Christian Biblical Reflections.25

((Here are pages (79-115) CBR, Chapter IV, (Christian Biblical Reflections.24, the 4th submission or installment) of the Prophetic Books of Isaiah & Jeremiah with Lamentations & Ezekiel. This is the Isaiah section. Christian Biblical Reflections. mjmselim. 2018)) (Links to the PDF Vol.1 of CBR. Chapters 1-3 (pages 1-560) & to Chapter 4 of Vol. 2 pages 1-115 : updated, completed, and further edited, corrected, and renumbered):
https://mjmselim.files.wordpress.com/2018/08/cbr-1-3-aug122018-christbibreflect-mjmselim-orgnl-08112018-24.pdf
https://mjmselim.files.wordpress.com/2019/07/cbr.4-5.wordpress.4.current.july14th.2019.chrhttps://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/14/christian-biblical-reflections-22/     (p1-25)
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/15/christian-biblical-reflections-23/    (p25-50)
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/16/christian-biblical-reflections-24/    (p50-79)

Here are the corrected links:
https://mjmselim.files.wordpress.com/2018/08/cbr-1-3-aug122018-christbibreflect-mjmselim-orgnl-08112018-24.pdf (vol.1.p1-562)
https://mjmselim.files.wordpress.com/2019/07/cbr.c4-5.v2p1.c4p4.christianbiblereflections.v2.july2019.p1-115.mjmselim.pdf (vol.2.p1-115)
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/14/christian-biblical-reflections-22/ (p1-25)
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/15/christian-biblical-reflections-23/ (p25-50)
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/16/christian-biblical-reflections-24/ (p50-79)
https://mjmselim.blog/2019/07/17/christian-biblical-reflections-25/ (p79-115)

 

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Book of Isaiah in Fifteen Studies by George L. Robinson, Ph.D., Professor Old Testament Lit. & Exegesis McCormick Theological Sem., Chicago. (1910).gs.

{{ Analysis: Book of Isaiah: 6 General Divisions of Book: Chapters:
1. 1-12: Prophecies: Judah & Jerusalem, closing with Promises of Restoration & Psalm of Thanksgiving.
2. 13-23: Oracles of Judgment & Salvation & Foreign Nations whose fortunes affected Judah & Jerusalem.
3. 24-27: Jehovah’s World-Judgment in suing Redemption of Israel.
4. 28-35: Cycle of Prophetic Warnings against Alliance with Egypt: Prophecy of Edom & Promise of Israel’s Ransom.
5. 36-39: History, Prophecy & Song intermingled: Appendix to chaps 1-35, & Introduction to chaps 40-66.
6. 40-66: Prophecies of Comfort, Salvation, & Future Glory awaiting Israel.

1st: Chs 1-12: Ch 1. Jehovah’s Lament over Israel; Introduction striking chief notes of entire Book: (1) Thoughtlessness, vs 2-9; (2) Formalism, vs 10-17; (3) Pardon, vs 18-23; (4) Redemption, vs 24-31.
Chs 2-4: 3 Pictures of Zion: her: (1) Future Exaltation, 2:2-4; (2) Present Idolatry, 2:5-4:1 ; (3) Eventual Purification, 4:2-6. Ch 5: Isaiah’s Arraignment of Judah & Jerusalem: (1) Parable of Vineyard, vs 1-7; (2)

Series of 6 Woes, vs 8-23; (3) 1st Description of Assyrian Invaders, vs 24-30. Ch 6: Prophet’s Inaugural Vision & Commission. Chs 7:1-9:7. Prophecy of Immanuel; History & Prediction being intermingled. Chs 9:8-10:4. Announcement to North Israel of Impending Ruin, with Refrain (9:13, 17, 21; 10:4). Ch 10:5-34. Assyria, Rod of Jehovah’s anger. Ch 11:1-9. Messianic Reign of Ideal Peace. Ch 11:10-16. Return of Israel & Judah from Exile; no more Rivalry between them. Ch 12. Thanksgiving Psalm of Redeemed Nation.

2nd: Chs 13-23: Chs 13:2-14:23: Downfall of Babylon: Judgment:(1) on City, 13:2-22; (2) on King, 14: 1-23. Ch 14:24-27: Certain Destruction of Assyrian. Ch 14:28-32: Oracle: Philistia. Ch 15-16: Oracle: Moab. Ch 17:1-11: Oracle: Damascus & North Israel. Ch 17:12-14: Annihilation of Judah’s Enemies. Ch 18: Prediction: Ethiopia. Ch 19: Oracle: Egypt. Ch 20: Sargon’s March against Egypt & Ethiopia. Ch 21:1-10: Oracle: “Wilderness of Sea” (Babylon). Ch 21:11-12: Oracle: Seir (Edom). Ch 21:13-17: Oracle: Arabia. Ch 22:1-14: Oracle: “Valley of Vision” (Jerusalem). Ch 22:15-25: Philippic against Shebna, Comptroller of Palace. Ch 23: Oracle: Tyre.

3rd: Chs 24-27: Ch 24:1-13: Desolation of “the earth” & of “the city” (i.e., Judah & her Towns). Ch 24:14,15: Dawn of Better Day. Ch 24:16-23: Premature Songs of Rejoicing; more Judgment is Coming. Ch 25:1-5: Hymn of Thanksgiving: Prophet Pleads for his People’s Deliverance. Ch 25:6-8. “feast of fat things” to all Nations “in this mountain,” when Death & Sorrows of War have Passed Away. Ch 25:9-12: 2nd Hymn of Thanksgiving: Looking to Time when Jehovah, Long Looked-for Deliverer, will Come, & Moab’s Arrogance shall be Laid Low. Ch 26:1-19: 3rd Hymn of Thanksgiving: “strong city” (Jerusalem) has been Redeemed, & Life has Issued from Dead. Chs 26:20-27:1: Exhortation to God’s People to Hide themselves till God’s Judgment has Shattered World-Powers. Ch 27:2-6. 4th Hymn of Thanksgiving: Deliverance from Enemy will be followed by National Expansion. Ch 27:7-11: Jehovah’s Discipline of Jacob has been for his Good; Nations, on the contrary, have been Punished & Destroyed. Ch 27:12,13: Children of Israel shall be Gathered from Assyria & from Egypt to Worship Jehovah in Jerusalem.

4th: Chs 28-35: Ch 28:1-6: Warning from Samaria. Ch 28:7-22: Fate of Scoffing, Dissolute Politicians of Jerusalem. Ch 28:23-29: Parable of Comfort; God’s Judgments always Proportionate to man’s Offense.
Ch 29:1-8. Jerusalem’s Humiliation & subsequent Deliverance. Ch 29:9-14. People’s Spiritual Stupidity. Ch 29: 15-24: Exposure of Conspiracy with Egypt, followed by Graphic Prediction of Ideal Future. Ch 30:1-17: Emphatic Denunciation of Alliance with Egypt. Ch 30:18-26: Brilliant Picture of Messianic Age. Ch 30:27-33: Jehovah’s Vengeance upon Assyrian. Ch 31: Folly of Relying on Egypt; Jehovah will Protect Jerusalem & utterly Destroy Assyrian. Ch 32:1-8: Another vivid Picture of Messianic Age. Ch 32:9-14: Rebuke to Women of Jerusalem. Ch 32:15-20: Blessedness of Messianic Future. Ch 33: Woe Pronounced upon Unnamed Invader, followed by Promise of Deliverance & Perfection of Kingdom of God. Ch 34: Jehovah’s Indignation against all Nations, specially Edom. Ch 35: Future Blessedness of Ransomed exiles.

5th: Chs 36-39: Ch 36:1 (2nd Kings 18:13). Sennacherib’s Invasion of Judah & Capture of all her Fortified Cities. Chs 36:2-37:8 (2nd Kings 18:17-19:18). Sennacherib sends Rabshakeh from Lachish against Hezekiah; Rabshakeh makes Defiant Threat, but is Unable to Take Jerusalem. Ch 37:9-38 (2nd Kings 19:9-37). Sennacherib Suddenly Threatened by Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, Sends Messengers from Libnah to Hezekiah with Letter, Peremptorily Demanding Surrender of Jerusalem (vs. 9-13); Hezekiah Spreads Letter before Jehovah in Temple & Prays to be Saved from King of Assyria (vs. 14-20); Isaiah Addresses to Hezekiah Prophecy Predicting Deliverance (vs. 21-35); Sennacherib’s Army is Mysteriously Destroyed, & he Returns to Nineveh & is Subsequently Assassinated by his Sons (vs. 36-38). Ch 38:1-8. Hezekiah’s Sickness, with Sign & Promise of his Recovery. Ch 38:9-20: Hezekiah’s Song of Thanksgiving.

Ch 38:21, 22: Means by which Hezekiah’s Cure is Brought about. Ch 39: Embassy of Merodach-Baladan to Hezekiah.

6th: Chapters 40-66. Chs 40-48: Deliverance from Captivity through Cyrus, Promised by Infinite & Incomparable Jehovah. Chs 49-57: Sufferings of Servant of Jehovah; this Section ending like former with Refrain, “There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked” (57:21;cf. 48:22). Chs 58-66: Abolition of all National Distinctions & Future Glory of People of God. Ch 60 is the Characteristic Chapter of this Section, as ch 53 is of 2nd, & Chapter 40 of 1st.

Isaiah Period: B.C. 745-640: Uzziah to Manasseh: Judah – Jerusalem – Southern Kingdom. Menahem to Hoshea: Israel – Samaria – Northern Kingdom. Assyria: Tiglath-Pileser III (Pul) to Sennacherib. Babylonian & others. Egypt: 23rd Dynasty to 25th Dynasty. Isaiah’s Prophecy: 740-700.

B.C.
745: Uzziah & Jothan Co-Rule. Assyria (Pul) invades Northern Israel & Syria. Menahem r. in Samaria. 740: Isaiah’s Ministry in Uzziah’s last year(s). Jotham rules alone. Assyria expands & conquests.
738: Jotham d. Ahaz reigns. Damascus & Syria pay tribute to Pul. Samaria buys Assyria’s help. 737: Menahem d. Pekahiah r., & d. Pekah r. in Samaria.
736: Pekah r. & d. in Samaria. Ahaz r. in Jerusalem.
735: Syria – Ephraim War. Edomites & Philistines assault Judah. 734: Pul deports most of Samaria.
732: Assyria captures & deports Damascus. Ahaz visits Damascus & copies the Syrian Altar at Jerusalem. 730: Pekah d. & Hoshea r. Assyria deports Galilee & Gilead. Samaria refused tribute to Assyria with Egypt’s support. Shalmaneser: Assyria’s King, in Hoshea’s 9th yr deported & exiled Israel to Assyria.
727: Ahaz d. Hezekiah reigns. Reformation in Judah. Pays tribute to Assyria & Babylon. Sargon II. 722: Samaria falls. Remnant exiled. Hodges d. & Monarchy ends. Nations imported into Samaria.
720: Assyria-Babylonia Conflicts & Wars. Egypt invades Gaza. Babylon invades Judah. Merodach-Baladan
r. in Babylon. Sargon r. in Assyria, Syria, & Palestine.
714: Hezekiah childless, deathly sick. Prays & God extends 15 years to him. Merodach-Babylon sends embassy to Jerusalem & sees Jerusalem wealth.
712: Shabana r. in Egypt (25th Dynasty)
710: Babylon invades & captures Judah’s cities.
705: Sargon of Assyria assassinated & Sennacherib r. in Nineveh. 703: Merodach-Baladan r., in Babylon.
702: Hezekiah refused tribute to Assyria supported by Egypt& Philistia.
701: Sennacherib sweeps all Syria & Palestine & all around. Hezekiah strips Temple & Palace to appease Sennacherib to no avail. (200,000 plus deported from Judah.) Sennacherib’s army is Divinely destroyed, & he returns to Nineveh. Isaiah’s ministry near end.
700: Isaiah’s Prophecy ends. Jerusalem seized & remnant deported & exiled.
699: Hezekiah d., Manasseh r., Isaiah dies after Hezekiah, year not known
690: Manasseh corrupts Judah.
680: Manasseh corrupts Judah.
670: Manasseh corrupts Judah.
660: Manasseh corrupts Judah.
650: Manasseh corrupts Judah. Manasseh deported & repents & returns to Jerusalem & small reformation.
643: Manasseh d. Amon r. in Jerusalem.
640: Amon d. Josiah r. in Jerusalem. Remnant in Babylon. }}

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Commentary on Book of Isaiah Critical, Historical, & Prophetical, Revised English Translation, Introduction & Appendices, etc. Rev, Thomas R. Birks, Prof. of Moral Theology, Cambridge. Speakers’ Commentary. 2nd Edit. Revsd .(1878).gs.

{{ “Preface, 1st Edition: IV: “A fourth and last object has been to unfold this relation between Isaiah’s successive Visions and the circumstances out of which they arose. The wonderful discoveries of the last thirty years at Nimroud, Kouyunjik and Khorsabad, and the progress of cuneiform interpretation, have given this subject a deep and growing interest. Striking confirmations of several main facts in the Bible history have thus been brought to light, and new vividness has been given to their portraiture of the conquests, pride, and arrogance of the Assyrian kings. On the other hand new difficulties have appeared. The conclusions drawn, by some of the ablest syrologists, from the slabs and cylinders lately disentombed, clash, in some important particulars, with our present text of Scripture, and also, as I think, with some vital and essential features of the Book of Isaiah, inwrought into the texture of its whole message. It may seem bold to dispute the conclusions of such writers as Dr Hincks and Sir H. and Professor Rawlinson, in a field of research where the two former have won such deserved honour, and the last has the merit of digesting their conclusions, and presenting them in a clear and popular form. It is with sincere reluctance that I have felt compelled to renounce their supposed improvements in the chronology of those days; and, even on the ground of the evidence adduced by themselves, and on which they build, to vindicate the superior historical consistency of the Scripture narrative, as it now stands. But a skepticism is both allowable and wise with regard to recent inferences from half-deciphered remains of oriental despots, and from their boastful bulletins, engraven in stone, and buried in long oblivion along with the idol gods they so zealously worshipped, which is neither wise nor safe, when applied to the sacred oracles of the true and only God. All experience proves the wide contrast, remarked by Plato long ago, between the power of collecting new materials in any department of knowledge, and of drawing correct inferences from the materials so obtained. The very labour and skill involved in these recent discoveries, the learning they require, and the fascination of each successive step, in surmounting hindrances that seemed insuperable, tend to distort the view of their historical value, as compared with the clear, distinct, and truthful evidence that lies before us in this Book of Isaiah, and the sacred histories. When Sargon informs us, in his inscriptions, that three hundred and fifty (350) kings of Assyria had reigned before him, and that not one of them had achieved what he had done, we are taught a lesson of wholesome distrust as to the truthfulness of other statements in these royal records. The view adopted by Professor Rawlinson and others, in deference to the supposed authority of the Assyrian canon (which Dr Hincks himself does not hesitate to call the work of a blunderer, disproved in some main particulars by weightier evidence), distorts and reverses, in my opinion, that main feature in the history of Hezekiah’s reign, on which the whole structure of the Book of Isaiah really depends. I think I have shown that it is opposed to the plain laws of history, as well as to the text of Isaiah, and the Books of Kings and Chronicles. A different view, in full harmony with Scripture, agrees better, I believe, with the substantial testimony of the monuments themselves; and only requires us to admit such a partial disguise and falsification in Sennacherib’s cylinders, as we may be quite certain, even from recent examples, so terrible a reverse would occasion in ancient days, no less than in our own. These bulletins of the kings of Assyria, though engraven on stone, were subject to no correction from a free press, and newspaper correspondence. They are steeped throughout in the spirit of idolatrous delusion and vainglorious pride. They are panegyrics rather than annals; and reliance on the perfect accuracy of their statements, when they come into conflict with the words of Scripture, and with the drift and scope of its most central book of prophecy, seems to me a serious error in the comparative estimate of different sources of historical evidence.

Contents: Introduction: Sections:
1. Nature of Scripture Prophecy. 2. Books of Prophets. 3. Life and Times of Isaiah. 4. Structure of Book of Isaiah. 5. 1st Series of Visions
Commentary: 7 Divisions: Chapters:
I. Earliest Prophecies, (1-12). II. Burdens on Nations, (13-27). III. Woes on Israel & Nations, (28-35).
IV. Historical Episode, (36-39). V. Later Prophecies, 1st Series, (40-48). VI. Later Prophecies, 2nd Series, (49-60). VII. Latest Prophecies, (61-66).
Appendices: 10:
I. Genuineness of Later Prophecies. II. Structure of Later Prophecies. III. Assyrian Reigns in Isaiah.
IV. Prophecy of Immanuel. V. Historical Groundwork of Burdens. VI. Assyrian Overthrow. VII. Controversy with Gentile Idolatry. VIII. Internal Evidence of Isaian Authorship of Chaps (45-66). IX. Chap 66: Events of Last Times. X. Chap 66:22-24: Doctrine of Eternal Judgment.

Introduction: § 1. Nature of Scripture Prophecy: ““In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” These opening words of the Bible are a key to the true nature of all Divine revelation. ….The doctrine of the Fall comes next in order. …Hence arise three kinds of evidence; Miracles, or works of superhuman power; Prophecy, or marks of superhuman foresight; and Moral Beauty, or signs of a goodness, holiness, and moral excellence, truly Divine…. This view of Sacred Prophecy results necessarily from the nature of God the Revealer, and also of man himself, to whom the revelation is made. It is also confirmed by many plain statements of the word of God. It is distinctly affirmed, at least a dozen times, in this one book of Isaiah alone. The later prophets resume the message of the earlier ones with this same truth…. All this magnificent array of seers and prophets, of heavenly dreams, ecstatic visions, and angelic messages, was never devised to give currency to imperfect and mistaken guesses of mere fallible men. The true aim was far higher and nobler, worthy of the sublime agency employed, when “the Lord God of the holy prophets sent his angel to shew unto his servants things which must shortly be done.”….The criticism which starts from a denial of this essential character of Scripture prophecy, as it begins with unbelief, can end only in confusion and darkness. No secondary appliances of human learning can save it from a double sentence of barrenness and blindness. It wearies itself in vain, like the stricken Sodomites, to find the door. With a starting point so false, real insight into the contents and structure of the prophecies must be impossible. The dishonour done to the majesty of God’s word recoils upon those who offer it. They seek to degrade it from its true dignity into the mere guesswork of man; and a chaos of hypotheses that exclude, and of guesses that contradict each other, is usually the final result of their most diligent and persevering labours….
§ 2. Books of Prophets: …Sacred Prophecy, from Abraham to Christ, has four distinct and successive stages. Its main root and source is the promise, with which the New Testament begins, of the Seed of Abraham, in whom all the nations of the earth were to be blessed. In the first stage, from Abraham to Moses and Joshua, this promise was unfolded in its lower and outward sense, the historical pledge of what was deeper, and lay beyond. The seed of Abraham after the flesh, but still in the sacred line of the covenant, grew from a family into a nation, until all the tribes had come to occupy their predicted inheritance. The second stage, reaching from Joshua to David and Solomon, was marked by the advance of the nation into a kingdom. Internal discord, and the strength of heathen adversaries, proved their need of a further gift beyond the inheritance of the land; a righteous King, who might be the Shepherd of the chosen people, and execute justice and judgment in the earth. The main subject of prediction, in this period, was the trials and deliverances of Israel, until the promotion of David, and the promise made to his line, and the reign of Solomon, in whom the typical kingdom reached its highest point of worldly greatness. The prophecies of the more distant future, during this second period, seem to have been in types alone. This typical character may be traced clearly in Moses and Joshua, in Barak and Gideon, and in Samson the Nazarite, whose victories, great in his life, were still greater in the hour of his death. But its fullest exhibition is in David, the king after God’s own heart, triumphant through bitter conflict; and in Solomon, the Prince of peace, of surpassing wisdom, the Builder of the Temple of God. The third period reaches from the death of Solomon to the Captivity, and the fall of the first temple. Here the type and antitype diverged, and began to stand in evident contrast. The typical kingdom was rent by the great schism of Jeroboam, and gradually declined, till the tabernacle of David was broken down, and became a ruin. But the promise of Messiah, the Son of David, and of the redemption of Zion and Israel, and of all nations through Him, came out into full relief. A new covenant was announced, and the first covenant, waxing old, was ready to pass away. The first prophecy of this period, given to Solomon as soon as the temple was complete, announced its future overthrow, and the fall of the kingdom. A second message, given by Ahijah to Jeroboam, foretold the division of the kingdom, the first main step in its downward progress. A third, in its mention of Josiah, and of his reformation shortly before the kingdom fell, limited and defined the platform on which a new and glorious structure of prophetic hope was to be reared. The miracles of Elijah and Elisha form an historical basis of this prophetic period, just as those of Moses are the foundation of the whole legal covenant. At length, in the later times of the declining kingdom, almost midway between Moses and Christ, from Jonah to the Captivity, during a space of more than two hundred years, we enter on the main period of Old Testament prophecy. It begins, in the Book of Jonah, with a typical prophecy like those of the earlier period. Amidst repeated warnings of judgment coming upon the chosen people for their sins, the type withers and fades, that the antitype may shine out more clearly. At every step in the decay of the kingdom, the voice of promise grows fuller and louder, announcing Immanuel, the King from the stem of David, who would reign and prosper, and execute judgment and righteousness in the earth. The fourth and last stage reaches from the Return to the close of the Canon, and onward to the Birth of Christ. In the Book of Daniel, which links the two periods, three new features appear; a comprehensive view of the future history of the world, great minuteness of historical detail, and a distinct definition of the time of Messiah’s coming. Here the predictive character of God’s message reaches its height, and forms the basis of all the later prophecies of the New Testament. The two prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, revive the messages of the earlier prophets, renew the promise of the coming Messiah, and add fresh touches to the grand outlines of a picture already given, which revealed the humiliation and sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Malachi sums up the controversy of God with His rebellious people, renews the promise implied in the name, Jehovah, and proclaims the rising of the Sun of righteousness, the coming of the Angel of the Covenant, and of the messenger who would prepare His way. Then prophecy is silent, as stars wane before the sunrise, and revives only in the Song of Zacharias, which announces at length the bright dawning of the promised Dayspring from on high.” }}

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Thoughts on Parts of Prophecy of Isaiah by Benjamin W. Newton (1868).gs.

{{ “Thoughts on Isaiah 1″ (*In the Middle Ages, while the Jews turned their eyes incessantlytowards the Holy City, the Latins, Greeks, and Mussulmans disputed with each other its possession; and it was during that conflict they were preparing themselves by this very contact for higher destinies. In the present day the force of tradition calls to Jerusalem all who, in one form or another, believe in the Bible. While under the tolerant sovereignty of the Sultan the Latin Catholics and the Orthodox Greeks group their chapels round the Holy Sepulchre, while the Protestants install their Bishop in the Holy City, and the Pope establishes his Legate there, Russia, Austria, France, England, the Israelites multiply their schools and hospitals. And, at the same time, by the increasing facility of communication, by the vicinity of the Isthmus of Suez, by the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, by Syria and Egypt, new life and vigour are being restored to that spot so long deserted. According as civilization returns towards the East, and penetrates into Africa, Jerusalem, the historical centre, is again becoming the material centre of the world ) Such are the principles with, which Western Europe is now entering, with the view of reviving,
those ancient countries of the East which were the seats of the world’s early civilization. From Egypt, Jerusalem, Assyria, Asia Minor and Greece, have emanated the laws and institutions which have abidingly stamped their impress upon the whole earth. Around those names the history of human greatness in its earliest developments revolves. But all this greatness has been laid low. It has been smitten down under the righteous judgments of God because of its iniquity. Now, however, men have resolved to revive it; and for a season they will succeed. Indeed, we see the hoped-for renovation already commenced. If we compare the present condition of Egypt, or Jerusalem, or Smyrna, or Nineveh, with their condition at the commencement of the present century, the extent of their revival will be seen. No doubt it is as yet in its infancy; but it will advance until “the rivers of Cush” –the Nile and the Euphrates, again become the great commercial arteries of the world. Israel with all their intelligence, and wealth, and commercial aptitude (some among them speaking the language of every known people upon earth) will return to their land and reconstitute themselves there, with Egypt on their right hand, and Assyria on their left –triple pillars apparently of the world’s prosperity. Many when they see it will be ready to say that the days of evil are gone, and the hour of promised prosperity come. They will think that Israel has become “a third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the earth: whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance.” Indeed, already this and similar passages in Isaiah have been applied to the present revival of civilization in Egypt. It is infatuation: yet not greater, perhaps, than that that has dictated previous interpretations of this passage. Isaiah has long become a sealed book to Christendom. “When conscience slumbers and ceases to distinguish good from evil, Prophecy if read, will only the more deeply blind. (*Thus Vitringa, after an elaborate disquisition, comes to the conclusion that “the great Saviour sent by Jehovah to Egypt (see Is. 19:20) was Alexander the Great:” and that the time when Egypt becomes, with Israel and with Assyria a blessing in the midst of the earth, was when the Ptolemies ruled over it. There are few periods at which Egypt has more been a sink of corruption than under them. Yet even Barnes assents to this interpretation of Vitringa !)”….
Notes on Isaiah 1:1: ….”In all books of prophecy the commencing visions are wide and comprehensive. Accordingly, the first chapter of Isaiah includes all the period of which the Book as a whole treats. It reaches onward to that still future hour, when Zion, purified by judgment, shall have “her judges restored as at the first, and her counsellors as at the beginning.” [See verse 25 & 26.] Subsequent visions, therefore, do but retrace the period, or part of the period included in the first chapter. With the exception of one passage which speaks of the creation of “new heavens and a new earth” after the millennial heavens and earth have passed away, none of the subsequent visions extend beyond the period to which the first chapter brings. The like is true of the visions into which the Book of Daniel and the Revelation are divided. As in Isaiah, so in them, the several visions are not to be read as if chronologically successive. They are supplementary one to the other –the later visions retracing, and bringing out with further detail, points to which earlier visions had more briefly referred.” }}

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Companion Bible Authorized Version of 1611, Structures & Notes, Critical, Explanatory & Suggestive & 198 Appendixes by E. W. Bullinger. (1900.1964.2005).

(Introversion.)
1:1: Title. (Vision of Isaiah benAmoz: Judah & Jerusalem: Days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, & Hezekiah: Kings of Judah.)

A I 1:2-5:30. Exhortations: Reprehensory. Prophetic.
B I 6:1-13. Voice from Temple. Scattering.
C I 7:1-12:6. Historic. Events & Prophecies (Ahaz).
D I 13:1- 27:13. Burdens. Alternated with Israel’s Blessings.
D I 28:1-35:10. Woes. Alternated with Jehovah’s Glories.
C I 36:1-39:8. Historic. Events & Prophecies (Hezekiah).
B I 40:1-11. Voice from Wilderness. Gathering.
A I 40:12- 66:24. Exhortations. Promissory. Prophetic.

CB.EWB: Book of Prophet Isaiah:

{{ “The Structure, above, declares the unity of the book, and effectually disposes of the alleged dual authorship and the hypothetical division of the book by modern critics into two parts: the “former” part being chs. 1-39, the “latter” part chs. 40-66. The “Voice”, in ch. 40:1-11, is necessitated in order to complete the “Correspondence” with 6:1-13; and, if an hypothesis is admitted on the one side, then it must be admitted on the other; and it is hypothetically incredible that this dual reference to the “voice” could have been the outcome of a dual authorship. For other evidences, see Ap. 79, 80, and 82. The ‘Date’ of the book is given as “in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah”. In ch. 6:1, the prophecy there is given as being “in the year that king Uzziah died”. According to Ap. 50, p. 59 (cp. Ap. 77), Uzziah died in 649 B.C. Historically, Isaiah disappears from view after delivering the great prophecy of the Babylonian Servitude (2nd Kings 20:16-18 & Isa. 39:1-8). This was in the year 603 B.C., after Hezekiah’s illness at the close of the siege of Jerusalem by Sennacherib in Hezekiah’s 14th year (cp. Ap. 60, p. 60). We have thus two fixed dates, and between them a period of forty-six (46) years, during which, undoubtedly, “the Word of Jehovah came” through Isaiah, and “God spake” by him. Though this period was covered and overlapped by the Prophet’s life, it was not the whole of the period covered by the “vision”, which goes far beyond the prediction of the Babylonish Captivity. Hezekiah lived for fifteen (15) years after his illness, dying therefore in 588 B.C. Manasseh, his son, born in the third of the fifteen added years, succeeded in the same year (688 B.C.). How soon after his accession the Manasseh persecution began we are not told; but it is highly improbable that a boy of ‘twelve’ years would immediately commence the horrible things of which we are told in 2nd Kings 21 & 2nd Chron. 33. The unutterable “religious” practices that lie behind the descriptive words in these chapters point clearly to some four or five years later, when Manasseh would be sixteen (16) or seventeen (17). According to Jewish tradition, Isaiah perished in the Manassean persecution; when, it is said, he took refuge inside a hollow mulberry tree, which Manasseh ordered to be sawn through. This may be referred to in Heb. 11:37, If we take the 5th year of Manasseh (584 B.C.) as the date of Isaiah’s death (violent or natural, we have no means of determining), then, from “the year that King Uzziah died” (6:1, which forcibly suggests the ‘terminus a quo’ [earliest] of the whole book) to this point, we have sixty-five years from the commencement of the “visions” till the supposed date of his death (649-584 B.C. =65). See Ap. 77. If Isaiah was about the same age as Samuel, Jeremiah, & Daniel were, at the beginning of their ministries, viz. 16-18, then we may conclude that the length of his life was some 81-83 years. There is no evidence that “the Word of the LORD came” to Isaiah after the reign of Hezekiah ended in 588 B.C. therefore the whole period covered by “the vision” of Isaiah is ‘sixty-one’ years (649-588 =61). From that year onward till the ‘thirteenth’ (13th) year of Josiah in 518 B.C., there were seventy (70) years during which God did not speak by the prophets” (589-518 = 70). The chart of the Prophets (see Ap. 77) shows that ‘Isaiah’ was contemporary with ‘Hosea’ from 649-611 B.C. = 38 years; with ‘Micah’ from 632-611
B.C. =21 yrs; & with ‘Nahum’ in the year 603 B.C.= 1 year.” }}

Appendix 77: TABLE:

{{ “5. It will be seen on referring to the Chart on p.113 that the 16 prophetical books fall into four remarkable and well-defined divisions, separated by three “breaks”, or periods of years, as shown below: Books & Years: (some 300 Years).
1st Group: 6 Prophets: Jonah, Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum; for (102 yrs).
Then follows a great “gap” or “break ” of (70 yrs).
2nd Group: 7 Prophets: Jeremiah, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Daniel, Joel,
Ezekiel, Obadiah; for (94 yrs). Followed by a “gap” or” break ” of (14 yrs).
3rd Group: 2 Prophets: Haggai, Zechariah; for (7 yrs).
Then follows a “gap ” of (29 yrs).
Which is closed by the Prophet Malachi.
The whole period covered by the sixteen (16) prophets is therefore (316 yrs).

From the above it is seen that Malachi is to be reckoned as being separate and apart rom the rest; and not, as usually presented, linked together with Haggai & Zechariah. “By the Hebrews, ‘Malachi’ is known as ‘the Seal of the Prophets’, and as closing the Canon of the Jewish Scriptures.” The other fifteen (15) prophets (5×3) arrange themselves in three groups of 6, 7, & 2; and the period covered by these collectively –including the breaks– is 287 years (forty -one ‘sevens’ (41×7)).

6. The 1st Group commences with Jonah and ends with Nahum. Both are connected with Nineveh. This group consists of six prophets, and the period they cover is 102 years (seventeen ‘sixes’ (17×6)). Between the 1st & 2nd Groups there is the great “gap” or “break ” of seventy (70) years (ten ‘sevens’ (10×7), see Ap. 10). According to Jewish tradition, ‘Isaiah’ perished in the Manassean persecution (see the Note on p. 930). If this persecution took place, or culminated, about ‘five’ years after Manasseh’s accession –as is most probable– this would be 584 B.C.; and that year is ‘sixty-five’ (65) years from the ‘dated’ commencement of Isaiah’s “Vision”: viz., the year in which King Uzziah died (649 B.C.: see Ap. 50. VII, p. 68, and cp. the Chart on p.113). We have, however, no indication that “the Word of the Lord came” to ‘Isaiah’ ‘later’ than the end of the reign of ‘Hezekiah’, and ‘Manasseh’s’ accession in 588 B.C. Therefore, from that year on, and until “the thirteenth (13th) year of Josiah” (518 B.C.), there was no “coming” of “the Word”; but, instead, a long solemn silence on the part of Jehovah for ‘seventy years’! (588-518 =70). This silence was broken at length by the Divine utterances through ‘Jeremiah’, ‘Habakkuk’, & ‘Zephaniah’ simultaneously, in 518 B.C.; and the Word then “came” in an unbroken sequence of ‘ninety-four’ years (518-424 =94) through the ‘seven’ prophets associated with the final scenes in the history of the ‘Southern’ Kingdom, ‘Judah’ –including the Babylonian Captivity– as the six earlier prophets had been associated with the closing scenes of the ‘Northern’ Kingdom, which ended in 601 B.C.
2nd Group closes with the latest date recorded by Daniel, “the third (3rd) year of Cyrus” (Dan.
10:1), i.e. in 424 B.C.
Then occurs a short break of ‘fourteen’ (14) years (two ‘sevens’) between ‘Daniel’ & ‘Haggai’ (424-410 =14), followed by:
3rd Group, consisting of ‘Haggai’ & ‘Zechariah’, extending over ‘seven’ years (410-403 =7).
The seven (7) years covered by Zechariah are succeeded by the last “break” of ‘twenty-nine’ (29) years, closed by the affixing of “the Seal of the Prophets”, ‘Malachi’, in 374 B.C. This was exactly ‘thirty years’ (30) from the restoration of the Temple worship and ritual, commencing after the Dedication of the Temple in 405 B.C., with the First Passover in Nisan, 404 B.C. (Ap. 58, p. 84). This year (374 B.C.) marked the commencement of the last great national testing time of the People in the land: viz. ‘four hundred years’ (40×10 =400), and ended with the beginning of Christ’s ministry in A.D. 26.
.
7. On examining this chronological grouping, it will be seen that it presents the prophetical books to us ‘as a whole’; and thus, in a manner is at variance with the usual classification into “Four Prophets the Greater (or Longer), & Twelve Prophets the Minor or (Shorter).” Although it is, of course, manifestly true that ‘Isaiah’, ‘Jeremiah’, ‘Ezekiel’, & ‘Daniel’ are “greater”, in the sense that they are messages of ampler dimensions, and far wider scope than the majority of the others, yet –according to their chronological positions in the Scriptures, as shown in the Chart (p. 113)– it would appear that they are grouped together by the Divine Spirit, with the so-called “Minor” (or Shorter) prophets, as being ‘units’ only in a particular “coming” of the Word of Jehovah, during certain clearly defined periods of time connected with the close of the national history of Israel’s sons as possessors of the land.
It is interesting to note the close association of the figures “6” & “7” with these periods:
(a) The three groups together cover a period of 203 years, during which “the Word of the Lord came” through the prophets (102 x 94 x 7 =203); and 203 is twenty-nine ‘sevens’ (29×7). [See above at # 5.]
(b) The prophecies of the 1st Group, linked together by the number of Man “6” (Ap. 10), are seen to be closely connected with the last hundred (100) years or so of the Northern Kingdom. The prophecies of the 2nd Group, linked together by the special number of Spiritual Perfection “7” (Ap. 10), are as closely connected with the destruction and punishment of ‘Judah’ & ‘Jerusalem’.
(c) In the 1st Group, ‘Hosea’, ‘Isaiah’, & ‘Micah’ were contemporary for twenty-one years (three ‘sevens’ (3×7)); viz. from 632 to 611 B.C. In the 2nd Group, ‘Jeremiah’, ‘Daniel’, ‘Joel’, & ‘Ezekiel’ are contemporaries for seven years (one ‘seven’); viz. from 484 to 477 B.C.
If ‘Obadiah’s’ date is 482 B.C., then we have five prophets all contemporaries during this period. And five is the number associated with Divine Grace (Ap. 10).
After the “break” of fourteen years (two ‘sevens’ (2×7)) between the 2nd & 3rd Groups, we have ‘Zechariah’, the last of the fifteen (15) prophets of the three groups, continuing from 410 to 403 B.C. (one ‘seven’); ‘Haggai’ being contemporary with him in 410. The fifteen prophets represent the number of Grace thrice repeated (5 x 3).
8. ‘Malachi’s’ date is 374 B.C. As stated above, this is exactly thirty years after the Restoration, and the resumption of the Temple worship and ritual, beginning with the Passover in 404 B.C. (Ezra 6:19). The “Seal of the Prophets” was therefore affixed thirty (30) years from that important start-point, and ‘twenty-nine’ (29) clear years from Ezra’s last date: viz. , 1st of Nisan 403 B.C. (Ezra 10: 17), the year that witnessed the Dedication of the Wall (Neh. 12:27-47) and the Reformation of the People under Nehemiah (Neh. 13:1-31).
9. It may also be noted that the Book of ‘Jonah’ –the prophet quoted by our Lord as the “Sign” of His own Resurrection– ‘commences’ the grouped fifteen (15), while ‘Zechariah’ ‘ends’ them with the glorious and detailed statements of the Return of the King to reign as “the Lord of all the earth”.
Again: as the “break” of twenty-nine (29) years follows after ‘Zechariah’, before the “Seal”, ‘Malachi’, is affixed in 374 B.C., this points to a fact of great importance: viz., that ‘the O.T. is really closed by the Book of Zechariah and not Malachi, as usually understood’. Malachi marks the commencement of the great final probationary period of 400 years, which ended with the coming of “My Messenger” (John the Baptist) followed by the Advent of “the Messenger of the Covenant” (Messiah Himself).
‘Malachi’ is thus seen to be linked on to John the Baptist (cp . Mal. 4:5,6, and Matt. 11:10-15), and “seals” together the last page of the O.T., and the beginning of “The Book of the Generation of Jesus the Messiah.”” }}

Appendix 80: Isaiah: Quotations & Allusions in New Testament:
{{ The prophet Isaiah is quoted or referred to some eighty-five (85) times in the New Testament. But several passages are cited or alluded to more than once; so that sixty-one (61) separate passages are referred to in these eighty-five (85) New Testament citations. Of these sixty-one (61) passages in Isaiah, it will be noticed that twenty-three (23) are from the alleged “former” part of Isaiah (chs. 1-39), and are cited thirty-two (32) times; while thirty-eight (38) (the larger number) are cited from the alleged “latter” part (chs. 40-66) which is most called in question by modern critics. These sixty-one (61) passages are cited eighty-five (85) times. The following table exhibits the whole; and the evidence hereby afforded, as to the unity of the authorship of Isaiah, may be added to that already given in Ap. 79 The eighty-five (85) citations or allusions are distributed as follows: In Matt. there are (9); Mark, (6); Luke (5); John, (5); Acts, (5); Rom., (18) (8 from the “former” part, & 10 from the “latter”): 1st Cor., (6); 2nd Cor., (4); Gal., (1); Eph., (2); Phil., (1); 1st Thess., (1); 2nd Thess., (1); Heb., (2); James (1); 1st Pet., (5); 2nd Pet., (1); Rev., (12) (5 from the “former” part, & 7 from the” latter”).
12 books give 6 direct quotations. 18 books contain 85 allusions to Isaiah. Only 7 books out of 27 have none. The greater part of the New Testament is concerned with establishing the genuineness and authority of the book of the prophet Isaiah, and its one authorship. (See Ap. 79) }}

Appendix 82: Formulae of Prophetic Utterance:
{{ It is clear that there was an appropriate and recognize style of prophetic address, and of the introduction to special prophetic utterances. By attending to this we shall read the prophetic books to an advantage that cannot be realized by submitting, without thought, to the superficial guidance of chapter-beginning and chapter-ending. These will be found of little use in helping us to distinguish separate and distinct prophecies.
In ‘Jeremiah’, the formulae are generally “The word of the LORD came”, “Thus saith the LORD “, or “The word that came”.
In ‘Ezekiel’, the call is to the prophet as “son of man “, [benadam, benAdam, Ben Adam] (* Without the article. For the expression “The Son of Man” belongs only to Him Who was “the second man”, “the last Adam”, the successor or superseder of “the first man Adam” to Whom dominion in the earth is now committed. Cp. Gen. 1:26; Ps. 8:1, 9; Heb. 2:8 “not yet” . See Ap. 98.) and the ‘formulae’ is “the word of the LORD came”, many times repeated.
In the Minor (or Shorter) Prophets, it is “The word of the LORD by”, “Hear the word that the LORD hath spoken “, or “The burden of the word of the LORD”.
In ‘Isaiah’, the prophetic utterances have two distinct forms. As to Israel, the chosen People, they open with exclamations, commands, or appeals, such as “Hear”, “Listen”, “Awake”, “Ho”, “Arise, shine”, “Behold”; while in the case of surrounding nations it was a series of “Burdens” or “Woes “; as well as to Ephraim (28), and to the rebellious sons who go down to Egypt, to the “Assyrian”, &c. See the Structures on pp. 930, 1015, and 1104.
An illustrative example of the usefulness of noting these ‘formulae’ is furnished by Isa. 34 & 35. Most Commentators make chapter 35 commence a new prophecy, and thus entirely obscure the great issue of the prophecy, which begins in ch. 34:1 with the Call: “‘Come near, ye nations’, to ‘hear’ and ‘hearken’, ye peoples: let the earth ‘hear’, &c. The Call is to witness Jehovah’s ‘Judgment on Edom’ (in ch. 34), which issues in the salvation of ‘Israel’ (in ch. 35). Thus the prophecy is seen to have no break, but forms one complete and comprehensive whole, embracing these two great parts of one subject. In ch. 34 we have the desolation of Edom: wild beasts celebrate the discomfiture of its inhabitants: then, in ch. 35, the wilderness and solitary place are seen to be glad; and, as it were, in sympathy with Divine judgment, the desert rejoices and blossoms as the rose (35:1,2). In the result, ch. 35 shows that the People of Jehovah enjoy the inheritance of the Edomites. Not only are their enemies gone, but so are the wild beasts which were at once the evidences and tokens of their judgment. It will have become the way of holiness; the unclean shall not pass over it; no lion shall be there, but the redeemed shall walk there (35:8,9). But all the beauty of this wonderful transition is lost, when chapter 35 is made the beginning of a new and distinct prophecy; and, more than this, the difficulty is created by the Hebrew suffix “for them”, in 35:1. Not knowing what to do with it, the Revisers solve the difficulty by simply omitting these two words “for them”; and this in the absence of any manuscript authority, and without giving in the margin even the slightest hint that they have entirely ignored the Hebrew suffix in the verb ‘susum’ (i.e. the final “m”). The two chapters (34 & 35) form a comprehensive message, a matter of world concern: for it combined an implied vindication of the righteousness of God, and a confirmation of His promise to save His People Israel with an everlasting salvation. A failure to recognize the ‘formula’ of Isaiah’s prophetic utterances led, first, to a misapplication of the chapter, and then to an unjustifiable disregard of the pronominal suffix.
This typical case of confusion, resulting primarily from an unfortunate arrangement in chapter-division, suggests the great importance of care being exercised in a correct individualizing of the prophecies of Holy Scripture. }}

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Isaiah: Book of Isaiah 2 volumes: v1: c1-39, v2: c40-66, & Sketch of History of Israel from Isaiah to Exile, by George Adam Smith, DD. Prof. of Hebrew & OT Exegesis Free Church College, Glasgow. (1908.1902).gs. [J.E. McFadyen in his Isaiah commentary says of G.A. Smith’s Isaiah: “The Book of Isaiah, in The Expositor’s Bible. Illuminating, eloquent, and stimulating.” McFadyen follows Smith in most essentials; but in his Chronology he saw the need to speculate on the date of the “Deutero-Isaiah” (Chaps. 40-55) at about (540 B.C.); & the “Trito-Isaiah” (Chaps. 56-66) at about (460 B.C.); at which time he places Malachi, then at 445 B.C. he has Nehemiah at Jerusalem to Rebuild the Walls.]

Outline & Content: 2 Parts & 9 Books (P. I Bks 1-5 & P. II Bks 1-4):

Part I: Books I – V: Isaiah: Chapters 1-39:
Bk I: Chaps 1-7: Isaiah’s Preface & Prophecies to Ahaz’s Death (c1: 727 B.C.). 3 Jerusalems (c2-4. 740-735 B.C.). LORD’S Vineyard (c5; c9:8-10:4. 735 B.C.). Call & Consecration (c6. 740 B.C. Written 735 or 727 B.C. (?)). World in Isaiah’s Day & Israel’s God & Map. King & Messiah; People & Church (c7-9:1-8. 735-732 B.C.). Messiah.
Bk II: Chaps 8-11: Prophecies: Hezekiah’s Accession to Sargon’s Death (727-705 B.C.). God’s Commonplace (c28. 705 B.C. ?). Atheism: Force & Fear. (10:2-24. 721 B.C. ?). God’s Spirit in Man & Animals (c11; 12. 720 B.C. ?). Drifting to Egypt, 720-705 B.C. (c20 (511 B.C.); c21:1-10 (710 B.C.); c33; c39.
Bk III: Chaps 12-18: Orations on Egyptian Intrigues & Oracles on Foreign Nations (705-702 B.C.). Ariel, Ariel (c29. 703). Politics & Faith; 3 Truths about God (c30-31 (704-?)). Man: Character & Capacity to Discriminate Character; Isaiah to Women (c32:1-8, 9-20 ?). Isaiah to Foreign Nations (c14:28-21 (736-702)). Tyre: Mercenary Spirit (c23 (703 ?))
Bk IV: Chaps 19-26: Jerusalem & Sennacherib (701 B.C.). Lowest Ebb (c36:1 (702 B.C.); (c1 & 22 (702 B.C.)). Turn of Tide: Moral Effects of Forgiveness (c22 (702 B.C.)); Our God: Consuming Fire(c33 (703-?)). Rabshakeh: Last Trials of Faith; Victory: Faith; Review of Isaiah’s Predictions: Deliverance of Jerusalem (c36:2-37 703-?). OT Believer’s Sick-bed: Difference Christ has made (c38-39 ?). Isaiah’s Gospel for Individual?
Bk V: Chaps 27-30: Prophecies Not Relating to Isaiah’s Time. Babylon & Lucifer (c12:12-14:23 ?). Wicked City (c13:-14:23). Effect of Sin on our Material Surroundings (c24 ?). God’s Poor (c25-27; c34; c35 ?). Resurrection (c26; c27).

Part II: Books I – IV: Isaiah: Chapters 40-66:
Bk I: Chaps 1-4: Exile: Isaiah: Date. Isaiah to Jerusalem’s Fall (701-587 B.C.). What Israel Took into Exile. Israel; in Exile (587-550 B.C.).
Bk II: Chaps 5-14: Lord’s Deliverance. Prologue: 4 Herald Voices (c40:1-11). God: Sacrament (c40:12-31). God: Argument from History (c41). Passion of God (c42:12-17). 4 Points of True Religion (c43-48). Cyrus (c41:2, 25; c44:28-45:13; c46:11; c48:14,15). Bearing or Borne (c46). Babylon (c47). Call to Go Forth (c48). Righteousness: Israel’s & God’s (c40-66).
Bk III: Chaps 15-20: Servant of the Lord. One God, One People (c41:8-20; 42-43). Servant of the Lord (c41:8-20; 42:1-7, 18 ff; 43:5-10; 49:1-9; 50:4-11; 52:13-53). Lord’s Servant in NT. Service of God & Man (c42:1-7). Prophet & Martyr (49:1-9; 50:4-11). Suffering Servant (c52:13-53).
Bk IV: Chaps 21-25: Restoration. Doubts in Way (c49-52:12). Eve of Return (c54-56:8). Rekindling of Civic Conscience (c56:9-59). Salvation in Light (c60-63:7). Last Intercession & Judgement (c63:7-66).

Table of Dates: B.C.
745. Tiglath-pileser II ascends the Assyrian Throne.
740. Uzziah dies. Jotham becomes sole King of Judah. Isaiah’s lnaugural Vision (Is. 6). 735. Jotham dies. Ahaz succeeds. League of Syria & Northern Israel against Judah.
734-732- Syrian Campaign of Tiglath-pileser II. Siege & Capture of Damascus. Invasion of Israel. Captivity of Zebulon, Naphtali & Galilee (Is. 9:1). Ahaz visits Damascus.
727. Salmanassar IV succeeds Tiglath-pileser II. Hezekiah succeeds Ahaz (725 ?). 725. Salmanassar marches on Syria.
722 (721 ?). Sargon succeeds Salmanassar. Capture of Samaria. Captivity of all Northern Israel. 720 (719 ?). Sargon defeats Egypt at Rafia.
711. Sargon invades Syria (Isa. 20). Capture of Ashdod. 709. Sargon takes Babylon from Merodach-baladan.
705. Murder of Sargon. Sennacherib succeeds.
701. Sennacherib invades Syria. Capture of Coast Towns. Siege of Ekron & Battle of Eltekeh. Invasion of Judah. Submission of Hezekiah. Jerusalem spared. Return of Assyrians with Rabshakeh to Jerusalem, while Sennacherib’s Army marches on Egypt. Disaster to Sennacherib’s Army near Pelusium. Disappearance of Assyrians from before Jerusalem –all happening in this order.
697 (696 ?). Death of Hezekiah. Manasseh succeeds. 681. Death of Sennacherib.
607. Fall of Nineveh & Assyria. Babylon supreme. Jeremiah.
599. 1st Deportation of Jews to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
588. Jerusalem destroyed. 2nd Deportation of Jews.
538. Cyrus captures Babylon. 1st Return of Jewish Exiles, under Zerubbabel, soon after.
458. 2nd Return of Jewish Exiles, under Ezra.

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Book of Prophet Isaiah, Edited by Andrew Bruce Davidson, D.D., LL.D. 2nd Edition, Temple Bible Series.(1903).gs.

{{ “In Memoriam: Andrew B. Davidson, D.D., LL.D., Litt. D., Etc., Professor of Hebrew & Oriental Languages, New College, Edinburgh. ‘Born’ 1831; ‘Elected Professor’, May 1863; ‘Died’, ‘Sabbath’, ’26th January’ 1902.

It is with deep pain I have to intimate that the death of our venerated contributor, the Rev. Professor A. B. Davidson, D.D., LL.D., etc., occurred while his volume on ‘Isaiah’ in the ‘Temple Bible’ was passing through the press. He had corrected the proofs and revised of the ‘lntroduction,’ also the proofs of the ‘Notes,’ but the latter had not enjoyed his final revision, although probably nothing would have been altered from the form in which he had left them in the corrected proofs. He had been kind enough to offer to aid me with the ‘Synchronism of Ancient History,’ and the public will regard the latter with a reverent interest as being the last work on which the mind of the great scholar had been engaged prior to his decease. It was completed and dispatched to me on the evening before the swift and sudden summons came from his Lord to go forth to meet Him. The Synchronism is printed precisely as written, only such changes being made as were unmistakably due to ‘lapsus calami’.
The General Editor. 29 Bedford Street, London, February 1902.” }}

[Davidson’s Translation & Notes are excellent in simplicity, scholarship, & sagacity; he makes clear distinction between prose & poetry; no doubt many have learned from him. The Selection below follows his treatment of chapters 1-39, at the end of which he waters down to an insipid taste the authorship & collection, as in these words “There is not in all these chapters the faintest allusion to Isaiah or any attempt to speak in his name. And as to the fact that the prophecies are now connected with prophecies of Isaiah, there is no evidence at all that it was their author who so connected them, or that he has any responsibility for it. The connection was due to the scribes or editors, who collected the precious fragments of prophecy together, and disposed anonymous prophecies under some known prophetic name. Neither can it be shown that in connecting these prophecies with chaps. 1-39 the scribes acted as they did under the belief that the prophecies were by Isaiah. Many other motives may have influenced them. But it is enough to know that the place of the prophecies is due to the collectors and editors, and not to the prophet who was their author. There is a curious fact in connection with the Book of Isaiah, which may not be without significance. The present order of the three great prophets was not the order in which the scribes originally placed them. The oldest order was –Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah. This may suggest that the scribes were conscious that elements were contained in the Book of Isaiah of a later date than the prophet Ezekiel.”]

{{ “Introduction: Contents of 2nd Portion of Book (Isaiah 40-66): {{ (1.) The Situation. The prophet feels himself standing at the end of Israel’s history –‘her warfare is accomplished’ He looks into the grave in which all her sorrows, the shame of her youth and the reproach of her widowhood –the afflictions of Egypt, Assyria and Babylon– lie buried. The night is spent and all its uneasy dreams are fled –‘Arise, shine, for thy light is come!’ Only one event now remains to round off the life of Israel –her Restoration. And it is at the door. Babylon is not yet fallen, but the Medes are at the gates. And Babylon’s fall is the fall of Idolatry and Israel’s and the world’s redemption. The long process-at-law called history is concluded, and Jehovah’s cause is won. Israel’s Restoration is her entrance on her final blessedness, and the evangelizing of the world –the Lord feeds His flock like a shepherd, and all flesh together see His glory (40:1-11).(2.) The Redemptive Movement. The historical event around which all these prophecies gather is the Restoration of Israel from Captivity in Babylon by the Persian conqueror Cyrus. The prophet foresees this Restoration, and predicts it; he also foresees and predicts the overthrow of Babylon, which must precede it. The Restoration is the Lord’s doing, and as all the prophets regard God’s great operations in their day as leading in His eternal Kingdom, so to this prophet the downfall of Babylon and the Restoration was Jehovah’s final work in the world. The Restoration was, to his religious mind, the gathering together of all the dispersed of Israel –every one called by Jehovah’s name (43:4-7); and it was final –Israel was saved with an everlasting salvation (45:17); and it bore in it the revelation of Jehovah’s glory to all flesh –‘Arise, shine, for the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee, and the nations shall come to thy light’ (60:1). It was not Israel alone that this event concerned: ‘With a voice of singing declare ye, tell this, utter it even to the ends of the earth: say ye, The Lord hath redeemed His servant Jacob. Listen, ye isles, unto me The Lord hath said unto me, It is too light a thing that thou shouldst be My servant to restore the tribes of Jacob, I will also make thee the light of the nations, that My salvation may be unto the end of the earth’ (48:20 ff.). The event is of such meaning that all creation utters a jubilant cry over it: ‘Sing, O ye heavens, for the Lord hath done it; shout, ye lower parts of the earth; break forth into singing, ye mountains, O forest and every tree therein; for the Lord hath redeemed Jacob, and will glorify Himself in Israel’ (44:23). Around this event of Israel’s Restoration by Cyrus, or into it, the prophet pours out all the fulness of his religious thought. And religion is to him the only thing that exists. Jehovah, God of Israel, is a purely redemptive idea. He is infinite in power and mind; He is the First and the Last –History is a Theophany; He is all and in all, but all that He is stated when it is said that He is the Saviour of mankind. Israel too is now a purely religious idea. It is exhausted in its mission, which is to be the ‘Servant’ of its God in that operation which exhausts Him –Redemption. But it is the ‘people’ Israel that is His servant, not mere missionary individuals out of the people. Israel can fulfil its mission only as a people among the peoples, shining with a Divine light which draws the nations, who come to it saying, ‘Surely God is in thee, and there is none else, no God’! (45:14). Here lies the necessity and the meaning of its Restoration.
Thus, though the prophecies all circle round the Restoration, their subject is nothing else than the bringing in by Jehovah of His universal kingdom. It is this that fills the prophet’s mind, and it is this event which he seems to see being accomplished before his eyes. It is Jehovah who accomplishes it, but He employs agents. The operation has both an external and an internal movement. In the external movement Cyrus is His agent, in the internal the Servant of the Lord. Cyrus overthrows Babylon, the idolatrous world, and eternally discredits idolatry; he also restores the captives, rebuilds Jerusalem, and founds the Temple. So the external movement reaches its end (chaps. 40-48). The other movement is inward, being the adjustment of the people’s relation to God, the forgiveness of their sins, and the diffusion through all the members of the true spirit of the religion of Jehovah. In all this the agent is the Servant of the Lord. It is true that God blots out the people’s transgressions for His name’s sake (43:25), but He also lays on the Servant the iniquity of them all (53:6). It is also true that He changes them by pouring out His spirit upon them (44:3), but, the Servant also labours and endures reproach in his calling (50:4-9). The external and internal movements are not kept distinct, for the prophet seems to cherish the hope that Cyrus himself will embrace the faith of Jehovah. The Lord leads him to his victories (1) that he may know that it is the God of Israel who inspires him and girds him; (2) that Israel may be restored; and (3) that men may know from the rising of the sun and from its going down that there is no God but Jehovah (45:1-7).
The Servant of the Lord. There are two questions which the reader of Isaiah should keep well apart. The first is, In whom have the Prophet’s ideas of the Servant, his sinlessness, vicarious suffering and spiritual power, been verified in fact and history? And the answer of all interpreters is, In Jesus the Messiah. This answer was given by the contemporaries of Christ, and it was given by His own consciousness. The other question is, What subject had this prophet in his own mind when he spoke of the Servant? Very various answers have been given to this question. What is of moment is the prophet’s ideas, which enriched and deepened the religious thought of mankind before the Lord came, and were seen to be verified in Him when He came.” }}

{{“Synchronism of Ancient History: Pre-Exilic Prophetic Period: B.C. 750-300: [750 …. 700 …. 650 …. 600 …. 550 …. 500 …. 450 …. 400 …. 350 …. 300]

1. ‘Israel’: Jeroboam II., ‘d. circa’ 745 B.C. Zechariah (6 mnths), Shallum (1 mnth).
744·737. Menachem.
737-736. Pekahiah,
736-730. Pekah.
734. Deportation of People of Galilee & Gilead by Tiglath Pileser.
730-722. Hoshea.
722. Sargon Captures Samaria. End of the Northern Kingdom.

2. ‘Judah’: Uzziah ‘d. circa’ 740 B.C. Isaiah Prophesies.
740-736. Jotham.
736-728. Ahaz.
735. Syro-Ephraimitic Attack on Judah. Ahaz Appeals to Tiglath Pileser (Pul).
727-699. Hezekiah.

3. ‘Assyria & Babylon’:
745-728. Tiglath Pileser (Pul) King of Assyria. 732. Tiglath Pileser Conquers Damascus.
727-723. Shalmanazer IV.
722-705. Sargon (Isaiah 20:1, only mention of him). 720. Sargon Defeats Egypt at Raphia.

4. ‘Egypt’, etc.:
728 (?). Ethiopic (25th) Dynasty in Egypt. Sabaco.

5. ‘Judah’:
714 (?). Sickness of Hezekiah.
704-701. Revolt of Hezekiah, & Alliance with Egypt.
701. Sennacherib Blockades Jerusalem & Devastates Judah. 698-643. Manasseh.
642-640. Amon.
639-608. Josiah.
626. Call of Jeremiah.
622. Deuteronomy made State Law.
608. Death of Josiah at Megiddo. Jehoahaz (3 mnths). 608-597. Jehoiakim.
597. Jehoiachin (3 mnths). First Captivity to Babylon. 597-586. Zedekiah.
586. Fall of Jerusalem. End of Kingdom of Judah.

6. ‘Assyria & Babylon’:
711. Capture of Ashdod by Sargon’s Tartan (Commander-in-Chief). 705-681. Sennacherib.
70 l. Mysterious Disaster to Assyrian Army. Retreat of Sennacherib. 681. Sennacherib Murdered by his Sons.
681-668. Esarhaddon.
668-626. Assurbanipal (Sardanapalus).
625. Nabopolassar Ruler of Babylon (Chaldean Dynasty). 666. Fall of Nineveh. End of Assyrian Empire.
605. Nebuchadnezzar (Son of Nabopolassar) Defeats Nacho at Carchemish.
604-562. Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon. Rise of the Chaldean Empire. Nebuchadnezzar Captures Jerusalem. Temple & City Burnt.

7. ‘Egypt’:
716-705. Shabataka.
704-685. Tirhakah.
701. Sennacherib Defeats Egypt at Altaku.
670. Egypt Conquered by Assyrians. End of Ethiopian Dominion soon after. 663-610. Psammetichus.
609-594. Necho.
608. Defeats & Slays Josiah at Megiddo. 605. Defeat of Necho at Carchemish.
594-589. Psammetichus II.
588-570. Hophra (Apries).

8. ‘Other Countries’:
717. Overthrow of Hittite Kingdom of Carchemish by Sargon. 628 ff. Scythians Invade Western Asia.

9. ‘Judah’:
586. Murder of Gedaliah, Babylonian Governor of Judah. Flight to Egypt.
561. Jehoiachin Released by Evil Merodach, after 37 years’ Imprisonment (2nd Kings 25:27).
538. Edict of Cyrus Permitting Return of Jews to Palestine.
537. Return of Exiles to Jerusalem.
520. Haggai & Zechariah. Zerubbabel Governor. 520-516. Rebuilding of Temple.
460 (?). Malachi.
458. Ezra, the Scribe, Comes to Jerusalem.

10. ‘Babylon’:
586-573. Siege of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar.
568. Nebuchadnezzar Invades Egypt. 561-560. Evil Merodach.
559-556. Neriglissar (Nergal-sharezer).
555-539. Nabonidus (Nabunad).

11.’Egypt’:
570. Amasis.
525. Cambyses Conquers Egypt

12. ‘Persia’:
558. Cyrus of Anshan King of Persia.
550. Cyrus Conquers Media (Astyages).
546. Cyrus Defeats Croesus before Sardis. End of Lydian Kingdom.
539. Cyrus Captures Babylon. End of Chaldean Empire. 539-529. Cyrus.
528-522. Cambyses.
521-486. Darius I. (Hystaspis). 485-465. Xerxes (Ahasuerus).
465-424 Artaxerxes I. (Longimanus).

13. ‘Judah’:
445. Nehemiah Governor of Jerusalem. Walls of Jerusalem Rebuilt.
444. Reading & Adoption of Law [Torah].
432. Nehemiah again in Jerusalem.
432. Nehemiah banishes Sanballat’s Son-in-law (Priest Manasseh), who probably organized the Samaritans into Distinct Religious Community. Somewhat later Temple on Gerizim Erected.
332. Alexander the Great in Palestine.

14. ‘Persia’:
423-404. Darius II. (Nothus).
404-3 59. Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon). 359-338. Artaxerxes III. (Ochus).
336-331. Darius III. (Codomannus). Repeated Defeats by Alexander. End of Persian Empire.

15. ‘Egypt’:
323-285. Ptolemy I. (Lagos). Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt.

16. ‘Greece’:
431-404. Peloponnesian War.
323. Alexander dies at Babylon. Partition of his Kingdom into Four.
312. Seleucid Dynasty in Syria. “ }}

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Isaiah His Life & Times & Writings Which Bear His Name Rev. Samuel Rolles Driver, D.D. 2dn Edition. (1890).gs.

{{ “Preface: The present volume almost speaks for itself. It is an endeavour to exhibit the character and position of the greatest of the prophets, and to exemplify, by means of the brilliant illustrations which the Book of Isaiah supplies, the historical significance of prophecy. Prophecy is intimately connected with history; and recent discoveries have added greatly to our knowledge of the position and political relations of both Israel and Judah in Isaiah’s day. The writer has endeavoured to utilize this knowledge as far as possible. He has sought to interpret the writings which bear Isaiah’s name in the light of history, to show how they are correlated throughout with the needs and circumstances of the times which gave them birth, while at the same time they embody elements of permanent validity, and speak to all future generations. The writings of the prophets –as indeed the Biblical writings generally– when studied attentively, are seen to possess definite and distinctive features, reflecting the individuality of their authors, which are apt to escape the notice of ordinary readers: these the writer has made it his aim, so far as possible, to note and estimate. He has also noticed incidentally some of the difficulties connected with the “fulfilment” of prophecy, which are likewise not apparent to many readers. To the critical questions which arise out of the Book of Isaiah, he has devoted much independent attention; and his conclusions respecting the style and character of its different portions have been tested and confirmed by repeated study of the text, both in itself, and as compared with other writings of the Old Testament. The justification, if justification be needed, of the results to which he has been led, is to be found in the fact that the Old Testament is not a systematic treatise of theology, but the record of a historical revelation, which, just because it was historical, passed through many successive phases, and was completed gradually. The grounds for his conclusions are stated, as fully as the limits and scope of the work permitted, in Chapter V of Part II…… Part I. Isaiah & his Age. Personal Life: …..”It may be desirable at the outset to call attention to a characteristic of the prophets, which must be steadily kept in view if their position and significance is to be rightly apprehended. The prophets, one and all, stand in an intimate relation to the history of their times. Whatever be the truth which they announce, it is never presented by them in an abstract form; it is always brought into some relation with the age in which they live, and adapted to the special circumstances of the persons whom they address. Of course, the principles which the prophets assert are frequently capable of a much wider range of application; their significance is not exhausted when they have done their work in the prophet’s own generation; but still his primary interest is in the needs of his own age. The vices which Amos or Hosea denounces are those of the kingdom of Israel, in the middle of the eighth century B.C., and though they would have raised their voice not less loudly had they lived at some other period of lsraelitish history, in which the same faults were prevalent, the form which their denunciations assume, the characteristic features of society which they attack, are those of the age in which they themselves lived. Similarly in their theology, while there are naturally a series of fundamental principles common to the prophets generally, each prophet in particular possesses a special individual element, partly conditioned by his own genius and temperament, partly determined by the course of general events in the world in which he moves. As men expressing habitually their judgment on the conduct of public affairs, and holding decided political views, it will be still more evident that the principles advocated by them must stand in a definite relation to the circumstances of particular junctures, and to the attitude assumed on such occasions by the nation generally. The position taken by Amos, for instance, in view of the Assyrians, is very different from that taken by Jeremiah at a subsequent period with reference to the Babylonians. As we shall see, many of Isaiah’s most important prophecies are dependent, in their most characteristic features, upon the relation which Judah, through the action of its responsible rulers, occupied alternately towards one or other of the two great empires of Assyria and Egypt. It is thus essential, if the work of any prophet is to be properly understood, to study it in the light of contemporary history. In the case of Isaiah we are peculiarly fortunate in being able to do this; for the decipherment of the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Assyria –one of the most brilliant scientific achievements of the present century– has enabled us to watch the movements of the Assyrian kings, almost year by year, through the whole period of his ministry, and the result has been to exhibit this great prophet’s character and position with a distinctness and completeness which, antecedently, would assuredly not have been anticipated. Before proceeding, however, to the details of Isaiah’s work it will be necessary, for the reasons stated, to give some account of the condition and prospects, at home and abroad, of the kingdom of Judah, at the time when Isaiah first stepped into public life, in the last year of Uzziah’s reign But though little can be told concerning the incidents of Isaiah’s private life, his personality and character stand before us in his writings with all the certainty and clearness that could be desired. True, a considerable part of the contents of the book which bears his name cannot (as will be seen) be attributed to him; but in the parts which are indubitably his we can watch him, and, as it were, walk by his side, through all the varied and eventful phases of his forty years’ ministry. We can observe him as a reformer, denouncing social abuses, sparing neither high nor low in his fearless and incisive censure. We can follow him as a statesman, devoted patriotically to his country’s interests, and advising her political leaders in times of difficulty and danger. We can see him as a theologian, emphasizing old truths, developing new ones, bringing fresh ideas to light which were destined to exercise an important influence in the generations which followed. Throughout the reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah he is the central figure in Jerusalem, and the position which he there took –his motives, principles, policy, the character of his teaching, the nature and extent of his influence– are all reflected in the collection of his prophecies which we possess. It will be the object of the following pages to present a picture of Isaiah’s character and work, under the three aspects
mentioned, such as may both justify this estimate of his position, and assist the reader who may desire to understand the volume of his prophecies better.” }}

Chronological Table: B.C. 745-458:
745. ‘Tiglath-Pileser III’.
740. Arpad taken. ‘Uzziah’ named (probably: see p. 8). 739. Hamath taken.
738. ‘Menahem’ tributary (pp. 7, 13).
734. ‘Pekah’ deposed, & slain; succeeded by ‘Hoshea’. Deportation of inhabitants of N. & N.E. districts of Israel (pp. 8, 13).
732. Damascus taken.
727. ‘Shalmaneser IV’.
722. ‘Sargon II’. Fall of Samaria, & end of Northern Kingdom. 720. Defeat of Egyptians under Sabako at Raphia.
711. Siege & capture of Ashdod. Philistia, Judah, Edom, & Moab, “speaking treason” with Egypt (p. 45). 710. Defeat of Merodach-Baladan, after sending ambassadors during 12 years (pp. 45, 96). Babylon entered by Sargon.
705. Sennacherib.
703. Defeat of Merodach-Baladan. Palace in Babylon entered and spoiled by Sennacherib. 701. Campaign against Phoenicia, Philistia, & Judah.
696. Babylon entered, and in part demolished, by Sennacherib. 681. ‘Esarhaddon’.
672. Esarhaddon conquers Egypt (comp. allusion, Neh. 3:8-10). 668. ‘Asshurbanipal’ (to 626).
633. ‘Cyaxares’ founds the Median Empire.
625. ‘Nabopolassar’ increases the power of Babylon. 607. Nineveh destroyed by Medes and Babylonians.
604. Nebuchadnezzar defeats Pharaoh Necho at Carchemish. ‘Nebuchadnezzar’ succeeds Nabopolassar.
599. ‘1st’ deportation of Jewish exiles, with Jehoiachin.
593. ‘Astyages’ succeeds Cyaxares in Media.
588. Destruction of Jerusalem by Chaldeans, and ‘2nd’ deportation of exiles, with Zedekiah.
561. ‘Evil-Merodach’.
559. ‘Neriglissar’.
555. ‘Nabo-Nahid’.
549. ‘Cyrus’ overthrows Median empire of Astyages.
549-538. Period of Cyrus’ successes in Western & Central Asia.
538. Cyrus captures Babylon. Main body of exiles return under Zerubbabel.
458. Second return of exiles under Ezra.

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Notes, Critical, Explanatory, & Practical on Book of Prophet Isaiah, with New Translation by Albert Barnes. (1845).gs. [Barnes’ commentary is excellent & rewarding.]

Introduction: § 6: Quotations of Isaiah in NT:
{{ “Isaiah has been generally supposed to refer more fully to the time of the Messiah, than any other of the prophets. It is natural, therefore, to expect to find his writings often quoted or appealed to in the New Testament. The frequency of the reference, and the manner in which it is done, will show the estimate in which he was held by the Saviour, and by the apostles. It may also contribute, in some degree, to the explanation of some of the passages quoted, to have them convenient for reference, or for examination. The meaning of Isaiah may be often determined by the inspired statement of the event referred to in the New Testament; and the meaning of a New Testament writer likewise by a reference to the passage which he quotes. In regard to those quotations, also, it may be of use to bear in remembrance, that a portion is made distinctly and literally from the Hebrew, and agree also with the Septuagint version, or are in the words of the Septuagint; a portion agree with the Hebrew in sense, but not in words; a portion are made from the Septuagint translation, even when the Septuagint differs from the Hebrew, and in some cases there is a bare allusion to a passage. It has been thought that it might be useful to furnish a classification of the entire passages which are quoted in the New Testament, under several heads, that they may be seen at one view, and may be compared at leisure. For this selection and arrangement, I am mainly indebted to Horne. (Intro. vol. II. p. 343, seq.)

I. ‘Quotations agreeing exactly with the Hebrew’. Isaiah: Chapter & Verse: (10 Quotes)
’53:4′ in Mat. 8:17. ’53:12′ in Mrk 15:28; Lke 22:37. ’53:1′ in Jhn 12:38; (cmp. Rom. 10:16). ’52:15′ in Rom. 15:21. ’22:13′ in 1st Cor. 15:32. ’25:8′ in 1st Cor. 15:54. ’49:8′ in 2nd Cor. 6:2. ’54:1′ in Gal. 4:27. ‘8:17,18’ in Heb. 2:13.
II. ‘Quotations nearly agreeing with the Hebrew’. (8 Quotes)
‘7:14’ in Mat. 1:23. ‘6:9,10′ in Mat. 13:14,15; (cmp. Acts 28:26; Mrk 4:12; Lke 8:10).
’54:13′ in Jhn 6:45. ’66:1,2′ in Acts 7:49, 50. ’49:6′ in Acts 13:47. ’52:5’ in Rom. 2:24.
‘1:9’ in Rom. 9:29. ‘8:14′ in Rom. 9:33. ’52:7′ in Rom. 10:15. ’65:1,2’. in Rom. 10:20,21. ’29:14′ in 1st Cor. 1:19. ’40:13′ in 1 Cor. 2:16. ’28:11,12′ (Cmp. Rom. 11:34; 1st Cor. 14:21).
’40:6,7,8′ in 1st Pet. 1:24,25. ’53:9′ in 1st Pet. 2:22. ’53:5′ in 1st Pet. 2:24.
‘8:12,13’ in 1st Pet. 3:14,15.
III. ‘Quotations agreeing with the Hebrew in sense’, but in ’42:1-4′ in Matt. 12:18-21. ’59:7,8′ in Rom. 3:15-17. ’10:22,23′ in Rom. 9:27,28. ’45:23′ in Rom. 14:11. ’11:10′ in Rom.15:12. ’52:11,12′ in 2nd Cor. 6:17.
IV. ‘Quotations which give the general sense, but which abridge, or add to it’. ‘6:9,10′ in Jhn 12:40; Mat. 13:14,15; Mrk 4:12; Lke 8:10; Acts 28:26. ’29:10’ in Rom. 11:8.
V. ‘Quotations which are taken from several different places’. ’26:16′; ‘8:14′ in Rom. 9:33. ’29:10’; ‘6:9’; ‘Ezek. 12:2′ in Rom. 11:8. ’62:11’; ‘Zech. 9:9’ in Mat. 21:5.
VI. ‘Quotations differing from the Hebrew, but agreeing with the Septuagint’. ’29:13′ in Mat. 15:8,9. ’55:3′ in Acts 13:34.
VII. ‘Quotations in which there is reason to suspect a different reading in the Hebrew, or that the words were understood in a sense different from that expressed in our Lexicons’.
’60:1,2′ in Lke 4:18,19. ’53:7,8′ in Acts 8:32,33. ’59:20,21′ in Rom. 11:26,27. ’64:4′ in 1st Cor. 2:9. ’42:2, 4′ in Mat. 12:18, 21.
VIII. ‘Allusion to a passage in Isaiah’. ’12:3′ in Jhn 8:37,38.
IX. ‘Quotations made from the Septuagint’ (LXX, 70).
Many of the passages above referred to, are made also from the Septuagint, when that version agrees with the Hebrew. I refer here to a few passages which have not been noted before. The apostles wrote in the Greek language, and for the use of those who spoke Greek, and among whom the Septuagint was extensively used. Occasionally, however, they quoted directly from the Hebrew [or Aramaic], that is, made a translation themselves, or quoted according to the general sense. All the quotations that are in accordance with the Septuagint, or that vary from it, may be seen in Horne’s
Intro. vol. ii. pp. 387, 428.
’49:6′ in Acts 13:47. ’65:1,2′ in Rom. 10:20,21. ’52:15′ in Rom. v. 21. ’49:8′ in 2nd Cor. 6:2.
’29:13′ in Mat. 15:8,9. ’55:3′ in Acts 13:34. ’53:12′ in Mrk 15:28; Lke 22:37.
X. ‘Quotations which differ from the Hebrew & the Septuagint, & which were perhaps taken from some version or paraphrase [or Aramaic], or which were so rendered by the sacred writers themselves’.
‘9:1,2′ in Matt. 4:15,16. ’42:1,4’ in Matt. 12:18, 21.
To none of the writers of the Old Testament are there so many allusions by the apostles and evangelists as to Isaiah; and hence it is manifest that a correct exposition of this book must go far to throw a clear light on a considerable portion of the writings of the New Testament. Indeed, so numerous are these quotations, and so entirely do the writings of Isaiah harmonize with those of the New Testament, that it may be regarded almost as an indispensable part of the work of explaining the New Testament, to explain Isaiah. They seem to be parts of the same work, and an exposition of the apostles and evangelists can hardly be deemed complete, without the accompaniment of the evangelical prophet.” }}

§ 7. Character & Nature of Prophecy:
{{ “I. The words prophet and prophecy are used in the Bible in a larger sense than they are commonly with us. We have attached, in common usage, to the word prophet, the idea simply of one who foretells future events, (prophëtës) from (prophëmi) to speak before, to foretell. To a correct understanding of the prophetic functions, and of the writings of the prophets, however, it is necessary to bear in remembrance, that this office of foretelling future events, comprised but a small portion of their public duties. They were the Messengers of God to His people and to the world; they were appointed to make known His will –to denounce His judgments –to rebuke the crimes of rulers and people– to instruct in the doctrines of religion, and generally to do whatever was needful to be done in order effectually to promulgate the will of God. The prophet was, therefore, a man who was commissioned to rebuke kings and nations, as well as to predict future events. With the idea of a prophet there is ‘necessarily’ connected the idea that he spoke not his own thoughts, but that what he uttered was received directly from God in one of the modes in which that will was made known. He was God’s direct ambassador to men, and of course was a man who was raised up or designated by God Himself, and called to this work from any and every rank of life. He was not ‘trained’ for this office, since a man could not be trained for inspiration, though it was a matter of fact that several of the prophets were taken from the “school of the prophets,” or from among the “sons of the prophets.” (1st Kings 20:35; 2nd Kings 2:3, 5, 7, 15; 4:1, 38; 5:22; 6:1.) Yet the choice from among them for anyone to perform the functions of the prophet under divine inspiration, seems to have been incidental, and not in a uniform mode. A large part of prophets had no connexion with those schools. Those schools were usually under the direction of some inspired man who was a prophet, and were probably designed to train those educated there for the functions of public teachers, or for the stations of learning under the theocracy; but they could not have been regarded as intended to train for that office which depended wholly on the direct inspiration of God.
The word rendered prophet (nabi’), ‘Nabi’ Syriac (nabiya’) is derived from (naba’), ‘Näbä’ not used in Kal, which is probably, according to Gesenius, the same as (nab‘), ‘Näbä‘’ the (‘) ‘Ayin’ being softened into ‘Aleph’ (’), and which means, to boil up, to boil forth as a fountain; hence, to pour forth words as they do who speak with fervour of mind, or under divine inspiration. The word, therefore, properly means, to speak under a peculiar fervour, animation, inspiration of mind, produced by a divine influence; to speak, either in foretelling future events, or denouncing the judgment of God when the mind was full, and when the excited and agitated spirit of the prophet poured forth his words as the water is driven from the fountain.
But the word also denotes all the forms or modes in which the prophet communicated the will of God, or discharged the functions of the prophetic office. Hence it is used to denote –1, the predicting of future events; (see Taylor’s Heb. Con. or Cruden,) –2, to speak in the name of God, or as His messenger, and by His authority, Ex. 7:1; 4:16; –3, to chant or sing sacred praises to God while under a divine influence, (1st Sam. 10:11; 19:20; 1st Chron. 25:2,3,) –because this was often done by the inspired prophets; –4, to rave, to utter the frantic ravings of the prophets of Baal, (1st Kings 18:29; 1st Sam. 18:10). This latter meaning is in accordance with the customs among the heathen, where the prophet or the prophetess professed to be full of the divine influence, and where that influence was manifested by writhings and contortions of the body, or by a pretended suspension of the powers of conscious agency, and the manifestation of conduct, not a little resembling the ravings of delirium. Hence the Greeks applied the word (mantis) ‘mantis’ (from (mainomai) to be mad, to rave, to be delirious) to the frenzied manner of the soothsayers, prophetic oracles, &c. It is possible that the true prophets occasionally, under the power of inspiration, exhibited similar agitations and spasmodic affections of the body, (comp. Num. 24:4; Ezek. 1:28; Dan. 10: 8-10; 1st Sam. 19:24; Jer. 20:7) and that this was imitated by the false prophets. The two main ideas in the word ‘prophecy’ relate to the prediction of future events, and to declaring the will of God, denouncing vengeance, threatening punishment, reproving the wicked, &c., under the influence of inspiration, or by a divine impulse.
In order to obtain a clear idea of the nature of prophecy, it is important to have a correct apprehension of the ‘modes’ in which God communicated His will to the prophets, or of the manner in which they were influenced, and affected by the prophetic ‘afflatus’ or inspiration [Ciceronian, outflowing, breathing, blowing, to, into, in, out, etc.]. Of course, all the light which can be obtained on this subject is to be derived from the sacred Scriptures; but the subject is involved still in much obscurity. Perhaps the following will include all the modes in which the will of God was made known to the minds of the prophets, or in which they received a commission from God, and a knowledge of what they were to communicate to others.
1. A direct commission by an audible voice from heaven, spoken in a solemn manner, and in circumstances in which there could be no doubt of the call. Thus Moses was called by God at the bush, Ex. 3:2-6; Isaiah in the temple, Isa. 6:8, seq: Samuel by God, (1st Sam. 3:4, 6, 8, 10; Jeremiah, Jer. 1:4; Ezek. 1:3; and perhaps Joel 1:1; Amos 1:1; Jonah, Jon. 1:1; Micha, Mic. 1:1, &c.) In these cases there was [no] doubt on the mind of the prophet of his call, as it was usually in such circumstances, and probably in such a manner as to leave the fullest demonstration that it was from God. There is not evidence, however, that the whole message was usually communicated to the mind of the prophet in this manner. Perhaps the first call to the prophetic office was made in this mode, and the nature of the message imparted in the manner that will be specified soon. And perhaps while the primary call to the office was made in this manner, the subsequent will of God may have been made known in many different ways. All that is essential to the correct understanding of this is, that there was a clear designation to the prophetic office.
2. The will of God was made known by dreams. Instances of this kind are common in the sacred scriptures, as one of the earliest modes of communication between God and the soul. The idea seems to be, that the senses were locked up, and that the soul was left free to hold communication with the invisible world, and to receive the expressions of the will of God. The belief that God made known His will in this manner was by no means confined to the Jewish nation. Thus God informed Abimelech in a dream, that Sarah was the wife of Abraham, Gen. 20:3, 6. Joseph was early favoured with prophetic dreams, which were so clear in their signification as to be easily interpreted by his father and brethren, Gen. 37:4, 5, 6. The butler and baker in Egypt both had dreams predicting their future destiny, Gen. 40:5; and Pharaoh had a dream of the future condition of Egypt which was interpreted by Joseph, Gen.

41:7, 25. God spoke to Jacob in a dream, Gen. 31:11; and it was in a dream that He made His promise to impart wisdom to Solomon, 1st Kings 3:5. Nebuchadnezzar had dreams respecting his future destiny, and the kingdoms that should arise after him, Dan. 2:1, 5; and the will of God was made known to Daniel in a dream, Dan. 1:17; 7:1. God expressly declared that He would make known His will by dreams, Num. 12:6. “If there be a prophet among you, I the Lord will make Myself known to him in a vision, and will speak unto him in a dream.” Thus also in Joel 2:28, “Your sons and your daughters shall prophecy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions.” The false prophets pretended also to have dreams which conveyed to them the will of God. The ancient belief on this subject is expressed in a most sublime manner, in the language of Elihu, as addressed to Job, which I give in the translation proposed by Dr. Good: (Job 33:14-16)
“Yet at one time, God speaketh out: And at other times doth He not make it plain?
In a dream, a vision of the night: When deep sleep falleth upon man:
In slumberings upon the couch: Then openeth He men’s ears:
And impresseth for their admonition: Turning aside the man of stratagem:
Or He rooteth out from a man obstinacy”.

It is now impossible to determine in what way God thus communicated His will; or how it was known that the thoughts in sleep were communicated by God; or what criterion the prophet or other person had, by which to distinguish these from common dreams. The ‘certainty’ that they were from God is demonstrated by the fact, that the event was strikingly and accurately fulfilled, as in the case of Joseph, of Pharaoh, of Nebuchadnezzar, of Daniel, &c. There is no instance in which the will of God seems to have been communicated to Isaiah in this manner; and it is not needful to my purpose to pursue this part of the inquiry any further. The mode in which the will of God was made known to Isaiah, was mainly, if not entirely, by ‘visions’, ch. 1:1; and that mode will demand a more full and distinct examination. It may just be remarked here, that no man can demonstrate that God ‘could’ not convey His will to the mind in the visions of the night or in dreams; or that God could not then have access to the soul, and give to the mind itself some certain indications by which it might be known that the communication was from Him. It is possible that the mode of communicating the will of God by the ‘dream’ (chalom) ; ‘hhalom’; did not differ ‘essentially’ from the mode of ‘the vision’ (chazon) ‘hházön’ by causing a ‘vision’ of the subject, as in a landscape, to pass before the mind.
3. The prophets were brought under such an influence by the divine Spirit, as to affect their physical system, to take away their strength, and in this state, the will of God was made known to them. ‘In what way’ the will of God was ‘then’ communicated we may not be able to determine. I speak only of an overpowering influence which took away their strength, gave them such views of God and truth as to weaken their animal frame, and evidently such, in some instances, as to produce a state of ‘ecstacy’, or a ‘trance’, in which the truth was made to pass before them by some direct communication which God had with their minds. In these cases, in some instances at least, the communication with the external world was closed, and God communicated His will immediately and directly. Reference to this is not unfrequently made in the Scriptures, when there was such a powerful divine influence as to prostrate the frame, and take away the strength of the body. Thus in Ezek. 1:3, “The hand of ‘Jehovah’ was then upon me.” Cornelius, a Lapide, remarks on this passage, that “the prophets took their stations by the side of a river, that in the stillness and delightful scenery around them, they might, through the soft pleasing murmur of the waters, be refresh enlivened, and prepared for the divine ecstasies.” (Bib. Repository, vol. II. p. 141) It is more natural, however, to suppose that they did not court or solicit these influences, but that they came upon them by surprise. Jer. 20:7, “Lord, thou hast persuaded me, and I have suffered myself to be persuaded; thou hast been too strong for me, and hast prevailed.” This seizure is indicated in 1st Sam. 19:20, “The Spirit of God was upon the messengers [of Saul] and they also prophesied.” In 1st Sam. 19:24, the ‘power’ of the prophetic impulse is indicated by the fact, that it led Saul to strip off his clothes, probably his robes, and to prophecy in the same manner as Samuel, and in the statement that “he lay down naked all that day, and all that night,” under the prophetic impulse.
The ‘effect’ of this strong prophetic impulse on the body and the mind is indicated in the following passages: –It is said of Abraham in Gen. 15:12, when he had a vision, “Behold terror and great darkness came upon him.” It is indicated in a remarkable manner in the case of Balaam, Num. 24:4, 16. It is said of him, that he “saw the vision of the Almighty, falling ‘into a trance’, (LXX. ‘who saw the vision of God (en hupnö [whence our ‘hypnotic’ state, i.e. ‘trance’]), in sleep,’) but having his eyes open.” He was probably overcome, and fell to the ground, and yet his eyes were open, and in that state he uttered the prediction respecting Israel. His strength was taken away, and he fell to the earth –in a manner similar to that of Saul. The same effect is indicated in regard to John, (Rev. 1:17,) “And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead.” So of Ezekiel, (ch. 1:28,) “And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke.” And in a more remarkable manner in the case of Daniel, (ch. 10:8,) “Therefore I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me; for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength.” And again, (ch. 8:27,) “And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days.” That there was a remarkable agitation of the body, or suspension of its regular functions, so as to resemble, in some degree, the ravings of delirium, is apparent from 2nd Kings 9:11; Jer. 29:26. And the nature of the strong prophetic impulse is perhaps indicated in the expression in 2nd Pet. 1:21, “Holy men of God spake as they were moved ((pheromenoi) borne along, urged, impelled,) by the Holy Ghost.”
That it was supposed that the prophetic impulse produced such an effect on the body, as is here represented, is well known to have been the opinion of the heathens. The opinion, which was held by them on the subject, is stated in this beautiful manner by Plato: “While the mind sheds its light around us, pouring into our souls a meridian splendour, we being in possession of ourselves, are not under a supernatural influence. But after the sun has gone down, as might be expected, an ecstacy, a divine influence, and a phrensy upon us. For when the divine light shines, the human goes down; but when the former goes down, the latter rises and comes forth. This is what ordinarily happens in prophecy. Our own mind retires on the advent of the divine Spirit; but after the latter has departed, the former again returns.” Quoted in Bib. Repos. vol. II. p. 163. In the common idea of the Pythia, however, there was the conception of derangement, or raving madness. Thus Lucan: (in ‘Pharsalia, V’)

–Bacchatur demens aliena per antrum: Colla ferens, vittasque Dei,
Phoebaeaque serta Erectis discussa comis, per inania templi:
Ancipiti cervice rotat, spargitgue vaganti:
Obetantea tripodal, magnoqueexaestuat igne:
lratum te, Phoebe, ferens.
“She madly raves through the cavern:
Impelled by another’s mind:
With the fillet of the god, & the garland of Phoebus,
Shaken from her erected hair:
She whirls around through the void space of the temple:
Turning her face in every direction:
She scatters the tripods which come in her way:
And is agitated with violent commotion:
Because she is under thy angry influence, O Apollo.”

Virgil has given a similar description of a demoniacal possession of this kind: (‘Aeneid’, 6. 46, seq.)

–Ait: Deus, ecce, Dena! cui talia fanti:
Ante fores, subito non vultus, non color unus:
Nec comptae mansere comae; sed pectus anhelum:
Et rabie fera corda tument: majorque videri:
–Ait: Deus, ecce, Dena! cui talia fanti:
Ante fores, subito non vultus, non color unus:
Nec comptae mansere comae; sed pectus anhelum:
Et rabie fera corda tument: majorque videri:
Nec mortale sonans; alllata est numine quando: lam propriore Dei.
“I feel the God, the rushing God! she cries:
While thus she spoke enlarged her features grew:
Her colour changed, her locks dishevelled flew.
The heavenly tumult reigns in every part:
Pants in her breast & swells her rising heart:
Still spreading to the eight the priestess glowed:
And heaved impatient of the incumbent God.
Then to her inmost soul, by Phoebus fired:
In more than human sounds she spoke inspired.”

(‘Pitt.’. See also ‘Aeneid’, 6. 77, seq.)

From all such mad and unintelligible ravings, it is evident that the true prophets were distinguished. The effect of the true inspiration on the physical condition of their bodies and minds may be expressed in the following particulars: (a.) It prostrated their strength; threw them on the ground, as we have seen in the case of Saul, and of John, and was attended occasionally with sickness, as in the case of Daniel. There seems to have been such a view of God, of His glory, and of the events which were to come to pass, as to take away for a time their physical strength. Nor is there anything improbable or absurd in this. In the language of Prof. Stuart, (Bib. Repos. II . p. 221) we may ask, ” Why should not this be so? How could it be otherwise than that the amazing disclosures sometimes made to them should affect the whole corporeal system? Often does this happen when one and another scene opens upon us in a natural way, and which has respect merely to things of the present world. But when the future glories of the Messiah’s kingdom were disclosed to the mental eye of a prophet or a seer; when the desolation of kingdoms, and the slaughter of many thousands, the subjugation and massacre of God’s chosen people, famine, pestilence, and other tremendous evils were disclosed to his view, what could be more natural than that agitation, yea swooning, should follow in some cases?” It may be added, that in the experience of Christians in modern times, the elevated views which have been taken of God, of heaven, of the hopes of glory, and of the plan of salvation, have produced similar effects on the bodily frame. ‘Any’ deep, absorbing, elevated emotion may produce this state. “The flesh is weak,” and that there ‘may’ be such a view of glory or of calamity; such hope or fear; such joy or sorrow, as to prostrate the frame, and produce sickness, or faintness, is nothing more than what occurs every day. (b.) There is no evidence that the true prophets were divested of intelligent consciousness, or that they were ignorant of what they uttered, or that the Spirit made use of them ‘merely’ as organs, or as unconscious agents to utter his truth. They everywhere speak and act as men who understood what they said, and do not rave as madmen. Indeed, the very fact to which I have adverted, that the view of truth and of future events had such an effect as to take away their strength, shows that they were conscious, and had an intelligent understanding of what they saw, or spoke. It was the ‘view’ of these things which ‘produced’ the prostration and sickness (e.g. of Daniel). That the prophet had ‘control’ of the movements of his own mind; that he could speak or not as he pleased; that be acted as a conscious, voluntary, intelligent agent, is more than once intimated, or expressly affirmed. Thus, in one of the strongest cases of the overpowering nature of the inspiration which can be adduced –the case of Jeremiah– this is intimated that the prophet ‘even then’ was a voluntary agent, and could speak or not, as he pleased. The ‘strength’ of this overpowering agency is intimated in Jer. 20:7: (‘Blaney’s Trans’.)

“Thou didst allure me, O ‘Jehovah’, and I was allured:
Thou didst encourage me, and didst prevail:
I am become a laughingstock every day:
Ridicule hath spent its whole force upon me”.

And yet, in immediate connection with this, the prophet ‘resolved’ that he would cease to prophecy, and that he would no more speak in the name of ‘Jehovah’.

“Then I said, I will not make mention of Him:
Nor speak any more in His Name;
But His Word was in my heart as a burning fire shut up in my bones:
And I was weary with forbearing: And I could not stay”. (Ver. 9)

This proves that Jeremiah was, even under the full power of the impulse, at liberty to speak or not to speak; or that he was then a free and conscious agent. If he was a mere passive instrument in the hands of the Spirit, how could he determine no more to prophesy? And how could he carry this purpose into execution, as he actually did for a while? But this inquiry has been settled by the express authority of the apostle Paul. He affirms in a manner which leaves no room to doubt, and which cannot be mistaken, that the prophets were conscious agents, and that they had no control over their own minds, (1st Cor. 14:32.) “the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets;” and on the ground of this he requires those who were under the prophetic inspiration to observe due order, and to utter their sentiments in such a manner as not to produce confusion and irregularity in the churches, 1st Cor. 14:29, 31, 33, 40. How could he reprove their disorder and confusion, if they had no ‘control’ over the operations of their own minds; and if they were not conscious of what they were uttering? The truth seems to have been that they had the same control over their minds that any man has; that they were urged, or impelled by the Spirit to utter the truth, but that they had power to refuse; and that the exercise of this power was subjected to substantially the same laws as the ordinary operations of their minds. (c.) The true idea has been expressed probably by Bishop Lowth. “Inspiration may be regarded not as suppressing or extinguishing for a time the faculties of the human mind, but of purifying, and strengthening, and elevating them above what they would otherwise reach.” Nothing can be more rational than this view; and according to this, there was an essential difference between the effect of true inspiration on the mind, and the wild and frantic ravings of the pagan priests, and the oracles of divination. Everything in the scriptures is consistent, rational, sober, and in accordance with the laws of the animal economy; everything in the heathen idea of inspiration was wild, frantic, fevered, and absurd. (d.) It may be added, that this is the common view of prophecy which prevailed among the fathers of the church. Thus Epiphanius says, “In whatever the prophets have said, they have been accompanied with an intelligent state of mind.” (Ad. Haeres. Mont. [Against Heresies: Montanists]
c. 4) Thus Jerome in his preface to Isaiah says, “Nor indeed, as Montanus and insane women dream, did the prophets speak in an ecstacy, so that they did not know what they uttered, and, while they instructed others, did not themselves understand what they said.” Thus also Chrysostom says, “For this is characteristic of the diviners to be in a state of phrensy, to be impelled by necessity, to be driven by force, to be drawn like a madman. A prophet on the contrary is not so; but utters his communication with sober intelligence, and in a sound state of mind, knowing what he says.” (Homil. xxix. in Ep. ac. Cor. Bib. Repos. 2. 141)
4. Truth, and the representation of future scenes were made known to the prophets by ‘Visions’. This idea may not differ from the two former, except that it intimates that ‘in’ a dream, and in the state of prophetic ecstacy, the view of events was made known to them not by ‘words’, but by causing the scene to pass before their mind or their mental visions, ‘as if’ they saw it. Thus the entire series of the prophecies of Isaiah is described as a ‘Vision’, ch. 1:1; and in 2nd Chron. 32:32. It is of importance to have a clear understanding of what is implied by this. The name ‘vision’ is often elsewhere given to the prophecies, (Num. 24:4, 16; 1 Sam. 3:1; 2nd Sam. 7:17; Prov. 29:18; Obad. 1; Isa. 21:2; 22:1, 5; Jer. 14:14; Lam. 2:9; Ezek. 7:13; Dan. 2:19; 7:2; 8:1, 13, 16, 17, 26; 9:21, 23, 24; 10:1, 7, 8, 14, 16; 2nd Chron. 9:29; Ezek. 1:1). The prophets are called ‘Seers’ (ro’im) ‘röim’; & (chozim) ‘Hhözim’, and their prophecies are designated by words which denote that which ‘is seen’, as (chizayon) ‘Hhizayon’, (machazeh) ‘Máhhazeh’, (mar’eh) ‘Māreh’, (chazon) ‘Hhäzon’, &c. –all of which are words derived from the verbs rendered ‘to see’, (chazah) ‘Hhāzāh’, (raa’h) ‘Rääh’. It would be unnecessary to quote the numerous passages where the idea of ‘seeing’, of seeing in a vision, is expressed. A few will show their general characters. They may be ‘classified’ according to the following arrangement:
(a.) Those which relate to an ‘open’ vision; a distinct and clear ‘seeing’; 1st Sam. 3:1, “And the word of the LORD was precious in those days; there was no open vision” (chazon niphratz)
‘Hhäzön-Niphratz’: –no vision spread abroad, common, open, public, usual. It was a rare occurrence, and hence the divine communications were regarded as peculiarly precious and valuable.
(b.) Those which pertain to the prophetic ecstacy, or trance; the vision which was seen in such circumstances –probably the more usual and proper meaning of the word. Nnm. 24:3,4, “The man whose eyes are open hath said; he hath said which heard the words of God, which saw the vision of the Almighty falling, but having his eyes open.” Num. 24:17, “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre that shall rise out of Israel,” &c. That is, I see, or have a vision of that Star, and of that Sceptre, ‘in the distance’, as if looking on a landscape, and contemplating an object indistinct in the further part of it, or in the distance of the picture. Thus Ezek. 1:l, “The heavens were opened, and I saw the visions of God;” 8:3; 11:2, “In visions he brought me to the land of Israel” (Comp. Luke 1:22).
(c.) Instances where it is applied to ‘Dreams’ and to the view of future events which was presented them. (Dan. 2:19, 28; 4:5; 7:2; 8:1, 13, 16,17, 26,27; 9:21, 23,24) Gen. 46:2, “God spake
to Israel in visions of the night.” (Job. 4:13)
(d.) Instances where the prophets represent themselves as standing in a ‘watch-tower’, and looking off on a distant landscape to descry future and distant events. They represent themselves as ascending some elevated tower that they might have a more extended vision, or take a wider range of objects; and spoke of future events as passing before them.
“I will stand upon my watch: And will set me upon the tower:
& will watch to see what He will say unto me: & what I shall answer when I am reproved”. (Habak. 2:1)
“For thus hath the Lord said unto me, Go, set a watchman, let him declare what he seeth.” Isa. 21:6; (Comp. ver. 8, 11; Micah 7:4; Comp. Jer. 6:17; Ezek. 3:17 ; 33:7). In these passages, the idea is that of one who is stationed on an elevated post of observation that can look over a large region of country, and can discern if any enemy approaches, and give timely warning.
The general idea of prophecy which is presented in these passages is that of a scene which is made to pass before the mind like a picture, or a landscape; where the mind contemplates a panoramic view of objects around it, or in the distance; where, as in a landscape, objects may appear to be grouped together, or lying near together which may be in fact separated to a considerable distance. The prophets described those objects which were presented to their mind as they ‘appeared’ to them; or as they seemed to be drawn on the picture which was before them. They had undoubtedly an intelligent consciousness of what they were describing; they retained their distinct mental faculties; they were not mad like the priestesses of Apollo; they had a clear view of the ‘vision’, and described it as it appeared to them. Emblems were often exhibited as to Daniel, and they described them as they came before them in succession, and in some instances subsequently were favoured with a more full and particular explanation themselves. Let this idea be kept in mind that the prophets ‘Saw in Vision’; that probably the mode in which they contemplated objects was somewhat in the manner of a ‘landscape’ as it passes before the mind; and much light and beauty will be cut on many of the prophecies which now seem to be obscure.
II. From the view which has now been taken of the nature of prophecy, some important remarks may be made throwing additional light on the subject, somewhat in the way of ‘inference’ from what has been said.
1. It is not to be expected that the prophets would describe what they saw in their connexions and relations. (See Hengstenberg, Bib. Repos. 2. p. 148) They would present what they saw as we describe what we witness in a landscape. Objects which ‘appear’ to be near, may be in fact separated by a considerable interval. Objects may seem to lie close to each other ‘between’ which there may be a deep ravine, or a flowery vale; or a wide chasm. In describing it, or painting it, we describe or paint the points that appear; the ravine, the vale, the chasm, cannot be painted. They are not seen. So in a
prophecy, distant events may appear to lie near to each other, and may be so described, while ‘between’ them there may be events happy or adverse of long continuance, and of great importance.
2. Some ‘Single View’ of a future event may attract the attention, and engross the mind of the prophet. He may fix his eye intently on some single object that shall absorb all his thoughts, and that shall constitute the whole of his communication. A multitude of comparatively unimportant objects may pass unnoticed, while there may be one single absorbing view that shall seize upon, and occupy all the attention. Thus in the prophecies which relate to the Messiah. Scarcely any one of the prophets gives any connected or complete view of His entire life and character. It is some single view of Him; or some single event in His life that occupies the mind. Thus at one time His birth is described; at another His kingdom; at another His divine nature; at another His sufferings; at another His resurrection; at another His glory. ‘The prophetic view is made up, not of one of these predictions, but of all combined’; as the life of Jesus is not that which is contained in one of the Evangelists, but in all combined. Illustrations of this remark may be drawn in abundance from the prophecy of Isaiah. Thus in ch. 2:4, he sees the Messiah as the Prince of Peace, as diffusing universal concord among all the nations, and putting an end to war. In ch. 6:1-5; (comp. John 12:41) He sees Him as the Lord of Glory, sitting on a throne, and filling the temple. In ch. 7:14, he sees Him as a child, the son of a virgin, and describes His remarkable birth. In ch. 9:1,2, he sees Him as having reached manhood, and having entered on His ministry, in the land of Galilee where He began to preach. In ch. 9:6,7, he sees Him as the exalted Prince, the Ruler, the mighty God, the Father of eternity. In ch. 9 he sees Him as the descendant of Jesse –a tender sprout springing up from the stump of an ancient decayed tree. In ch. 25:8, he sees Him as destroying death, and introducing immortality. (Comp. 1st Cor. 15:54. In ch. 35) the happy effects of His reign are seen; in ch. 53 he views Him as a suffering Messiah, and contemplates the deep sorrows which He would endure when He should die to make atonement for the sins of the world. Thus in all the prophets we have someone view presented at one time, and another at another; and the entire prediction is made up of ‘all’ these when they shall be combined into one. It may be observed also of Isaiah, that in the first part of his prophecy the idea of an exalted or triumphant Messiah is chiefly dwelt upon; in the latter part, he presents more prominently the idea of the suffering Messiah. The reason ‘may’ have been, that the object in the first part was to console the hearts of the nation under their deep and accumulated calamities, with the assurance that their great delivery would come. In the latter part, which may not have been published in his lifetime, the idea of a suffering Messiah is more prominently introduced. This might have been rather designed for posterity than for the generation when Isaiah lived; or it may have been designed for the more pious individuals in the nation, rather than for the nation at large; and hence, in order to give a ‘full’ view of the Messiah, he dwelt then on His sufferings and death. (See Hengstenberg’s Christol. vol. 1. pp. 153, 154.)
3. Another peculiarity which may arise from the nature of prophecy as here presented, may have been that the mind of the prophet glanced readily and rapidly from one object to another. By very slight associations or connexions, as they may now appear to us, the mind is carried from one object or event to another; and almost before we are aware of it, the prophet seems to be describing some event that has, as appears to us, scarcely ‘any’ connexion with the one which he had but just before been describing. We are astonished at the transition, and perhaps can by no means ascertain the ‘connexion’ which has subsisted in view of the mind of the prophet, and which has led him to pass from one event to the other. The mental association to us is lost or unseen, and we deem him abrupt, and speak of his rapid transitions, and of the difficulties involved in the doctrine of a double sense. The views which I am here describing may be presented under the idea of what may be called ‘the Laws of the Prophetic Suggestion’; and perhaps a study of these laws might lead to a removal of most of the difficulties which have been supposed to be connected with the subject of a spiritual meaning, and of the double sense of the prophecies. In looking over a landscape; in attempting to describe the objects as they lie in view of the eye; if that landscape were not seen by others for whom the description is made, the transitions

would seem to be rapid, and the objects might seem to be described in great disorder. It would be difficult to tell why this object was described in connexion with that; or by what laws of association the one was suggested by the other. A house or tree, a brook, a man, an animal, a valley, a mountain, might all be described, and between them there might be no apparent laws of close connexion, and all the real connexion may be that they lie in the same range in view of him who contemplates it. The ‘laws of prophetic suggestion’ may appear to be equally slight; and we may not be able to trace them, because we have not the entire view or grouping which was presented to the mind of the prophet. We do not see the associations which in this view connected the one with the other. To him, there may have been no double sense. He may have described objects singly as they app to him. But they may have lain near each other. They may have been so closely grouped that he could not separate them even in the description. The words appropriate to the one may have naturally and easily fallen into the form of appropriate description of the other. And the objects may have been so contiguous, and the transition in the mind of the prophet so rapid, that he may himself have been scarcely conscious of the change, and his narrative may seem to flow as one continued description. Thus the object with which he commenced may have sunk out of view, and the mind be occupied entirely in the contemplation of that which was at first secondary. Such seems to have been, in a remarkable manner, the peculiarity of the mind of Isaiah. Whatever was the object or event with which he ‘commenced’, the description usually ‘closes’ with the Messiah. His mind glances rapidly from the object immediately before him, and fixes on that which is more remote, and the first object gradually sinks away; the language rises in dignity, and beauty; the mind is full, and the description proceeds with a statement respecting the Prince of Peace. This is not double sense: it is ‘Rapid Transition’ under the laws of ‘Prophetic Suggestion’; and though at first some object immediately before the prophet was the subject of his contemplation, yet before he closes, his mind is totally absorbed in some distant event or object that has been presented, and his language is designedly such as is adapted to that. It would be easy to adduce numerous instances of the operation of this law in Isaiah. For illustration we may refer to the remarkable prophecy in ch. 7:14; (comp. ch. 8:8; 9:1-7. See Notes on those passages). Indeed, it may be presented, I think, as one of the prominent characteristics of the mind of Isaiah, that in the prophetic visions which he contemplated, the Messiah always occupied some place; that whatever prophetic landscape, so to speak, passed before him, the Messiah was always in some part of it; and that consequently wherever he ‘began’ his prophetic annunciations, he usually ‘closed’ with a description of some portion of the doctrines, or the work of the Messiah. It is this law of the mental associations of Isaiah that give such value to his writings in the minds of all who love the Saviour.
4. It follows from this view of prophecy, that the prophets would speak of occurrences and events as they appeared to them. They would speak of them as actually present, or as passing before their eyes. Or they would describe them as being what they ‘had seen’, and would thus throw them into the past tense, as we describe what we have seen in a landscape, and speak of what we ‘saw’. It would be comparatively infrequent, therefore, that the event would be described as ‘future’. Accordingly we find that this is the mode actually adopted in the prophets. Thus in Isa. 9:6, “Unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given.” Isa. 42:1, “Behold My servant whom I ‘uphold’, Mine elect in whom my soul ‘delighteth’.” So in the description of the sufferings of the Messiah: “He ‘is’ despised.” “He ‘hath’ no form or comeliness,” ch. 53:2,3. Thus in ch. 45:1-8, Cyrus is addressed as if he were personally present. Frequently events are thus described as ‘past’, as events which the prophet ‘had seen’ in vision, ch. 9:2, “The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light; they that dwell in the land of the shadow of death, upon them have the light shined.” So especially in the description of the sufferings of the Messiah: “As many ‘were’ astonished at Thee.” “His visage ‘was’ so marred.” “He ‘hath’ borne our griefs.” “He ‘was’ oppressed, and he ‘was’ afflicted.” “He was taken from prison.” “He ‘was’ cut off out of the land of the living.” “He ‘made’ His grave,” &c. &c. Isa. lii. 14, 15; liii. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. In some cases also the prophet seems to have placed himself in vision ‘in the midst’ of the scenes which he describes, or to have taken, so to speak, a station where he might contemplate a part as past, and a part as ‘yet to come’. Thus in Isa. 53 the prophet seems to have his station ‘between’ the humiliation of the Saviour and His glorification, in which he speaks of His sufferings as ‘past’, and His glorification, and the success of the gospel, as ‘yet to come’. (Comp. particularly verses 9, 10, 11, 12.) This view of the true nature of prophecy would have saved from many erroneous interpretations, and especially would have prevented many of the cavils of sceptics. It is a view which a man would be allowed to take in a description of a landscape, or even in a picture of what was yet to occur; and why should it be deemed irrational or absurd in prophecy?
5. From this view it also follows, that the prophecies are usually to be regarded as seen ‘in space’, and not ‘in time’; or, in other words, the time would not be actually and definitely marked. They would describe the ‘order’, or the succession of events; but between them there might be a considerable and an unmeasured interval of time. In illustration of this, we may refer to the idea which has been so often presented already –the idea of a landscape. When one is placed in an advantageous position to view a landscape, he can mark distinctly the order of the objects, the succession, the ‘grouping’. He can tell what objects appear to him to lie near each other, or what are apparently in juxtaposition. But all who look at such a landscape, know very well that there are objects which the eye cannot take in, and which will not be exhibited by any description. For example, hills in the distant view may seem to lie ‘near’ to each other; one may seem to rise just back of the other, and they may appear to constitute parts of the same mountain range, and yet ‘between’ them there wide and fertile vales, the extent of which the eye cannot measure, and which the mind may be wholly unable to conjecture. It has no means of measuring the distance, and a description of the whole scene as it ‘appeared’ to the observer, would convey no idea of the distance of the intervals. So in the prophecies. Between the events seen in vision there may be long intervals, and the length of those intervals the prophet may have left us no means of determining. He describes the scene as it appeared to him in vision. In the ‘landscape’, the distance –the length– the nature of these intervals might be determined in one of three ways. 1. By the report of one who had gone over the ground, and actually ‘measured’ the distances; 2. By going ourselves and measuring the distances; or, 3. By a revelation from heaven. So the ‘distance of time’ occurring between the events seen in vision by the prophets, may be determined either by the actual ‘admeasurement’, as the events occur, or by direct revelation, either made to the prophet himself, or to some other prophet. Accordingly, we find in the prophecies these facts. (a) In many of them, there are no marks of ‘time’, but only of succession. It is predicted only that one event should succeed another in a certain order. (b) Occasionally the time of some ‘one’ event is marked in the succession, as ‘e.g.’ the time of the death of the Messiah, in Dan. 9:26,27. (c) Events are apparently connected together, which, in fact, were to be separated long intervals. Thus Isaiah (ch. 11) makes the deliverance, which was to be effected by the Messiah, to follow immediately the deliverance from the yoke of the Assyrians, without noticing the long train of intermediate occurrences. And, in the same manner, Isaiah, Hosea, Amos, and Micah, very often connect the deliverance under the Messiah, with that which was to be effected from the captivity at Babylon, without noticing the long train of intermediate events. There was such a resemblance between the two events, that, by the laws of ‘prophetic suggestion’, the mind of the prophet glanced rapidly from one to the other, and the description which ‘commenced’ with the account of the deliverance from the Babylonish captivity, ‘closed’ with the description of the triumphs of the Messiah. And yet not one of the prophets ever intimate that the Messiah would be the Leader from the exile at Babylon. (d) The ‘time’ is sometimes revealed to the prophets themselves, and they mark it distinctly. Thus, to Jeremiah it was revealed distinctly, that the exile at Babylon should continue seventy
(70) years, (ch. 25:11,12,) and although this event had been the subject of revelation to other prophets, yet to no one of them was there before an intimation of the ‘time’ during which it was to continue. So also of the ‘place’. That the Jews would be carried away to a distant land if they were disobedient, had been predicted by Moses, and threatened by many of the prophets; and yet there was no intimation of the ‘place’ of their bondage until the embassy of the king of Babylon to Hezekiah, and the sin of Hezekiah in showing them his treasure, led Isaiah to declare that ‘Babylon was the place’ to which the nation was to be carried. (See Note on Isa. 39:6.) Marks of time are thus scattered, not very profusely, through the prophecies. They were, on the whole, so definite as to lead to the general expectation, that the Messiah would appear about the time when Jesus was born. (See Matt. 2.)
6. It is a consequence of this view, also, that many of the prophecies are obscure. It is not to be expected that the ‘same’ degree of light should be found in the prophecies which we have now. And yet, so far as the prophecy ‘was’ made known, it might be clear enough; nor was there any danger, or need of mistake. The facts themselves were perfectly plain and intelligible, but there was only a partial and imperfect development of the facts. The ‘fact, e.g.’ that the Messiah was to come –that He was to be born at Bethlehem –that He was to be a King –that He was to die –that His religion was to prevail among the nations, and that the Gentiles were to be brought to the knowledge of Him, were all made known, and were as clear and plain as they are now. Much is known now, indeed, of the ‘mode’ in which this was to be done, which was not then made known, and the want of this knowledge served to make the prophecies appear obscure. We take the knowledge which we ‘now’ have, and go back to the times when the prophecies were uttered, and compare our knowledge with what we find there, and, finding their views partial and obscure, we seem to infer, that because ‘all’ was not known, ‘nothing’ was known. But we are to remember that all ‘science’ at the beginning, is partial and elementary, and that knowledge, on all subjects, makes its advances by slow degrees. Many things in the prophecies were obscure in the sense that there had been only a partial revelation; or, that only a few facts were made known; or, that the time was not marked with certainty; and yet the facts themselves may have been as clear as they are now, and the ‘order of succession’ may have been also as certainly and clearly determined. The ‘facts’ were revealed; the manner in which they were to occur may have been concealed.
It may be added here, in the words of Prof. Stuart, “that many prophecies have respect to kingdoms, nations, and events, that for thousands of years have been buried in total darkness. In what manner they were fulfilled we know not –when, we know not. We do not even know enough of the geography of many places and regions that are named in them, to be able to trace the scene of such fulfilment. Customs, manners, and many other things alluded to by such prophecies, we have no present means of illustrating in an adequate manner. Of course and of necessity, then, there must be more or less in all such prophecies, that is obscure to us.” (Bib. Repository, vol. II. p. 237.) }}

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Isaiah Unfulfilled: Being an Exposition of the Prophet. New Version & Critical Notes, & 2 Dissertations: (Sons of God & Giants (gen.6) & Comparative Estimate of Heb. & Grk Texts). etc. Rev. R. Govett, Fellow of Worchster College, Oxford & Curate of St Stephen’s, Norwich. 1841.gs.

{{ Preface: “It must appear an act of great daring, for any of talents and learning inferior to the celebrated Lowth, to attempt a version of the Prophet Isaiah after that Prelate’s admired composition. But though the Prophet is greatly indebted to his labours for a restoration in very many places of what was evidently the original text, it did appear to the author that though the Bishop had derived and acknowledged much assistance from the Septuagint, there was yet much more concealed beneath that translation which has not been wrought as yet by any. He was also grieved to see so little notice taken of the scriptural quotations of Isaiah; so little done towards manifesting the honesty of the citations made by the inspired writers, and the justness of the testimonies they derive thence to their arguments. It is a subject but little noticed, yet surely of considerable importance; and much attention is paid to it in the present work. The investigations on this point have led to the conviction that in many instances the Jews have willfully corrupted the oracles of God committed to their care; while in other cases mistakes have arisen from the inaccuracy of transcribers. The Septuagint version most clearly establishes both these facts; and the sentiments of such critics as Kennicott, De Rossi, and Bos, confirm the conviction. Far be it from the author unjustly to accuse the Jews; that first of the nations to whom “pertained the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service, and the promises, whose are the fathers, and of whom (mightiest privilege of all!) as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed forever, Amen.” But a firm belief of the justice of the charge, based on a broad foundation of evidence, has led him to make and to sustain the accusation. “Let God be true, and every man a liar!” His interpretation of Isaiah is as completely in their favour as, he supposes, any Jew by birth could desire; his expectation of their final glory as distinct as they are wont to form…..It was primarily his intention to put forth simply a new version with notes critical and explanatory; but finding that so many had anticipated him in this, and that though the text should be perfect as it came from the prophet’s pen, it might still leave his oracles little understood, giving full scope to the work of an interpreter, he was induced to offer an Exposition. To this he was led by the belief that ancient and modern writers had combined to furnish him with a key to its just explanation. Certain it is that the Exposition now offered does not wittingly omit to face any difficulty, and the reader is requested to compare the Commentary with the text chapter by chapter as he proceeds. Let him not be startled or throw aside the book if he finds interpretations given which differ greatly from those of modern commentators, but suffer the whole of its bearings to be seen. For if the author be not mistaken, he has kept throughout to the principles laid down in the commencement; the chief of which is that the true key of Scripture prophecy is ‘Literality’ of interpretation, restrained by common sense from running into absurdity, such as attributing passions to inanimate things.” }}
{{ Exposition of Isaiah: “In endeavouring to illustrate the prophecies of Isaiah, the principles on which the exposition is conducted shall be briefly stated. First, That “no prophecy is of any ‘private’ interpretation.” Against this inspired rule those offend who, like Grotius, interpret the prophecies as fulfilled in the person of Isaiah, David, or Solomon, and in events which have no reference to us at the present day. Secondly, that as, in the accomplishment of those prophecies declared by Scripture itself to be fulfilled, the accomplishment was ‘literal’, so the fulfilment of those yet to be accomplished will be ‘literal’ also. Hence the tendency of the present interpretation will be to regard every affirmation of the prophet as intended literally which, when so taken, does not involve absurdity. This principle is, in short, opposed to that popular mode of explaining prophecy, which interprets as many passages as possible in a ‘figurative’ sense. It is founded on the Saviour’s word, “that one jot or tittle shall in no wise pass from the law till all be fulfilled.” (Matt. 5:18.) Here the word “law” is to be taken in its fullest sense, as including the Old Testament, and, indeed, the sacred Scriptures generally. That it comprehends more than the five books of Moses is evident from our Saviour’s words, John 10:34, where the passage quoted is from the Psalms. On these principles we shall arrive at the conclusion, that the greater part of Isaiah’s prophecies have yet to be fulfilled; and that much which is generally supposed to be accomplished, had only a commencing fulfilment in the events referred to. On this point accept the testimony of Bishop Horsley: “You are perfectly right in the opinion you maintain, that a far greater proportion of the prophecies, even of the Old Testament, than is generally imagined, relate to the second advent of our Lord. Few, comparatively, relate to the first advent by itself, without reference to the second. And of those that have been supposed to be accomplished in the first, many had in that only an inchoate fulfilment, and have yet to receive their full completion Rome founded (B.C. 753) –that city which should afterwards be the especial scourge of Israel. Ahaz succeeded, a king so deeply sunk in idolatry, that he sacrificed even his infant children. In his reign, Pekah of Israel, and Rezim, king of Syria, came against Jerusalem, designing to overthrow the succession of the throne of David. This event, as foreshadowing in principle altogether, and partly in its circumstances, that confederacy of the kings and nations of the world against Christ (*Rev, 19:19), in the latter days of the world, is the opportunity made use of for delivering prophecies of the certainty of Messiah’s reign, in spite of all human opposition. Ahaz, in his distress, applied to Tiglath Pileser, the monarch of Assyria, who accordingly took Damascus, and slew Rezim; but his aid did not restrain the Edomites and Philistines, who plundered Judea –with impunity, in its now defenseless state. In Tiglath Pileser we may recognize the features of Antichrist, who is evidently prophesied of in several places under the title of “the Assyrian.” And in the application of Ahaz to this monarch for help, may be seen the type of the future alliance of the Jews with the last great scourge of their nation……. To him succeeded Hezekiah: and “like unto whom was there no king before him that turned to the Lord with all his heart.” He restored the Passover, and invited Israel as well as Judah to keep this festival. Some mocked, but a great multitude assembled at Jerusalem to celebrate the feast. The revival of religion among the nation that at this time took place, is probably a type of the conversion of the elect Jews to the Messiah whom their fathers crucified; for, when the Saviour says, “Ye shall not see me henceforth till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord,” he clearly implies, that when, they do thus recognize him, he will return; and hence the partial conversion of the Jews before the great tribulation, will be a sign that the Son of Man is near. At this time the Assyrian empire had attained its height, and Israel was carried captive. Thus it is foretold that the Jews have yet a third time, and finally, to be enslaved by their fierce and subtle enemy, the “Man of Sin.” But in Hezekiah’s reign, we have also a wonderfully exact type of the history of the future Antichrist, in the destruction of the host of Sennacherib, after his daring blasphemy and the proud words which he uttered by his messengers to Hezekiah. To cheer the despairing thoughts of the Jewish kin and of his people, a series of prophecies was delivered, which, while it declared the terrors of that great day of the Lord, yet dwelt with fulness and triumph on the glory that shall follow. In accordance with his sketch, it will be my endeavour to point out where the prophecies before us resembled in the main the state of Jerusalem and Judaea, in the days when they were delivered; next, the points in which they obtained a partial completion at the first advent of the Saviour; and still more fully explain those prophecies which yet expect their complete development in the times preceding, attending, and succeeding his return.” }}

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Book of Isaiah (3 Volumes, Chapters 1-18, 19-39, 40-66) Commentary, English Text, Introduction, Exposition, & Notes, by Edward J. Young (1965)

“Overview: Edward J. Young’s classic 3-volume commentary engages in a line-by-line exegesis of the Book of Isaiah, setting interpretation firmly in the context of Isaiah’s archaeological, cultural, and intellectual background. Young allows the prophet to speak for himself and to expound his message for the present age. Written primarily for the minister, Sunday school teacher and general layperson, the theologically conservative commentary provides very few Hebrew words in the main body of the text. However, in order to serve those pastors, teachers and students who do know the Hebrew language, Young has provided technical material in the footnotes or in special notes. Dr. Young firmly believes Isaiah to be a unified, single-author book, although he respectfully interacts with opposing views. As an Old Testament scholar he concentrates primarily on the meaning of the text rather than on specific textual problems. He uses his own semiliteral translation of the Hebrew throughout the commentary in order to express the force of the original, thereby giving the reader a fuller understanding of the prophet’s message. It is the author’s hope that this commentary will “encourage men and women to read the Old Testament and to encourage ministers to preach therefrom.””

“Edward Young (1907–1968) was Professor of Old Testament at Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He received an A.B from Stanford University, a Th.B and Th.M from Westminster Theological Seminary, and a Ph.D. from Dropsie College. An ordained minister, he was the General Editor of the New International Commentary on the Old Testament and published, among other works, an Old Testament Introduction, and The Prophecy of Daniel.”

Book of Isaiah: Outline:
I. Crisis & Messiah: (1:1-12:6)
A. Introduction: Entire Prophecy: (1:1-31): Judah’s Sinful Condition. God’s Judgment on Judah.
B. Early Messages: Isaiah: (2:1-5:30): God’s Blessing & Judgment. Judah’s Punishment & Glory. God & Judah.
C. Judah’s True Hope: Messianic King: (6:1-12:6): Isaiah’s Vision of Holy God. Crisis & Promise. Assyrian Invader. Threat of Assyria. Judah’s Hope in Messiah.
II. Theocracy & Nations: (13:1-39:8) (13:1-27:13)
A. Judah & World Power: (13:1-27:13): Growth of Mesopotamian Power. Downfall of Moab, Syria, Other Nations. Egypt in Confusion. Egypt & Ethiopia: False Hope. Babylon. Edom. Arabians. Jerusalem as One of the Nations. Shebna: Steward. Tyre: Sea Power.
B. God’s Sovereignty Manifested in Salvation & Judgment & Conclusion to Chapters 13-23: (24:1-27:13)
III. True Deliverance: Not in Egypt but in the Lord: (28:1-35:10)
A. Lord’s Purpose: (28-29): Samaria Ripe for Judgment. Iniquity of Jerusalem & Announcement of Deliverance.
B. Judean Alliance with Egypt: (30-31): Trust in Egypt: Deceived. Egypt No Help: Lord will Protect Jerusalem.
C. Certainty of Coming Salvation: (32-33): Condition of True Blessedness will Come. Oppression will End & God’s Kingdom will be Established.
D. God’s Sovereignty: Manifested in Judgment & in Salvation: Conclusion to Chapters 28-33: (34-35):
IV. Connecting Bridge between Chapters 1-35 & 40-66: (36-39)
A. Conclusion to Assyrian Period (36-37): Sennacherib & 1st Attempt of Empire of Man to Destroy Kingdom of God. Failure of 1st Attempt to Destroy Kingdom of God.
B. Introduction to Babylonian Period: (38-39): Godly Hezekiah. Babylonian Exile Announced.
V. Salvation & Future Blessing of True Israel of God: (40-66)
A. Prologue: (40:1-11): 3 Fold Comfort. Revelation of Lord’s Glory. Enduring Word of God. Coming of Lord God.
B. Jerusalem’s Warfare is Accomplished: (40:12-48:22)
C. Jerusalem’s Iniquity is Pardoned: (49:1-57:21)
D. Jerusalem has Received of the Lord’s Hand Double for All her Iniquity: (58:1-66:24)

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Literal Translation of Prophets, Isaiah-Malachi, vol. 1, Isaiah with Notes, Critical, Philological, & Explanatory, by Robert Lowth, D.D., Lord Bishop of London. 11th Ed. (1836).gs.

{{ To the King: “Sir, An attempt to set in a just light the writings of the most sublime and elegant of the Prophets of the Old Testament might merit the honour of your Majesty’s gracious acceptance, were the execution in any degree answerable to the design. If it has at all succeeded, it is in a great measure to be ascribed to a particular attention to that most important, but too long neglected, part of sacred criticism, which, to the honour of this nation, and to the universal benefit of the Christian Church, hath been set forward, and is now greatly advanced, under your Majesty’s distinguished patronage “

Preliminary Dissertation: “The design of the following Translation of Isaiah, is not only to give an exact and faithful representation of the words and of the sense of the Prophet, by adhering closely to the letter of the text, and treading as nearly as may be in his footsteps; but, moreover, to imitate the air and manner of the author, to express the form and fashion of the composition, and to give the English reader some notion of the peculiar turn and cast of the original. The latter part of this design coincides perfectly well with the former: it is indeed impossible to give a just idea of the Prophet’s manner of writing, otherwise than by a close literal version. And yet, though so many literal versions of this Prophet have been given, as well of old as in later times, a just representation of his manner, and of the form of his composition, has never been attempted, or even thought of, by any translator, in any language, whether ancient or modern. Whatever of that kind has appeared in former translations, (and much indeed must appear in every literal translation), has been rather the effect of chance than of design, of necessity than of study: for what room could there be for study or design in this case, or at least for success in it, when the translators themselves had but a very imperfect notion, an inadequate or even false idea, of the real character of the author as a writer; of the general nature, and of the peculiar form, of the composition? It has, I think, been universally understood, that the Prophecies of Isaiah are written in prose. The style, the thoughts, the images, the expressions, have been allowed to be poetical, such as and that in the highest degree; but that they are written in verse, in measure, or rhythm, or whatever it is that distinguishes, as poetry, the composition of those books of the Old Testament, which are allowed to be poetical, such as Job, the Psalms, and the Proverbs, from the historical books, as mere prose; this has never been supposed, at least has not been at any time the prevailing opinion. The opinions of the learned concerning Hebrew verse have been various; their ideas of the nature of it vague, obscure, and imperfect; yet still there has been a general persuasion, that some books of the Old Testament are written in verse, but that the writings of the Prophets are not of that number.
The learned Vitringa says, (*Prolegom. in lesaiam, p. 8.) that Isaiah’s composition has a sort of numbers, or measure; “esse orationem suis adstrictam numeris:” he means, that it has a kind of oratorial number, or measure, as he afterwards explains it; and he quotes Scaliger as being of the same opinion, and as adding, that “however upon this account it could not rightly be called poetry.” (*Scaliger, Animadvers. in Chron. Eusebii, p. 6.) About the beginning of this century, Herman Von der Hardt, (*See Wolfii Biblioth. Hebr. torn. ii. p. 169.) the Hardouin of Germany, attempted to reduce Joel’s Elegies, as he called them, to iambic verse; and, consistently with his hypothesis, he affirmed, that the Prophets wrote in verse. This is the only exception I meet with to the universality of the contrary opinion. It was looked upon as one of his paradoxes, and little attention was paid to it. But what was his success in making out Joel’s iambics, and in helping his readers to form in consequence a more just idea of the character of the prophetic style, I cannot say, having never seen his treatise on that subject. The Jews of early times were of the same opinion, that the books of the Prophets are written in prose, as far as we have any evidence of their judgment on this subject. Jerome (*Praef. in Transl. Esaiae ex Heb. Veritate.) certainly speaks the sense of his Jewish preceptors as to this matter. Having written his translation of Isaiah from the Hebrew Verity in ‘stichi’, or lines divided according to the ‘cola’ and ‘commata’, after the manner of verse, which was (*See Grabe, Proleg. in LXX, Int. tom. i. cap. 1. §6.) often done in the prophetic writings for the sake of perspicuity, he cautions his reader “not to mistake it for metre, as if it were anything like the Psalms, or the writings of Solomon; for it was nothing more than what was usual in the copies of the prose works of Demosthenes and Cicero.” The later Jews have been uniformly of the same opinion; and the rest of the learned world seem to have taken it up on their authority, and have generally maintained it. But if there should appear a manifest conformity between the prophetical style and that of the books supposed to be metrical –a conformity in every known part of the poetical character, which equally discriminates the prophetical and the metrical books from those acknowledged to be prose– it will be of use to trace out and to mark this conformity with all possible accuracy; to observe how far the peculiar characteristics of each style coincide; and to see whether the agreement between them be such as to induce us to conclude, that the poetical and the prophetical character of style and composition, though generally supposed to be different, yet are really one and the same. This I purpose to do in the following Dissertation; and I the more readily embrace the present opportunity of resuming this subject, as what I have formerly written (*De Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum Praelect. xviii. xix.) upon it seems to have met with the approbation of the learned. And here I shall endeavour to treat it more at large; to pursue it further, and to a greater degree of minuteness; and to present it to the English reader in the easiest and most intelligible form that I am able to give it. The examples with which I shall illustrate it shall be more numerous, and all (a very few excepted) different from those already given; that they may serve by way of supplement to that part of the former work, as well as of themselves to place the subject in the fullest and clearest light. Now, in order to make this comparison between the prophetical and the poetical books, it will be necessary, in the first place, to state the true character of the poetical or metrical style; to trace out carefully whatever plain signs or indications yet remain of metre, or rhythm, or whatever else it was that constituted Hebrew verse; to separate the true, or at least the probable, from the manifestly false; and to give as clear and satisfactory an explanation of the matter as can now reasonably be expected in the present imperfect state of the Hebrew language, and on a subject which for near two thousand years has been involved in great obscurity, and only rendered still more obscure by the discordant opinions of the learned, and the various hypotheses which they have formed concerning it. The first and most manifest indication of verse in the Hebrew poetical books, presents itself in the acrostic or alphabetical poems; –of which there happily remain many examples, and those of various kinds– so that we could not have hoped, or even wished, for more light of this sort to lead us on in the very entrance of our inquiry. The nature, or rather the form, of these poems is this: The poem consists of twenty-two lines, or of twenty-two systems of lines, or periods, or stanzas, according to the number of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet; and every line, or every stanza, begins with each letter in its order as it stands in the alphabet; that is, the first line, or first stanza, begins with (A, Aleph), the second with (B, Beth), and so on. Thus much then, I think, we may be allowed to infer from the alphabetical poems; namely, that the Hebrew poems are written in verse, properly so called; that the harmony of the verses does not arise from rhyme, that is, from similar corresponding sounds terminating the verses, but from some sort of rhythm, probably from some sort of metre, the laws of which are now altogether unknown, and wholly undiscoverable; –yet that there are evident marks of a certain correspondence of the verses with one another, and of a certain relation between the composition of the verses and the composition of the sentences, –the formation of the former depending in some degree upon the distribution of the latter,– so that generally periods coincide with stanzas, members with verses, and pauses of the one with pauses of the other; which peculiar form of composition is so observable, as plainly to discriminate in general the parts of the Hebrew Scriptures which are written in verse, from those which are written in prose. This will require a larger and more minute explication, not only as a matter necessary to our present purpose, that is, to ascertain the character of the prophetical style in general, and of that of the Prophet Isaiah in particular, but as a principle of considerable use, and of no small importance, in the interpretation of the poetical parts of the Old Testament. The correspondence of one verse or line with another, I call parallelism. When a proposition is delivered, and a second is subjoined to it, or drawn under it, equivalent, or contrasted with it in sense, or similar to it in the form of grammatical construction, these I call parallel lines; and the words or phrases, answering one to another in the corresponding lines, parallel terms.
Parallel lines may be reduced to three sorts, –parallels synonymous, parallels antithetic, and parallels synthetic. Of each of these I shall give a variety of examples, in order to shew the various forms under which they appear; first, from the books universally acknowledged to be poetical; then, correspondent examples from the Prophet Isaiah, and sometimes also from the other Prophets, to shew that the form and character of the composition is in all the same ” }}

About mjmselim

Male, 65, born in Jamaica, USA since 1961, citizen in 2002; cobbler for 40 plus years, Christian since 1969; married to same wife since 1979; 6 daughters and 2 sons, with 7 grandkids. Slowly adapting to the digital world of computers and internet; hobby in digital editing.
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1 Response to Christian Biblical Reflections.25

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