowledge of Yahweh, and prompting all to ready and perfect obedience. Two solemn promises of the national permanence of Israel. Jerusalem will be rebuilt, even beyond its former limits, and be holy to Yahweh.
(3) (32). Jeremiah, in full confidence of his people’s restoration, redeems some land belonging to his family at Anathoth. (In the second year of the siege of Jerusalem (B.C. 587), Jeremiah’s cousin comes to him, offering him the redemption of some land belonging to him at Anathoth. Jeremiah, seeing in this a divine sign, or omen, that, though the exile of the nation was imminent, the Jews would still once again possess the soil of Benjamin and Judah, redeems the land, and takes special precautions to ensure the preservation of the title-deeds, vv. 1-15. In vv. 16-25 Jeremiah records how his heart afterwards misgave him and in vv. 26-44 how he was reassured by Yahweh.) Jeremiah redeems the land belonging to his cousin at Anathoth. Appearances were so strongly against such hopes, that Jeremiah’s heart misgave him; and he casts himself upon Yahweh in prayer. (*The double deed may perhaps be explained from a BabyIonian custom. Contracts stamped upon clay tablets have been found, namely, in Babylonia, enclosed in an envelope of clay, on the outside of which an exact duplicate of the contract was impressod (see an illustration in Maspero, ‘The Dawn of Civilization’, p. 732): if in course of time any disagreement arose, and it was suspected that the outside text had been tampered with, the envelope was broken in the presence of witnesses to see if the inside text agreed with it or not. Earthen jars containing such duplicate contracts have been excavated at Nippur (Peters, Nippur, ii. 198).) Appearances were so strongly against such hopes, that Jeremiah’s heart misgave him; and he casts himself upon Yahweh in prayer. Yahweh’s reply. Jerusalem has indeed abundantly merited the judgement now breaking upon it. Nevertheless, Yahweh will, as He has promised, bring back His people from their exile, and give them a new heart, to serve and please Him continually.
(4) (33). Further promises of future restoration. The land now desolate will then be re-inhabited; and the signs of joy and life will be manifest everywhere in it. A promise of the ideal king or ‘Messiah,’ and of the perpetual permanence both of the Davidic dynasty, and of the Levitical priesthood. (Vv. 14-15 are repeated, with slight variations, from 23:5-6. The entire section, vv. 14-26, is not in the Sept.) A renewed promise of the permanence of the Davidic dynasty, and the Levitical priesthood. Yahweh will never cast off His people, or bring to an end the rule of the seed of David.

(34): (Incidents during the siege of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans (B.C. 588-6).)
(1) Jeremiah declares to Zedekiah the issue of the siege, and the king’s own future fate.
(2) The people, when the siege began, had sworn solemnly to obey the law, and emancipate their Hebrew slaves, but had afterwards, when the siege was temporarily raised, disowned the obligation. Jeremiah rebukes them for their disrespect towards Yahweh, and breach of faith. Yahweh will emancipate them from His own service and protection unto destruction; and the Chaldaeans will ere long return, and take the city.

(35): Jeremiah and the Rechabites. (Towards the close of the reign of Jehoiakim, in consequence of the territory of Judah being overrun by marauding bands of Chaldaeans, Syrians, and others, the family of the Rechabites, who had hitherto lived a nomad life in tents, took refuge in Jerusalem; and Jeremiah, from the example of their staunch adherence to the precepts of their ancestor, points a lesson for his own countrymen.) (*The Rechabites were a subdivision of the Kenites (1st Chron. 2:55), a nomad tribe early associated with Israel, settled afterwords in the S. of Judah (Jud. 1:16, 1st Sam. 15:6, cf. 27:10).)

(36): (How Jeremiah’s prophecies were first committed to writing.) In the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim (B.C. 604), Jeremiah is commanded to write down all the prophecies which had been uttered by him during the past twenty-three (23) years. He dictates them accordingly to Baruch, and directs him to read them publicly in the Temple. In the following year Baruch reads the roll in the Temple. Some of the princes, hearing of its contents, have it read again to them selves, and resolve then to inform Jehoiakim about it. (*Heb. ‘the scribe’. The king’s ‘scribe,’ or, as we should say, ‘secretary’ (1st Kings 4:3 ‘al’., RVm.), was an important minister of state: see 1st Kings 4:3; 2nd Kings 12:10, Isa. 37:2. It was the secretary, Shaphan, here mentioned, who, 18 years before, brought and read Deuteronomy to Josiah, after it had been discovered by the high priest, Hilkiah, in the Temple: see 2nd Kings 23:3, 8, 9-11, 12, 14. Gemariah was the brother of Ahikam, who had befriended Jeremiah a few years previously (26:24).) Jehoiakim orders the roll to be brought and read before him. Enraged by its contents, he cuts it in pieces, and burns it in the fire. Jeremiah is commanded to rewrite the roll of his prophecies; and to announce to Jehoiakim the failure of his dynasty and his own ignominious death. The roll, with many additions, is rewritten by Baruch at Jeremiah’s dictation.

(37-38:28’a’): (The personal history of Jeremiah during the siege of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans (B.C. 588-6): his arrest on a charge of deserting to the enemy; his confinement, first in a dungeon in the house of Jonathan, the king’s secretary, then in the guard-court, after that, in an underground cistern, and lastly in the guard-court again; and his interviews with Zedekiah.) Introductory note on the accession and policy of Zedekiah (B.C. 597-586). The Chaldaeans being obliged to raise the siege, Jeremiah, in reply to an enquiry addressed to him by the king, declares that they will soon return and take the city. He is arrested as a deserter; and thrown into a dungeon in the house of Jonathan, the king’s secretary. Jeremiah tells Zedekiah that he will fall into the hands of the Chaldaeans. He is removed from the dungeon, and placed in honourable confinement in the guard-court, adjoining the royal palace. (*Shaphan, who was ‘secretary’ 17 years before, under Jehoiachin (36:10), was thus no longer in office. If he was not dead, he may have been carried off to Babylon with Jehoiachin and the other ministers in 597 (24:1).) Jeremiah is accused before Zedekiah of high treason; and cast into a disused underground cistern, in the house of one of the royal princes. Ebed-melech, a foreign eunuch employed in the palace, obtains permission from Zedekiah to remove Jeremiah from the cistern. Zedekiah again consults Jeremiah secretly; and is again told by him that his only hope of safety is to surrender Jerusalem to the Chaldaeans. Zedekiah enjoins Jeremiah not to say anything to the princes about the conversation which they had had together.

(38:28’b’-39:3, 14): The favour shown to Jeremiah by the Chaldaeans after the capture of Jerusalem. He is entrusted to the care of Gedaliah, son of his friend Ahikam (26:24), and allowed to retire to his own home. (The narrative is interrupted by particulars respecting the capture of the city, and incidents following it (39:1-2, 4-13: see the notes on vv. 1 and 4). (*Vv. 1-2 interrupt the connexion, –not only (in v. 1) going back to the beginning of the siege, but being inserted in the middle of a sentence,– in a manner which shows that they must originally have been a marginal gloss on the words ‘Jerusalem was taken,’ added to explain how this came about. In substance the verses are an abridgement of 2nd Kings 25:l-3’a’, 4’a’ (–Jer. 52:4-6’a’, 7’a’).) (*Vv. 4-13 are omitted in the Sept., probably rightly. Vv. 4-10, containing particulars of what happened after the capture of the city, –in fact (see 2nd Kings 25:8 –Jer. 52:12) a month afterwards,– are abridged from 2nd Kings 25:4 (second and following clauses), 5-7, 9-12, in the purer and more original text preserved in Jer. 52:7, 8-11, 13-16. The verses were probably (like vv. 1,2) inserted where they now stand, long after the rest of the narrative was completed. It is doubtful also whether vv. 11-13 form part of the original narrative here: not only are they also absent in the Sept., but v. 11 and v. 13 both attach badly to v. 3; Nebuzaradan, the principal officer in vv.11, 13, is not mentioned at all in v. 3, and Jer. 52:12 shows that he did not come to Jerusalem till a month after the city had been taken. What we expect to find after 38:28 is an account of what happened to Jeremiah after the capture of Jerusalem; and this is contained in 28:6; 39:3, 14.) (*Gedaliah was thus son of the Ahikam, who, some twenty (20) years before (26:24), had been instrumental in saving Jeremiah’s life.) Jeremiah, in Yahweh’s name, promises safety to Ebed-melech, who had rescued him from the cistern (38:7-13), in the day when Jerusalem is taken. (Vv. 15-18 form evidently a supplement to ch. 38. They relate to a period anterior in date to the capture of Jerusalem (39:1-14), while Jeremiah was confined in the guard-court (38:13, 28).)

(40-44): (Events in Jeremiah’s life after the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans. The appointment of Gedaliah as governor of Judah; his murder by Ishmael; Johanan and the other Jews with him oblige Jeremiah to migrate with them into Egypt.) Jeremiah is released by Nebuzaradan, and allowed to go where he pleases. He joins Gedaliah (whom Nebuchadnezzar had made governor of Judah) at Mizpah. Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, a member of the royal family, Johanan, the son of Kareah, and other Jews (including many who had been in exile), join Gedaliah at Mizpah. Johanan warns Gedaliah against Ishmael. Gedaliah is murdered in Mizpah by Ishmael. Seventy (70) men, journeying to Mizpah, are murdered by him likewise. Ishmael, taking forcibly with him the other refugees, starts to cross over to the Ammonites, but is overtaken by Johanan at Gibeon, and obliged to flee with the loss of his captives. Johanan and his companions, with the refugees recovered from Ishmael, withdraw to Bethlehem, intending eventually to find a home in Egypt. Johanan and the people with him consult Jeremiah, promising faithfully to do whatever he may tell them. Jeremiah, in Yahweh’ s name, earnestly dissuades them from migrating into Egypt, declaring that, if they do so, destruction will assuredly overtake them. Johanan and his companions refuse to listen to Jeremiah’s words; and proceed to Egypt, taking both Jeremiah and Baruch with them. Upon the arrival of the refugees at the border-city of Tahpanhes (Daphnae), Jeremiah, before the royal palace, foretells the future conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah rebukes the Jews resident in Egypt for continuing the idolatries practised by their forefathers, which had been the cause of Jerusalem’s ruin. The remnant of Judah, who have taken refuge in Egypt, will perish there; at most a mere handful will ever return to Judah. The Jews who worshipped the queen of heaven reply that, as long as they had worshipped her, prosperity had attended them, but it had now ceased. Their prosperity had ceased, Jeremiah replies, not because they had neglected the queen of heaven, but because of Yahweh’s anger with them for worshipping her at all. Jeremiah repeats his previous declaration that of the remnant who have taken refuge in Egypt, all but a mere handful will perish there. And points to the approaching fall of Pharaoh Hophra, as a sign witnessing to the truth of his prediction. (*Pharaoh Hophra (called by the Greeks Apries) reigned from B.C. 590 to B.C. 571. He was deposed by a military revolution; and Amasis (into whose hands he fell, and who ultimately succeeded him) delivered him over to the Egyptians, by whom he was strangled (Herod, ii. 161-163, 169).)

(45): Words of mingled reassurance and reproof, addressed to Baruch, in the depression and disappointment which overcame him, after writing the roll of the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim. (A supplement to 36:1-8.) (*I.e. the words forming the roll of Jeremiah’s prophecies, written by Baruch, at Jeremiah’s dictation, in the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, B.C. 605 (36:1-4); and containing predictions of disaster for Judah, and (25:15-38) Western Asia generally.) (*Baruch is reminded that the age is one in which he must not expect great things for himself, but must be content if he escapes with his bare life; even Yahweh (v. 4) is obliged to destroy the work of His own hands.)

(46-51): Prophecies against the nations.
(1) (46-49). (* Nebuchadnezzar was not yet actually ‘king’ of Babylon, though he became so a few months afterwards; see the writer’s ‘Daniel’ (in the ‘Cambridge Bible’), pp. xlix. 2. The fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim is in 25:1 equated with the first (1st) year of Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 604): so it seems that the battle of Carchemish took place really in the previous year, 605.) (Pharaoh Necho (B.C. 610-594), an ambitious and aspiring prince, essayed to add Syria, and the neighbouring parts of Asia, W. of the Euphrates, to his dominions. As he was marching through Palestine to effect his purpose, Josiah, attempting to turn him back, met his death at Megiddo (B.C. 609). Three months later Necho is mentioned as being at Riblah, in the land of Hamath, some seventy (70) miles N. of Damascus (see 2nd Kings 23:29, 33). Some years afterwards (B.C. 608), he set out with a large army, and joined battle with Nabopolassar, the king of Babylon, at Carchemish, the great commercial city and fortress, commanding the principal ford of the Euphrates, by which armies marching to and fro between Babylon and Palestine, or Egypt, regularly crossed the river, about 260 miles N.N.E. of Damascus. There his army was completely defeated by Nebuchadnezzar, acting as general for his father, Nabopolassar. This defeat of the Egyptians at Carchemish was politically the turning-point of the age. Jeremiah at once saw that the Chaldaeans were destined to become the rulers of Western Asia (cf. ch. 25); and his sense of this led him to come forward with the doctrine, –which to many of his fellow-countrymen seemed unpatriotic,– that the safety of Judah was to be found in submission to the Chaldaean supremacy (21:1-10; 27:5-8, 12, etc.). The group of prophecies contained in chaps, 46-49, except the one on Elam (49:34-39), which is assigned by its title to a later period, reflect the impression which Nebuchadnezzar’s successes made upon the prophet: he pictures not only Egypt, but also the Philistines, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Damascus (all of whom had in the past been often unfriendly to Israel), and even the more distant Kedar, as one after another succumbing helplessly before the invader.” Chapter 25 may be regarded as an introduction to these prophecies: it acquaints the reader with Jeremiah’s general view of the political situation, which is then illustrated, and poetically developed, with reference to particular countries, in the present prophecies. Probably, in the original form of the book of Jeremiah, these prophecies followed immediately after chapter 25, from which they are now separated by the mainly biographical matter contained in chapters 26-45) (*It ought, however, to be mentioned that most recent authorities on Jeremiah, including even A. B. Davidson (Hastings’ ‘Dict. of the Bible’, ii. 573’b’), are of opinion, partly upon grounds of difference of literary style, partly on account of the nature of their contents, that chaps. 46-49 are either wholly (Stade, Wellhausen, Duhin), or in part (Giesebrecht, Kuenen, Davidson), not Jeremiah’s. Gieseb. accepts only chaps, 47, 49:7-8, 10-11, and perhaps 13, and a nucleus in 46:3-12. But, though the prophecies may have been amplified in parts by a later hand (or hands), it is doubtful whether there aro sufficient reasons for reducing the original nucleus to such small dimensions as these. Kuenen (‘Einl’. § 56. 9-11) accepted the whole, except 46:27 f. (= 30:10 f.), and certain parts of chap. 48 (see the note on 48:1). Cornill, while allowing that there are parts which either upon the grounds mentioned above, or on metrical grounds, must in his judgement be rejected, argues strongly against the rejection of the whole, and accepts himself 46:3-26 (Egypt), and substantial parts of most of the other prophecies. On 50:1-11, 58, see the note prefixed to 50:1.) Egypt’s defiant ambition checked and humbled at the battle of Carchemish. Let the warriors arm themselves, and advance to the fight! Hardly has the prophet said these words, when he sees the Egyptians already in flight. Egypt’s boasts of conquest will come to nought: in vain will she endeavour to recover herself after her defeat. (The prophecy vv. 14-26 seems naturally to be the sequel to vv. 3-12; though Cornill has urged that it may be later, and belong to the period of Jeremiah’s residence in Egypt (43:7 ff.), to which 43:10-13 (shortly after 586), foretelling Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion and conquest of Egypt, also belongs. Nebuchadnezzar did in fact invade Egypt in 568: see the note on 43:13.) An imaginative description of the invasion of Egypt by the Chaldaeans, and of the collapse of the power of Egypt before them. A message of encouragement addressed to Israel. (Vv. 27, 28 are nearly identical with 30:10,11. As vv. 14-26 seem to be of the same date as vv. 3-12 (608), they can hardly be here in their original place; for they imply that the exile has begun, and contrast too strongly with the tone of menace, in which in 605-4 (25:8-11) Jeremiah was expressing himself. Probably the two verses were handed down independently; and were placed by a compiler in ch. 30 on account of their being germane there to the context, and also added here as a suitable counterpart to vv. 14-26.) On the Philistines. How the land of the Philistines will be wasted by the Chaldaeans.
(48): (On Moab). (The territory occupied by Moab was the elevated and rich plateau on the E. of the Dead Sea. Originally (Num. 21:26) the Moabite territory extended as far N. as Heshbon, to the N.E. of the Dead Sea (see on v. 2); but the Israelites, after their conquest of the country E. of Jordan, considered the territory N. of the Arnon (which flows down through a deep gorge into the Dead Sea at about the middle of its E. side) to belong to Reuben (Josh. 13:15-21), and regarded the Arnon as the N. border of Moab. But Reuben did not ultimately remain in possession of the district allotted to it; and so here, as in Isa. 15-16, many of the cities assigned in Josh. 13:15-21 to Reuben are mentioned as occupied by Moab.) The desolating invasion about to break upon Moab; and the flight of its population. (*For most of the places mentioned in this chapter, see Num. 32:3, 34-38, Josh. 13:16-19, 21:36-7, and Isaiah’s prophecy on Moab, chaps. 15-16. In vv. 5, 29-38, there are numerous verbal reminiscences from Isa. 15-16……) Moab has for long been left unmolested in his land; but now his security will be rudely disturbed. Moab is utterly crushed and helpless; the entire country is at the invader’s feet. The pride of Moab is humbled; her vineyards and winepresses are ruined; and the whole land is given over to mourning. The final doom of Moab.
(49): (On the children of Ammon). The Ammonites are threatened with retribution for taking to themselves the territory of Gad. (*The territory of Gad was on the E. of Jordan, from Heshbon at least as far N. as the Jabbok (cf. Josh. 13:14-28; Num. 32:34-36; but the details do not entirely agree; see ‘Gad’ in Hastings’ ‘Dict. of the Bible’): the Ammonite territory was on the E. of this, their principal city Rabbah (called by the Greeks, from Ptolemy Philodelphus, ‘Philadelphia’, now ‘ Ammän), on the upper course of the Jabbok, being 14 miles NE. of Heshbon, and 24 miles E. of the Jordan.)
(On Edom). (On Damascus).
(2) (50:1-52:58). On Babylon. (A long and impassioned prophecy against Babylon. The time of her end is approaching, when the violence done by her to Israel will at length be avenged (50:17 f., 33 f.; 51:24, 34-36): a people from the north, even the Medes, are about to be stirred up against her: again and again the prophet with eager vehemence summons them to begin the fray, while he bids the Jewish exiles escape betimes from the doomed city, the future fate of which he contemplates with manifest delight. The date will naturally be shortly before B.C. 538, when the conquests of Cyrus began to kindle the hopes of the exiles, and to mark him out as their coming deliverer (Isa. 41:2, 25; 44:28, etc.). The prophecy cannot be Jeremiah’s. According to 51:59,60, its date, if it were Jeremiah’s, would be the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah (B.C. 593). But (1) the ‘historical situation’ presupposed by the prophecy is not that of B.C. 593, but much later: the Temple is alluded to as having suffered violence (50:28; 51:11, 51), the Jews are in exile (50:4 f., 17; 51:34), and the end of Babylon is approaching rapidly (50:8 f.; 51:6, 45 f.). Then (2) the point of view is not that of Jeremiah either in or about 593 B.C.: Jeremiah at that time, as we know from chaps, 27-29, was earnestly opposing the prophets who promised that the yoke of Babylon would speedily be broken, and was exhorting the exiles to settle down contentedly in their new home: but the prophet who speaks in 50:1-51:58 declares confidently that the fall of Babylon is close at hand, and does his utmost to inspire the exiles with the hope of a speedy release. And (3) the prophecy is animated by a temper which is not Jeremiah’s. The vein of strong feeling against the Chaldaeans which pervades it, and the satisfaction shewn at the prospect of their approaching fate, are not consistent with Jeremiah’s repeatedly avowed conviction that the Chaldaeans were the agents appointed by Providence for the punishment of Israel’s sin –a work which in 593 was not yet accomplished. There breathes in this prophecy the spirit of an Israelite, whose experiences had been far other than Jeremiah’s, who had smarted under the painful yoke of the Chaldaeans (cf. Isa. 47:6 f., 52:3), and whose thoughts were full of vengeance for the sufferings which his fellow-countrymen had endured at their hands. The prophecy must have been the work of a prophet familiar with Jeremiah’s writings, and accustomed to the use of similar phraseology, who wrote shortly before the fall of Babylon (B.C. 538), from the same general standpoint as Isa. 13:2-14:23; 40-66. In later times, it seems, the prophecy came to be attributed to Jeremiah, and was identified with the ‘scroll’ sent by him to Babylon, of which we read in 51:59-64: a late editor of the book of Jeremiah thus prefixed it to 51:59-64, at the same time adding the title, and also 51:60’b’, for the purpose of identifying the prophecy with the contents of the scroll.
The prophecy is remarkable for the many reminiscences, and even (50:40, 41-43, 44 46; 51:15-19) excerpts from other prophecies, contained in it; the more striking instances are pointed out in the notes. The frequency with which, instead of the subject being developed regularly, the same thought is again and again reverted to (as 50:3, 9, 25, 41; 51:1f., 25; 50:14, 21, 26, 29; 51:11f, 27; 50:8; 51:6, 45, 50; 50:12, 39f.; 51:26’b’, 29’b’, 37, 43), is due probably to the torrent of impetuous feeling by which the prophet is carried along.
The doom impending upon Babylon. Yahweh’s purpose to bring a great host of nations against Babylon. The foe invited to begin the attack. A promise of restoration and pardon to Israel. Renewed invitation to the foe to attack Babylon. The prophet’s exultation over her fall. Babylon will be compelled to let her captives go. The doom imminent upon Jerusalem. Description of the invader. Renewed announcement of the approaching doom of Babylon: let Israel hasten to leave her. The foe again invited to attack Babylon. Yahweh’s power contrasted with that of idols. Yahweh is against Babylon. The nations summoned to attack Babylon: its capture by its assailants. The injuries done to Israel shall at last be avenged. The final end of Babylon. Let Israel hasten to leave the doomed city. Yahweh’s final word of judgement upon Babylon.
(3) (51:59-64). Jeremiah, in the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah (B.C. 593), by the hand of Seraiah, reads Babylon her doom. (The predictions contained in this narrative (vv. 62-64) do not either display the animus, or imply the historical situation, of 50:2-51:58; there is thus no inconsistency in supposing Jeremiah to be their author. A simple, unimpassioned declaration of the future end of Babylon is not inconsistent with Jeremiah’s attitude at the beginning of Zedekiah’s reign (cf. the limit of seventy (70) years assigned to Babylonian rule, and the promise of restoration afterwards, in 29:10), and the symbolical action of v. 63 is analogous to those narrated in 13:17; 19:1, 10; 27:2; 43:9.)

(52): (1) The capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans, and exile of its inhabitants. (Vv. 1-27 are excerpted from 2nd Kings 24:18-25:21: vv. 28-30 are taken by the compiler from some independent source. The entire account was probably added here for the purpose of shewing how Jeremiah’s principal and most constant prediction was fulfilled. The text of vv. 1-27 has, in several places, been preserved here more purely than in Kings. Vv. 4-11, 13-16, have occurred already slightly abridged, in 39:1-2, 4-10.) (* ‘seventh’: Read, probably, `seventeenth`. This would be the year in which the siege of Jerusalem was begun (comp. v. 4 with v. 12): the reference appears to be to the men of Judah taken prisoners (as opposed to those out of Jerusalem, v. 29). The items given do not include the numbers taken into exile after the capture of Jerusalem (in Nebuchadnezzar’s nineteenth (19th) year).)
(2) The favour shown by Evil-Merodach to Jehoiachin. (Excerpted from 2nd Kings 25:27-30.) (*’Evil-Merodach’: Pronounce, Evïl. The name means ‘man of Marduk’ (50:2), in Babylonian ‘Amilu-Marduk’. He succeeded Nebuchadnezzar and reigned for two years [B.C. 561-559).)

9: The Book of Jeremiah the Prophet. Charles Rufus Brown, D.D. Newton Theological Institution. American Baptist Pub. Soc. Phil. (1907).gs (Brown’s work is thorough & defers often to others when appropriate, especially to Driver.)

I. {{ “The Historical Background of Jeremiah’s Ministry.
The general situation in Western Asia has changed since Isaiah lived and preached, and soon after Jeremiah’s call Babylonia took the place of Assyria as the great world-empire. Among the nations whose general history is important and interesting from the point of view of Jeremiah and his times three stand out in boldest relief: Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria; and the mutual relations of these three we must hold in mind. Babylonia we must call the oldest country, Egypt next, and Assyria the youngest. The two great world-powers in ancient times were Babylonia and Egypt, and the rule of Assyria for seven centuries, powerful as it was, and terrible as were her rulers, was hardly more than an episode from the point of view of all the centuries. During the Babylonian-Egyptian wars, at the time when Egypt had reached the height of her glory, say 1500 B.C., Assyria was colonized from Babylonia and about 1300 B.C. won its independence and captured Babylon itself. In or about 606 Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, was captured by the hordes of the Manda, the Scythian allies of the Babylonians, and the empire fell never to rise again. As far back as we can trace the history there was intermittent war between the East and the West, between Egypt and Babylonia up to 1300 and after 600, between Egypt and Assyria in the seven intervening centuries. In Egypt civil wars were frequent and struggle was constant with Ethiopia and with the maritime countries of the Mediterranean, but in the intervals the arms of Egypt were pushed into the far East with varying fortunes until the fall of the empire before the Persians in 525 B.C. The nations of Palestine and its vicinity, lying as they did in the thoroughfare between the two great powers, were sure to be engaged on the one side or the other; and hence it was that different political parties arose more than once in Israel and Judah, urging an alliance with the one country or the other. The Northern kingdom fell before the Assyrian arms a century before Jeremiah’s ministry, but during his life Judah was often involved in war and subjected to conquest; and beginning with the storm that broke upon the country soon after the accession of King Jehoiakim, the political atmosphere was continually charged with one danger or another. It will be seen in the sequel that Jeremiah took an active part in politics, as good ministers frequently do, and that he was in fact, so far as we know, the truest patriot and most keen-sighted statesman of his age. The following chronological tables, covering the time from the call of Jeremiah to the Roman conquest of Syria and Egypt, may aid students seeking to obtain and retain dates for the various portions of Jeremiah. Here the author, contrary to his method of procedure in general (see especially a later section, VI.), has thought it better to adopt dates from other writers of good standing. ‘E.g’., the dates assigned to pieces of Israelitish literature in the second column [list] have been copied from Kautzsch’s ‘The Literature of the Old Testament’, with any such changes of a year or so in the dates as are needed to bring them into consistency with the chronology adopted in the first column [list]. The dates of the Jewish high priests between 520 and 195 B. C. are only approximately correct and several other dates are inexact, notably in the Egyptian column [list]. In the following table c, a, and b stand for about, after, and before respectively.”}}

Tables:Columns-Lists: Judah & Jews. Israelitish Literature Exclusive of Jeremiah. Babylonia. Egypt.: Years B.C. 700-30 A.D. (From C. R. Brown, slightly edited in format.)

B.C.:
700 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
600 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
500 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
400 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
300 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
200 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
100 }………|………|………{ A.D. 30

Column-List 1: Judah & Jews:
638-608. ‘Josiah’.
626. Scythians near Palestine.
626. Call of Jeremiah.
621. Great Reformation.
608. Josiah’s Defeat & Death.
608. ‘Jehoahaz’.
607-597. ‘Jehoiakim’.
601. Submission to Nebuchadrezzar.
598. King’s Rebellion.
597. ‘Jehoiachin’.
597. Deportation of King and First Captives to Babylon.
596-586. Zedekiah.
593. Ambassadors Received from Surrounding Countries.
592-570. Ezekiel among the Captives.
586. Fall of Jerusalem and Second Deportation to Babylon.
581. Third Deportation; Departure of Mizpah Colony to Egypt.
538-330. ‘Persian Rule in the East’.
536. Return to Palestine under ‘Zerubbabel’ & ‘Joshua’.
520-500. ‘Joshua’, High Priest.
520-516. Temple Rebuilt.
500-463. ‘Jehoiakim’, High Priest.
463-430. ‘Eliashib’, High Priest.
458 (or 398). Ezra, the Scribe.
445, 432. Visits by Nehemiah.
444 (or 398). Introduction of the Written Priestly Law.
430-400. ‘Joiada’, High Priest.
400. Samaritan Temple Built on Gerizim.
400-350. ‘Johanan’, High Priest.
350-333. ‘Jaddua’, High Priest.
344. Temple Polluted & Jews Enslaved by Persians.
332. Destruction of Tyre by ‘Alexander’ & Submission of Palestine.
331. Settlement of Jews at Alexandria.
330-323. ‘Rule of Alexander the Great’.
323-276. Wars of the Diadochi.
323-320, 314-301, Judaea ruled for the most part by Antigonus. (320-314, 301-294, 280-202, Palestine an Egyptian Province.) (294-280,202-167, Palestine under the Seleucids.) (264-248, 224-198, Sharp Contests between Syria & Egypt.)
321-301. ‘Onias I’.,High Priest.
300-285. ‘Simon I’.High Priest.
284-265. ‘Eleazar’, High Priest.
264-240. ‘Manasseh’, High Priest.
239-225. ‘Onias II’., High Priest.
224-195. ‘Simon II’., The Just, High Priest.
194-175. ‘Onias III’., High Priest.
180.c. General acceptance of the Hist. & Prop. Books & of a Psalm Book.
176. Heliodorus attempts plunder of Temple for Syrians.
174-171. ‘Jason’, High Priest.
170-162. ‘Menelaus’, High Priest.
170. Jerusalem Plundered by Syria.
168. Daily Sacrifice suspended by Antiochus.
167. Hasmonean Uprising.
166. Victory of Judas Maccabeus over Syria.
165. Temple Rededicated.
161-159. ‘Alcimus’, High Priest.
161. Death of Judas.
153-143. ‘Jonathan Apphus’, High Priest & Prince.
142-136. ‘Simon’, Hereditary High Priest & Governor.
141. Citadel & Syrian Garrison Captured; Beginning of Hasmonean Dynasty.
135-105. ‘John Hyrcanus’, High Priest.
134. Walls of Jerusalem Razed by Antiochus VII.
130. First use of term “The Law and the Prophets.”
130. Samaritan Temple Destroyed.
129. Conquest of Edom.
108. Destruction of Samaria.
105,104. ‘Aristobulus I’, High Priest & King.
103-78. ‘Alexander Jannaeus’, High Priest & King.
97. Capture of Gaza.
94. Conquest of Moab and Ammon.
82. Triumphs of Alexander Celebrated in Jerusalem.
77-69. ‘AIexandra’, Queen.
77-69. ‘Hyrcanus II’., High Priest & King.
68-63. ‘Arislobulus II’., High Priest & King.
63. Jerusalem taken by Pompey; Judaea a Roman Province.

Column-List 2: Israelitish Literature Exclusive of Jeremiah:
630.c. Zephaniah 1.
621.b. Deuteronomy in an early form.
615.c. Habakkuk, Zeph. 2:1-3:13.
600.c. Deut. redaction of books of Kings.
592-570. Ezekiel’s Prophecies.
570-500. Lamentations.
560.c. Deut.32; Deut. completed & added to earlier history now contained in Pentateuch & Joshua. Deut. redaction of Judges, Samuel, & Kings. Nucleus of Lev. 17-26.
540.c. Is. 40-55; 21:1-10; 13:1-14:23; 34,35.
536. Zeph. 3:14-20.
520. Haggai.
520-518. Zech. 1-8.
500.c. Priests’ Code of Law now found in Pentateuch & Joshua.
500.a. Is. 56-66.
458.b. Malachi.
458. Aramaic Source of Ezra 4-6.
458.a. Ruth.
444.a. Oldest Collection of Hymns, Ps. 3-41.
435.c. Memoirs of Ezra in Ezra-Nehemiah.
432. Obadiah.
432. Memoirs of Nehemiah.
400.c. Completion of Pentateuch & formation of Gen. 1-2nd Kings 25.
350.c. Completion of Proverbs; Joel; Jonah.
340.c. Collection Ps. 42-89; Job.
332.c. The Song of Songs; Isa. 24-27; Additions to the older Prophets.
311.c. Psalms of the Greek period,
300.c. Ezra-Nehemiah; Chronicles; Zech. 9-14.
250.c. Ecclesiastes, Alexandrian trans. of Pentateuch, the beginning of LXX.
180.c. The Wisdom of Jesus Sirach.
166. Daniel.
150.a. Esther; Five Books of Jason on Maccabean Wars. This the source of 2nd Maccabees.
142. Collection of Ps. 90-150 & close of Psalter.
138.c. Judith.
130.c. Proverbs of Jesus Sirach trans. into Greek.
90.c. 1st Maccabees.
50.a. The Wisdom of Solomon.

Column-List 3: Babylonia, Persia, & Syria:

Babylonia:
625-604. ‘Nabopolasar’.
606. Destruction of Nineveh.
604. Victory over Egypt at Carchemish.
603-562. ‘Nebuchadrezzar III’.
582-569. Siege of Tyre.
568. Invasion of Egypt.
561-560. ‘Evil-Merodach’.
559-556. ‘Neriglissar’.
556. ‘Labashi-Marduk’.
555-538. ‘Nabonidus’.

Persia:
558-530. ‘Cyrus II’, of Elam.
549. Conquest of Media.
548. Amalgamation with Persia.
538. Conquest of Babylon.
529-522. ‘Cambyses II’.
522. ‘Pseudo-Bardes’,
or ‘Smerdis’ (Gomates).
521-486. ‘Darius I’, ‘Hystaspis’.
485-465. ‘Zerxes l’.
465-464. ‘Artabanus’.
463-425. ‘Artaxerxes I’, ‘Longimanus’.
425. Zerxes II.
425, 424. Sogdianos.
423-405. Darius II, Nothus.
404-359. ‘Artaxerxes II’, ‘Mnemon’. Judaeans comparatively undisturbed.
358-338. ‘ArtaxerxesIII’, Ochus.
344. Sidon Destroyed.
337-336. ‘Arses’.
335-330. ‘Darius III’, ‘Codomannus’.
333, 331. Victories of Alexander.

Syria:
312-281. ‘Seleucus I’, ‘Nicator’.
280-261. ‘Antiochus I’, ‘Soter’.
260-246. ‘Antiochus II’, ‘Theos’.
245-226. ‘Seleucus II’, ‘Callinicus’.
225-224. ‘Seleucus III’, ‘Keraunos’.
223-187. ‘Antiochus III’, ‘The Great’.
190. Defeated by the Romans.
186-175. ‘Seleucus IV’, ‘Philopator’.
174-164. ‘Antiochus IV’, ‘Epiphanes’.
174. Attempt to Hellenize.
170. Victory in Egypt.
163-162. ‘Antiochus V’, ‘Eupator’.
161-150. ‘Demetrius I’, ‘Soter’.
152-146. ‘Alexander Balas’.
145-138. ‘Demetrius II’, ‘Nicator’.
145-138. ‘Antiochus VI’, & ‘Trypho’, Rival Kings.
142. Independence of Judaea acknowledged.
137-128. ‘Antiochus VII’, ‘Sidetes’, ‘Euergetes’.
127-125. ‘Demetrius II’.
125. ‘Seleueus V’.
124-96. ‘Antiochus VIII’, ‘Grypos’.
113-95. ‘Antiochus IX’, ‘Kyzicenos’.
96-95. ‘Seleueus VI’, ‘Epiphanes’, ‘Nicator, son of .Ant. VIII’.
95. ‘Antiochus X’, ‘Eusebes, son of Ant. IX’.
94-83. Contests for throne among Sel. VI., Ant.XI., Philip, Dem. III, and Ant. XII., sons of Ant. VIII.
82-69. ‘Tigranes’ of Armenia rules Syria.
68-65. Antiochus XIII., ‘Asiaticus’.
65. Syria a Roman Province.

Column-List 4: Egypt:

663-611. ‘Psamtik I’.
625. Independent of Assyria.
610-595. ‘Neco II’.
608. Jehoahaz of Judah taken Captive.
604. Defeat at Carchemish.
594-589. ‘Psamtik II’.
588-570. ‘Pharaoh Hophra’.
587. Relief army unable to support Zedekiah.
569-526. ‘Amasis II’.
525. ‘Psamtik III’. End of twenty-sixth Dynasty.
525-332. Persian Rule in Egypt.
525-411. Twenty-seventh (Persian) Dynasty.
404-382. Twenty-ninth (Mendessian) Dynasty.
381-343. Thirtieth (Sebennite) Dynasty.
342-332. Thirty-first (Persian) Dynasty.
332. Conquest by Alexander.
323-285. ‘Ptolemy I’, ‘Lagi’, ‘Soter’.
320. Syria and Palestine taken.
284-247. ‘Ptolemy II’, ‘Philadelphus’.
246-222. ‘Ptolemy III’, ‘Euergetes’.
221-205. ‘Ptolemy IV’, ‘Philopator’.
204-182. ‘Ptolemy V’, ‘Epiphanes’.
198. Final loss of Palestine.
182. ‘Ptolemy VI’, ‘Eupator’.
181-146. ‘Ptolemy VII’, ‘Philomator’.
168. Advance of Antiochus resisted by Rome.
146. ‘Ptolemy VII’, ‘Eupator II’, New ‘Philopator’.
145-117. ‘Ptolemy IX’., ‘Euergetes II’, ‘Physcon’.
116-106, 88-81. ‘Ptolemy X’, ‘Soter II’, ‘Lathyrus’.
105-89. ‘Ptolemy XI’, ‘Alexander I’, ‘Philomator’.
81-80. ‘Ptolemy XII’, ‘Alexander II’.
79-51. ‘Ptolemy XIII’, ‘Philopator’, ‘Philadelphia’, New ‘Dionysos Auletes’.
50-17. ‘Cleopatra VII’ & ‘Ptolemy XIV’.
46-45. ‘Cleopatra VII’ & ‘Ptolemy XV’.
44-30. ‘Cleopatra VII’ & ‘Ptolemy XVI’, ‘Caesarian’.
30. Egypt a Roman Province.

{{ “In outlining the ministry of Jeremiah we shall have to do with the period between 626 B.C., about twenty (20) years before the fall of Nineveh, and 575 (?) B.C. Since Assurbanipal of Assyria, the Sardanapalus of the Greeks, lived, however, only till 626 B.C., and the Assyrian empire was in a state of decay from the time of his death, we may say that the thirteenth (13th) year of Josiah (626 B.C.), the year when Jeremiah was called, was synchronous with the downfall of Assyria and the rise of the second Babylonian empire. It is claimed with some degree of plausibility that the immediate occasion of Jeremiah’s call was the Scythian invasion of Western Asia, which probably took place during this decade, and occasioned great commotion to the coast lands, and even to Egypt. There are other historical epochs that are certain. In 608 B.C., Neco II., son of Psamtik I, or Psammetichus I, of the twenty-sixth dynasty, on his way to the Euphrates for conquest of Assyrian dependencies, was met at Megiddo by Josiah of Judah and the latter was slain, the Egyptian king pushing on to Carchemish, on the Euphrates. At this time Assyria had practically fallen, as we have seen, and Babylonia was not yet established on a firm basis; but the Egyptians seem never to have possessed the power to maintain their acquisitions, and a few years afterward, in 604 B.C., after Nineveh had fallen, the Babylonian king, Nabopolassar, sent his son Nebuchadrezzar against the Egyptians. At Carchemish the latter were routed and the Egyptian rule in the East was finally broken. In 601 B.C. Jehoiakim him self submitted to Nebuchadrezzar, and in 597 B.C., after the latter had crushed a rebellion instigated by him, a deportation of the inhabitants to Babylon took place. In 589 B.C. Neco’s grandson, ‘Uahabra’, the Pharaoh Hophra of Scripture, came to the throne of Egypt, and upon his accession there was a confederation of Judah and the surrounding countries against the king of Babylon, but the Egyptians were probably defeated. They withdrew at least, and the war was brought to a close by the capture of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., Zedekiah and nearly a thousand (1,000) of his people being carried off to Babylon. Of the colony that remained many settled in Egypt after unfortunate experiences in Palestine (see II.) and nearly seven hundred and fifty (750) were carried to Babylon (52:30).” }}

The Dates of the Jeremiah Material: (B.C.) (King’s Reign): Jeremiah Chapters & Verses:
1:4-19, (626), (K. Josiah’s).
2:1-6:30, (626-621), (K. Josiah’s)
11:1-5, (621), (K. Josiah’s).
22:10-12, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
11:6-12:6, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
7:1-9:22; 10:17-25, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
26:1-24, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
25:1-38, (604), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
36:1-32, (604,603), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
13:1-17:18, (603), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
18:1-20:18, (601), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
21:13,14, (601), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
22:13-19, 20-23, (598), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
12:7-17, (597), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
35:1-19, (597), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
22:24-30, (597) (K. Jehoiachin & K. Zedekiah).
24:1-10, (596), (K. Zedekiah).
29:1-32, (595), (K. Zedekiah).
23:9-40, (595), (K. Zedekiah).
27:1-28:17, (593), (K. Zedekiah).
22:1-7, (590), (K. Zedekiah).
21:1-10, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
34:1-7, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
37:1-10, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
34:8-22, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
37:11-21, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
30:1-31:40, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
32:1-44, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
33:1-13, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
38:1-39:18, (586), (siege and after fall of Judah).
23:1-8, (586), (soon after fall of Judah).
40:1-16, (586-582), (during over-lordship of Nebuchadrezzar).
41:1-43:7, (582), (during over-lordship of Nebuchadrezzar).
43:8-44:30 (581-575) (?), (Egyptian sojourn).
45:1-6, (about 586), (in Palestine or Egypt).

{{“Excluding the fifty-second (52nd) chapter, which has been taken from 2 Kings and an unknown source, the remaining passages found in Jeremiah are 9:23-26; 10:1-16; 17:19-27; 21:11,12; 22:8,9; 33:14-26; 46:1-51:64. It is impossible to assign definite dates and authors to these sections. Although some of them contain liberal quotations from the prophet’s own words, it is probable that he had little to do with them in their present form, though 9:23-26 may have proceeded from him. The sources of much of this material are to be found in other parts of Scripture as will appear under the next topic.”}}

{{“For general purposes of reference the following table of contents may be found of service: Preface: Introductory Notes of Time, (1:1-3). [Written by Baruch 604, 603 B.C., revised after 536 ]

Part I: Iniquity of Judah Portrayed & Judgment Threatened (1:4-6:30). [Compiled 604, 603 B.C.]
§1. Call of Jeremiah, (1:4-19). [Date 626 B. C, published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§2. Base Ingratitude of People in Departing from Jehovah & Entail of Punishment, (2:1-37). [Delivered 626-621 B.C., dictated and published 604, 603, annotated later.]
§3. Judith’s Superficial Estimate of her Guilt, 3:1-5. [Delivered 626-621 B.C., dictated & published 604, 603.]
§4. Lesser Degree of Israel’s Guilt & Promised Return of Penitent People to Jehovah’s Favor, (3:6-4:2).
[Delivered 626-621 B. C, published 604, 603, annotated as late as 516.]
§5. Judgment Approaching from North, (4:3-81). [Delivered 626-621 B. C, published 604, 603.]
§6. Prevailing Iniquity at Jerusalem & Necessary Result, (5:1-31). [Delivered 626-621 B.C., published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§7. Rejected People, 6 : 1-30. [Delivered 626-621 B. C, published 604, 603.]

Part II: Temple Lament over Jerusalem & Prophecy of Destruction, (7:1-10: 25). [Delivered-607 B.C., published 604, 603, enlarged after 536.]
§1. Necessity of Amendment to Avert Destruction of Zion, (7:1-8:3). [Delivered 626-607 B.C., published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§2. Wilfulness of Judah Exposed; Defeat & Exile Threatened, (8:4-9:1). [Delivered 626-610 B.C., published 604, 603.]
§3. Gross Corruption of People & Inevitable Destruction of Nation, (9:2-22). [Delivered 626-610 B.C., published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§4. Best Possession of Man is Knowledge of Jehovah as Divine King, (9:23,24). [Inserted after 536 B.C.]
§5. Punishment in Store for Uncircumcised in Heart, (9:25,26). [Inserted after 536 B.C.]
§6. Impotency of Idols of Nations, (10:1-16). [Written & inserted 400-200 B.C.]
§7. Distress of Zion & Prophet’s Prayer for Mitigation of her Punishment, (10:17-25). [Delivered 626-610 B.C., inserted after 586, annotated later.]

Part III.—The Irrevocable Evil in Judah & Sad Results, (11:1-17:27). [Published 603 B.C., enlarged after Exile.]
§1. Preaching of Deuteronomic Covenant, (11:1-5). [Delivered 621 B.C., published 603.]
§2. Re-enforcement of Covenant, (11:6-8). [Delivered 607 B.C., published 603.]
§3. Apostasy of Judah & Retribution, (11:9-17). [Delivered 607 B.C., published 603.]
§4. Attack at Anathoth & Jeremiah’s Dissatisfaction with Longsuffering of Jehovah, (11:18-12:6). [Date 607 B.C., published 603.]
§5. Devastation of Judah by Neighboring Nations; Banishment & Restoration of Neighbors, (12:7-17) [Delivered 597 B.C., annotated & inserted after 536.]
§6. Damaged Waistband & Rejection of People, (13:1-27). [Published 603 B.C., annotated after 597.]
§7. Evidences of Divine Disfavor & Rejection of Prophet’s Intercession, (14:1-15:9). [Published 603 B.C., annotated in post-exilic times.]
§8. Deep Discouragement of Jeremiah; Admonition & Strength from Above, (15:10-21). [Published 603 B.C., annotated later.]
§9. Abounding Evil in Judah & Recompense, (16:1-17:4). [Published 603 B.C., annotated later.]
§10. Blessedness of Confidence in God; Jeremiah’s Strong Hope in Him, (17:5-18). [Published 603 B. C, annotated later.]
§11. Consecration of Sabbath Day, (17:19-27). [Written after 432 B.C, inserted still later.]

Part IV: Impending Doom, (18:1-20:1). [Compiled 596-586 B.C., enlarged much later, added to Jeremiah Book after 536.]
§1. Amendment of Life Necessary to Avert Threatened Calamity; Jeremiah’s Prayer for Execution of Divine Vengeance, (18:1-23). [Delivered 601 B.C., published soon after but annotated much later.]
§2. Further Prophecies of Impending Disaster & Prophet’s Grievous Discouragement, (19:1-20:18). [Date 601 B.C., published soon after, annotated much later.]

Part V. —Woes Pronounced upon Kings, Prophets, & People of Judah, (21:1-24:10). [Compiled after 586 B.C., added to Book after 536.]
§1. Answer to Zedekiah respecting Approaching Capture of Jerusalem, (21:1-10). [587 B.C., published after 586.]
§2. Woes upon Kings, (21:11-23:8). [Delivered 608-586 B.C., published after 586, annotated still later.]
§3. Woe upon Prophets of Zedekiah’ s Time, (23:9-40). [Delivered 595 B.C., annotated later.]
§4. Captives with Jehoiachin in Exile Contrasted with People left in Jerusalem, (24:1-10). [Delivered 596 B.C., entered in this Part and in Book after 536.]

Part VI: Oracles against Judah & Nations. (25:1-38). [Delivered 604 B.C., annotated & added to chs. 1-24 after 536.]

Part VII: Temple Discourse of ch. 7 & its Results, (26:1-24). [607 B.C., written by Baruch about 590, prefixed to chs. 27-29 after 536, added to Book much later.]

Part VIII: Exhortations to Submission to Babylon & Result (29 : 32). [Compiled 536 B.C., added to Book much later.]
§1. Prediction of Nebuchadrezzar’s Victories, (27:1-22). [Events of 593 B.C, written by Baruch about 590, enlarged later.]
§2. Contention of Hananiah, Prophet of Jerusalem, (28:1-17). [Events of 593 B.C., written by Baruch about 590.]
§3. Communications between Jeremiah & First Captives to Babylon, (29 : 1-32). [Events of 595 B.C., written by Baruch about 590.]

Part IX: New Covenant, or Jeremiah’s Book of Consolation for Israel, (30:1-31:40). [Delivered 626, 587 B.C., annotated & added to Book after 536.]

Part X: Certainty & Glory of Return, (32:1-33:26). [Compiled & united with Book after 536 B.C., annotated as late as 200.]
§1. Jeremiah’s Confident Prediction of Return, (32:1-44). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch 586, annotated after 636.]
§2. Glory of Return, (33:1-26). [587 B.C., annotated as late as 200.]

Part XI: Prophecy of Jerusalem’s Fall, (34:1-7). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch later introduced into ch. 34 & into Book after 536.]

Part XII: Slaves in Besieged Capital! (34:8-22). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch later added to Book after 536.]

Part XIII: Constancy of Rechabites Contrasted with Israel’s Disobedience, (35:1-19). [Events of 597 B.C. written by Baruch about 590, added to Book after 536.]

Part XIV: Jehoiakim’s Scornful Treatment of Divine Warnings, (36:1-32) [Events of 604, 603 B.C., written by Baruch somewhat later, added to Book after 536.]

Part XV: Siege & Capture of Jerusalem, & Deportation of its Inhabitants; Close Confinement of Jeremiah, (37:1-39:18). [Added to Book after 536 B.C.]
§1. Jeremiah’s Prediction of Fall of Jerusalem & his Consequent Imprisonment by Princes, (37:1-21). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch soon after 586.]
§2. Timely Succor of Jeremiah by Ethiopian Slave; Zedekiah’s Secret Interview with Prophet, (38:1-28a). [Events of 586 B.C., written by Baruch soon afterward.]
§3. Fall of Jerusalem; Jeremiah Committed to Gedaliah, (38:28b-39:14). [Events of 586 B.C., written by Baruch soon afterward.]
§4. Promise of Deliverance to Ebed-melech, (39:15-18). [Delivered 586 B.C., written by Baruch not long afterward.]

Appendix A: Judah after Fall of her Capital, (40:1-43:13). [Compiled & added to Book after 536 B.C.]
§1. Colony at Mizpah, (40:1-16). [Written by Baruch after 586 B. C]
§2. Ishmael Traitor & Johanan Brave Defender of People, (41:1-18). [Written by Baruch after 582 B. c]
§3. Journey to Egypt, (42:1-43:7). [Written by Baruch after 582 B.C.]
§4. Destined Fall of Egypt, (43:8-13).[Written by Baruch after 581 B.C.]

Appendix B: Jeremiah’s Last Prophecies to People, (44:1-30). [Written by Baruch after 581-575 (?) B.C., added to Book after 536.]

Appendix C: Admonition & Promise to Baruch, (45:1-5). [Delivered & reported by Baruch after 586 B.C., added to Book after 536.]

Appendix D: Oracles Concerning Nations, (46:1-51:64). [Compiled & added to Book after 536 B.C., annotated down to second century at least.]
§1. Egypt, (46:1-28). [Possibly completed in period 536-332 B.C.]
§2. Philistines, (47:1-7). [536-332 B.C.]
§3. Moab, (48:1-47). [Possibly written in second century B.C.]
§4. Ammon, (49:1-6). [Possibly written in fourth century B.C.]
§5. Edom, (49:7-22). [Written in period 536-332 B.C.]
§6. Damascus, (49:23-27).[Possibly written in second century B.C.]
§7. Kedar, or Hazor, (49:28-33). [Possibly written in fourth century B.C.]
§8. Elam, (49:34-39). [Written in period 536-332 B.C.]
§9. Babylon, (50:1-51:64). [Written 586-332 B.C.]

Appendix E: Historical Supplement, (52:1-34). [Added to Book after 536 B.C.]”}}

10: The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah, With Introduction & Notes. L. Elliott Binns. Late Scholar of Emmanuel College; & Sometime Chaplain & Lecturer in Old Testament History, Ridley Hall, Cambridge. Westminster Commentaries, Edited by Walter Lock. Methodist. (1919) as.

{{“Preface: During the past few years the importance of Jeremiah amongst the prophets of the Old Testament has been increasingly recognised; no longer is he overshadowed by the massive figure of Isaiah, but rather have the two prophets come to be regarded as twin peaks standing side by side and pointing the soul to the things of God. If, however, the number of books written upon the earlier prophet [Isaiah] be compared with those written upon the later [Jeremiah], it will be found that there is a very great disproportion between them. It would seem therefore that room is left for another Commentary on the Book of the prophet Jeremiah.”
Introduction: § 1. The Importance of Jeremiah: The book of the prophet Jeremiah is the longest in the Bible, and though the mere volume of matter contained in even an inspired writing is no sure or final test of its importance –such a test, for example, would make Ecclesiastes of higher value than the Epistles of St John –yet in view of the disappearance of many of the prophetic utterances, it is evidence of the regard in which Jeremiah was held by the men of the Jewish Church, that they were at pains to collect and preserve so many narratives concerning his life, as well as writings attributed to him. The importance of the book, however, does not depend on its bulk, and had there come down to us only such fragments as chh. 9, 15:15 ff., 17:12 ff., and 20:7 ff. it would hardly be an exaggeration to say that Jeremiah was still the most valuable book in OT……No, the value of OT. lies elsewhere than in the chronicling of the pomp of kings and the petty majesty of war; it lies rather in its being a record of the gradual revelation of what was to the Jews –or at any rate to the higher minds amongst them –the supreme good in life, the knowledge of the living God. The peculiar value of OT., nay of the whole Bible, is not therefore historical but spiritual or, one might almost say, psychological. Its value is psychological because it is through the mind of man quickened by the Holy Spirit that God has given the most intimate revelation of Himself. Much can be learned of God by studying His handiwork in Nature, that open book in which he ‘who runs may read’; much can be learned from His guiding of the events of history, especially in the work of preparation for the Incarnation: but it is from His dealings with the souls of men –both collectively and as individuals –that God is to be known most certainly. The unique position which the Bible occupies, even amongst religious literature, lies in the fact that it contains a number of records of such dealings, and moreover records that are inspired by that Word of God upon whose sojourn on earth all the scattered rays of revelation are centred and in the power of whose ascended life alone they are to be interpreted. It is because Jeremiah amongst the prophets has left the most intimate and impressive accounts of what God meant to his soul, of the variety and richness of his religious experience, that the book which bears his name –and which most assuredly contains much that tomes directly from him– has such surpassing importance. The value of Jeremiah, estimated by this standard, is coming more and more to be realised, and the writer of a recent book on the prophets, referring to Jer. 20:7-9, goes so far as to say that ‘Any discussion of the faith of the prophets must centre finally in this fervid record of Jeremiah’s’. In the present day there is a tendency amongst the majority of people, including the professedly religious, to neglect and in many cases altogether to ignore the reading and study of the Bible. Even amongst Bible students themselves two equally dangerous attitudes of mind are not uncommon, attitudes of mind which regard the OT. on the one hand as a collection of obsolete documents, on the other as an armoury of proof texts. (*This latter weakness marked the learning of the period before the Reformation. ‘The scholastic divines, holding to a traditional belief in the ‘plenary’ and ‘verbal’ inspiration of the whole Bible, and remorselessly pursuing this belief to its logical results, had fallen into a method of exposition almost exclusively ‘textarian’. The Bible, both in theory and in practice, had almost ceased to be a record of real events, and the lives and teaching of living men. It had become an arsenal of texts; and these texts were regarded as detached invincible weapons to be legitimately seized and wielded in theological warfare, for any purpose to which their words might be made to apply, without reference to their original meaning or context…. Thus had the scholastic belief in the verbal inspiration of the sacred text led men blindly into a condition of mind in which they practically ignored the scriptures altogether.’ Seebohm, ‘The Oxford Reformers’, ch. ii. § 1.) The effect in each case is the same, the OT. falls into the background and its influence tends to become more and more like ‘a lingering star with lessening ray.’ This modern tendency to neglect OT. is fraught with much danger, because the two parts of Holy Scripture are so closely linked together that a study and appreciation of OT. is essential to a due and proper understanding of the New.” ……..”But the teaching of OT. has a value its own, and in particular the teaching of those great forerunners of the Messiah, the prophets. Amongst the prophetical books there is none which has a more striking message for modern times than the book of Jeremiah. Even in the days before the great European “War the value of a study of this book was recognised by so clear-sighted a judge as Bishop Westcott, who in the notice to the second edition of his commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (Sept. 1892) wrote as follows:
‘The more I study the tendencies of the time in some of the busiest centres of English life, the more deeply I feel that the Spirit of God warns us of our most urgent civil and spiritual dangers through the prophecies of Jeremiah and the Epistle to the Hebrews.’ But it is since the outbreak of the war and amidst all the shocks which the traditional faith has had to undergo, that the supreme importance of Jeremiah’s teaching has come most clearly to be recognised; and it has come to be recognised because the situation in which the prophet found himself has so much in common with that of the present day. His message was delivered during an age of transition, and delivered moreover to a people whose beliefs, founded on material conceptions of God, had been shattered by the course of events, by the harsh tragedies of actual life.” ……”Amongst canonical prophets he owed most to ‘Hosea’. Not only was he indebted to him for many of his ideas, but he has even preserved and re-expressed the very images in which the earlier prophet had clothed them. It is not merely that the circumstances of the two prophets were very similar, Hosea being the herald of the Fall of Samaria, as Jeremiah was of that of Judah, but the resemblance is so close that there must have been definite borrowing on the part of the later prophet”. It is to Hosea that Jeremiah owes the conception of Jehovah as the loving husband of the nation, as well as the idea of God as Father; it is through his influence that the service of other gods is described as adultery and fornication; and doubtless it was from the same source that Jeremiah got his figure of the wilderness period as the espousal time. [Compare Isaiah as to Husband, Father, & Marriage Relations of God to Israel.] From the prophet ‘Micah’, in addition to the quotation of Mic. 3:12 in 26:18, Jeremiah seems to have derived some of his teaching, for the utterances of the two prophets have much in common. It may well be, however, that this similarity, which seldom extends to actual wording, was due more to similarity of situation than to direct borrowing; as was pointed out above the fact that Jeremiah was recognised as a second Micah is evidence of some resemblance in character and teaching. The parallels between ‘Amos’ and the book of Jeremiah are fairly numerous, though it is not certain that they originated with the prophet himself, being found as they are for the greater part in the section on the nations. Dr. Harper sees distinct traces of Amos’ influence and quotes several instances of it, the most striking being that in these two prophetic books only is there use made of the phrases ‘virgin of Israel’ and ‘days are coming’ Jeremiah does not seem to have owed much to the teaching of his greatest predecessor ‘Isaiah’, at any rate as far as it is contained in OT.; and though there are resemblances between his prophecies and those of his contemporary Zephaniah they would appear to arise more from the similarity of environment than from any mutual influence. With ‘Nahum’ and ‘Habakkuk’, who were also his contemporaries in all probability, Jeremiah’s writings shew little kinship and the difference in point of view is so striking as to preclude the possibility of influence.”……”ii: Its Contents: The contents of the book are hard to analyse and indeed bewildering in their present form which seems to follow no consistent scheme of arrangement; and this bewilderment is increased by the absence of any attempt to take advantage of the chronological notes, which in the later chapters, at all events, are sufficiently numerous. As Canon Nairne has said, ‘The book of Jeremiah is not easily analysed. Attempts have been made to classify its contents. One attempt by the Jewish Synagogue provides the book as we know it in our English Bible. Probably the most helpful way of looking at the book is to think of it as a collection of manuscripts, stored in some corner of a library, not yet fully catalogued, but providing material of different kinds for the illustration of a period of history. The period includes political and religious events of great significance, and people and scenes pass so quickly before our eyes that it is only natural we should find it difficult to put the papers in order.’ Perhaps the best attempt to re-arrange the contents of Jeremiah is that of Cornill in SBOT., yet even it can hardly be called final or really satisfactory. His arrangement is as follows:
(‘a’) Discourses from the first twenty-three years of the prophet’s ministry (i.e. up to the date of the compilation of the roll, 604 B.C.), (1:2, 4-19; 2:1-13, 18-37; 3:1-5, 19-25; 4:3-9, 11-31; 5:1-19, 23-31; 6:1-30; 3:6-16; 11; 12:1-3, 5f.; 18; 7; 8; 9:1-21; 10:17-24; 25:1-3, 7, 11, 13’a’, 15-29; 46:1-12; 47; 48:1-21’a’, 25, 28, 35-44; 49:1-33).
(‘b’) Discourses from the later years of Jehoiakim, (14; 15:1-10, 15-21; 16:1-13, 16 ff., 21; 17:1-4, 14-18; 12:7-17; 35:1-14, 17 ff).
(‘c’) Discourses from the reign of Jehoiachin, (13).
(‘d’) Discourses from the reign of Zedekiah, (24; 29:1, 3-15, 21-22’a’, 31’b’-32; 49:34-39; 22; 23:1-6, 9-18, 21-40; 21:1-10, 13 f.; 20:14-18, 7—12; 32:1’a’, 2’a’, 6-15, 24-44; 33:1, 4-13; 23:7 f. (=16:14 f.).
(‘e’) Discourses from the period after the fall of Jerusalem, (30:1-9, 13-21; 31:1, 2-9, 15-34, 38 ff.; 46:13-26).
(‘f’) Passages for which no satisfactory context can be found, (2:14-17; 9:22-25; 12:4; 16:19 f.; 17:5, 11-13).
(‘g’) Biographical passages composed after the death of Jeremiah, (19; 20:1-6; 26:1-19,24, 20-23; 36; 45; 28:l’a’; 27:1’b’, 6, 8-22; 28:1’b’-17; 51:59, 60,61, 63, 64; 34:1-7; 37:5, 3, 6-10; 34:8-22; 37:4, 11-21; 38:1-28 ‘a’; 39:15-18; 38:1-28’b’; 39:3, 14; 40:6-16; 41; 42; 43; 44:1-28).
(‘h’) Further biographical passages from a different author than the writer of those specified in (‘g’), (10:1-4, 9, 5-8, 10, 12-16; 17:19-27; 39:1, 2, 4-12; 40:1-5; 50;51; 52).
The remaining passages which it is needless to specify, consisting as they do in most cases of a few verses only, or even of parts of a verse, Cornill rejects as later glosses and interpolations.
Taking the book as it stands in EVV. the following is perhaps the best manner of dividing it up.
Part I. ‘Prophecies Mainly Included in Roll’: (Chapters & Verses):
(a) Prophet’s Call, (1). (b) 1st Collection of Prophecies, (2-6). (c) Prophecies at Temple Gate, (7-10). (d) Prophecies on Various Occasions, (11-12). (e) Warnings & Lamentations, (13). (f) Disaster and Despair, (14-17:18). (g) Concerning Sabbath, (17:19-27). (h) Lessons from Potter’s Art, (18-20).
Part II. ‘Prophecies Mainly from Siege & After:
(a) Judgements on Leaders & People, (21-24). (b) Cup of God’s Fury, (25). (c) Temple Sermon & its Sequel, (26).
(d) False Prophets & their Teaching, (27-29:27). (e) Glories of Future, (30-33). (f) Jeremiah’s Life During Siege, (34-39:14). (g) Jeremiah’s Life After Fall of Jerusalem, (40-45).
Part III. Prophecies on Nations:
(a) Concerning Nations, (46-51). (b) Historical Appendix, (52). }}

About mjmselim

Male, 65, born in Jamaica, USA since 1961, citizen in 2002; cobbler for 40 plus years, Christian since 1969; married to same wife since 1979; 6 daughters and 2 sons, with 7 grandkids. Slowly adapting to the digital world of computers and internet; hobby in digital editing.
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