CBR.18: Job: III. Poetic Books: Job-Songs. mjmselim. July29, 2018
((Here are pages 375-486 of CBR, Chapter III, (in three submissions pages 375-402, CBR.18 (Job), 402-450 CBR.19 (Psalms), 450-486 CBR.20 (Proverbs-Song of Songs) of the Poetic Books from Job to Song of Songs, comprising Psalms with Job & Proverbs & Ecclesiastes, & Solomon’s Song of Songs. This Chapter III & Part III will be added to the PDF of CBR from Genesis to Esther, along with the final pages of the Chapter in a few days. CBR. Christian Biblical Reflections. mjmselim. 2018))
((I am now a month behind my plan & desire to post a submission once a month of the Books & the Key Book of the section or division in the Bible. In May a change in the primary PC that I use to study, research, and write on had to be retired, and I upgraded from a 32bit to a 64bit as required by the new Windows 10 updates. Several weeks of conflicts with a few of the software that I use, and other issues of devices and programs, including loss of some notes & pages, further delayed me. Then some personal matters needed attention, in particular our youngest daughter, now an adult, with CP, was hit by a vehicle while she crossed the street, several weeks in the hospital, then several weeks in rehab, followed now by several weeks at home slowly recovering from a severe head injury, She is learning to walk again, memory and speech coming along, but will be months for full recovery. God was kind to grant her life & recovery strength & we pray trusting for wisdom with grace for the rest. The research & selections of the Poetic Books of Wisdom & Love has been greater than I anticipated. I have corrected many errors, whether human or machine, and many more will be corrected as met with from time to time. I have been constrained to adopt new uses of punctuations (like the & sign & omission of the articles &c) to adapt to the digital limitations of standard processes of software & programs, especially as to italics & poetry display. I must regret that as to the single quote-mark (Apostrophe sign) used in the transliterated words from Hebrew, Greek, etc., I also adopted it for ‘italics’ instead of ‘i t a l i c s’, due to my Draft and Notes are done in Notepad with ANSI restrictions & limitations in Fonts; and since I did not want to use ‘Unicode’ for other reasons (when, say, it is viewed in non-Unicode programs or systems), and because I am a simple cobbler, quite limited in my PC skills, despite ‘ever learning new things, I must convert those ‘italics’ as I have time & opportunity, that I delay not any further this submission to the readers. mjm.))
Part III: PSALMS – ISAIAH: JOB, PSALMS, PROVERBS, ECCLESIASTES, PROVERBS & SONGS.
Part III: PSALMS: JOB – ISAIAH: Poetic Books: Job. David’s Psalms. Solomon’s Proverbs. Solomon’s Koheleth’s Ecclesiastes. Solomon’s Song of Songs.
The Pentateuch-Chumash of Moses, the Foundational Books of the Law, followed by the Historical Books of the Early Prophets & closing with the Kings of Israel & Judah, with the Nation of Israel in Captivity & Exile, and their return as a remnant of Jews illustrated by the Book of Esther; leads us now to the Poetic Books with the Book of Psalms as the 3rd Great Finger of the Divine Hand of the Word. As Genesis controlled & governed the Old Testament Books, and Deuteronomy, the Second Law built on the 10 Words (Commandments) of Mount Sinai-Horeb, controlled the 3 Books of Moses of Exodus, Leviticus, & Numbers, and also governed the rest of the Old Testament Books of the Tanakh-Mikra, so now the Psalms of David will govern & rule the 5 Scrolls or Megillot from Job to Solomon to the Prophets and to the New Testament. The Hebrews call the Poetic Books the Writings, and they list the 5 Books from Job to Songs as Psalms to Ecclesiastes or Koheleth, but adding also Ruth, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, & the Chronicles in their arrangement & order. In our reflections we will consider the 5 Books as they are found in our English Bibles. We will gather all the selections from the various writers who have left us their labors in their works on these Books, using only a mere fraction of what is available and what has been examined, read, & edited. Then after all the Books together in Notes, Outlines, Comments, & the like have been submitted, then we must needs reflect and explore the meaning & sense to our reflections & study. I have tried to restrict the the selections to what was most essential & helpful, with hundred of pages deliberately refusing inclusion to not swell the book. The works & writings of the ancients of the Jews & Christians would alone comprise several volumes of examples & illustrations. My goal is to show in general & readily available biblical literature the path my own search has taken in understanding. In the Poetic Books we are here concerned with I have further departed from my earlier method of the detail digest of the Bible Books, which were examples of how I & we become familiar with Scripture in all its details and peculiarities. The progression of doctrines, the growth of the seeds to plants & seeds, the forms of life from conception to birth to maturity continued to appear in our reading & reflections from Genesis to Esther. The Poetic & Prophetic Books will continue this venue with even more development, unfolding, & modifications as God & man mutually respond to each other, as each adapt to the other, and each fulfills their part —God moving towards His eternal purposes within the world of His creation, both universally & particularly has He determines.
We will first present the selections on the Poetic Books, then we will offer our reflections with some other contributions relative to the Book. I have edited the Selections to conform towards modern usage & practice; many or frequent Roman Numerals have been changed; the Articles (definite & indefinite) are often omitted in Outlines and Charts or Tables, as well substitution of the Conjunction ‘and’ for &; all Hebrew & Greek words have been transliterated, and I have not adhered to any rigid system, save only general consistency; also I have taken liberty at times to Capitilize or alter the emphasis were it made no sense in modern practice. In all cases my additions & opinions are bracketed or enclosed to indicate that it is not the author or writer of the quote& citation. We have been attentive to the Divine words spoken directly by God in various ways, printed & signified by Red ink, we now add Blue or Purple ink to designate or identify God speaking indirectly by a Personification distinct from Inspiration of the Vehicle or Instrument of communication, as the author, writer, or speaker. We have the words & thoughts of the author or writer of the Book, then in the Book we have God speaking by quotations or citations defined in the writing, then finally we read of God speaking by means of representations of various means & persons, real or virtual, that is, personifications as Wisdom, the Voice in a Dream, as Thoughts in our Minds or Spirits, etc. Here are the Passages in the 5 Poetic Books of this Section:
Red Letters in the Poetic Books:
Job: 1:7a, 8, 12; 2:2a, 3, 6; 33:24 (Elihu’s quote in thought), 37:6 (Elihu’s quote in thought), 38-41 (all Red except Job’s words in 40:3-6); 42:7b-8.
Psalms: 2:6-9; 32:8-9 (but these words we might put in Blue or Purple as if Wisdom Personified speaks as in Proverbs 8); 50:5, 7-23; 60:6-8; 68:22-23; 75:2-5, 10 (again these verses might be Blue or Purple); 81:6-16; 82:2-7 (Red or Blue or Purple); 87:4, 7b (Purple: Red or Blue); 89:3-4, 19b-37; 90:3b (Moses’ quote); 91:14-16; 95:8-11; 105:11, 15; 108:7-9; 110:1, 4; 132:11-18.
Proverbs: (No words are in Red, but Wisdom (Chokhmah-Sophia) Personified speaks in Blue or Purple as a Parent, both Father and Mother in chapters 1-9, but especially in chapter 8 as the Female or Woman (Lady Wisdom).)
Ecclesiastes: (No Red or Blue in Koheleth. The Preacher is the Divine Voice.)
Song of Songs of Solomon: (No Red or Blue in the Song, but the Lovers speak in clear words of Love for the Beloved.)
The number of Quotations or References & Allusions of the Psalms in the New Testament is compared to certain other Old Testament Books are as follows: (See: Toy’s New Testament Quotations (1884))
Job: 8 times; Psalms: 150 times; Proverbs: 28 times; Ecclesiastes: 4 times; Song of Songs: 1 time Deuteronomy: 80 times; Isaiah: 160 times
JOB: (Selections from various authors, writers, commentaries, &c.)
1: ’IYob, ’Yob, Iob,Job, Yob, Hiob. Unique Book, oldest Book in the Bible, oldest Poetry in the World. Religious Philosophy. Many Questions about the Book with many opposing views. In Job’s trial and sufferings God is tested , tried, and vindicated. Variant Years Job lived: 70+70=140 + 70=210 + 30=240. The Book has an Introduction (Chapters 1-2) & a Conclusion (Chapter 42). The Book is divided into 2 Parts or Halves (Chapters 1-21 & Chapters 22-42); and Job at 19:3 tells us that there were already 10 Times of rounds, turns, or exchanges between him and his friends. The 2nd half of Book reveals another 10 Times, thus in all the Book of Job consists of 20 Exchanges. Its unfortunate that the scholars have universally adopted the notion that ’10 times’ is merely a metaphor or figure of speech for ‘many times’. Pope Gregory the Great in his original 7-volume commentary, reprinted as 3-volume, of Sermons on Job called the Morals of the Book of Job, in the 6th century, (an excellent commentary & influence on the following generations), clearly saw the significance of Job’s 10 Times:
St Pope Gregory the Great, in Morals of the Book of Job, 591 A.D.,1845:
(Job 19:3) (‘Lo, these ten times ye confound me’. 30. On enumerating the successive times of the speeches of Job’s friends, we learn that as yet they had spoken but five times. But for this reason, that he had five times heard rebukes from them, and five times himself replied to their rebukes, he says that he had been ten times confounded; because both herein, viz. that he had been causelessly reproached, he suffered deeply, and in this, that he uttered words of instruction to those that gave no ear, he underwent confusion”.)
2: From: Biblical Companion, Introduction to Reading & Study of Holy Scriptures, etc. William Carpenter (1836):
1. Chapter III of the Poetical Books. Section I. Book of Job:
6. Chief Doctrines of Patriarchal Religion, as collected from different parts of the Poem by Dr. Hales & Mr. Good, are as follow:
(1) Creation of World by one Supreme & Eternal Intelligence. (38-42)
(2) Regulation by Perpetual and superintending Providence. (1:9,21; 2:10; 5:8-27; 9:4-13)
(3) Intentions of Providence effected by Ministrations of Heavenly Hierarchy. (1:6-7; 3:18-19; 5:1; 33:22-23)
(4) Heavenly Hierarchy, composed of various Ranks and Orders, possessing different Names,
Dignities, and Offices. As ‘obelim’= servants; ‘malachim’= angels; ‘melizim’= intercessors; ‘memitim’= destinies or destroyers; ‘alep’= chiliad or thousand; ‘kedoshim’, Sancti, heavenly saints or hosts generally. (4:18; 33:22-23; 5:2; 15:15)
(5) Apostasy, or defection, in some rank or order of these Powers (4:18; 15:15), of which Satan seems to have been one, and perhaps chief, (1:6-12; 2:2-7).
(6) Good and evil Powers or Principles, equally formed by the Creator, and hence equally denominated “Sons of God;” both of them employed by in Administration of Providence; and both amenable to Him at stated Courts, held for purpose of receiving an account of their respective missions. (1:6-7; 2:1)
(7) Day of future Resurrection, Judgment, and Retribution to all mankind. (14:13-15; 19:25-29; 21:30; 31:14)
(8) Propitiation of the Creator, in the case of human transgressions, by Sacrifices (1:5; 42:8); and the Mediation and Intercession of righteous person. (42:8-9)
(9) Idolatrous Worship of Heavenly Bodies a judicial offence, to be punished by Judge.(31:26-28)
(10) Innate Corruption of Man; or what is generally termed “Original Sin.” (14:4; 15:14-16; 35:4)
7. Several of these Doctrines are more clearly developed than others, but the whole of them are fairly deduced from the obvious meaning of the words.
8. Mr. Good, to whom we have been indebted for the foregoing outline, has remarked, that nothing can be more unfortunate for this most excellent composition than its division into chapters, and specially such a division as that in common use; in which, not only the unity of the general subject, but in many instances, that of a single paragraph, or even of a single clause, is completely broken in upon & destroyed. Various other divisions have been adopted. Dr. Hales, who excludes the Exordium & Conclusion, divides it into five parts; but Mr. Good, who justly remarks that these are requisite to the unity of the composition, divides it into six. We follow his arrangement, only dividing his sixth part into two. We have then:
1. History of Job’s Character & Trials (ch. 1-3)
2. First Series of Conversations or Controversy: Eliphaz’s Address (ch. 4-5); Job’s Answer (ch. 6-7); Bildad’s Address (ch. 8); Job’s Answer (ch. 9-10); Zophar’s Address (ch. 11); Job’s Answer (ch. 12-14)
3. Second Series of Controversy: Eliphaz’s Address (ch. 15); Job’s Answer (ch. 16-17); Bildad’s Address (ch. 18); Job’s Answer (ch.19); Zophar’s Address (ch. 20); Job’s Answer (ch. 21:4)
4. Third Series of Controversy: Eliphaz’s Address (ch. 22); Job’s Answer (ch. 23-24); Bildad’s Address (ch. 25); Job’s Answer (ch. 26-31).
5. Elihu’s Four Speeches to Job (ch. 32-37)
6. Jehovah’s 1st & 2nd Address to Job (ch. 38-41).
7. Humiliation of Job & final Prosperity (ch. 42).
3: From: Book of the Patriarch Job Translated from Original Hebrew by Samuel Lee.(1845)
Introduction: Preliminary Remarks:
….”The book is confessedly the most difficult one in the Hebrew Bible. It certainly is one of the most ancient. It was written in a country and in times altogether unlike those in which we live. Its matter and its language are of the most exalted and splendid description; while the influence which it has exerted on the whole Hebrew Bible, and the connexion which its doctrines evidently have with those of the New Testament, cannot but strike the Christian theologian as most interesting and valuable considerations.”
Section 9: On the Scope & Object of the Book of Job:
“A little consideration will enable us to see, that the primary object of this book is, to shew that there is a power attendant on true religion, sufficient to enable its possessor eventually to overcome every temptation and every trial. This, I say, is its ‘primary’ object. For, in the first and second chapters, which were apparently given as a key to the whole, we are informed that Job was a just and perfect man, and one who feared God. This was manifestly his character. It is suggested, however, by the great adversary of mankind, that, whatever appearances might be, a little trial would prove the contrary. The sacred penman assures us, by means of a vision (as already shewn) that, in order to prove the falsehood of this, Job is allowed to be exposed for a season to trials of the severest kind: but still he retained his integrity; and in the end came off victorious, to the entire approval of Almighty God, who restored him, and gave him wealth double in value to that of his former state of prosperity. He is also accepted in making a sort of atonement for the errors of his friends. I think, therefore, no doubt can remain, that this was the ‘primary object’ of this book.
A ‘secondary’ object seems to have been, to shew how very imperfect the notions even of good men are on the moral economy of God. The friends of our patriarch meet, as we are told, for the purpose of condoling with him; and there appears no reason, as far as I can see, for questioning their sincerity. The sufferer proceeds, in the first place, to state his afflictions, and then to pour out those lamentations and complaints which are natural to such a state. His friends, men evidently acquainted with revealed religion, and apparently very much in earnest as to accurate views respecting it proceed to correct him: they professedly take the side of God and their main endeavour is to vindicate His wisdom, justice, and mercy. For this purpose they argue from revelation, from experience, and from very extensive and just views of God’s works; and, as they are too well informed to suppose that there can be any effect without an adequate cause, particularly where there is an all-powerful, wise, and good God overruling all things; their conclusion is, that Job’s sins must have led to his sufferings. The patriarch very justly and very successfully combats their conclusions, without at all calling in question their several general doctrines; —for these were no doubt true, and worthy of all acceptation: —and in this, God Himself eventually declares for him. Their great fault was, the misapplication of truth. They knew not the real cause which led to Job’s trials, and the consequence was, they supposed one which was false; and to this were their arguments universally directed. The pertinacity and warmth with which they pressed their opinions, could not but have added considerably to Job’s sufferings; who evidently had a greater insight into the general dealings of God with believers than they had. Still there is no reason, as far as I can discover, for calling in question either their fidelity, good intentions, or sorrow for their friend. They only did what thousands daily do —they misapprehended the question at issue; and, as they were more willing to believe themselves right, than to stop and consider in how many ways they might be wrong, and, in fact, how very little they could know on the subject; they pressed their sentiments to an extent which real religion, good sense, and the sympathy due to a friend, would hardly justify: and of this, Job’s mission to them from the Almighty (chap. 42.) must have more than convinced them; and have shewn them to demonstration that, although He was truly no less mighty, wise, and good, than they had represented Him, yet that ‘His wisdom was unsearchable, and His ways past finding out’, to men such as they were.
A ‘third’ object apparently was, to provide a book of doctrine, as already remarked, adequate to the wants of believers for ever; illustrating, as just now stated, both the economy of God with His people, and their ignorance as to His thoughts and ways: to keep alive the doctrine of salvation through a Redeemer, the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, and the certainty of a judgment to come. It might seem superfluous, after what has already been said, to dwell on the other doctrines, promises, and experience, inculcated throughout this book, and so frequently appealed to in the subsequent books of the Old Testament, as well as in the New. I shall conclude, therefore, merely by remarking, that the most severe inquiry into its contents, the most careful comparison of it with the rest of Holy Scripture; the genuineness of its piety, the purity and beauty of its morality, the great extent of its range, the exquisite chasteness at once of its style and sentiments, and, above all, the solidity and depth of its devotion, cannot but conspire to recommend it as one of the most valuable productions of antiquity ; at the same time, as a book of undoubted inspiration, and of the most unquestionable canonical authority. And my sincere prayer is, that every reader of it may receive as much pleasure and edification in perusing its declarations, as I have in this endeavour to translate and elucidate them.”
Book of Job: Translation: Chapter Summary: Chapters 1-2: Introduction:
Job’s place of residence, character, wealth; children, religious care for them; cause of his trials. Loss of his wealth and children; his pious resignation to all this. The real cause of Job’s afflictions; his afflictions, and integrity under them; the visit and surprise of his friends.
Job reviles the day and circumstances of his birth; he denounces the night of his conception; laments his existence; describes the freedom and rest of the dead; laments that light and life are supplied to the miserable; slates his own deplorable but innocent case.
Eliphaz apologises for speaking; commends Job’s former conduct, but deplores his dejection on it’s occasion, reminds him of the power of faith; of God’s particular providence over good men, and severity against the wicked. Describes a vision afforded to him, gives its substance. Declares that God is the only sure refuge; that the foolish who seek safety elsewhere fail. Sin natural to man. The great power and goodness of God set forth, shewing that He confounds the wise, but saves the humble. The blessedness of him whom God chastises; his safety under all circumstances, the assurance of such an one, that he shall prosper, and his family after him.
Job insists on the severity of his afflictions; the insipidity of his friend’s reasoning; requests that God would consider his case; his determination to believe in Him at all events; confesses his weakness as a man, but insists on an inward source of help; the duty of a friend; the unfaithfulness of Job’s friends; favours deeply felt by the distressed; but if injuries are inflicted, they are easily reduced to silence, banished, and destroyed; Job’s friends wearied without any just cause; the arguments of a poor and afflicted man allowed to have no weight; an intreaty to reconsider Job’s case. The state of man a warfare: as the slave hopes for a season of rest, and the hireling looks for his wages, so Job’s days and nights were full of expectation, but were followed only by still greater pains, intimating his approaching death. No earthly return to be expected from the grave. Job, therefore, requests permission to give vent to his sufferings; recites the distresses of his couch, and desires to be let alone; mans worthlessness stated. Job requests a remission of his sufferings; and, as he cannot atone for his sins, deprecates the punishment, and prays for the pardon of them, believing that he soon must die.
Bildad rebukes Job on God’s behalf, declaring that God is just, and that if he duly seek Him, his miseries shall come to end; refers Job to the experience of past ages, and instances their sentiments by allusions to natural and historical events, to shew that the wicked are of short duration, and of rapid decay and succession; and concludes by declaring, that the faithful are never forsaken of God, nieither are the sinful encouraged; and that, if he were faithful, such should be his experience.
Job accedes to the reasoning of Bildad, as to God’s power and man’s inability to plead with Him, and recounts many of His wonderful works: stating, at the same time, his own ignorance and weakness. He further enlarges on his own weakness and unworthiness, introducing his afflictions, and affirming that were he even just —what his opponents charge him with assuming —that would only serve to humble him the more. He concludes the paragraph by maintaining the strict justice of God. He laments the rapid, unprofitable, and painful lapse of his time; his inability to shake off his sorrows; his consciousness of his own sin; and the inability of his afflictions to wash this away. He acknowledges the greatness of God; and concludes by praying that God would take away his afflictions. —Job continues his complaint, desiring to be informed on what principle it is that God chooses to afflict him. Declares that God had wonderfully constructed him, and had dealt favourably with him. Confesses his own sin, and maintains God’s good providence. Speaks, too, of His occasional severity and favour. Laments his own birth, but desires to be restored before his departure.
The first answer of Zophar the N’aamathite, in which he accuses Job of much and loud profession of his own purity: wishes that God would answer him, and shew him the transcendent value of wisdom, and the sin under which he so blindly laboured. Asserts the incomprehensibility of the Almighty, and man’s imperfections. Affirms that, if Job had duly regulated his own mind, and put away iniquity from him, he might have looked up in innocence; that, with his sin, his misery would have ceased; and that, although he might have felt occasional distress, yet, on the whole, he should be in safety and peace, while the wicked should entirely fail.
Job replies, justifying his right and fitness to do so; complains of neglect from his friends; allows the truth of their doctrines, and that it is obvious the hand of God is in this matter; dwells still more particularly on the marks of God’s overruling power, as discoverable from events. Affirms his own fitness, as before, to judge of these matters, and accuses his opponents of ignorance; reproves them for attempting to justify God’s doings on sinful principles; presumes that the awful situation in which he places himself ought to evince his sincerity; and, therefore, requests they would give him a patient hearing; calls earnestly on God to afford him an answer, requesting however a remission of his sufferings in the interval, in order that he may be able to give the deeper consideration to his own case; hopes that the various causes of his trials will be specified; and then briefly enumerates his sufferings. Details the frailty, imperfection, short-lived, and hopeless state of man as such; requests that Divine justice would relax its severity with such an one; being, as to futurity, less hopeful than the stump of a tree which may be buried in the earth; prays that even the grave may prove a hiding-place for him; justifies his hoping still in God, and trusts that his sins shall be forgiven; concludes by stating the miserable life and death of those who are altogether differently circumstanced.
Eliphaz rejoins, stating that the arguments of Job are worthless, but nevertheless such as to convict him of impiety; demands whence it is that he lays claim to so much knowledge; why God’s known mercies and declarations are so little regarded by him; and why he is so bold and ready to contend; contrasts the character of God with that of man; and then proceeds to argue from known revealed truths; which declare that the vicious man cannot but be miserable, hopeless, and always beset with fear; and this because of rebellion against God; that, whatever might be his state, it must end in destruction. He ends with an exhortation to live and to act differently.
Job again answers Eliphaz; reproaches him and his friends with want of sympathy and knowledge; affirms that similar arguing on his own part would be unprofitable; that God has really afflicted him, and that hence it is, his enemies have power to oppress and injure him; enlarges on his afflictions; describes his afflictions more particularly; dwells on his innocency; affirms that his best witness, mediator, judge, and friend, is above, where his cause shall be tried; and looks with hope to the period of his departure. Renews his complaint; calls on his friends for fidelity; complains of their ignorance and perfidy; restates the greatness of his affliction; the effect which his case shall have upon good men generally; the case different with his friends; entreats them, therefore, to change their minds; complains of the unprofitableness of his time, and the ignorance of his friends; looks to the end of his course as the only source of hope.
Bildad offers his second reply: complains of the length of the dispute, and that they had been treated too unceremoniously by Job; proceeds to recount the failures of the wicked, in a strain not unlike that resorted to in his former discourse. His arguments are, therefore, quite general, and by no means applicable to the case of the patriarch.
Job, in his reply to Bildad, complains of contemptuous treatment [for 10 times or turns], and perseveres in declaring that his affliction is from God; complains also that his cause is disregarded; that he is beset on every side, attacked, and injured; that hosts encompass him, that his friends are put far away from him; that his kinsfolk and friends have deserted him; that his servants, inmates, wife, had all taken part against him; that even the abjects spoke openly against him, and his familiar friends had turned from him; laments his emaciated state of body, and solicits pity; deplores the insensibility of his friends; and wishes that his sufferings were recorded; declares his faith in the Redeemer, who should appear in after-times on the earth; his assurance that he should in his flesh see God and be justified; and warns his friends of the judgment to come.
Zophar’s apology for his reply; dwells, as before, on the vanity of wickedness, and the excellency of true religion —particularly here on the former, insisting that ill-gotten wealth shall be rendered back, and ill-won honours soon descend to corruption; dwells on the bitter effects of sin, its natural progress to poverty and misery; on the principle of God’s overruling providence; insists that oppression in principle, shall be followed by its own fruits, distress in experience; and so quick shall this be, that it shall take effect in the very height of one’s enjoyments; shall fall from heaven above, and be generated in the earth beneath, in all the dreadful visitations derivable from these sources; and which shall follow him into another world, while his posterity falls in this; concludes by declaring, that such is the universal portion of the wicked, and that God is the Author of it.
Job requests attention to his reply as a right; and which, if granted, could not but administer to his friends satisfaction: asserts that, if he had considered man as his judge, the treatment he had met with would be reasonable enough; allows that the prosperity of the wicked, their growing strength, wealth, health, and family, had greatly perplexed him. Concludes, nevertheless, that he chose not their counsels. He next proceeds to shew that, still they were subject to calamities, afflictions, and other dreadful visitations from God; and that this they themselves saw and felt: and concludes that their experience is, after all, truly miserable. In the next place, he shews that a common fate seems, in these respects, to attend upon all which is the pure result of Divine Providence, the ways of which are inscrutable to man. In the last place, he shews that his opponents had applied this sort of inconclusive reasoning, as sufficient to determine his real character; deprecates the vanities of the rich ungodly man; and concludes that perverseness and error alone had directed the replies of his opponents.
Eliphaz here commences a third series of arguments; and, as before, is profuse in excellent remarks, not one of which is applicable to the case of Job. He first dilates on marl’s unprofitableness to God; then on the small importance of Job’s case; then on what he deems his positive sins; and then concludes, that, on this latter account, he was both inevitally blinded, and deservedly visited with affliction. He next accuses him with supposing that, as God is very highly exalted above the heavens. He could not, of necessity, judge a cause so far removed from Him. He next adopts some of Job’s expressions, in the preceding chapter, and retorts their import upon him. He next dwells on the views which the good must take of these occurrences, among whom he evidently includes himself; alludes apparently to the fall of Sodom, &c. by way of illustration; and exhorts Job accordingly: concludes by affirming, that if Job will return to God’s service, he shall be restored to wealth, religious assurance, and real happiness, that his prayers shall be heard, his influence extended, and that by this means he shall be relieved and supported.
Job complains of the weight of his affliction, and desires to bring his case before God; declares that under His mercy he shall be safe; and laments that he cannot find Him: insists that he shall eventually be delivered, because he has treasured up God’s commands, and has not swerved from them in his conduct; argues that God is independent, and will fulfil all His will; declares that hence he is confounded, knowing, as he does, that all his afflictions come from Him primarily, and from no other power. Renews this argument, and affirms, that believers are necessarily ignorant of many of God’s purposes. He then proceeds to recount some of the vicious practices in which men are allowed to indulge; he states and exemplifies their wicked principles, as centering in a hatred of the light, and as exerting themselves in the works of darkness; the active and rapacious character of such, and their certain fate; recounts their injurious but insinuating properties, their success, their consequent jealousies and anxieties, their short triumph, and final destruction; and concludes by challenging a refutation of his sentiments.
Bildad now offers his third and last reply (see chap. 8. & 18.), asserting the all-comprehensive power, majesty, wisdom, and goodness of God. He then compares with this, briefly but pointedly, the weakness, meanness, ignorance, and impurity of man; and asks, Can such a being be just with God? He then calls the attention of Job to the more splendid portions of the universe; all of which he pronounces dull and unclean, with reference to their Maker: and concludes by observing, that much more is man, who, with respect to these, sinks necessarily into the character of a worm!
Job objects to Biidad’s want of charity, and of wisdom: compares the efficacy of his reasoning with the heathenish notion that dead heroes are still possessed of power; and to this opposes the wisdom and power of God, as evinced in the world about him. Job calls God to witness, —affirming that he is in sound and sane mind, —that nothing but truth shall have utterance with him; and that, at all events, he will never give up his faith. He then refutes the position that his affliction must have arisen from his own wickedness; because the fact is, wicked men do grow rich; and although they may then pass themselves for just and good men, on this faulty hypothesis; still God’s judgments shall, first or last, fall on them and their children. Job now allows that men do possess much learning, and put forth much industry. He dwells on their range both of science and of art; and on the effects and benefits thence derived. He then proceeds to shew, that still true wisdom —such as is calculated duly to deal with this question —is as far beyond the reach of man, as it is more valuable than earthly wealth. He repeats his assertions, adding, that there is a report indeed of this, among the rulers of the darkness of this world, —heathenism itself containing some traditions respecting it; —but that it is known only from God’s revelation. The reason is this: His knowledge is infinite: it is the source of all the wisdom visible in His creation: and He has declared that, as far as man can realise it, the fear of God is the ground on which he must proceed. Job laments his fall from prosperity, during which he had so much power, and did so much good; when he was, consequently, so highly venerated, and had so much reason to expect that his days would end in the happiness usually granted to such a life. But now, he continues, every thing is reversed: now the very dregs of society laughed him to scorn: men who had formerly been banished for their wickedness to the inhospitable deserts. He recounts instances of their insolence, and of his own feelings; states his disappointment, that his usual care and prayers for others had not prevented his affliction; and that thus unaccountably —on vulgar views his happiness had ceased. Gives up all hope of a future family. Joins Bildad in declaring, that God’s judgments are eventually the portion of the wicked; and consequently would be his own, if he had followed their ways. Maintains, nevertheless, that God knew his course to have been different, and yet had laid these afflictions on him. Desires that God would undertake for him, and that all his cause should be carefully gone into. (Job’s words ends.)
Elihu, seeing that Job’s friends failed to give him a satisfactory answer, is emboldened to shew his views of the subject; apologises for doing so from the consideration of his youth. Declares his sincerity, and challenges Job to refute whatever he may now advance; adduces instances of Job’s rashness; charges him with error, on the ground that the counsels of God are too high for him; and adduces some things in proof; affirms that there is an Intercessor, who undertakes for man in such cases; by whom he obtains redemption, and returns to a state like that of youth, in which he is humble and dependent; claims attention to this. Elihu commences his argument as before, by adducing some of Job’s assertions; which he condemns; enters on the abstract character of God, and vindicates His proceedings; argues against the wickedness and folly of contending with Him; and recounts instances of His justice, omnipresence, goodness, and power; speaks of His dealings with men; reprobates the practice of approaching Him with confessions flattering to self, and hence prescribing in some degree to His wisdom and power; and concludes here, that Job had spoken in ignorance and impiety. Elihu denies that Job is just with God; calla in question some of his arguments advanced on this point; reprobates them on the ground of Job’s ignorance and weakness, alleging that such considerations can apply only between man and man; and concludes that the assumption is false. —Elihu resumes, craving attention from the consideration, that his words shall be sincere, and convincing. Asserts God’s power, mercy, and justice: speaks of His ways, as proving this. Declares the fate of the ungodly, as contrasted with the experience of the humble; affirms that Job’s punishments were intended to bring him to repentance, and prosperity; and warns him not to overlook this. Speaks of God’s power to relieve, and reprobates the disposition to dispute this. Exhorts Job to magnify His doings for the instruction of others. Appeals to the operations of the heavens in proof of His great power and goodness, and of His hatred of sin. The terrors conceived at the discharge of the lightning and noise of the thunder; the wonders of the falling snow and rain: the object of these is, that men may acknowledge Him. Dilates on the habits of the wild beasts; on the action of the elements heat and cold; the spreading out of the rain clouds: all for the fulfilment of the Divine will. Contrasts this with the ignorance and weakness of man; and concludes that, as He cannot be answered as to any of His counsels or ways, it is the duty of man to fear Him.
Jehovah Himself now proceeds to determine the question at issue. He answers, therefore from the whirlwind. By calling into question Job’s knowledge, on the grounds of his recent birth and excessive impotence; hence averring, that ignorance lay at the bottom of all his complaints. Enters particularly into these considerations, in order to convince Job of the folly of his reasonings. Interrogates him as to the secrets of the deep; as to the phenomena of the light; as to the treasuries of snow and hail; as to the distribution of the light, the winds, the rains, and the course of the thunderbolt; as to the production of the rain, the cold, the frost, the influences of the heavenly bodies on the earth; and whether Job can, by his command, direct their proceedings. He next presses him as to his knowledge and influence, with respect to things on the earth. Whether he can undertake to provide for the ravenous beasts and birds. Whether he knows the times, seasons, and practices of the fugitive mountain tribes; of the fiercer and swifter beasts of the deserts. Enquires whether he can command the more powerful animals to render him service, or can trust to them to secure his profits; whether he has made the horse such as he is, courageous, powerful, and swift; whether he regulates the properties of the more powerful birds. Jehovah continues His interrogatories; and Job confesses his vileness and ignorance. Jehovah resumes, calling upon Job to give evidence of his power; and declares that, when this is done, then will He justify and praise him. Calls upon him to view His power, as evinced in the formation of the more powerful quadrupeds: states their astonishing properties. Directs his attention to the monsters of the deep, and to their terrific characters. Digresses, in order to impress on Job the greater danger of contending with Him who formed these; and proceeds with an enumeration of their astonishing powers, fearful properties, and invincible tempers.
Job, humbled by the consideration of the greatness and wisdom of God, ascribes all power to Him, and to himself ignorance and shame; affirming that now indeed he saw God in His true and all- overwhelming character. Eliphaz is now addressed as to himself and friends; and on their part the judgment is, that their error was much greater than that of Job. Eliphaz, and his friends, therefore
now offer up their sin-offering by Job, who acts as priest; and the offering is accepted. After this, the relatives and friends of Job resort to him; and, in addition to his great wealth, which was now double of what it had been, each makes him a suitable present; a second family is given to the Patriarch; and he is blessed with an extraordinary long life [140+70 = 210 years] in the enjoyment of it. Upon the whole, Job’s natural feelings had led him to complain, where his faith ought to have produced acquiescence and thanksgiving. Ignorance of God’s great object in this, was undoubtedly the cause of alt the errors of the Patriarch. Job’s friends were still more to blame, because they had, by the scanty measure of their own understanding, attempted to determine what God would, or would not, do. While Job, therefore, peevishly lamented and complained of the ways of God, they determined, and impiously circumscribed, them.
(Lee’s Parallel & Reference verses in his Notes on Job number in the hundreds.)
4: From: Book of Job by Driver-Gray, (1921), & Introduction to the Old Testament (1921)
Driver-Gray: Prologue, Dialogue [& Monologue], and Epilogue. § 19. The use of the Divine Names in different parts of the Book is as follows: ’El = 55; ’Eloah = 41; Shaddai = 31; ’Elohim = 14; ha’Elohim = 3; Yhwh = 29
There are 63 similar or parallel verses in Job with other OT books (Driver-Gray & others) (Isaiah: 11 passages; Jer. & Lam.: 6+9; Prov.: 13; Psalms: 12; also some 12 times in Gen., Deut., Amos, Mal., Qoh. (Eccleas.) and Apcrph Siriach.
Driver-Gray Outline: (Driver’s last work at death was his commentary on Job.)
1. Introduction or Prologue,1-2.
2. Speeches of Job and Three Friends, 3-31.
3. Speeches of Elihu, 32-37.
4. Speeches of Yahweh with Job’s Responses, 38-42.
5. Conclusion or Epilogue, 42.
Driver-Gray Introduction to Old Testament Literature: v1, sect. 31:
1. Prologue, 1-2
2. Job’s soliloquy, 3
3. Dialogue between the Friends & Job:
First cycle of speeches: Eliphaz, 4-5; Job, 6-7; Bildad, 8; Job, 9-10; Sophar, 11; Job, 12-14
Second cycle of speeches: Eliphaz, 15; Job, 16-17; Bildad, 18; Job 19; Sophar, 20; Job, 21;
Third cycle of speeches: Eliphaz, 22; Job, 23-24; Bildad, 25 (+? 26); Job, 27; Sophar ?, 27;
[28, Poem on Wisdom]; [32-37, Elihu [Monologues]] Job’s closing soliloquy, 29-31
4. Yahweh, 38-40. Job, 40-42
5. Epilogue, 42
5: From: Book of Job by Albert Barnes (1854): General Analysis:
Historical Introduction, in Prose, Chs.1-2. [Job, Family, House, Friends, the Lord, Satan, Job’s Afflictions & Sufferings]
Argument, or Controversy, in Verse, Chs. 3-42. [Dialogues, Monologues, Reflections, Questions, Answers, Debate, Observations, Doctrines, Views, Ideas, Concepts, Opinions, Accusations, Warnings, Advice, Excuses, Self-Defense, Theories, Interpretations, etc.; with Praises, Blessings, & Prayers]
I. 1st Series in Controversy, chs. 3-14.
(1.) Job opens discussion by cursing his birth-day, and by bitter complaint of his calamity, ch. 3.
(2.) Speech of Eliphaz, chs. 4-5.
(3.) Answer of Job, chs. 6-7. [to Friends & to God]
(4.) Speech of Bildad, ch. 8.
(5.) Answer of Job, chs. 9-10. [to Friends & to God]
(6.) Speech of Zophar, ch. 11.
(7.) Answer of Job, chs. 12-14. [to Friends & to God]
II. 2nd Series in Controversy, chs. 15-21.
(1.8) Speech of Eliphaz, ch. 15.
(2.9) Answer of Job, chs. 16-17. [to Friends & to God]
(3.10) Speech of Bildad, ch. 18.
(4.11) Answer of Job, ch. 19.
(5.12) Speech of Zophar, ch. 20.
(6.13) Answer of Job, ch. 21.
III. 3rd Series in Controversy, chs. 22-31.
(1.14) Speech of Eliphaz, ch. 22.
(2.15) Answer of Job, chs. 23-24.
(3.16) Speech of Bildad, ch. 25.
(4.17) Answer of Job, chs. 26-31. [to Friends & to God]
IV. Speech of Elihu, chs. 32-37. [to Job & Friends]
V. Close of the Discussion, chs. 38-42.
(1.) Speech of the Almighty, chs. 38-41.
(2.) Response and penitent confession of Job, ch. 42.
Conclusion, in Prose, Ch 42:7-17. [The Lord, Job, Job’s Friends, Restoration & Blessings.]
6: From: Book of Job. New Critical Revised Translation Essays Scansions Date, etc. G. H. B. Wright.(1883)
Wright lists hundreds of examples of verses as parallels & similarities between Job & the other OT Books: Gen., Ex., Deut., Josh., 2nd Sam., Kings, and Isaiah: in attempt to prove Job is an Israelite. He compares Job with passages in Amos, Hosea, Micah, Isaiah, Zephaniah, Obadiah, Habakkuk, Joel, & Jeremiah & Lamentations, & Psalms & Proverbs. The Book of Job displays mastery of Ancient Semitic Poetic forms of cantos, stanzas, and stichi (lines) used irregularly with or without parallelisms and repetitions; with adherence to scansion & paronomasia with other figures of speech or symbolic expressions. Aramaisms are frequent.
7: From: Book of Job Old Testament Commentary on Holy Scriptures, Critical, Doctrinal, & Homiletical, etc. Editor of German Edition: John Peter Lange, D.D. Translated, Enlarged, and Edited by Philip Schaff, D.D. A Rhythmical Version with Introduction & Annotations by Tayler Lewis, LL.D.; Commentary by Otto Zockler, D.D., Translated from German Edition by L.J. Evans, D.D. General Introduction to Poetical Books by P. Schaff (1874)
1. Schaff: General Introduction to Poetical Books of OT:
Literature, Origin, Religion, Bible, Hebrew Spirit, Merit, Different Kinds, Lyric, Didactic, Prophetic, Dramatic, Diction, and Versification & Parallelism of Members.
2. Lewis: New Rhythmical Version Book of Job:
A. Theism, Ideas of Future Life among Surrounding Nations, Pure Theism to be First Taught, Various Views, Theophany, Grounds of Job’s Commendation, Work of Art, Elihu’s Speech, Book Not a Solution of the Problem of Evil, and Truthfulness of the Narrative.
B. Special Introduction to the Rhythmical Version: Term, Rhythmical or Metrical, Hebrew Parallelism, Divisions, Elements, Lines, Poetry [Poem] or Prose, Language & Style, Text, and Notes Exegetical, Critical, Commentators, etc. With Addenda of Excursus (12 in all) on Chapters 19, 21-28, 21, 22, on Hebrew Word for Wisdom-Truth (tushiyah), 26, 27-30, 28, 29, 30, 33, 38,
3. Zockler-Evans: Preface & Introduction to Commentary:
120 comparisons or correspondences between Job and Isaiah.
Historical Introduction (In Prose): Chap. 1-2: Job’s character & course of life. Divine decree to try Job through suffering. Milder form of trial by taking away his possessions. Preparatory scene in heaven. Execution of decree of trial on possessions and family of Job. Job’s constancy and patience. Severer trial by the loss of health. Preparatory scene in heaven. Fulfillment of the decree in Job’s terrible disease. Job’s steadfastness in piety. Visit of the 3 friends, & their mute sympathy, as an immediate preparation for the action of the poem.
First Chief Division of the Poem: Entanglement, or the controversial discourses [ Dialogue-Monologue Debate] of Job & his 3 friends: Chaps. 3-28:
Outbreak of Job’s Despair, as theme and immediate occasion of the Colloquy: Chap. 3: Job curses his day. He wishes that he were in the realm of the dead rather than in this life. He asks why he, being weary of life, must still live.
First Series of Controversial Discourses [Dialogue Debate]: Entanglement in its beginning: Chaps. 4-14:
Eliphaz & Job: Chaps. 4-7: Accusation of Eliphaz: Man must not speak against God, as Job is doing. Introductory reproof of Job, on account of his unmanly complaint, by which he could
only incur God’s wrath. Account of a heavenly revelation, which declared to him the wrongfulness and foolishness of weak sinful man’s raving against God. Admonition to repentance, as the only means by which Job can recover God’s favor, and his former happy estate. Job’s Reply: Instead of comfort the friends bring him only increased sorrow. Justification of his complaint by pointing out the greatness and incomprehensibleness of his suffering. Complaint on account of the bitter disappointment which he had experienced at the hands of his friends. Recurrence to his former complaint on account of his lot, and an accusation of God.
Bildad & Job: Chaps. 8-10: Bildad’s rebuke: Man must not charge God with injustice, as Job has done, for God never does wrong. Censure of Job on account of his unjust accusation against God. Reference to the wise teachings of the ancients, in respect to the merited end of those who forget God. Softened application of these teachings to the case of Job. Job’s Reply: Assertion of his innocence, and a mournful description of the incomprehensibleness of his suffering as a dark horrible destiny. God is certainly the Almighty and ever-righteous One, who is to be feared; but His power is too terrible for mortal man. Oppressive effect of this omnipotence and arbitrariness of God impels him, as an innocent sufferer, to presumptuous speeches against God. Plaintive description of the merciless severity with which God rages against him, although, as an Omniscient Being, He knows that he is innocent.
Zophar & Job: Chaps. 11-14: Zophar’s violent arraignment of Job, as one who needs to submit in penitence to the all-seeing & all-righteous God: Chap. 11. Expression of the desire that the Omniscient One would appear to convince Job of his guilt: vers. Admonitory description of the impossibility of contending against God’s omniscience, which charges every man with sin. Truly penitent has in prospect restoration of his prosperity, for the wicked how ever there remains no hope. Job’s Reply: Attack upon his friends, whose wisdom and justice he earnestly questions. Ridicule of the assumed wisdom of the friends, who can give only a very unsatisfactory description of the exalted power and wisdom of the divine activity. Resolution to betake himself to God, righteous Judge, who, in contrast with harshness and injustice of the friends, will assuredly do him justice. Vindication of himself addressed to God, beginning with the haughty asseveration of his own innocence, but relapsing into a despondent cheerless description of brevity, helplessness, and hopelessness of man’s life.
Second Series of Controversial Discourses [Dialogue Debate]: Entanglement increasing: Chaps. 15-21:
Eliphaz & Job: Chaps. 15-17: Eliphaz: God’s punitive justice is revealed only against evil-doers.
Recital, with accompanying rebuke, of all in Job’s discourses and conduct that is perverted, and that bears witness against his innocence. Didactic admonition on the subject of the retributive justice of God in the destiny of the ungodly. Job: Although oppressed by his disconsolate condition, he nevertheless wishes and hopes that God will demonstrate his innocence against the unreasonable accusations of his friends. (A brief preliminary repudiation of the discourses of the friends as aimless and unprofitable). Lamentation on account of the disconsolateness of his condition, as forsaken and hated by God and men. Vivid expression of the hope of the future recognition of his innocence. Sharp censure of the admonitory speeches of the friends as unreasonable, and as having no power to comfort.
Bildad & Job: Chaps. 18-19: Bildad: Job’s passionate outbreaks are useless, for the divine ordinance, instituted from of old, is still in force, securing that the hardened sinner’s merited doom shall suddenly and surely overtake him. Sharp rebuke of Job, the foolish and blushing boaster.
Description of the dreadful doom of the hardened evil-doer. Job: His misery is well-deserving of sympathy; it will however all the more certainly end in his conspicuous vindication by God, although not perhaps till the life beyond. (Introduction: Reproachful censure of the friends for maliciously suspecting his innocence). Sorrowful complaint because of the suffering inflicted on him by God and men. Uplifting of himself to a blessed hope in God, his future Redeemer and Avenger. Earnest warning to the friends against the further continuance of their unfriendly attacks.
Zophar & Job: Chaps. 20-21: Zophar: For a time indeed the evil-doer can be prosperous, but so much the more terrible and irremediable will be his destruction. Introduction, violently censuring Job, and theme of the discourse. Expansion of the theme, showing from experience that the prosperity and riches of the ungodly must end in the deepest misery. Job: That which experience teaches concerning the prosperity of the wicked during their life on earth argues not against, but for his innocence. Calm, but bitter introductory appeal to the friends. Along with the fact of the prosperity of the wicked, taught by experience, stands the other fact of earthly calamities befalling the pious and righteous. Rebuke of the friends for setting forth only one side of that experience, and using that to his prejudice.
Third Series of Controversial Discourses [Dialogue & Monologue Debate]: Entanglement reaching its extreme point: Chap. 22-28:
Eliphaz & Job: Chap. 22-24: Eliphaz: Reiterated accusation of Job, from whose severe sufferings it must of necessity be inferred that he had sinned grievously, and needed to repent. Charge made openly that Job is a great sinner. Earnest warning not to incur yet severer punishments. Admonition to repent, accompanied by the announcement of the certain restoration of his prosperity to him, when penitent. Job: Inasmuch as God withdraws Himself from him, and that moreover His allotment of men’s destinies on earth is in many ways most unequal, the incomprehensibleness of His dealings may thus be inferred, as well as the short-sightedness and one-sidedness of the external theory of retribution held by the friends. Wish for a judicial decision by God in his favor is repeated, but is repressed by the agonizing thought that God intentionally withdraws from him, in order that He may not be obliged to vindicate him in this life. Darkness and unsearchableness of God’s ways to be recognized in many other instances of an unequal distribution of earthly prosperity among men, as well as in Job’s case.
Bildad & Job: Chap.25-26: Bildad: Again setting forth contrast between God’s exaltation and human impotence. Man cannot argue with God. Man is not pure before God. Job: Rebuke of his opponent, accompanied by a description, far surpassing his, of exaltation and greatness of God. Sharp Rebuke of Bildad. Description of the incomparable sovereignty and exaltation of God, given to eclipse far less spirited attempt of Bildad in this direction.
Job alone [Monologue]: His closing address to the vanquished friends: Chap. 27-28:
Renewed solemn asseveration of his innocence, accompanied by a reference to his joy in God, which had not forsaken him even in the midst of his deepest misery. Statement of his belief that prosperity of the ungodly cannot endure, but that they must infallibly come to a terrible end. Declaration that true Wisdom, which alone can secure real well-being, and correct solution of the dark enigmas of man’s destiny on earth, is to be found nowhere on earth, but only with God, and by means of pious submission to God.
Second Chief Division of Poem. Disentanglement of mystery through discourses [Monologues]
of Job, Elihu and Jehovah: Chap. 29-42:
First Stage of the Disentanglement: Chap. 29-31: Job’s Soliloquy [Monologue]: Setting forth truth that his suffering was not due to his moral conduct, that it must have therefore a deeper cause. [Negative side of solution of problem.] Yearning retrospect at the fair prosperity of his former life: Describing outward aspect of this former prosperity. Pointing out the inward cause of this prosperity his benevolence and righteousness. Describing that feature of his former prosperity which he now most painfully misses, namely, the universal honor shown him, and his far reaching influence. Sorrowful description of his present sad estate: Ignominy and contempt he receives from men; Unspeakable misery which everywhere oppresses him; Disappointment of all his hopes. Solemn asseveration of his innocence in respect to all open and secret sins: He has abandoned himself to no wicked lust; He has acted uprightly in all the relations of his domestic life; He has constantly practiced neighborly kindness and justice in civil life; He has moreover not violated his more secret obligations to God and his neighbor; He has been guilty furthermore of no hypocrisy, nor mere semblance of holiness, of no secret violence, or avaricious oppression of his neighbor.
Second Stage of the Disentanglement: Chap. 32-37:
Elihu s Discourses [Monologues]: Devoted to proving that there can be really no undeserved suffering, that on the contrary the sufferings decreed for those who are apparently righteous are dispensations of divine love, designed to purify and sanctify them through chastisement [First half of positive solution of problem]. Introduction: Elihu’s appearance, and the exordium of his discourse, giving the reasons for his speaking. Elihu’s appearance (related in prose). Explanation addressed to the previous speakers, showing why he takes part in this controversy. Setting forth that he was justified in taking part, because the friends had shown, and still showed themselves unable to refute Job. Special appeal to Job to listen calmly to him, as a mild judge of his guilt and weakness.
First Discourse [Monologue I]: Of man’s guilt before God: Preparatory: Reproof of Job’s confidence in his perfect innocence; Didactic discussion of true relation of sinful men to God, who seeks to warn and to save them by various dispensations, and communications from above: By the voice of conscience in dreams; By sickness and other sufferings; By sending a mediating angel to deliver in distress; Calling upon Job to give an attentive hearing to the discourses by which he would further instruct him.
Second Discourse [Monologue II] : Proof that man is not right in doubting God’s righteousness: Opening: Censure of the doubt of God’s righteousness expressed by Job; Proof that divine righteousness is necessary, and that it really exists; From God’s disinterested love of His creatures; From the idea of God as ruler of the world; Exhibition of Job’s inconsistency and folly in reproaching God with injustice, and at the same time appealing to his decision.
Third Discourse [Monologue III]: [Zockler-Evans misinterprets Elihu arguements & doctrine.] Refutation of the false position that piety is not productive of happiness to men: Folly of the erroneous notion that it is of small advantage to men whether they are pious or ungodly. Real reason why the deliverance of the sufferer is often delayed, viz-: Lack of true godly fear; Dogmatic and presumptuous speeches against God, which was the case especially with Job.
Fourth Discourse [Monologue IV]: Vivid exhibition of activity of God, which is seen to be benevolent, as well as mighty and just, both in destinies of men, and in natural world outside of man: (Introduction announcing that further important contributions are about to be made to vindication of God). Vindication of divine justice, manifesting itself in destinies of men as a power benevolently chastening and purifying them: In general; In Job’s change of fortune in particular. Vindication of Divine Justice, revealing itself in nature as supreme power and wisdom. Consideration of wonders of nature as revelations of divine wisdom and power: Rain, clouds and storms, lightning and thunder; Agencies of winter such as snow, rain, the north wind, frost, etc. Finally admonitory inferences from what precedes for Job.
Third Stage of the Disentanglement: Chap. 38-42:
Jehovah’s Discourses [Monologues]: Aim of which is to prove that the Almighty [Shaddai] and only wise God [El, Eloah, Elohim], with whom no mortal should dispute, might also ordain suffering simply to prove and test the righteous. [Second half of positive solution of problem.]
First Discourse [Monologue I] of Jehovah, together with Job’s answer: With God, the Almighty and only wise, no man may dispute: Introduction: Appearance of God; His demand that Job should answer him. God’s questions touching His power revealed in the wonders of creation: Questions respecting process of creation; Respecting inaccessible heights and depths above and below earth, and forces proceeding from them; Respecting phenomena of atmosphere, and wonders of starry heavens; Respecting preservation and propagation of wild animals, especially of lion, raven, wild goat, stag, wild ass, oryx, ostrich, war-horse, hawk and eagle. Conclusion of discourse, together with Job’s answer announcing his humble submission.
Second Discourse [Monologue II] of Jehovah, together with Job’s answer: To doubt God’s justice, which is most closely allied to His wonderful omnipotence, is a grievous wrong, which must be atoned for by sincere penitence: Sharp rebuke of God’s presumption which has been carried to the point of doubting God’s justice; Humiliating demonstration of the weakness of Job in contrast with certain creatures of earth, not to say with God: shown by description of Behemoth (hippopotamus); of Leviathan (crocodile), as king of all beasts. Job’s answer: Humble acknowledgment of the infinitude of the divine power, and penitent confession of his sin and folly.
Historical Conclusion (In Prose): Chap. 42: Glorious vindication of Job before his friends. Restoration of his former dignity and honor. Doubling of his former prosperity in respect to his earthly possessions and his offspring.
8: From: Book of Job Origin Growth Interpretation, New Translation, Revised Text. Morris Jastrow, Jr, LLD. (1920)
“A witty Frenchman once remarked of the Bible that as a collection it was ‘plus c’elebre que connu’ [“more famous than known”, that is, more known than read] . It is in the hope of making a contribution towards having the most celebrated of the books of the Bible better known and by that I mean a deeper penetration into its real meaning and significance that I offer a new translation which, based on an entirely revised Hebrew text, will be found to differ materially from the current translations. Preceding the translation and forming the first part of the work, I have given the results of a study of the origin, growth and interpretation of the Book of Job, which represents the outcome of many years of devotion to this remarkable production of antiquity, dealing with problems that are as vital and as puzzling to-day as they were two milleniums ago when the book, after an extended process of amplification, reached its final form…..No modern translator that I know of makes the attempt to distinguish between the original portion of the book and the amplification to which Job, as every literary production in the ancient Orient, was subject. Without such distinction it is entirely hopeless to obtain a correct view of the great masterpiece hopeless indeed to recognize it as a masterpiece. The starting point, therefore, in my study of the origin, growth and interpretation of Job, is a recognition of the separation of the story of Job from the poetical composition in which the two problems suggested by the story, the reason for innocent suffering in the world and for the frequent escape of the wicked from merited punishment, are discussed. The story of Job is like the text of a sermon, or like a parable on which a preacher enlarges. The story is the peg upon which is hung the discussion of two vital problems from which we cannot escape, if we look at things in this world as they are.…
It is to the elucidation of the various aspects of these three strata and their relationship to one another that the first part of this work is devoted; and I trust that after a consideration of what has been set forth, the reader will agree with me in the view that in the magnificent nature poems with which the book closes and which from the literary point of view are the finest in the composite production, there is suggested as a definite and final answer to the two main problems of Job that simple faith in a mysterious power, whose manifestations are to be seen in the world of inanimate & animate nature, constitutes a resting point for man in the ceaseless search to which he is irresistibly led by his own nature to penetrate the mystery surrounding his life. I am aware that to many, as I suggest at various points in my study, it will seem startling as well as painful, to be asked to lay aside views which have the force of time-honored tradition and to look at the great masterpiece from a new and unaccustomed angle. But I am also in hopes that after carefully considering the justification brought forward for the interpretation and for the new translation, my readers will reach the conclusion that the new Job is a greater masterpiece than the traditional one, because relieved of contradictions and freed from inherent difficulties that persist under the traditional view of the book. Let me not be understood as setting up the extravagant claim of having solved all the difficulties in the book. That were presumptuous indeed. An author unless carried away by vanity is always his severest critic. I feel, however, that without exceeding the bounds of proper modesty I may lay claim to having advanced the interpretation of the book to which I have given years of patient study and to which I have become ever more closely attached as I have penetrated deeper into its spirit. That at all events is my hope which, I trust, will not turn out to be a delusion.
In closing this foreword I wish to make special acknowledgment to a modern student of the Old Testament who in my judgment has been more successful than almost any other scholar of the present or past generation, in freeing the Old Testament of textual errors and in illuminating hundreds of passages in all of the books. Alas that the acknowledgment must take the form of a tribute to his memory. Arnold B. Ehrlich, whose name is little known beyond the small circle of special workers, passed away a few months ago after a lifetime devoted to research. He left behind him as his monument a comprehensive work in seven volumes which he modestly called “Marginal Notes (Randglossen) to the Hebrew Bible,” in which as he passes from book to book he makes his comments and textual suggestions in brief but always striking form, with an unfailing instinct as the fruit of profound learning. Though he spent most of his life in New York, he wrote this comprehensive commentary in German, because it was only in Germany that he could find a publisher for a work of this character appealing naturally to a restricted circle. To all students of the Old Testament, however, these Marginal Notes are an indispensable handbook which every one engaged in the study must have constantly at his side. If I were to have made full acknowledgment to Ehrlich in the notes to my translation, his name would have appeared on every page.”
Part I: Folktale of Job & Book of Job.
I: Job Skeptical Spirit in Original Book of Job
II: Origin of Literary Symposium
III: Date of Symposium
IV: Two Jobs
V: Friends in Folktale and in Symposium
VI: Two Conceptions of God
VII: Non-Hebraic Origin of Story of Job
VIII: Oral Transmission ‘Versus’ Literary Production
IX: Modifications in the Folktale. The Figure of Satan
X: “Sons of God”
XI: Four Epilogues to the Book of Job
Part II: Three Strata in Book of Job.
I: Collective and Anonymous Authorship
II: Original Book of Job and Supplements to it
III: Third Series of Speeches of Job and His Friends
IV: Two Appendices to Original Book of Job
V: Composite Character of the Speeches of Elihu
VI: Collection of Nature Poems as Third Stratum
VII: Message of the Nature Poems
Part III: Changes and Additions Within Original Book of Job
I: Jewish Orthodoxy Versus Skepticism
II: Varying Versions of Hebrew Text
III: Additions to Original Book of Job of Purely Explanatory Character
IV: Superfluous Lines
Part IV: How a Skeptical Book was Transformed into Bulwark of Orthodoxy
I: Changes in the Original Book of Job Made in the Interests of Jewish Orthodoxy
II: Additions by Pious Commentators
III: Transformation of Crucial Passages
IV: Orthodox Sentiments Placed in Mouth of Job
V: “Search for Wisdom”
VI: Virtues of Job
VII: Two Appendices as the Coping to Structure of Jewish Orthodoxy
Part V: Book of Job as Philosophy & Literature
I: Insoluble Problem
II: Religious Strain in Original Book of Job.
III: Individualism in Religion
IV: Defects in Job’s Philosophy
V: Attitude Towards Problem of Evil in Speeches of Elihu
VI: Solution of Problem in Nature Poems
VII: New Doctrine of Retribution in Future World
VIII: Literary Form of Job. Symposium not Drama
IX: Zoroastrianism and Book of Job
X: Job & Prometheus
XI: Message of Job to Present Age
New Translation to Fit Book of Job:
I: Story of Job (Chapters 1 & 2)
II: Symposium Between Job and His Friends (Chapters 3-21)
III: Third Series of Speeches (Chapters 22-27)
IV: Two Supplementary Speeches of Job. (Chapters 29-31)
V: Search for Wisdom (Chapter 28)
VI: First Appendix to Book of Job: Elihu’s 4 Speeches with 3 Inserted Poems(Chapters 32-37)
VII: Second Appendix to Book of Job: Collection of 8 Nature Poems (Chapters 38-41)
VIII: Four Epilogues to Book of Job: Chapters 40-42:
1. (Poetical Epilogue, added to 1st Speech put in the Mouth of Yahweh)
2. (Poetical Epilogue, combined with an Introduction, & added to the Description of the Hippopotamus & the Crocodile, as the Second Speech put in the Mouth of Yahweh)
3. (Prose Epilogue to the Symposium)
4. (Original Close of the Folktale)
Notes: (Jastrow’s Notes to his Translation are learned & copious, and covers many doctrines, problems, & authors on Job and the Poetical Books of the Old Testament. I give a sample of his Translation with Notes to 42:12-17):
And Yahweh blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning; and he had fourteen thousand (14,000) sheep and six thousand (6,000) camels and a thousand (1,000) yoke of cattle and a thousand (1,000) she-asses. And he had double the number of seven (14) sons (92) and three (3) daughters.(93)
And there were no women in all the land so fair as the daughters of Job. And their father gave them an inheritance with their brothers.(94) And Job lived after this a hundred and forty years (95) [and saw his children and his grandchildren, —four generations. And Job died, old and full of days.] (96)
(92) A strange form to express “double seven ” is used and as Ehrlich points out with intent to avoid a confusion with the expression “sevenfold.” The Targum confirms the interpretation by using the common term fourteen. It will be observed that only the number of the sons are doubled, but not that of the daughters. Sons from the Oriental point of view are an asset; daughters a liability.
(93) As an amplification of the folktale of Job, the names of the three daughters of Job are added (v. 14): “And the name of the one was Jemima and the name of the second Kezia and the name of the third Keren-happuch.” The names appear to be plant names and of foreign origin, perhaps transliterations from the Arabic. Kezia is the plant Cassia while Keren-happuch, literally “horn of eye paint,” might designate the “Stibium box,” used by women. In Arabic Jemima is the “dove,” but it is more likely that it here designates some plant. It is likely that in some version of the folktale the names of the sons were also mentioned, as well as the name of Job’s wife.
(94) Again a bit of folk-lore, that is, however, devoid of significance in the present form of the story. The post-exilic Priestly Code (Num. 27:1-11) permits such an inheritance only in case there are no sons.
(95) The Greek version has 170.
(96) Verse 16.b and the whole of verse 17 are omitted in the original Greek version. They are clearly later additions —suggested by Gen. 35:29 —just as the names of the three daughters are fanciful amplifications of the folktale. Such additions are common at the end of ancient books. The Greek version of Theodotion has four additional notes or statements pointing to the continued expansion of the folktale, in the style of the Jewish “Midrash.” They are:
(a) “It is written that Job will again arise with those whom the Lord will resurrect.”
(b) “According to the ‘Syriac’ book (i.e., probably an Aramaic version) he (i.e., Job) dwelt in the land of Uz on the borders of Idumea and Arabia and his name was formerly Jobab (cf. Gen. 36:33). He took to wife an Arabic woman and had a son whose name was Ennon. He himself was the son of Zare (i.e., Zerah, Gen. 36:33), one of the sons of Esau and Bozrah (a misreading of Gen. 36:33, which says ‘from Bozrah’ in connection with Zerah), so that he was the fifth from Abram.”
(c) A third addition, giving the list of the Edomite kings on the basis of Gen. 36:31-39, though only four are mentioned here, as against eight in Genesis:
“And these are the kings who ruled in Edom, over which he himself ruled:
First, Bela the son of Beor, whose city was Dinhabah (cf. Gen. 36:32).
After Bela, Jobab, who was called Job (cf. Gen. 36:33),
After this one, Husham of the land of the Temanites (Gen. 36:34).
After this one, Hadad, son of Barad (Bedad, Gen. 36:35), who slew Midian in the field of Moab and the name of his city was Gethaim” ( = Awith or Gawith, cf. Gen. 36:35).
(d) “The friends who came to him were: Eliphaz of the sons of Esau (cf. Gen. 36:10), king of the Temanites, Bildad the tyrant of the Shuhites, Zophar, the king of the Mineans.”
9: From: Book of Job. Moses Buttenwieser, PhD. (1922)
“Popular appreciation of the Book of Job was slow to come. It was not until modern times that the book became generally accepted as “one of the grandest things ever written with pen,” and that the hope expressed by its writer became realized that later ages might bring to his words the understanding to which the minds of his contemporaries were closed. Strange though it may seem, this is in reality not surprising, for up to the last decades of the eighteenth century the selfsame theology prevailed against which Job is depicted as in revolt. It was a theology which accepted as axiomatic the belief in individual material retribution, a theology which discredited human reason, and attributed divine authority to traditional lore or inherited beliefs, and because of the complete sway which this theology held over their minds, men through the ages were as unable to understand the spiritual issues described in the Book of Job as were the orthodox friends of Job in the writer’s own day. Another serious theological barrier to the understanding of Job through the centuries was the dualistic conception rooted in paganism, with its Nature-worship and deification of physical forces, which from about the time the Book of Job was written, exercised an ever-growing influence over the thought of the world. By setting up the other world against this one and exalting the supernatural above the natural, Dualism fostered modes of thought and a spiritual outlook which were fundamentally opposed to the religious spirit and ideals of Job. It is plain that as long as the goal of human endeavor was seen in the life to come, and as long as the pursuit of truth was looked upon as mere presumptuousness inspired by the Devil, men could not possibly have any real understanding of the soul struggle depicted in the drama of Job. They were perforce incapable of understanding how Job could yield, as be did momentarily, to doubt and despair, and yet maintain his faith in God, or how he should emphatically deny all hope in an hereafter, when obviously the solution of his enigma lay in immortality or resurrection. Above all, they were unable to grasp the positive reasoning that runs through the whole drama. And so they missed the two essential points, the hero’s staunch assurance of God’s presence in him, withal his realization of the overwhelming majesty of God, and his conviction that the moral law inherent in man is the supreme reality, the absolute guide for human life and conduct. Through the two thousand years during which Dualism held sway over the minds of men, the Book of Job was, of necessity, “a sealed book,” even as were the writings of the prophets; and not until men’s minds became liberated from the dualistic thrill, and a new era in the progress of human thought set in with the thought and tendencies which came to expression in the second half of the eighteenth century, was any adequate understanding of the book possible. The interpretation of Job which prevailed through the centuries previous to the middle of the eighteenth century shows this beyond peradventure of a doubt.
As early as the Greek translation of Job, we have, I believe, evidence that a fixed interpretation must have been current. Many of the astounding renderings of the Greek, many of the most perplexing deviations from the Hebrew, are due, not as is generally assumed, to any ignorance of Hebrew on the part of the translators, nor yet to the circumstance that their Hebrew copy differed materially from the Masoretic text, but to the fact that the Alexandrian translators were guided in their work by a traditional interpretation, which they accepted without question and followed as a matter of course. (It may be remarked in passing that the translators often show an admirable knowledge of subtle syntactical points, and also that those passages which are innocuous from the point of view of the dogmatic beliefs and religious sentiments of the age are, on the whole, well translated.) Proof of this may be seen in the fact that the strange renderings ref erred to are met with again in the Targumim and Mediaeval Jewish Commentaries, neither of which can have been dependent upon the Greek; their agreement with the latter can, to my mind, be satisfactorily explained only on the ground of a traditional interpretation as source for all three. The renderings in question are much after the manner of the Midrash ; they are arbitrary and fanciful, showing no regard for the grammatical structure or for the meaning of the words. An especially instructive example illustrating this is 12:5-6. If we had only the Greek Version of these verses to go by, we could not but conclude, as Biblical scholars have invariably done, that the Greek had a radically different reading from that of the Masoretic text. The fact, however, that the rendering of these verses in the Greek is substantially the same as in Targum I and II and also in line with Rashi’s interpretation, a thousand years later, and that in the case of these latter it is absolutely certain that it is the Masoretic text which is so arbitrarily interpreted, leaves no doubt as to the true character of the reading of 12:5-6 in the Greek. Another interesting instance of the influence of the traditional interpretation is presented by 14:12,14, in which the Greek, and later the Christian and Jewish exegetes, did away with Job’s denial of a hereafter a proceeding, it may be remarked, which has found emulation among modern scholars. In this latter connection, 19:25-27 may be cited, although not directly illustrating the point in question. Into these verses the belief in resurrection was carried by the Occidental Church, and here again the forced interpretation has been upheld by a number of modem scholars, among others even by some of those who correctly interpret 14:12,14. The fact that as early as the Greek translation a distinctly biased and arbitrary interpretation of Job was established is of the utmost importance from the point of view of sound text-criticism. It dare not be lost sight of for a moment. It is of interest to us also in quite another respect, for who knows, anomalous as this may seem, whether the book would ever have found a place in Sacred Literature, would ever have come down to us at all, were it not for this same biased interpretation which it received at a comparatively early age.”
10: From: Book of Job as a Greek Tragedy, Restored with an Introductory Essay, on the Original Form & Philosophic Meaning of Job. Horace Meyer Kallen. Introduction by Prof. George Foot Moore.(1918)
Introduction: In 1587 Theodore Beza began a course of lectures on Job in Geneva by dividing the book into acts and scenes, and in the following period several similar at tempts were made. Lowth tells us in the 18th century that scholars all but universally regarded Job as a drama; they counted the acts, and discussed the structure of the play, the catastrophe, the introduction of the ‘deus ex machina’ (God from macine, Divine solution), just as if they were handling an Attic tragedy. In his volume on Hebrew Poetry (1753), which in so many ways makes an era in the subject, Lowth devotes an entire lecture to this question. Taking Aristotle’s Poetics as an incontestable criterion, he finds that, although Job has all the other marks of tragedy, it lacks precisely the essential element, the “actio.” This does not mean it may not be quite superfluous to remark that it is not suitable for acting; tragedies intended to be read, not played, were written before Aristotle’s time, and he himself observes that the proper power of tragedy is felt without scenery, costume, or actors. The “action” which Aristotle demands and Lowth misses is something doing in the drama itself, the doing in which the story, “the soul of the drama,” is unfolded, and by which the tragic event is determined and brought about. Lowth concludes that Job may be called a dramatic poem, but not properly a drama. This has become a critical common place; but the criterion has been forgotten, and modern scholars sometimes repeat Lowth’s argument, which proves at most that Job does not correspond to Aristotle’s philosophy of the drama not character nor sentiments, but only deeds are the cause of men’s weal or woe as a demonstration that Job can not in any sense properly be called a drama. From this orthodoxy there have been some eminent dissidents; Ewald, for example, held that Job is a true drama, constructed with conspicuous art on the necessary principles which are fundamental not merely to Greek tragedy but to all tragedy, and lacking only a formal adaptation to the stage. Dr. Kallen goes a long way beyond these predecessors, however, in his theory that Job is, so to say, a Greek tragedy in Hebrew, specifically modelled after Euripides. (From Preface: But contrariwise, it may be —romance. Should the reader come to think it romance, he will also, I trust, recall, that it is not without a goodly fellowship, compact of thousands of volumes of far, far solider learning, yet no less than this slight thing the winnings of merely adventuring speculation about historic and literary origins, relationships, and meanings. The scholar’s world, like the story-teller’s, is the world of ideas, indeed, and it is true that most of them are false ideas. Were most not false, there would be no generations of scholars to count. Horace M. Kallen.)
11: From: Book of Job. Keil-Delitzsch Old Testament Biblical Commentary. Translated by Francis Bolton. TT Clarke’s Foreign Theological Library (v.10). 2nd Edition Revised, (1869).
Translation & Exposition Book of Job:
1st Part: Opening (Chap. 1-3): Prologue. Job’s disconsolate Outburst of Grief.
2nd Part: Entanglement (Chap. 4-26):
1st Course of Controversy (Chap. 4-14): Eliphaz’ 1st Speech  & Job’s 1st Answer . Bildad’s 1st Speech  & Job’s 2nd Answer . Zophar’s 1st Speech  & Job’s 3rd Answer .
2nd Course of Controversy (Chap. 15-21): Eliphaz’ 2nd Speech  & Job’s 1st Answer .
Bildad’s 2nd Speech  & Job’s 2nd Answer . Zophar’s 2nd Speech .
Job’s 3rd Answer .
3rd Course of Controversy (Chap. 22-26): Eliphaz’ 3rd Speech  & Job’s 1st Answer .
Bildad’s 3rd Speech  & Job’s 2nd Answer .
3rd Part: Transition to Unravelment (Chap. 27-31):
Job’s Final Speech to Friends  & Job’s Monologue : Part: I, II, III.
4th Part: Unravelment (Chap. 32-42):
Speeches of Elihu  (Chap.32-37): Historical Introduction to Section. Elihu’s Speeches: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th.
Unravelment In Consciousness (Chap. 38-42):1st Speech of Jehovah  & Job’s Answer. 2nd Speech of Jehovah & [20 or 21] Job’s Second Penitent Answer.
Unravelment in Outward Reality (Chap 42).
Appendix: Monastery of Job in Hauran, etc. Addenda. Note on Arabic Words & Abbreviations. Index of Texts (over 200 comparative relevant reference verses from the Books of the Old & New Testaments).
Monastery of Job in Hauran & Tradition of Job, (with Map of District): by J. G. Wetzstein.
(“Auranitis (Hauran) (Arabic: ALA-LC: Hawran), also spelled Hawran, Houran and Horan, is a volcanic plateau, a geographic area and a people located in southwestern Syria and extending into the northwestern corner of Jordan”. Bing search.)
“The oral tradition of a people is in general only of very subordinate value from a scientific point of view when it has reference to an extremely remote past; but that of the Arabs especially, which is always combined with traditions and legends, renders the simplest facts perplexing, and wantonly clothes the images of prominent persons in the most wonderful garbs, and, in general, so rapidly disfigures every object, that after a few generations it is no longer recognizable. So far as it has reference to the personality of Job, whose historical existence is called in question or denied by some expositors, it may be considered as altogether worthless, but one can recognise when it speaks of Job’s native country. By the (’Eretz ‘Utz, erets Us, Uz [Land of Oz]) the writer of the book of Job meant a definite district, which was well known to the people for whom he wrote; but the name has perished, like many others, and all the efforts of archaeologists to assign to the land its place in the map of Palestine have been fruitless. Under these circumstances the matter is still open to discussion, and the tradition respecting Job has some things to authorize it. True, it cannot of itself make up for the want of an historical testimony, but it attains a certain value if it is old, i.e. if it can be traced back about to the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, when reliable information was still obtainable respecting that district, although its name was no longer in use.
In all the larger works of travel on Palestine and Syria, we find it recorded that ‘Hauran” is there called Job’s fatherland. In Hauran itself the traveler hears this constantly; if any one speaks of the fruitfulness of the whole district, or of the fields around a village, he is always answered: Is it not the land of Job (‘bilad Ejub’)? Does it not belong to the villages of Job (dia Ejub)? Thus to Seetzen ‘Bosra’ was pointed out as a city of Job; and to Eli Smith even the country lying to the east of the mountains was called the land of Job. In ‘Kanawat’, a very spacious building, belonging to the Roman or Byzantine period, situated in the upper town, was pointed out to me as the summer palace of Job (the inscription 8799 in ‘Corp. Inscr. Graec.’ is taken from it). The shepherds of ‘Da‘il’, with whom I passed a night on the ‘Wadi el-Lebwe’, called the place of their encampment Job’s pasture-ground. In like manner, the English traveler Buckingham, when he wandered through the ‘Nukra’, was shown in the distance the village of ‘Gherbi’ (‘i.e. Chirbet el-ghazale’, which from its size is called ‘el-chirbe kat’ exochën’) as the birthplace and residence of Job, and it seems altogether as though Hauran and the Land of Job are synonymous. But if one inquires particularly for that part of the country in which Job himself dwelt, he is directed to the central point of Hauran, the plain of Hauran (‘sahl Hauran’), and still more exactly to the district between the towns of ‘Nawa’ and ‘Edre‘at’, which is accounted the most fertile portion of the country, covered with the ruins of villages, monasteries, and single courts, and is even now comparatively well cultivated. Among the nomads as well as among the native agricultural population, this district is called from its formation ‘Nukra’ or ‘Nukrat esh-Sham’, a name by which this highly-favoured plain is known and celebrated by the poets in the whole Syrian desert, as far as ‘Irak and Higaz.
But even the national writers are acquainted with and frequently make mention of the Hauranitish tradition of Job; yet they do not call Job’s home Nukra, —for this word, which belongs only to the idiom of the steppe, is unknown to the literature of the language,—but ‘Bethenije’ (‘Batanaea’). It is so called in a detailed statement of the legends of Job: After the death of his father, Job journeyed into Egypt to marry ‘Rahme’ (Rachmah) the daughter of Ephraim, who had inherited from her grandfather Joseph the robe of beauty; and after he had brought her to his own country, he received from God a mission as prophet to his countrymen, viz. to the inhabitants of Hauran and Batanaea ([Arabic sentence omitted]). The historian of Jerusalem, Mugir ed-din el-Hambeli, in the chapter on the legends of the prophets, says: “Job came from el-‘Es, and the Damascene province of Batanaea was his property.” In like manner, in the ‘Geography’ of Jakut el-Hamawi, under the art. ‘Bethenije’, it is said: “and in this land lived Job (‘wakan Ejub minha’).”
Modern exegetes, as is known, do not take the plain of Hauran, but the mountain range of Hauran with its eastern slope, as the ‘Provincia Batanaea’. I have sought elsewhere to show the error of this view, and may the more readily confine myself to merely referring to it, as one will be convinced of the correctness of my position in the course of this article. One thing, however, is to be observed here, that the supposition that Basan is so called as being the land of basalt rocks, is an untenable support of this error. The word basalt may be derived from (Basantis), or a secondary formation, (Basaltis), because Basan is exclusively volcanic; but we have no more right to reverse the question, than to say that Damascus may have received its name from the manufacture of damask. (In the fair at ‘Muzerib’ we again saw the sheikh of the ‘Wesije’-Beduins, whose guest we had been a week before at the Springs of Joseph in western ‘Golan’, where he had pitched his tent on a wild spot of ground that had been traversed by lava-streams. In answer to our question whether he still sojourned in that district, he said: “No, indeed! ‘Nazilin el-jom bi-ard bethene shele’ (we are now encamped in a district that is completely ‘bethene’).” I had not heard this expression before, and inquired what it meant. The sheikh replied: ‘bethene’ [Arabic] is a stoneless plain covered with rich pasture. I often sought information respecting this word, since I was interested about it on account of the Hebrew word (Bashan), and always obtained the same definition. It is a diminutive form, without having exactly a diminutive signification, foreign the language of the nomads it is an acknowledged fact that such a form takes the place of the usual form. The usual form is either ‘bathne’ or ‘bathane’. The Kamus gives the former signification, “a level country”. That the explanation of the Kamus is too restricted, and that of the Sheikh of Wesije the more complete, may be shown from the Kamus itself. In one place it says, The word moreover signifies (a) the thick of the milk (cream); (b) a tender maiden; (c) repeated acts of benevolence. These three significations given are, however, manifestly only figurative applications, not indeed of the signification which the Kamus places ‘primo loco’, but of that which the Sheikh of the W s je gave; for the likening of a “voluptuously formed maiden,” or of repeated acts of benevolence, to a luxurious meadow, is just as natural to a nomad, as it was to the shepherd Amos (ch. 4:1) to liken the licentious women of Samaria to well-nourished cows of the fat pastures of Basan. Then the Kamus brings forward a collective form ‘buthun’ ([Arabic] perhaps from the sing. ‘bathan’ = (Bashan), like [Arabic] from ‘asad’) in the signification pastures [Arabic]; pastures, however, that are damp and low, with a rich vegetation. That the word is ancient, may be seen from the following expression of Chalid ibn el-Welid, the victor on the Jarmuk: “‘Omar made me governor of Damascus; and when I had made it into a ‘buthene’, ‘i.e’. a stoneless fertile plain (easy to govern and profitable), he removed me.”
Jakut also mentions this expression under ‘Bethenije’. Chalid also uses the diminutive as the nomads do (he was of the race of Machz m); probably the whole word belongs only to the steppe, for all the women who were called ‘buth ne’, ‘e.g’. the beloved of the poet Gem l, and others mentioned in the “Diwan of Love” (‘Diwan es-sababe’), were Bedouin women. After what has been said, we cannot assign to the Hebr. (Bashan) any other signification than that of a fertile stoneless plain or low country. This appellation, which was given, properly and originally, only to the heart of the country, and its most valuable portion, viz. the Nukra, would then ‘a potiori’ be transferred to the whole, and when the kingdom of Basan was again destroyed, naturally remained to that province, of which it was the proper designation.)
The home of Job is more definitely described in the following passages. Muhammed el-Makdeshi says, p. 81 of his geography: “And in Hauran and Batanaea lie the villages of Job and his home (‘dia Ejub wa-diaruh’). The chief place (of the district) is Nawa, rich in wheat and other cereals.” The town of Nawa is still more definitely connected with Job by Jakut el-Hamawi under the article ‘Nawa’: “Between Nawa and Damascus is two days’ journey; it belongs to the district of Hauran, and is, according to some, the chief town of the same. Nawa was the residence (‘menzil’) of Job;” and Ibn er-Rabi says, p. 62 of his essay on the excellences of Damascus : “To the prophets buried in the region of Damascus belongs also Job, and his tomb is near Nawa, in the district of Hauran.” Such passages prove at the same time the identity of the Nukra with Batanaea; for if the latter is said to be recognisable from the fact of Job’s home being found in it, and we find this sign in connection with the Nukra in which Nawa with its surrounding country is situated, both names must denote one and the same district. …
…..But that which might injure the authority of Josephus is the contradiction in which it seems to stand to a far older statement concerning ‘Ausitis’, viz. the recognized postscript of the LXX. to the book of Job, which makes Job to be the Edomitish king Jobab. This identification, it may be said, can however only have been possible because ‘Ausitis’ was in or near Edom. But the necessity of this inference must be disputed. It is indeed unmistakable that that postscript is nothing more than a combination of the Jews beyond Palestine (probably Egyptio-Hellenistic), formed, perhaps, long before the LXX., —such a vagary as many similar ones in the Talmud and Midrash. From the similarity in sound of (’Iöbab)) with (’Iöb), and the similarity in name of (Zara), the father of ‘Jobab’, with a son of Re‘uel and grandson of Esau (Gen. 36:13), Job’s descent from Esau has been inferred. That Esau’s first-born was called ‘Eliphaz’ and his son ‘Teman’, seemed to confirm this combination, since (in accordance with the custom of naming the grandson as a rule after his grandfather) ‘Eliphaz’ the Temanite might be regarded as grandson of that ‘Eliphaz’, therefore like Job as great-grandson of Esau and (pemptos apo Abraam). The apparent and certainly designed advantages of this combination were: that Job, who had no pedigree, and therefore was to be thought of as a non-Israelite, was brought into the nearest possible blood-relationship to the people of God, and that, by laying the scene in the time of the patriarchs, all questions which the want of a Mosaic colouring to the book of Job might excite would be met. Now, even if the abode of Job were transferred from the land of ‘Us to Edom, it would be only the consequence of his combination with ‘Jobab’, and, just as worthless as this latter itself, might lead no one astray. But it does not seem to have gone so far; it is even worthy of observation, that (mBotsra) (from ‘Bosra’, the Edomite city), being attached to the misunderstood (huios Zara ek Bosorhras), Gen. 36:33, is reproduced in the LXX. by (mëtros Bosorhras), as also that Job’s wife is not called an Edomitess, but a (gunë Arabissa). And it appears still far more important, that Ausitis lies (en tois horiois tës Idoumaias kai Arabias), so far as the central point of (Idoumaia) is removed by the addition (kai tës Arabias), and Job’s abode is certainly removed from the heart of Idumaea. The ‘Cod. Alex.’, exchanges that statement of the place, even in a special additional clause, for (epi tön horiön tou Euphratou), therefore transfers Ausitis to the vicinity of the Euphrates, and calls the father of Jobab (= Job) (Zareth ex anatolön hëliou) (mebeni qedem). Nevertheless we attach no importance to this variation of the text, but rather offer the suggestion that the postscript gives prominence to the observation: (houtos (viz. Iöb) hermëneuetai ek tës Suriakës biblou.)……
……And now, in concluding here, I have still to explain, that in writing these pages I was not actuated by an invincible desire of increasing the dull literature respecting the (’eretz ‘utz) by another tractate, but exclusively by the wish of my honoured friend that I should furnish him with a contribution on my visit to the ‘Makam Ejub’, and concerning the tradition that prevails there, for his commentary on the book of Job. As to the accompanying map, it is intended to represent the hitherto unknown position of the Makam, the Monastery, and the country immediately around them, by comparing it with two localities marked on most maps, ‘Nawa’ and the castle of ‘Muzerib’. The latter, the position of which we determined in 1860 as 32° 44′ north lat. and 35° 51′ 45″ east long. (from Greenwich), lies three hours’ journey on horse back south of the Monastery. The ‘Wadi Jarmuk’ and ‘Wadi Hit’ have the gorge formation in common with all other wadis that unite in the neighbourhood of ‘Zezun’ and form the Makran, which is remarkable from a geological point of view: a phenomenon which is connected with the extreme depression of the valley of the Jordan. For the majority of the geographical names mentioned in this essay I refer the reader to Carl Bitter’s ‘Geographie von Syrien und Palestina’; others will be explained in my ‘Itinerarien’, which will be published shortly.”
11: From: Book of Job. P1, Oldest Book in the World. P2, Rhythmical Translation, Structure; Brief Explanatory & Critical Notes. E. W. Bullinger, DD. 1903 (Compare Bullinger’s abridgment of the Book of Job in his Companion Bible.)
Few Books of the Bible have received more attention than the Book of Job; both as to translations and as to commentaries. The Apocalypse, perhaps, exceeds it; because of its relation to the future, in which we are naturally more interested. The Book of Job carries us back to the remote past, and contains the oldest lesson in the world. It is significant that this oldest book should be devoted to imparting that knowledge, in comparison with which all other knowledge sinks into insignificance.
It is the lesson which is essential to our having peace with God for Time, and to our enjoying the peace of God for Eternity….Thus the ‘Structure’ determines the Scope; and the ‘Scope’, in turn, furnishes the key to the interpretation of the words….The Divine Names & Titles have all been indicated either in the Translation (where the Rhythm allowed it), or in the Notes. Those used in this book may be thus defined & distinguished.
Elohim is God, as the Creator, carrying out His will; God, standing in the relation of Creator to His creatures.
El, is God, as the Omnipotent. The Creator showing forth His power in carrying out His work. “The Almighty” would have been, perhaps, the most appropriate rendering, had not this word been, in the A.V., appropriated as the rendering of “Shaddai.”
Eloah is the God Who is to be worshipped and reverenced, the living God, in contrast with all idols & false gods.
Adonai is God as the Ruler in the earth; and this in relation to the whole Earth, rather than as limited to His own People. It is thus distinguished from Jehovah.
Jehovah is the Eternal God, “Who is, and was, and is to come.” The self-existent God, Who stands in Covenant relation to His own People.
Shaddai is God as All-Bountiful. The Giver of every good gift; the Fountain of all Divine help; and the Supplier of all human need. Not merely Almighty as regards His power, but All-Bountiful as regards His resources.
These are the Divine titles used in the book of Job, and it will be observed that Eloah and Shaddai are the titles that specially mark the character of the book. In our judgment, all the Divine Names and Titles should have been preserved in their original forms in translating the Bible into any language. They should have been transferred (with explanations) instead of being translated. No one word in any language can ever explain all that is contained and implied in the Hebrew original. (To adopt the heathen names and titles, and use them to represent the God of revelation is a still greater mistake.) We have not ventured systematically on so bold a course; but we have adopted it where possible in certain cases, especially with the names Eloah and Shaddai. When we have not been able to do this, we have indicated the different titles in the notes. We have also uniformly distinguished them by the use of different types: for example:
Elohim, God the Creator, we have printed “God.”
El, God the Omnipotent or Almighty, we have printed “God.”
Eloah, God the object of Worship, we have printed (GOD).”
Adonai, God the Ruler in the Earth, we have printed “LORD” (as in A.V.).
Jehovah, God the Eternal One, we have printed Lord (as in A.V.).
Shaddai, God as the All-Bountiful, we have printed “GOD.”
Thus, the distinguishing features of the following version are: 1. Rhythmical. 2. Based on the Structure of the book. 3. Notes the Figures of Speech. 4. Idiomatic. 5. Critical Readings of Dr. Ginsburg’s Hebrew Bible. 6. Distinguishes the various Divine Names and Titles.
May we, together, come to the knowledge of Divine “Wisdom”; &, while we justify God & condemn ourselves, learn how mortal man can be just with God; & that, while God is just, He is the
Justifier of all who believe in the Lord Jesus. Christ is the “spirit.” In the book of Job we have the ” body.” But, “as the body without the spirit is dead,” so the “letter” of the word without Christ (the “spirit”) is dead also. May His words be spirit and life, i.e., true spiritual life, to ourselves.
Part I: Oldest Lesson in the World (“The End of the Lord” James 5:11): Book & Structure: Introduction. Adversary’s Assault. Job & his Three Friends. Ministry of Elihu. Ministry of Jehovah Himself. Conclusion.
Part II: Translation of Book of Job: Introduction: Historical. Adversary’s Assault. Three Friends: Their Arrival. Job & His Friends: Job’s Lamentation; Eliphaz 1st Address & Job’s Reply; Bildad’s 1st Address & Job’s Reply; Zophar’s 1st Address & Job’s Reply; Eliphaz 2nd Address & Job’s Reply; Bildad’s 2nd Address & Job’s Reply; Zophar’s 2nd Address & Job’s Reply; Eliphaz. 3rd Address & Job’s Reply; Bildad’s 3rd Address & Job’s Reply; Zophar’s 3rd Address; Job’s Justification. Ministry of Elihu. Jehovah and Job. Three Friends: Their Departure. Adversary’s Defeat. Conclusion: Historical.
Introduction: Oldest Lesson in the World: Lord’s End (Purpose, Object, Design):
We have all “heard of the patience of Job.” But, the great and important question is this, Have we “seen the end” which the Lord had in view in all His dealings with Job? The “end” which He brought about in His own perfect way? The object and purpose of the book are one. Whatever is said and done; whoever speaks or acts; all has reference to one person; and all is designed to bring about one “end.” It is a long book. It consists of forty-two chapters, relating to various events, and different agencies; all brought to bear upon one person, and all directed to one “end ” “the end of the Lord.”
We see Heaven, and Earth, and Hell; Jehovah, and Satan; the Chaldeans, and Sabeans; fire from heaven, and wind from the wilderness; Job’s friends, his wife, and children, all engaged and employed in order to secure one “end.” It is a wonderful book in itself, apart from either the patience of Job, or the end of the Lord.
We might study it with reference to the history involved in the book; its national character; its place in the Canon of Scripture: the time when it was written; the various references to arts and sciences, to natural history, to astronomy, to various objects of Nature, such as jewels, etc. We might study its eschatology; its knowledge of mineralogy, metallurgy and mining operations. We might notice its language; the words and expressions employed, especially those that are peculiar to the book. All these and many other matters might well form subjects of separate study: but we leave all these; because, however interesting each subject might be in itself, it is not the “end” for which the book is given to us. Ancient it is beyond all dispute. It probably belongs to the period covered by the book of Genesis; and, possibly, to the time of Abraham. Its lesson, therefore, is the oldest lesson we could have; and it takes us back to the first lesson taught in the Bible itself. In Gen.1 and 2 we have the creation of man. In Gen. 3 we have the fall of man, and the chapter ends with the statement that man was driven out from the Garden of Eden in judgment (v. 24). Then, in Gen. 4, what have we but ‘the way back again’ to God, in grace? God’s way, which Abel took; and man’s way, which Cain invented.
This, therefore, is the oldest lesson in the world. It is the first great lesson which stands on the fore- front of revelation; and the lesson of the book of Job follows this up and expands it by answering the solemn question, “How should man be just with God?” This is not only the oldest lesson, but it is the most important lesson that it is possible for us to learn. If we know not this lesson, it matters not what else we may know. Our knowledge may be vast, extensive, and deep on all other subjects; but it will not carry us beyond the grave. But the knowledge of this lesson will serve us for eternity; and secure our eternal blessing and happiness. If we know this lesson, it matters little what else we do ‘not’ know. No wonder then that this oldest lesson in the world is thus set at the very opening of God’s Word, following immediately upon the record of the Fall. No wonder that, thus, at the threshold of the Word of God, we have the foundation of Gospel truth securely laid.
The “end” which the Lord had in view in the book of Job was to enforce this lesson in the most powerful way; a way which should serve as an object lesson for all time; and by the manner in which it is set forth should impress its importance upon the hearts and minds of all. Its very structure is designed to attract our attention by exhibiting in a wonderful manner the perfect workmanship of the Spirit of God. The Structure itself speaks to us, if we have ears to hear. It says: If the outward form of the book be so perfect, how perfect must be its spiritual lesson; and how Divine must be its one great object; viz., “the end,” which Jehovah had in view from the beginning; “the end ” which was so blessedly accomplished ; and “the end” for which it is given to us.