((Here pages 99-124 are given, I have reread the pages 1-99 and edited and corrected many small errors of spelling and syntax, a few doctrinal matters were clarified. With this submission and post we complete the Book of Genesis, and after the extra matters are added and dealt with, we will treat Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers together as a unit, attached to Genesis and preparatory to Deuteronomy. I still intend to follow my aim of monthly installments in increments as I finish each section. A final note to readers, the outline is intentionally not yet created, nor Table of Contents prepared; the method adhered to will be that the 10 Key Books will dictate our journey and survey with reflections; thus those Key Books as well as all the Bible Books will be given in CAPITAL LETTERS, all other outline titles or headings are treated as regular or non-emphatic titles and descriptions. I have added the Chapter references to help in that regard. Grace. mjm.))
GENESIS: Chapters 11-25: Generations of Shem and of Terah: Abram-Abraham:
Shem is 100 years old, his son Arpachshad was born 2 years after the Flood. We see a change in the chronology of the generations and are not told why or anything else about the calendars of those days. The decrease of longevity is about 50%, and Noah’s age, using biblical chronology as Ussher and many others have done, like Bullinger, who in his Companion Bible, Appendix 50.viii, charts Noah’s death (at 950 yrs. Of age) 2 years before Abraham’s birth, while Shem (who by some Jewish and Christian traditions and stories, is identified as Melchizedek) continues to live over another 150 years, and dies when Abraham was 150 years of age, at which time he marries Keturah. But of these biblical chronologies and calendars we have forewarned the believers and readers to beware. The generations from Shem to Abram are 14, with notices of each of the patriarchs or fathers who had sons and daughters which are not named. The period thus occupies some two centuries or more from the Flood to Babel to Abram. Genesis is silent as to the human progress in all the features that constitute culture and civilization.
The Generations of Terah, a patriarch, the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran (Lot’s father), commences with Abram’s history and biography. We are brought to the land of Ur of the Chaldees (Kas’dim), that is, to Shinar and Sumer. We are told that Terah’s sons marries their half-sisters, and that Terah had two or more wives. Further, Terah migrated from Ur of Chaldea to-ward the land of Canaan, stopping and settling in Haran, where he died at 205 years of age. Again, we note that the longevity of the patriarchs’ lives or age continues to shorten, again by some 50%. The Generations of Terah continues in Abram, but Abram’s generations are not signified as separate, but his divine call by the Lord (YHWH) is recorded. It appears that Abram’s call was while he was still in Ur, but we are not told clearly, and that after Terah’s death he migrated, according to the divine call, to Canaan, with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, and all their belongings and animals and souls. The Divine Call was about a land, a nation, and blessing, and a curse and promises made by the Lord, that all the families of the earth might be blessed in Abram. Abram was 75 when he left Haran of Mesopotamia and settled in Canaan at Shechem, at the Oak of Moreh, among the Canaanites. Again, the Lord appeared (-year’, from ra’ah; 1st occur.) to him with another promise of Canaan to be the inheritance of Abram’s seed, that is, the Hebrews and Israel who will descend from him. Abram’s altar to the Lord is a testimony amidst idolatry and apostasy, and he will continue his witness of the Lord wherever he sojourned, calling upon the name of the Lord (beshem Yehowah). Abram was a pilgrim in a strange land among strangers in blood and faith.
We see Abram as a rich patriarch of a large family or clan, but not as a tribal chief or sheikh, and he journeyed to the South of Negeb, from Beersheba and south of the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. The famine forced or compelled him to migrate to Egypt, but with great fear for his life and wife, he solicited Sarai, who was still attractive, to represent herself as his sister, which in fact, she was his half-sister by same father but not same mother. His fear proved true, the Egyptians and their princes (sarey, 1st occur., compare with Sarai’s name) praised (y’hallu, 1st occur., and compare with hallelu- in the Book of Psalms) her to Pharaoh the King, and she was made to stay in the royal house. Though he treated Abram favorably for Sarai, yet the Lord plagued his house, to prevent violation. When the cause and truth was discovered Pharaoh was upset, but yielded to the divine judgment, and released Abram and his wife and what belonged to him, being escorted out of Egypt. He returned to the Negeb, then revisited the places of the altars he erected to the Lord. Lot was with him, and both were very prosperous, so that they had to part company, and lot choosing to settle in the Plain of Jordan of Sodom and Gomorrah, like a well-watered garden, before they were destroyed. But the Sodomites were very depraved and against the Lord. We are given a picture of Abram’s world that shows humanity in progress and decline, making cities, establishing government and kingship, with social customs that indicates moral confusion. We see sexual vices, slavery and bondage, prejudice, violence, and idolatry. The world of Terah and of Abram was filled with immense advancement of man’s dominance on the earth. The ethnic diversity was already very prominent on a small scale, but was soon to grow ever larger, and spread very far. We will afterwards examine that world from extant records, such as the Code of Hammurabi.
But the Lord intervenes and interacts to bring the Patriarch into His dispensational and covenantal plans. The Lord reaffirms to Abram the promise of inheritance of the land of Canaan, to him and his seed for-ever ((‘adh– ‘olam; this is the 3rd occur., 1st occur., Gen.3:22, and 2nd occur., in Gen. 6:3; the meaning, then the idea and doctrine, of ever, age, and eternal, must be learnt from biblical usage)). The promise asserts Abram’s descendants, his seed, will be innumerable; and he is to occupy the land of promise. So, Abram resides in Hebron. At that time, in the days of Amraphel King (melek; 1st occur) of Shinar, Arioch King of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, and Tidal King of Goiim (Nations, Gentiles), 4 Kings in a northern-eastern confederacy or league against 5 Kings in a southern-western confederacy, consisting of the Kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Bela or Zoar. This war took place in the Valley of Siddim or the Salt Sea (Dead Sea), because of a rebellion or refusal after 13 years to pay tribute in their treaty or service to Chedorlaomer of Elam, which was the King of the Kings. This foreign alliance and dominance against the local or Canaanite kings and cities was also carried out throughout the western land or country of Canaan, both to the west and east of the Jordan River, against the Rephaim, Zuziim, Emim, and the Horites; that is the conflicts and invasion covered the entire land of promise, from Dan to Beersheba, and beyond, and from the Great Sea to the Dead Sea to Mesopotamia. It was an expansion of the Mesopotamian power and civilization to dominate and subjugate the Canaanite lands and people. Abram is strategically positioned to participate in this crisis and conflict in the battle of his divine inheritance. The defeat of the Kings of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the capture of his nephew Lot, was reported to Abram who was in league with the Amorites; and who with them, and 318 of his own servants, pursued the foreign hosts northward to Dan and then east of Damascus, and by night, strategically defeated them, recovering the captives and the goods. On his return from the slaughter, the King of Sodom met him in the King’s Valley; and Melchizedek (Malki-Tzedek) King of Salem (Melek Shalem) brought bread and wine as Priest (Khohen, Kohen, Cohen; 1st occur.) of God Most-High (le’El ‘Elyon). Here God as Lord is related to the Patriarchs as EL Elyon and El Shaddai, and not as Elohim or Jehovah. Melchizedek a Gentile Priest, whether a Hebrew or not, is not of the people and family that God is creating from Abram and the other Patriarchs. The King of Salem blessed Abram and the Highest God, Who as Owner and Sovereign of all, gave Abram victory of his enemies, which was according to the covenantal dispensational promise of blessings to those who blessed Abram, and curses to those who cursed him. And Abram tithed to him of the goods recovered. We will reflect on this at the close of Genesis and explore more hidden things of mystery and history. But the King of Sodom wished to repay Abram by only taking the souls or persons (Heb.: nephesh,1st occurs in Gen. 1:20, and frequently afterwards; here for the 1st time translated or refers to persons as men or people, an important development), and Abram to keep the recovered goods or booty; but Abram refused claiming he has prayed and sworn to the Lord (YHWH) Most High God to take nothing, lest it be said: ‘I made Abram rich’.
We see in the patriarchal dispensation in the new covenantal relationship that Word of the Lord (D’bar–Y’howah, 1st occur.) after these things or words (had-debarim, 1st occur.) came to Abram in a vision (machazeh, 1st occur.) as the Shield (Magen) and the Great Rewarder (Sechar Rebbeh). He relates to the Lord God, or more literal, Adonai Y’howah, (1st occurrence of Adonai and of Adonai YHWH together), that his heir is likely to be his house-born servant Eliezer of Damascus, but the Lord, as Jehovah, by His Word, in relation to the man Abram, negates this claim, and predicts that Abram’s heir will be a son born from his own body ((bowels, loins, etc., the idea of man as flesh, was not yet developed to see the body as a distinct thing, just like the idea of dead-body as a corpse (Heb. peger) was viewed as the dead, a dead man, and so too with other expressions as heart and reins and womb)). And the Lord reaffirmed the covenantal promise of blessing to him; and Abram believed in the Lord (YHWH), Who credited it to him as righteousness (1st occur., but righteous already was used in Gen. 6:9 and 7:1 of Noah). Now the Lord in His dispensational relations to Abram as the patriarch, called and led to inherit the promises. Abram wishes a clearer confirmation and sign, which was provided in a sacrifice which Abram was in deep dreadful sleep without participation and witness to the Word: “thy seed (the Hebrews and Israel) shall be sojourners (pilgrims) in a strange land (first Canaan then Egypt) not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them 400 years; and also that nation (Egypt), whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance. But thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in good old-age (grey-hair, hoary-head). And in the 4th generation (Abram, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph) they shall come hither again; for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet full.” And while Abram slept, the Lord renewed His covenant of the promised land extending from the River of Egypt to the great River Euphrates, of the 10 nations occupying the land; and so, a smoking furnace and a flaming torch passed between the pieces of the sacrifice and offering. And the dispensational relations established in the patriarchal age between God and His chosen people was unilateral; for the creation, judgment, and salvation of His people was completely up to God to bring about. Which looking back to the creation week, the garden of Eden, and after the flood, we see several seeds and details of principles which must germinate and sprout out of the death, fall, and ruin of one generation to the other generation. We have man’s dominion over the earth and the animals of creation, that is over the world, he is to subdue the earth and utilize it to grow and expand, which continued ceaselessly up to the time of the Patriarchs, and afterwards continues to the very present. Man, in the Garden had a dispensation related to that home and place, but his fall and the judgment that followed, brought about a change in his disposition and nature, hence his position changed, or altered, and his enemy would compete with him for the dominance of the earth and life, and man’s nature would feed his craze. The enmity exists, by divine governance, between him and the woman, and she as the mother, then as mankind, then as a nation or synagogue or church. But the Seed of the Woman will be the ultimate and final Enmity, which in the national (Israel) and the corporate (the Church) man or body will terminate the conflict and enmity; this is the judgment of God. The order of human existence in the new world in contrast to the Garden will constitute dispensationally a hierarchy of the female’s humiliation or subordination to the male, in her weakness and maternal function and nature, and the patriarchal system would prevail. Man, as a man is bound to the cursed earth, the ground for his survival and living, a struggle to prevail against nature and death. So, in the flood, the old world ending in judgment and death, man now must be ordered, regulated, and delegated into a system or society, and all such like things that is identified and named, to bring mankind via the nations unto the maturity as a global or worldwide family in which God can dispensationally enter a different relationship with man, and by covenant and intervention complete the divine drama of salvation. This is what we see unfolding here with Abram the Hebrew and will continue in Isaac and Jacob-Israel.
Sarai was barren, and the infertility frustrated her to suggest a remedy in using her Egyptian servant woman, or slave, Hagar, to be a surrogate mother to have children by Abram; who yielded to this suggestion; he already was in Canaan now 10 years. The outcome was bad, and a pregnant maid despised her mistress, and the mistress would punish and mistreat the surrogate mother, who in turn runs away, towards Egypt by way of the Desert of Shur. This unfair abuse, in turn, requires the Lord (YHWH) as the Angel of Jehovah to meet her in a Theophany, a divine manifestation, real and visible and human. Here we must seriously reflect on the Divine Revelation given to us in Genesis. This is the 1st occurrence of angel or messenger, in Hebrew malak or malac (other variants are melek, which makes it confused with the word for ‘king’), and it occurs in this chapter 4 times, each time as ‘angel of the Lord’. The Divine Messenger as the Lord’s Angel was really and truly the Lord Himself, now Jehovah manifest, not by word or in dream or trance, but in Person as an Angel or a Divine Being as a Spiritual Person or Man. We cannot escape the Text, the Angel appears just like we read of the Lord in the Garden of Eden, and there He walked in the Garden in the cool afternoon, and confronted Adam and Eve and the Serpent. Here He intervenes to save Hagar, and interacts with her as El Shaddai, which we will soon see in Genesis 17, but here the dispensational covenant necessitates blessing Hagar for blessing Abram, at Sarai’s expense. He promises her that He will cause her seed, as the seed of the woman, a dispensational meaning often overlooked and not understood, to become innumerable, that her son is to be named Ishmael (Yishma‘el, Yishma-El, meaning ‘God’ as ‘El and Jehovah’, as the Lord’s Angel, ‘heard (shama‘) thy affliction). This compassion and nurturing as a mother nurses and nurtures her child is made manifest in the Age of the Patriarchs. He has bound Himself to His people, to Abram, and to Abram’s seed, also to the seed of the woman, and thus Hagar and her seed in Ishmael is to be blessed and saved. Ishmael will be a wild donkey among men, against all and all against him, dwelling facing and opposing his brethren, in families, tribes, and nations. The Arabs are Ishmaelites, and the Arabs are here spoken of, first the ancient Arabs, and then the modern Arabs or Muslims of Islam. This theophany, of Jehovah who spoke the word to her, to Hagar, is recorded thus: “Thou art God Who sees (’El Ro‘I, El-Roi, El-Roy): for she said, ‘Have I even here looked after Him Who sees me?’ And it is El Roy Who will throughout Arab history intervene and interact, dispensationally, to bring about all His intent and desire towards Abram’s seed. He showed to Hagar a well to meet her thirst, and she called it by the name: Beer-lahai-roi, and it is between Kadesh and Bered in the Wilderness of Shur. So, in Abram’s 86th year Hagar gave birth to Ishmael, Abram’s firstborn son.
When Abram was 99 years old, 13 years after Ishmael’s birth, the Lord appeared to Abram as El Shaddai (God Almighty, God Sufficient, God Who: nurtures, cares, nurses, with maternal qualities and attributes (see Gen. 49:25, and my remarks there); and Abram must walk perfected before Him; and renews the covenant as God (Elohim, because it is about creation). God will create and make in Abram and from Abram ‘multitude of nations’ (goiim) (and this term is a 1st occur.), but not as Abram, but now something new, with a new name, Abraham, an added letter and syllable, the 5th letter of the Hebrew Alphabet ‘heh’, the ‘h’, which may be seen in Psalm 119 under the 5th letter of the acrostic Psalm. From Abraham nations and kings will come, and his seed will retain the everlasting eternal covenant of God being the God of the Hebrews, the God of Abraham, and Isaac, and Israel; and as God He gives them the land of Canaan for inheritance. But this covenant in the dispensation of the times and ages of the generations requires a conditional obligation, a law and command, male circumcision, from the 8th day after a male is born, whether free or bond, native or alien, relative or stranger; for the covenant will reside forever in the flesh. The uncircumcised, the foreskin not removed, has violated the covenant, and must be outcast. And God, again as Creator, changes Sarai to Sarah by substitution of the ‘Yod’, the Hebrew 10th letter (see Psalm 119), with the ‘Heh’, the 5th letter, same as in Abraham. His promise is to bless her, she will have a son named Isaac., she will have nations and peoples; and Ishmael will father 12 princes (n’si‘im, from iy‘, chief, ruler, sheikh, etc.), and will be a great nation; but in Isaac will the Lord’s covenant reside, who will be born next year. God (Elohim, for He will create the impossible, of an old woman given birth) departed after His talk with Abraham, which implies a Theophany. Abraham, Ishmael, and all males of Abraham’s house.
Another Theophany is related in the Sacred Text. Abraham was resting in his tent at home at Oaks of Mamre in the heat of the day, he saw 3 men (’anashim, as in Enosh, from ish, male in contrast to female, a man in contrast to a woman) across the way, he ran to them and bowed at their feet. He called one of them ‘my lord’ (’adonai) inviting him to feast with ‘thy servant’ and taking hospitality; then he appeals to the 3 men to stay a few hours. He has Sarah quickly prepare bread and meat for a meal for the guests, his visitors. While they ate he stood under the tree watching them; and they asked where Sarah was, and he said she was in the tent. One of the three said: ‘I will certainly return this time next year, and Sarah will have a son; (both Abraham and Sarah were very old (zeqenim, from zaqen. 1st occur.) Sarah overheard and laughed (tzchaq, whence Isaac) at the impossibility of the promise; then Jehovah (the Visitor, the Ish, is now revealed as God Incarnate as Man) asked why Sarah laughed that an old woman to give birth to a baby, is anything too hard for Jehovah? Sarah denied laughing, but he repeated: ‘you did laugh’. The men got up, facing Sodom, and Abraham accompanied them; and Jehovah considered Abraham greatness and privilege dispensationally, that ‘Abraham will command his children and household to keep Jehovah’s way, to do righteousness and justice; that He may fulfill all His promises and purposes’. Jehovah said that He heard the cry and sins of Sodom and Gomorrah were very grievous, and He wanted to see if it really was so. The two men headed towards Sodom, but Abraham stood together, Jehovah looking, and Abraham asked the Lord, as the Judge of all the earth, if He intends to kill the righteous with the wicked, even if the city only has 50 righteous people; and He said He would spare the city for the 50 righteous sake, and Abraham continues to plead and negotiate with Jehovah in increments of 5 down to 10 righteous in the city, He continued promising to spare Sodom for the ten’s sake. Jehovah went His way, and Abraham returned to his tent.
The men are now called angels or messengers, they arrived in Sodom in the evening, Lot saw them while he sat at the Gate of Sodom, and he invited them to dine and stay the night at his house. They wanted to stay out in the streets, but they yielded to his request. Later, before retiring for the night, the men of Sodom, young and old from the entire city, surrounded the house and demanded the guests to be brought out to be known, that is to be used sexually, homosexually; Lot went outside to persuade them to not act so wickedly, and offered his two virgin daughters to satisfy their vile lusts, since the visitors have come under his roof for protection. They rejected his plea, saying that Lot came as a traveler and now wants to be a judge, now they will treat him worse than the men, and they attempted to break in. The men, that is, the angels, pulled him back inside and locked the door, then struck the men with blindness; Lot was told to get all his family and friends in the city together to leave before the city is destroyed by the Lord for their depravity and perversity. He tried to persuade his future sons-in-law engaged (married by engagement and arrangement) to his daughters, but they thought he was joking; so by morning the angels hurried Lot and his wife and his two daughters to escape from the city, but Lot lingered, so the angels took them all by the hands and brought them out of the city, and told them to flee to the mountains and do not look back, but Lot begged permission to escape to a little city, Zoar. The Lord (YHWH) rained fire and sulfur on Sodom and Gomorrah from the Lord (YHWH) out of heaven and destroyed cities and the nearby plain and everything living there. Lot’s wife looked back and was turned into a pillar of salt. Abraham got up early and looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah and the Plain and saw the smoke; and God remembered Abraham spared Lot from Sodom’s destruction. Lot soon left Zoar and he and his daughters lived in a cave. In time his daughters troubled that they would not be mothers and perpetuate the family, got their old (zaqen) father drunk and on separate occasions slept with their father without his awareness of the deed, and they both became pregnant by their father Lot; and the oldest gave birth to son named Moab (from-father), who became the father of the Moabites; and the younger gave birth to Ben-ammi (son-my-people), who became the father of the Ammonites. Thus, both daughters were mothers by incest, and the Moabites and Ammonites are related to Abraham’s seed of Ishmael and Isaac and Keturah’s children. This entire history and generation of Lot is a sad and heartbreaking picture of human depravity at many levels or grades. That God should so love man, care for His creatures is amazing; and He as El Shaddai, to nurse and nurture wayward man reveals a God very different than that of human invention or imagination. But we must not here consider these things till we see a larger picture still, and at the close of Genesis reflect more fully and properly.
Abraham continued his pilgrimage in the promised land, settling in the south near Gerar as you look towards Egypt; and Abraham told Abimelech, King of Gerar, that Sarah was his sister, and he took her to his house. God warned him in a dream he is a dead man if he didn’t return Sarah Abraham’s wife, he replied he didn’t know, and was innocent, to which He agreed, but also prevented him from doing so; but he must restore Sarah for Abraham is a prophet (nabi’ 1st occur.), and he will pray (palal, 1st occur. to intervene, intercede, and interpose, to negotiate) for his life. Abimelech and his servants confront and rebuke Abraham why he caused him and his kingdom great harm, and he answered that he thought the fear of God was not in the place, so he had his wife, who is his real half-sister, say she was his sister. The King restored Sarah along with great gifts animals and servants and permitted that he may dwell in the kingdom wherever he pleases unmolested, and to Sarah 1,000 pieces of silver, for her brother as a covering of the eyes (a veil) to respect and right. Abraham prayed, and God healed (rapha, 1st occur.) all of them, and they gave birth, since the Lord (YHWH, related to man in giving life, bearing children, etc.) had closed the wombs in Gerar for Sarah’s sake. Thus, the Lord visited Sarah according to His word, she conceived and gave birth to Isaac to old Abraham, 100 years old. He circumcised him on the 8th day; and Sarah said that God had made her to laugh. Isaac was weaned, few years later, and they celebrated. Sarah saw Ishmael (now 16 years of age, older or younger) the Egyptian Hagar’s son mocking so she insisted that Abraham cast out Hagar and Ishmael, for her son will never share Isaac’s inheritance. God instructs him to yield to Sarah, and not to be disheartened about Ishmael who will also become a great nation. He packs water and bread for Hagar and Ishmael and sends them away, and she roams in the Wilderness of Beer-Sheba (instead of heading towards Egypt), then the water runs out. She puts (cast, throw, and pushed, but this confuses my mind) the youth (child, misleads) in the shade, then sits a distance off awaiting his death, and she cries out in agony; God heard (shama‘, whence he was named Ishmael at birth) and the Angel of God (malak Elohim) from heaven asks Hagar what is wrong, do not worry, God has heard the boy’s voice, go help him up by the hand, for he will become a great nation. God opened her eyes to see a well of water, she gave her son a drink, and he lived, and grew, God was with him, and in the Wilderness of Paran he became an archer and his mother got him a wife from Egypt.
King Abimelech and his army captain Phicol acknowledged to Abraham God’s favor and made a treaty with him for mutual peace to extend to the King’s son and grandson. Abraham complained about the well that Abimelech’s servants took by force, unknown to the King; Abraham gave the sacrifices and they made a covenant, witnessed by 7 ewe lambs given as proof that Abraham dugged the well. The well was called Beer-Sheba (Oath-Well); Abimelech and his captain returned to the land of the Philistines. Then he planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba and called on the name of the Lord (YHWH), the Everlasting God (El Olam); and stayed in the land of the Philistines many days. Then after these words God proved (nasa, test, try, tempt, etc., only occur. in Gen.) Abraham by asking him to take his only beloved son Isaac (now grown) to the land of Moriah and sacrifice (’alah) him on one of the mountains that God tells him; 3 days later of traveling he arrives near the mountain. He tells his servants to wait till he and his son go worship and return; and he took the wood for the sacrifice, carried by Isaac, and carried the fire and the knife; and as they went Isaac asked about the sacrificial lamb, and he told him that God will provide for Himself a sacrifice ram. They arrived, and he built the altar, placed the wood, bound Isaac, put him on the altar on the wood, and took the knife to slay his son. But the Lord’s Angel from heaven told him not to harm the boy, for God knows he fears Him to the utmost. Abraham looked up to see a ram caught in the thicket by the horns, and he offered the ram in Isaac’s place, and he called the place Jehovah-jireh, it is said to this day (that is, in the time of Moses). ‘in Jehovah’s mount it is provided’. Again, the Lord’s Angel spoke to him that his obedience will be blessed, his posterity will be countless, and his descendants will possess their enemies’ gate, and in his seed all the nations and Gentiles of the earth will be blessed; and they all returned to Beersheba.
After these words, Abraham was told that Nahor’s wife Milcah gave birth to 8 sons, first, Uz and Buz, Kemuel the father of Aram, and last, Bethuel Rebekah’s father. Nahor’s concubine (1st occur.) Reumah gave birth to 4 sons. Sarah died in her 127th year, Abraham was 137, and Isaac was 27, at Kiriath-arba, later Hebron, in Canaan; and Abraham mourned in tears for Sarah. He requested to buy a burial ground from the Hethites, they replied that he is a lord and prince of God among them, and they offered him the best sepulcher instead, but Abraham entreated them to entreat Ephron Ben-Zohar for the cave of Machpelah and the field it was in for the full fair price. Ephron the Hittite offered as a gift both the field and the cave, but Abraham insisted on paying for it, Ephron said, what is a land worth only 400 shekels (1st occur.) of silver to us, so Abraham purchased the property for that sum, current with the merchant or traders (1st occur.). Thus, Abraham secured and deeded all the property around the Cave of Machpelah near Mamre (Hebron) in the presence of the children of Heth. Abraham makes his servant, the elder (zeqan) and steward of house, to swear an oath to God of heaven and earth not to take a Canaanite daughter as wife for Isaac, but to go to his kin in Mesopotamia, Padan-Aram, if she is willing to come, and may the Lord Who has lead him from his homeland, and promised him this land for his seed, prosper his visit, and His Angel to be with him. The servant took 10 camels loaded with gifts and goods and went to the city of Nahor. He stopped outside the city by a well towards evening, when women came to draw water from the well; he prayed that the Lord God of Abraham would favor Abraham by a young woman (na‘arah, damsel, girl, etc., 1st occur. of a girl but occur. first of young men in Gen. 14:24) offering him water to drink and for the camels, to be the chosen one of God; and it happened that Rebekah, Nahor’s wife Milcah’s son Bethuel’s daughter, did as he prayed; and amazed he gave her some gifts, and asked who was her father and if there was room for guests or travelers; she told him her father was Bethuel Milcah’s son Nahor’s wife, and that there was room for lodging; the servant bowed and worshipped the Lord, and blessed and thanked the God of his lord Abraham, for His mercy and truth, and for leading him to his master’s family. Laban, Rebekah’s brother heard her report, and ran out to meet Abraham’s servant at the well, impressed at the gifts to Rebekah, invited him to lodge with them; but the man would not eat till he told the reason of his visit and mission; then he told them of Abraham and of Sarah and of Isaac, and the oath sworn to Abraham before God, and of experience at the well before and after Rebekah’s arrival; then the man desired a response, good or bad, from them. Laban and Bethuel said it was of the Lord (YHWH), and agreed to let Rebekah go to Isaac as wife; Abraham’s servant bowed to the Lord, and then gave them all many gifts and precious things, and they feasted that night; Laban and Rebekah’s mother tried to delay Rebekah’s departure, but the servant insisted to leave, and they asked Rebekah and she consented to leave; and they sent with her a nurse or maid (yanaq, suck, nurse, feed, etc., 1st occur.), with a blessing that she have thousands and ten thousands offspring, and her seed possess their haters’ gate. They returned to Beer-lahai-roi in the Negeb in southern Canaan, and Isaac went to the field at eve to reflect (panah, turn, meditate, consider, look, etc.; the 1st occur. was in 18:22 of the Angels ‘turning’ towards Sodom and away from Abraham), he noticed them coming, and she asked the servant who was that man, and he said he was his master, Isaac, so she got off the camel and veiled herself; the servant related to Isaac all things (words) that happened. Isaac took her to Sarah’s tent as his wife and was comforted after his mother’s death.
Abraham had taken another wife (concubine), named Keturah, who gave birth to 6 sons, and of them were 2 + 5, 7 grandsons, and 3 great grandsons, in all 16 descendants; but Isaac inherited all as son and heir; and the sons of the concubines (Hagar and Keturah), he gave them gifts and sent them away eastward, to the east country, that is, to the Middle East, and Arabia, and Mesopotamia. The years of Abraham were 175, and he died (gawa‘, expire, perish, etc., 3rd occur., also Gen. 6:17; 7:21) an old man, good and full. And was gathered to his people. His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah at Hebron, next to Sarah. And God, after Abraham’s death, blessed his son Isaac, who resided near Beer-lahai-roi.
We are finished with the Generations of Terah and of Abraham the Hebrew which is the first of the three parts of the patriarchal dispensation, that of Isaac and Jacob, with Joseph and Job concluding the age. There are many things connected to this period and its history, the divine ways and words which formed and altered the generations to conform man to God’s interest and His economy as it unfolds in human affairs. The historical comparisons to the ancients of the conterminous and contemporaneous period and timeline is instructive in every way in understanding Bible history. As we move along in the second half of Genesis our reflections will cover ever larger segments of the Text, to trace the Divine Author and His intent and inspiration. The Bible stories will be seen to be very much a mirror and reflection of what existed and persisted in the world, and what really is known will explain many Bible questions, problems, discrepancies, contradictions, and uncertainties.
GENESIS: Chapters 25-50: Generations of Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob-Israel:
GENESIS: Chapter 25: Generations of Ishmael:
The Generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son by Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s maid (shiphchath, Gen. 12:16 is 1st occur., frequent in chapter 16; it appears it evolved as synonym with ’amah (1st occur. at Gen. 20:17) as concubine, as a mistress or female slave becomes used as a wife, or service of living, to the other kind of derogatory work and service for sex). Ishmael’s sons by names and generations were 12 in all, Nebaioth being the firstborn. The years of Ishmael’s life were 137, and he died and was gathered to his people. The Ishmaelites dwelt from Havilah to Shur near Egypt, and went toward Assyria, he resided opposite to his brothers Isaac and Keturah’s sons. The Ishmaelites seem to have settled and inhabited the area known as Saudi Arabia, dwelling from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf, going south and made their home to all the coasts, then spreading north a little, stopping before Assyria.
GENESIS: Chapter 25-35: Generations of Isaac: Esau & Jacob:
The Generations of Isaac Abraham’s son: Isaac was 40 years old when he married Rebekah of Bethuel the Syrian (Assyrian) of Padan-Aram, and sister of Laban the Syrian (Assyrian). She was infertile, Isaac entreated the Lord on her behalf, and she became pregnant with twins, but she despaired, and the Lord told her that two nations and two peoples shall be born from her, one stronger than the other, and the oldest will serve the younger. When the twins were born, the firstborn was red like a hairy garment, who they named Esau; but the second came out holding the Esau’s heel, and they called him Jacob. Isaac was then 60 years old, which was 20 years since marrying Rebekah. The boys grew, Esau became a skilled hunter and a man of the field, but Jacob was a quiet tent dweller. Isaac loved and favored Esau, especially because his venison, but Rebekah loved Jacob. Once when Jacob was cooking a soup, and Esau came hungry and tired from the field, he asked for some red soup (whence he was nicknamed Edom (Red), but Jacob valued it for his birthright, and Esau said that if he dies his birthright is useless to him, Jacob insisted he swear the sale of his birthright to Jacob; so, Jacob gave him bread and lentil soup; he ate and drank and went his way, but he despised his birthright.
A 2nd famine was in Canaan, like the 1st in Abraham’s day when he went to Egypt, and the Lord appeared to him and told him not to go to Egypt, to stay in the promised land, that the Lord will be with him, bless him, give him and his seed the lands, will establish the oath sworn to Abraham, will multiply his seed innumerable, and in his seed all the Gentiles (nations, goiim) of the earth blessed; because Abraham obeyed the Lord, kept His charge, commandments, statutes, and laws. As with Abraham and Sarah, so Isaac and Rebekah experienced (100 years earlier) the same shame. The men of Gerar asked him of the attractive woman, and he said she was his sister, after a long while, Abimelech King of the Philistines noticed Isaac sporting with Rebekah, and told him, surely she is his wife, why did he say she was his sister, and he said because he feared he would die on her account, the King blamed him that one of the people could have easily raped her, and they would be guilty, so the King charged that anyone who touched (raped) Rebekah would be put to death. Isaac prospered in the land with the Lord’s blessing, becoming very great, and the Philistines envied (qanah, 1st occur., jealous, zealous, etc.) him. Abraham’s wells had all been filled up with dirt by the Philistines (a loss of time, money, and water), and the King demanded Isaac to leave Gerar, because he had become too powerful. Isaac resettled in the valley of Gerar, and he reopened the water wells that Abraham had dug, and the Philistines filled or stopped up with dirt after Abraham’s death. Isaac renamed the wells with the name given by Abraham. Again, Isaac’s servant found a well of springing water flowing, and the herdsmen of Gerar quarreled with Isaac’s herdsmen, and claimed the well as theirs, so he called it Esek or Contention. Again, he dug another well, and they claimed it as theirs, so he called it Sitnah. Again, a 3rd well, but they did not try to claim it, so he called it Rehoboth, saying that the Lord has made room for them to be fruitful. Afterwards he relocated to Beersheba. The Lord (YHWH) appeared to Isaac as Abraham’s God, he was not to fear, the Lord will be with him, bless him, multiply his seed, because of Abraham. He built or erected an altar, called on the Lord’s name, and set up his tent; and his servants dug a well. King Abimelech and his friend and his captain visit Isaac, and he said why visit me when you hate and reject me, but they replied that the Lord was with him, so they wanted a treaty covenant by oath, to be mutual friends, since they have treated as a friend and blessed of the Lord. So, they feasted, swore by oath, and left in peace. That day Isaac’s servant said they dug a well and found water, and he called it Shibah, and the city was named Beer-Sheba (Oath-Well).
Esau was 40 years old when he married Judith bath-Beeri the Hittite to the grief of Isaac and Rebekah. Later, Isaac older still, with blindness, he told Esau to prepare his favorite savory venison meal, that he may bless him before he dies; Rebekah overheard, and when Esau went hunting for the game In the wilds, she told Jacob about what was going on, and ordered him to fetch young kids of the goats, and she would make it to taste like savory meat, that Isaac may eat and bless Jacob as if he was Esau; he told his fear to his mother that his father would easily detect that he was not Esau by his smooth skin, since Esau was a hairy man, and he’ll get a curse instead of a blessing; but his mother took the curse to herself, and insisted that he get the kids, he did, and she made Isaac’s favorite dish; she covered Jacob’s arms and hands, and on his neck; she gave Jacob the food for Isaac, and Jacob pretending to be Esau, gave it to Isaac to eat and bless; Isaac amazed asked how it got it so quickly, he said the ‘Lord thy God’ delivered it to me; so Isaac bid him come closer, and felt his hands, and said the voice is Jacob’s, but the hands are Esau’s, and he could not tell for sure; so he blessed him asking if he was really Esau, and he said he was; Isaac ate it, and drank wine, and bid him to come kiss him, and he smelt the smell of the field of his clothes, and blessed him as the Lord blessed the field, willing that God give him heaven’s dew, earth’s fatness, plenty of grain and wine, peoples serve him, nations bow to him, rule his brothers, his mother’s sons bow to him, and curse to those who curse him, and blessing to him who blesses him. Soon as he finished, Jacob exited and Esau entered with his savory meat, asking for the blessing; but Isaac asked shocked who was this, and he said he was Esau the firstborn; Isaac trembled at the trick, saying Jacob will be blessed; Esau cried bitterly at the words, demanding to also be blessed; Isaac told him that Jacob got the blessing by guile; Esau said Jacob truly was named rightly, for he has supplanted and tricked me twice, once for my birthright, and now for my blessing; and he asked Isaac if he had not reserved a blessing; so he blessed him with the earth’s fatness as his dwelling, with the heaven’s dew, to live by his sword, to serve Jacob, and later to break free, and shake off his yoke from his neck. Esau hated Jacob for this blessing and resolved to kill him when Isaac was dead. Esau’s words and intention were told to Rebekah, and she told it to Jacob, and advised him to temporarily flee to Laban her brother in Haran of Padanaram, till Esau’s fury cooled. Rebekah told Isaac she hated her life, if Jacob marries a Hethite her life is worthless. Isaac sent Jacob to Bethuel Rebekah’s father to marry one of Laban’s daughters, also that El Shaddai (God Almighty, All-sufficient Nourisher) bless him, make him fruitful to prosper, multiply him, to become a company (qahal, assembly, convocation, congregation, community, synagogue, ekklesia and church, etc., 1st occur.), give him Abraham’s blessing to him and his seed, to inherit the promised land. Isaac sent Jacob to Padan-aram to Rebekah’s brother Laban the Syrian (Assyrian) to get married to a Hebrew or Semite. Esau in turn married a 3rd wife Mahalath bath-Ishmael ben-Abraham, she was Nebaioth’s sister.
Jacob departed from Beersheba headed for Haran, at a certain place he stayed overnight, a stone for a pillow, he slept and dreamed of a ladder from earth to heaven with God’s angels going up and down, the Lord (YHWH), God of Abraham and of Isaac, stood at the top promising to give him and his seed the land on which he slept, that his seed or posterity will be countless, spreading abroad to the west, east, north, and south of that place; and all the families of the earth shall be blessed in his seed; that He will be with him and protect him everywhere, and bring him back to this land, and will not leave him till all divine promises are fulfilled. Jacob awoke in dread and amazed, and said that the Lord must be in this place, this is God’s House (Beth ’Elohim) and Heaven’s Gate (sha‘ hashshamayim); and in the morning he took the stone he used as a pillow and set it up as a pillar, and poured or anointed oil on it, and called it Beth-El, but it was named before that Luz. Jacob vowed that if God brought him back home safely, protecting me, feeding me, and clothing me (the way and work of a nurturing parent, as a father and mother cares for their child, namely, as El Shaddai), then the Lord will be my God, and this Stone and Pillar will be God’s House, and I’ll give him a tenth (tithe) of all. Jacob continued his journey and came to the land of the children of the east (beney-qedem), and he came to a well where they watered the flocks at a set time, rolling a stone to seal it when not used; Jacob asked them of their city, they said from Haran, he asked if they knew Laban ben-Nahor, they said yes, and said there is his daughter Rachel come to water the sheep; Jacob said it was noon, they should water their flock and go feed them, but they said they must wait till all the flocks are gathered before the stone is rolled away, and as they talked Rachel came with her father’s sheep; Jacob seeing her, rolled away the stone and watered Laban’s flock, he kissed Rachel and raised his voice and wept; he told Rachel that he was Laban’s nephew (brother, Heb. idiom), Rebekah’s son; Rachel ran home and told Laban, and he ran out to meet his sister’s son, and he hugged and kissed him, and brought him home; they talked, and Laban knew this was his nephew; he stayed about a month. Laban ask him what wages to keep him as helper, and Jacob said he would work 7 years for his beautiful younger daughter Rachel; Laban agreed it was a good deal; he served 7 years as if it was 7 days because he loved her; after the 7 years he demanded Rachel as a wife, Laban celebrated a marriage feast, and at the night he tricked Jacob by bringing to him the older, and less attractive, Leah, along with her maid Zilpah, and in the morning Jacob he discovered it was Leah; he confronted Laban for the deception, saying he served 7 years for Rachel; Laban told him it’s their custom to marry off the older daughter before the younger, and he asked him to fulfill the marriage week for Leah, then he can also marry Rachel for service of another 7 years. Jacob thus married both of Laban’s daughters for 14 years of service. Laban also gave Rachel his maid Bilhah to be her maid. Jacob loved Rachel more than Leah, but the Lord saw Leah was hated and opened her womb to give birth, but Rachel was infertile.
Leah was fertile, she gave birth to Reuben, the 1st, (from ra’ah, look, see, visit, etc., I think it’s Reu-ben, Re’u-ben, meaning ‘visitation-son, that is the Lord saw and visited her affliction and gave her a son; I know it’s unusual, ’ben’ usually a prefix rather than a suffix; the sense is ‘son of affliction’ or ‘affliction-son’; but then again I think that ‘ra’ah’ joined to ‘ye’ehabani’ (he-will-love-me), as raah-bani, raah-ben, reuben. ); then, 2nd, Simeon, (from shama‘, hear, listen, obey, etc.; the Lord heard); then, 3rd, Levi, (from lawah, lavah, join, attend, etc.; husband is united); and the 4th was Judah (from yadah, praise, thank, laud, etc.; to praise the Lord). Rachel demanded Jacob to give her a child or she’ll die; Jacob replied in anger that he was not in God’s place; so, she insisted that he give her children thru Bilhah as a surrogate; and Bilhah gave birth to a son, Dan (judge, judgment), to Jacob for Rachel; then another son, Naphtali (from pathal, wrestle, struggle, twist). Leah in turn gave Zilpah as wife to Jacob to have children, and she gave birth to Gad (fortunate, lucky), then to Asher (blessed, happy). Thus far 8 sons by 3 wives. During the wheat harvest Reuben found mandrakes (Heb., duda’im, in Delitzsch on Gen., “the yellow ‘love’ apples of the alraun (Mandragora vernalis), a mandrake very common in Palestine. They are about the size of a nutmeg, with a strong and agreeable odour, and were used by the ancients, as they still are by the Arabs, as a means of promoting childbearing.”) in the field, and gave them to Leah; Rachel asked for some, but Leah told her , you took my husband, now you want my son’s mandrakes, Rachael told her she can sleep with Jacob tonight for the mandrakes; Leah told Jacob when he came from the field, that he must sleep with her, because she hired him for her son’s mandrakes. God heard her, she became pregnant, and gave birth to her 5th son, Issachar (from sakar, wages, pay, reward, etc.); then she gave birth to a 6th son, Zebulun, (from zabad, bestow, dowry, gift, etc.; she also gave birth to a daughter, Dinah (from din, judge, judgment). God remembered Rachel He heard her, and made her fertile, and she gave birth to Joseph (from yasaph, add, addition, join, increase, etc.; by removal of her shame). Jacob sons by Leah: 6: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon, and 1 daughter; sons by Bilhah: 2: Dan and Naphtali; sons by Zilpah: 2: Gad and Asher; by Rachel, a son, Joseph. In all 11 sons of Jacob, and 1 daughter.
Jacob asked Laban to let him return home, and to his country, with his wives and children for whom he had served 14 years; Laban acknowledged the Lord’s favor to him because of Jacob, and desired he stay on for new wages. Jacob agreed to stay if all the black and spotted sheep, and all spotted and speckled goats in the flocks becomes his wages, both then and after; Laban agreed. Jacob peeled rods to appear spotted and streak, put them in view of the sheep and goats while drinking, and they conceived before the rods, and brought forth steaked and spotted and speckled kids and lambs; he separated the lambs of Laban to drink by the rods so they also brought forth more spotted, streaked, and speckled; so did he do with the strong and the weak, that more strong were born to him, and more weak to Laban. Jacob prospered greatly, and Laban’s sons complained that Jacob was robbing their father, and the tension grew. The Lord told Jacob to return home to his family, and He will be with him. Jacob called Rachel and Leah, rehearsed and reviewed his stay with Laban, of his faithful service and God’s favor, of his wages being changed 10 times, of his taken the loss of the lost or stolen animals, of God’s Angel in a dream speaking and showing the streaked, speckled, and grizzled of the flock, and told him that He has seen what Laban is doing, that He is the God of Beth-El, where he anointed the pillar and vowed; and He commanded him to return to the land of his birth. Rachel and Leah answered that they have no more inheritance in their father’s house, but are treated like foreigners, he has sold us and stolen our money (dowry), so what God has taken from him is now ours and our children’s; whatever God tells you, do it. Jacob packed his stuff, his family, everything that was his, and headed back to Canaan. But while Laban was away shearing the sheep, Rachel stole the teraphim or idols or house-gods of Laban the Syrian, and they fled, and passed over the River, headed toward the mountain of Gilead. Laban was told, and with men, pursued 7 days after Jacob, and God warned Laban in a dream at night not to speak to Jacob good or bad. Laban confronted Jacob for sneaking away without notice or blessing, taking his daughters and grandkids as captives, without any regard to his rights or feelings, he could do him harm, but the God of Jacob’s father spoke to him in a dream warning him. Laban said that in longing to return home why did he steel his Gods (’Elohai, ’Eloah, whence Elohim, Ellah, Allah, etc.), his idols. Jacob said he left secretly that Laban would not by force take his daughters from him; and if you find your Eloah (god, gods, idols, teraphim) with any of us, he shall die. Laban searched but found nothing, Rachel having concealed the teraphim in the camel’s seat and sat on it, pretending to be on her period and could not get up. Jacob was angry at Laban for accusing him falsely, and for hotly pursuing him as an enemy or thief, although he has never stolen a single thing from him for 20 years (14 years for Laban’s two daughters, and 6 years for the flock), not to mention his wages changed 10 times. The God of Abraham and the Fear of Isaac prevented him from poverty and loss, and has seen his affliction and labor, and rebuked him. Laban said the daughters, children, flocks, everything belonged to Laban, yet what can he do against them; he desired that he and Jacob make a covenant, to be a witness between them. Jacob took a stone for a pillar, they gathered stones in a heap, and they feasted by the heap. Laban called it Jegar-saha-dutha (in Aramaic, old Assyrian Syriac), but Jacob called it (in old Hebrew) Galeed (Gal-‘Ed), the Heap of Witness, Witness-Heap. Laban said, the Lord watch as witness between us, that you do not afflict my daughters, and take other wives, that Jacob does not cross over for harm, and that the God of Abraham, the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge between them. Jacob swore the oath by the Fear of his father Isaac. In the morn Laban kissed them all, and blessed, and returned home.
Jacob went his way and God’s angels met him, and he said it was God’s host (camp), Mahanaim. Jacob sent messengers (malakim, angels, for angels are messengers in simple ordinary sense) to meet Esau in Seir in the field of Edom; he told them tell Esau that he has stayed with Laban till now, that he has gained much wealth and servants and he seeks his favor; they returned saying that they met Esau, and he now comes with 400 men. Jacob very afraid and worried divided his people and animals into two companies to meet Esau, and mitigate the risk and danger of Esau’s attack, and to have some escape. He prayed to the God of Abraham and of Isaac, that the Lord Who promised to lead and protect him, though he was unworthy of His mercy and truth, Who made him a great company, to deliver him from Esau to not attack, and to keep His promise to bless and increase Jacob. He lodged the night, then prepared a gift to Esau of many animals, and set them in droves with his servants. He told the first drove, to tell Esau that his servant Jacob offers these as gits to find favor from his lord Esau, and he is behind us; he instructed the 2nd and 3rd droves likewise, hoping to appease Esau. Jacob lodged at night in the company or camp; then at night took his family of 2 wives, 2 subwives and 12 children (11 sons and 1 daughter), and crossed the Jabbok, and he sent them over the stream with the stuff, but he remained behind alone; there he wrestled with a Man till dawn, and being disabled (yakol: able, prevail, over-power, etc.; Gen. 13:6 is 1st occur.) against him, touched and shrank the hallow (kaph: flat, palm, sole, , socket, etc.; the spot that a hand was placed in swearing oaths, as with Abraham and Eliezer) of Jacob’s thigh, and demanded to quit, but Jacob insisted on a blessing first, He said his new name shall be Israel, Yisrael, Isra-’El, (from sarah, sarar: prince, rule, govern, strive, contend, challenge, fight, compete, etc.; the root of Sarah’s name; thus, God’s-Prince, God’s-Rule, God’s-Fight, etc.) because he has striven and prevailed with God and men; Jacob asked His name, but He did not say; Jacob named the place Peniel, Peni-El, Penuel, because he saw God’s Face, yet lived; Jacob left Penuel limping at the thigh (which the Israelites afterwards refused to eat the sinew of the hip, even to the time of Moses (I here remark that the expression “unto this day” occurred 3 times previously in Gen. 19:37, 38; 26:33; it is clear that the inspiration of the Text shows that this a writer, editor, or author’s hand; the explanation, simple and correct is it is Moses; also we will see in Deuteronomy that this expression is used by Moses expressly)). Jacob with his family met Esau and his band, bowing 7 times to Esau his brother; Esau ran to him, embraced him, and held his neck, and kissed him, and they wept; he asked about his family, and Jacob told him that they were his children by God’s grace; the maids (subwives) and their children came and bowed; then Leah and her children, and last Joseph with Rachel; Esau ask what was all this about, and Jacob told him it was to find favor; Esau refused the gifts, and said he had enough, but Jacob begged him to take the gifts as proof of his favor to Jacob, since Esau is as God’s Face at their meeting, so Esau took the present. Esau offered to journey with Jacob together, but Jacob entreated him to make it easier and safer that he should go ahead and Jacob and his company with all the animals will follow at a slower pace till they arrive at Seir. Esau offered to leave some folks with Jacob, but Jacob said there was no need for that, so Esau returned towards Seir.
Jacob settled at Succoth, made home there, and stalls or booths (succoth, sukkoth) for his livestock, and he resided near the city of Shechem of Canaan after his migration from Padan-aram; and he purchased that parcel of land of his encampment from the children of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for 100 pieces of money (shekels, coins). He erected an altar and called it El-Elohe-Israel (God-Israel’s-God). Leah’s Daughter (now a teen), went out to watch the daughters of the land , that is, the Canaanite girls of Shechem, and Shechem ben-Hamor the Hivite, Prince of the land, saw her and raped her; Shechem loved Dinah after raping her, and spoke kindly to her, and demanded his father to get her as his wife; Jacob heard of the rape, and waited till his sons came in from the field; Hamor abi-Shechem asked Jacob to let Shechem marry Dinah; but Jacob’s sons were grieved and angry that folly and rape was committed against Israel; but Hamor pleaded with them to let Shechem marry Dinah, because he is in love with her.; Hamor offered that Israel and Hivites could intermarry, Shechem also entreated them to name whatever dowry they desired for the marriage; Jacob sons , because of the rape, in guile replied and demanded that all the Shechemites must be circumcised, only then they can mutually intermarry and be one people. Hamor and Shechem were pleased, and gladly agreed to the terms, for his delight in Dinah, and he was the most honored of Hamor’s house, they convinced the men of Shechem to agree with this proposal of circumcision, then can the two parties intermarry and become one people; so, they did. On the 3rd day while still recovering, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, came upon them with swords and killed all the males, and took Dinah from Shechem’s house. Jacob’s sons plundered the city of the slain because of Dinah’s rape, and took all as spoil, their stuff and the survivors as captives. Jacob accused Dinah’s brothers of trouble and offense among the Canaanites and the Perizzites, who outnumber him, and will attack and destroy him and his house; but they asked if their sister should be treated as a harlot.
God told Jacob to go and dwell at Beth-El, to make an altar to El (here the Lord as El and not Elohim, as in El Shaddai, El Elyon, etc., in midst of idolatry), Who appeared to him when he fled from Esau. Jacob ordered his house to get rid of the alien gods (’eth-’elohe hannekar= the gods (unknown, foreign, strange, etc.; that is, idols and vanities), and be clean, to go to Bethel to make an altar to God (El) Who saved and kept him; they gave him all their hand held idols, and their earrings, and he buried them under the oak tree near Shechem. They journeyed, and the inhabitants God struck with fear, and did not pursue them. Jacob came to Luz, Beth-El, in Canaan, built the altar, and renamed the place El-Beth-El, because of God’s revelation to him. Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, died and was buried under the oak tree (or terebinth) of Bethel, called Allon-Bacuth (Weeping-Oak, Terebinth-Tears). Again, God appeared to Jacob and told him his name is Israel; and God called him Israel, and as El Shaddai blessed him to be fruitful and multiply into a nation and a company of nations and kings, and He will give him and his descendants the land promised; and God left him after speaking. Jacob-Israel travelled from Bethel towards Ephrath, and pregnant Rachel was in hard labor, died while giving birth to her 2nd son, calling him Ben-oni (Son of Sorrow, Sad-Son, Weak-Son)) but Jacob called him Benjamin (Binyamin= Son-Right-hand, Strong-Son); they buried Rachel on the way to Ephrath or Bethlehem, and Jacob set up a pillar on her grave, still called Rachel’s Pillar to this day (Moses’ time). Israel journeyed and set up camp at beyond the Tower of Eder, there Reuben violated Bilhah, Jacob’s subwife (concubine, mistress, consort, slave, servant, help)), Rachel’s maid, Dan’s and Naphtali’s mother; and Israel heard about it. The 12 Sons of Israel: by Leah, 6 Sons: Reuben the 1st born, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon; by Rachel: 2 Sons: Joseph and Benjamin; by Bilhah, Rachel’s maid: 2 Sons: Dan and Naphtali; by Zilpah, Leah’s maid: 2 Sons: Gad and Asher; these were born to Jacob in Padan-aram before he resettled in Canaan (Benjamin born in route). Jacob came to Isaac at Mamre, Kiriath-arba or Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac were pilgrims. The days of Isaac were 180 years, and he died, was buried by his sons Esau and Jacob, and was gathered to his people, old and full of days.
We are finished with the Generations of Isaac which takes us to his death, Jacob and Esau at 120, and Joseph about 30, and Benjamin about 10. As we have said that we restrain our reflections of all that we read and understand of the Patriarchal Age till after Genesis is completed. The Generations of Isaac was the 8th generation, and we will now move on to the 9th and 10th generations which are really one in two parts, of Esau as Edom and Esau as Abi-Edomites. God continues to change and adapt to man in human development and changes. As El Shaddai He shows Himself unique and distinct in the dispensation of the Fathers, in which he focuses on three patriarchal families, along with all the families of the nations of the earth. Human culture and mankind’s civilization continued to grow and evolve, and we have immense remains of data and details of that ancient world. God’s involvement is measured by His eternal counsels and intentions which He reveals as He sees best.
GENESIS: Chapter 36: Generations of Esau-Edom (Canaan) & Esau Abi-Edom (Mount Seir):
Generations of Esau-Edom in Canaan:
Esau’s Canaanite wives were Adah bath-Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah bath-Anah bath-Zibeon the Hivite; then Basemath bath-Ishmael, Nebaioth’s sister. Adah’s son was Eliphaz; and Basemoth gave birth to Reuel; and Oholibamah’s sons were Jeush, Jalam, and Korah; these were all born in Canaan, before he resettled in mount Seir. Esau parted from Jacob in Canaan, taking all his families, possessions, livestock, and souls or servants, and moved to mount Seir in Edom; known today as Jibal-ash-Sharah, from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba, the southeastern borders of later Edom and Judah.
Generations of Esau Abi-Edom in Mount Seir:
Esau’s sons named: Esau’s wife Adah’s sons: Eliphaz’s sons, Esau’s grandsons: 5; Eliphaz’s concubine Timna’s son and Esau’s grandson: 1 (Amalek). Esau’s wife Basemath’s sons: Reuel sons, Esau’s grandsons: 4. Esau’s wife Oholibamah bath-Anah bath-Zibeon: 3 sons. Esau’s sons and Sheiks (Dukes, Princes, Chiefs): Eliphaz the 1st born: 7 Sheiks. Reuel ben-Esau: 4 Sheiks. Esau’ wife Oholibamah bath-Anah: 3 Sheiks. Esau’s (Edom’s) sons and Sheiks: Sons of Seir the Horite of the Edomites: 7 Sheiks. Lotan’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 2, Hori and Heman; Lotan’s sister was Timna. Shobal’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 5. Zibeon’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 2, Aiah and Anah; Anah ben-Zibeon found the hot springs in the wilderness (desert) while feeding his father’s donkeys. Anah’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 2, Dishon and Oholibamah bath-Anah. Dishon’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 4. Ezer’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 3. Dishan’s sons, Seir’s grandsons: 2. Horites Sheiks: 7 Sheiks or Chiefs, Horites in the land of Seir. Edomites Kings (before any King ruled in Israel, that is to the time of Samuel): 8 Kings: Bela ben-Beor in Edom in Dinhabah; Jobab ben-Zerah of Bozrah; Husham of the Temanites; Hadad ben Bedad, who attacked Midian in the field of Moab; Samlah of Masrekah; Shaul of Rehoboth by the River; Baal-hanan ben-Achor; Hadar, his city was named Pau, his wife’s name was Mehetabel bath-Matred bath Me-zahab. Sheiks or Chiefs of Esau by families, places, and names: 11 Sheiks or Chiefs of Edom by their habitations and territory. Esau Abi-Edom.
The history of Esau’s generations of his descendants and progeny is seen in Edom and Idumea, also we see it mixed with that of Ishmael or the Arabs. Arabic history of the very ancient times before Moses was the formation of the people and cultures of both Ishmael and Esau, and Arabia and Edom-Idumea would be forever intertwined according to the words spoken by God to Abraham and Hagar. Their relations to ancient Israel as well as to modern Israel will play out as it did and will continue still.
GENESIS: Chapters 37-50: Generations of Jacob & Israel & Joseph:
Jacob continues as a pilgrim in Canaan. The Generations of Jacob is the last of the generations in the Book of Genesis, it is the 10th proper, the generations of Esau were numbered twice in two pars presentation of the history of Edom and the Edomites. We will see that Jacob’s generation as here given is not merely that of Jacob as Jacob, but rather it is Jacob as Israel, and as such starts off with Joseph as a teenager of 17, and a shepherd boy feeding the flock with his other brothers, the sons of Bilhah and of Zilpah, Jacob’s wives, and he told Jacob on them with an evil report. Israel loved Joseph most as the son of his old age and made for him a ‘coat of many-colors’ (kethoneh passim: tunic, chiton, garment, cloak, robe, etc.; it was a special quality coat or tunic or robe); his brothers seeing he was Jacob’s most favorite beloved, hated more, and did not speak to him peaceably. Joseph dreamed of binding sheaves in the field, his sheaf stood up and their sheaves bowed to his; and he related it, and they hated him and his words more, and they responded if he should truly rule or govern them. He dreamed again that the sun, the moon, and the 11 stars bowed to him; he related to his father, but Jacob rebuked him, saying, what is this dream, should your father and mother and brothers bow to you. His brothers were jealous and envied him, but Jacob reflected about it. His brothers were feeding the flock in Shechem, Jacob sent Joseph check if all is well, and bring him word; he sent him from the vale of Hebron to Shechem; a stranger saw he was lost, and asked to help, he said he was looking for his brothers, and he told him that they said they were going to Dothan; he went and found them at Dothan; they saw him approaching, and said among themselves, here comes the dreamer, let us kill him and throw him into the pit, and claim that a wild animal attacked him, then what will come of his dreams. Reuben rescued him from this plot, advising not to kill him, but only throw him in the pit, for he thought to rescue restore him later; they did as Reuben suggested, taking off his special coat, and threw him into the dry well; and they ate together nearby, then they saw a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gilead with camels of spices, balm, and myrrh, heading down to Egypt; Judah told his brothers it would be bad and useless to kill their own brother, instead he suggested to sell him to the Ishmaelites; they agreed, and handed him over to the Midianites merchantmen of the Ishmaelites for 20 pieces of silver, and they took him to Egypt. Reuben returned to find the dry well empty, and was troubled about Joseph, and they took Joseph’s coat and dipped it in goat’s blood, and brought it to Jacob, and he recognized it as Joseph’s, and said a wild beast must have killed him; and he tore his clothes and mourned for Joseph for many days; his children tried to comfort him, but he refused, saying he will go down to Sheol (hades, orcus, inferno, hell, pit, cell, grave, death, ‘place of the departed forefathers’, etc.; 1st occur., next in Gen. 42:38; 44:29; 44:31) to his dead son mourning in tears. The Midianites sold Joseph in Egypt to Potiphar, Pharaoh’s officer and captain of the guard.
About that time Judah was visiting his Adullamite friend Hirah, and he saw Shua a Canaanite girl, and he had sex with her, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Er; then again, she got pregnant and birthed Onan; and again, pregnant, she birthed Shelah, when he was living at Chezib. After they grew up, Judah arranged a marriage of Er his 1st born to Tamar; but Er was wicked and the Lord killed him; Judah told Onan to go with Tamar, as the custom of the husband’s brother, that she may conceive and give birth to a seed to Er’s name; but Onan rejected that custom, and instead, he caused his sperm to spill on the ground, which displeased the Lord, and He killed him also. Judah told his daughter-in-law (kallah: bride, ‘widow’, newlywed, young-wife, etc.) Tamar to wait in her father’s house as a widow till Shelah, about 2 or 3 years younger than Onan, that is in his mid-teens, is fully grown; but he was afraid that Shelah also might die early. Then Judah’s wife, bath-Shua, died, and after mourning her, he was with his sheep-shearers at Timnah, with his friend Hirah the Adullamite; Tamar was told her father-in-law (cham: relative, kin, family, in-law, etc.; Gesenius says from an ‘unused root’; not to be confused with Ham; 1st occur, next in Gen. 38:25) was going to Timnah, she put off her widow’s clothes, veiled and wrapped, and sat in the gate of Enaim as if a harlot, because she knew Shelah was fully grown and still Judah had not married her to him. Judah mistook her as a harlot, her face veiled, and desired to have sex with her, they agreed for a goat’s kid, she demanded a token as a payment pledge or deposit, to gave her his signet, his cord (waist-belt), and his staff; he gave them to her, and he was with her, and she got pregnant; she returned home, changed clothes to her widowhood. Judah sent the payment of a goat’s kid by his friend the Adullamite, to retrieve his pledge from the woman, but he didn’t find her, and he asked the men near Enaim of the prostitute (qadesh: harlot temple-prostitute, sex-offering, etc., compare with qodesh: sacred, holy, separate, devoted, etc.; 1st occurs as a name Kadesh (Qadesh) in Gen. 14:7, but here in 38:21,21 it 1st occurs as prostitution) but they said there was no harlot here; and he related to Judah, and he said let her have the pledge less we look like fools had by a harlot. 3 months later Judah was informed that Tamar was pregnant as a common harlot (zanah: fornication, prostitution, sexual-immorality, intercourse, vice, etc.), and he said bring her out and burn her to death. Tamar quickly sent word to Judah, that by the man whose pledge of signet, cord, and staff am I pregnant; Judah acknowledged them and declared that she was more righteous than himself for not giving her to Shelah. When she was giving birth, it was discovered she had twins, and the first put out his hands, the midwife tied a scarlet thread to confirm his place, but then the hand was withdrawn, and the other was born instead, and they named him Perez for this breach, then the other with the scarlet thread was born and named Zerah.
Joseph was now servant or slave to the Egyptian Potiphar, Pharaoh’s Officer and Guard Captain, who bought him from the Ishmaelites. The Lord (YHWH) (because El Shaddai must deal with man and Gentiles, that is, the world or Egyptians, as a Third Party, not intervening as He did with the Patriarchs, but still bound to Abraham’s seed) prospered Joseph as a servant, and granted him favor with his Egyptian lord, who trusted in as a faithful overseer and chief slave. Potiphar’s wife lusted for the youth Joseph, but he refused her demands to commit adultery with her, reasoning with her that it would be betrayal to his master, and sin against God; and he tried to ignore and to avoid her. One day while working, the other servants absent, she grabbed his clothes and demanded sex, but he fled leaving his clothes in her hand; she told her husband that the Hebrew slave tried to rape her, but she screamed, and he fled; Potiphar’s wrath was inflamed, and he incarcerated Joseph in the King’s Prison. The Lord (Jehovah) showed Joseph kindness and prospered him and granted him favor and blessing with the prison keeper or guard or warden., who trusted him to handle all the prisoners. After a while the King of Egypt’s chief butler and chief baker offended Pharaoh, who in anger threw them into the prison where Joseph was, who was charged with their care by the warden. Both Butler and Baker dreamed and were disturbed by their dreams, in the morning he ascertained from them why they were sad, and they told him their dream that no one could interpret, but Joseph reminded them that dream interpretations belong to God. The Chief Butler’s Dream: A Vine with 3 Branches, budded with blossoms with clusters of grapes, Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and gave Pharaoh the cup. Joseph’s Interpretation to the Butler: 3 Branches = 3 Days, in 3 Days Pharaoh uplift his head and restore him to his office to serve as before; and he asked him to remember Joseph to Pharaoh, since he was imprisoned wrongly as a Hebrew stolen from his land. The baker, pleased with the interpretation, told Joseph his dream. The Chief Baker’s Dream: 3 Baskets of white bread on the head, in the top basket was many baked foods for Pharaoh, but the birds ate the food in the basket. Joseph’s Interpretation to the Baker: 3 Baskets = 3 Days, in 3 days Pharaoh will uplift his head by hanging him on a tree, and the birds shall eat his flesh. And in 3 days was Pharaoh’s birthday, and he had a celebration feast with his servants, he restored the chief butler, but he hanged the chief baker, just as Joseph interpreted; but the chief butler forgot Joseph.
Two years later Pharaoh dreamed: He stood by the river (Nile), 7 Cows, came out of the river (Nile) healthy, fattened and well-fed, feeding by the reeds and grass; then 7 Cows, came out of the river (Nile) unhealthy, starved, and skinny, and they stood near the other 7 cows on the brink of the river; and the unhealthy and sickly cows ate up the 7 healthy cows; then Pharaoh awoke. Pharaoh’s second dream: 7 Ears of grain came up on one stalk, rank and good, then 7 Ears (Grain-heads) thin and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them; the thin ears (grain-heads) devoured the 7 rank and full ears (grain-heads); Pharaoh awoke from his dream; but his spirit was troubled in the morning; he summoned the magicians and wise men of Egypt; and he told them his dreams, but none could interpret them to Pharaoh. The chief butler remembered Joseph, he told Pharaoh that when he and the chief baker were in prison in the warden’s house, they both dreamed, and a young Hebrew servant of the warden interpreted accurately both dreams, and it happened as he interpreted. Pharaoh immediately summoned Joseph from prison, he shaved and changed clothes, and stood before Pharaoh; he told Joseph that he dreamed a dream that no one, not even the magicians, can interpret, and they say that he can easily; he said that it’s not in him, but God will give Pharaoh an answer of peace; so he related to Joseph the dreams of the 7 Cows and the 7 Ears (Grains). Joseph’s Interpretation: The dreams are one, God has revealed to Pharaoh what He is about to do. The 7 Good Cows and 7 good Grain-Ears = 7 Years of Plenty; the 7 lean sick Cows and the 7 empty stripped Grain-Ears = 7 Years of Famine. There will be 7 years of plenty and abundance in Egypt, then 7 years of severe famine will consume all food supply. The double dreams signify it is God’s work and revelation to Pharaoh. Pharaoh should prepare against the famine by appointing overseers (officers, deputies) to gather as much grain as possible in all the cities of Egypt in storages. Pharaoh and his servants were pleased, and he said that who is better and wiser than Joseph, who has God’s spirit in him, to reveal and interpret divine dreams; and Pharaoh set him over his house and people, 2nd in power to the throne under Pharaoh of Egypt. Pharaoh put his signet ring on Joseph’s finger, clothed in royal vestures, and put a gold chain around his neck, made him ride a 2nd royal chariot, and the people to shout Bow the Knee; and Joseph was royal Prince of Egypt. Pharaoh the King of Egypt named Joseph Zaphenath-paneah and married him to Asenath bath-Poti-Phera the Priest of On. Joseph was now 30 years old; he gathered all the food for 7 years in Egypt’s cities, and stored them. Joseph had two sons by Asenath the Priest of On’s daughter, the 1st born Manasseh (because God made him forget his slavery and family), and the 2nd was Ephraim (because God has prospered him in the land of his affliction). The 7 years of plenty ended (Joseph now 37), and the famine came upon all the lands near Egypt, but Egypt had food supply. The people cried to Pharaoh in the famine, and he sent them to Joseph; the famine was over “all the face of the earth” (kol-peney ha’aretz; we may here observe a remark and principle of interpretation on ancient or peculiar idioms; the expression or word ‘all’ and that of ‘all the earth’, has occurred frequently throughout Genesis from chapter 1 onwards, at times it is more universal than local, often it is generic and not specific or precise as to actual geographic locations; we are mistaken to build doctrines on the word itself, as if it carries exactness without context and details; ‘all the earth’ may mean only of Mesopotamia, Eden, Canaan or Palestine, and so forth; ‘all men’ may mean only the men and people understood in the Text; and many such applications or qualifications may be found), and Joseph fed the people from the store-houses, and he sold to them what they needed and could afford; all the surrounding countries also came and purchased grain in Egypt, because the famine was severe and widespread.
Jacob heard there was grain in Egypt and sent his 10 sons to buy grain but would not permit Benjamin to go along with them (Benjamin about 20 years old, Joseph about 40), he was afraid of the risk. The sons (or children) of Israel came from Canaan to Egypt to buy food, and Joseph recognized them, he remembered his dreams about them, and accused them as spies; they tried to defend themselves as true buyers of food, 12 sons of one man in Canaan, the youngest son is at home with their father, and another is gone. Joseph insists they are spies and requires proof of their innocence and honesty that they bring their youngest brother to him; and he imprisoned them for 3 days; then he ordered them, as fearing God, to keep one of them as prisoner, but the other 9 to return with grain, and return to Egypt with their youngest brother. They began in Joseph’s presence, not knowing that he knew Hebrew, to say to each other that they were guilty of persecuting Joseph and ignoring his distress, and Reuben reminded them that he tried to stop them, and now his blood is required; Joseph stepped away to cry at what he heard, then returned and bound Simeon in their sight. He commanded their vessels to be filled with grain, their money to be put in their sacks, and provisions given them for the trip, with their donkeys loaded up; along the way they discovered their monies in their sack and wondered in great fear shaking what God was doing to them. They came home and told Jacob everything that happened, and what the lord of Egypt said, then Jacob cried that they have bereaved him of Joseph and Simeon, and now they want Benjamin, all these things were against him. Reuben offered that his two sons may be killed if he does not bring back Benjamin safely to him, but Jacob stood firm and refused to let them take Benjamin, lest he also be killed as Joseph was, then he would truly go to hell (sheol) with sorry gray hairs. The famine continued into the 3rd year, the supply of grain was gone, so Jacob told his sons to return to Egypt and buy food; Judah reminded Jacob that the man made it clear not to return to Egypt without their youngest brother, Israel asked why they told him they had a younger brother at home, they told him the man was very specific about their family, how could they guess he would make such demands. Judah offered to be surety for the lad (Benjamin at about 22 or 23), and take all blame; Jacob yielded and told them to take with the best fruits of Canaan, gifts, and other good things, and the double money for the oversight, and take Benjamin, and may El Shaddai give mercy by the man to release Simeon and return Benjamin; if bereaved he is bereaved; and so they did as he said, and returned to Egypt, and stood before Joseph. Joseph saw Benjamin, and told his house steward to bring the men to his house and prepare a meal; but they were afraid, thinking the worse, they explained to the steward about the money from the first trip, and a mistake had been made by someone, but they have brought double money to buy grain on this trip, but he assured them that their God and the God of their father gave them treasure in their sacks, for he had their money; and he brought out Simeon. They were washed and refreshed, their donkeys fed, and were ready for Joseph to dine with them; when arrived they presented their gifts and bowed to him; he asked about their health and family and of their father the old man; they said he is alive and well, and they bowed; he said to Benjamin his brother, may God be gracious to you, but quickly left their presence to shed tears because of his younger brother; he washed his face and returned to dine with them. He arranged to eat alone, for his brothers by themselves, and for the Egyptians to eat by themselves, for the Egyptians to eat with Hebrews was an abomination. He arranged his brothers seating to be from the oldest to the youngest, they were surprised, he sent them portions of his own meal to them, but 5 times more for Benjamin; they drank and laughed. He ordered his steward to fill their sacks with food, and hide the money in their sacks, and put his silver cup in the youngest one’s sack; in the morn they were sent away; when they were outside the city Joseph sent his steward after them asking why they rewarded evil for good, this is my lord’s drinking cup for divining; they objected to the accusation of theft, and said let him die who stole, and they will be the lord’s slaves; but the steward said that the thief only will be enslaved and they will be blameless. The steward searched their sacks and found the cup in Benjamin’s sack; they tore their clothes, reloaded the donkeys and returned to the city. Judah prostrated himself before Joseph, and he told them he could divine, Judah told him they were guilty, and God has found out their wickedness, they will be the lord’s slaves along with the thief. Joseph said only the thief will be his slave, the rest may return home; Judah pleaded for a hearing by the lord, and rehearsed the details of the words between them and Jacob about Benjamin, of Judah’s promise of surety for Benjamin’s safe return, of Joseph’s death, of Jacob’s attachment to Benjamin, and that their father will die sad if Benjamin does not return. At this Joseph tears could not be restrained, and his emotions could not be refrained, he ordered everyone out while he revealed his identity to his brothers, crying loudly so that the Egyptians and Pharaoh’s house could hear. His brothers were shocked speechless, and he bid them to come near and consoled them not to be sad or afraid, because God designed his slavery in Egypt to preserve life, for salvation. There are 5 years left of the famine, and God has sent him to preserve them as a remnant in the earth, and to save life by a great deliverance and salvation. God has sent me to be a Father to Pharaoh, and Lord of his house, and Ruler over all the land of Egypt. He told them to return quickly to Canaan, tell Jacob that God has made Joseph Lord of all Egypt, and to come to him quickly, to live in the land of Goshen, to be near me, with all Jacob’s family of children, grandchildren, livestock and animals, and everything that belongs to Jacob; and Joseph promised him to nourish through the famine, and prevent starvation and poverty. He assured Jacob by his message and Benjamin, that he is Joseph. He told them to relate to Jacob all his glory in Egypt, and to bring his father. Joseph embraced and hugged and kiss all his brothers with tears and talked with them. Pharaoh’s heard the news, it pleased him and his servants, and he told Joseph to have his brothers load the donkeys to return to Canaan and bring Jacob and all his house and things to live in the best of Egypt; command them to take wagons from Egypt to carry the little ones, the wives, and Jacob; not to regard leaving anything behind, because all the good of all the land of Egypt is theirs. And the sons of Israel did as Pharaoh ordered, and Joseph gave them wagons as he commanded, he also game them clothes and money, but 5 times more to Benjamin; and to his father 20 donkeys loaded with gifts and grain from Egypt. He sent off and warned them not to quarrel. They returned to Jacob in Canaan and told him everything about Joseph alive as Ruler over all the land of Egypt, but he fainted in unbelief. They told him all the words of Joseph, and he the wagons sent him to carry him to Egypt, his spirit revived, and Israel said it is enough, Joseph lives, he will go see him before he dies.
Israel journeyed with his company, at Beer-sheba in offered sacrifices to the God of Isaac; and God (Elohim as El) the God of Isaac spoke to him in a dream vision by name, telling him not to be afraid to go down to Egypt, and promised him to make of him a great nation, to be with him in Egypt, and to again bring him back again, and Joseph will touch his eyes. Jacob travelled from Beer-sheba to Egypt, with his 66 souls of his house; 33 souls of Leah; 16 souls of Zilpah; 14 souls of Rachel; and 7 sons of Bilhah; his 12 (11, Joseph was already in Egypt) sons, his 48 grandsons (2 died in Canaan), and his 4 great grandsons. The 70 souls are given by the 4 wives or mothers: Leah 33, Zilpah 16, Rachel 14, and Bilhah 7. Joseph and his 2 sons are listed among the 70 souls and the 66 souls. The 10 women (6 named) also belong to Jacob’s house; there are unnamed, many wives, concubines, women, daughters, and servants (like midwives); many men, boys, and servants which are not listed as direct heirs or members of Jacob’s company. The list reveals direct lines or lineage, perhaps the total actual numbers of souls would approach 200, we do not know, and the Text is not concerned to indicate it; the story of the generations is what it is as it is. Further the fact that Benjamin at about 20 years of age and has 10 children in Rachel’s line is curious and inexplicable without more info. The genealogy recording the mother’s name is also instructive as to the prophetic Seed of the Woman in Genesis 3. Another note of interest in the genealogical names in Genesis, they reveal the experiences of the parents or persons and the times , many of their meaning are easily understood in the Hebrew roots from which they derive or are akin or cognate; but many more are dubious or uncertain; we are dependent on the text and context to have understanding; but all said, a world of history lies within the names. An example be given in some of these: Adam from or related to adamah (ground), and dam (red-blood); Eve (life, living); Enosh, Methuselah, Noah, Shem, etc. The generations and their genealogy, history, and biography, are all about souls and their lives and living, namely about life.
A last reflection before we continue the story of Jacob going to Egypt. As I mentioned in the Introduction of these Reflections that the Red Letter Bible, which contains the Divine utterances as direct speech or expressions are printed in red ink. The first words spoken by God, printed in red, is “Let there be light”; and we follow throughout the chapters in Genesis and find periodically and dispensationally that God continues to visit and interact directly with man, and the red ink makes it even more curious and conspicuous. Here we wish to note the last time God speaks in red ink in Genesis, namely in Gen. 46:2-4: ”Jacob, Jacob. And he said: Here am I. And He said: I am God, the God of thy father: fear not to go down into Egypt; for I will there make of thee a great nation: I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again: and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes.” We will continue throughout the rest of the Old Testament, the Tanakh or Mikra, to see how the red ink scriptures play a crucial role in biblical hermeneutics, especially in what some call their ‘documentary hypothesis’, which should be qualified and prefixed with the words conjectural hypothetical and presumptive. As with so many things of the Divine Word, many things are hidden deep within the heart of the words. (It’s a wonder that these scholars did not also invent the Jacob versus Israel Hypothesis and Theory; or that of ‘Jesus’ and ‘Christ’.)
We continue. Jacob sends Judah ahead to lead the way to Goshen; Joseph went riding in his chariot to meet Israel at Goshen, embracing and hugging and crying on his father’s neck for a long time; Israel told Joseph he can now die having seen Joseph’s face alive. Joseph tells them he will go tell Pharaoh that is kin are come from Canaan to stay with him in Egypt, in Goshen; that they are shepherds and herdsmen, and when Pharaoh asks them of their occupation, they should answer likewise; that he may let you reside in Goshen; because every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians. So Pharaoh met them, and told them to settle in Goshen, and asked that if any of them were capable to be put over his cattle also. Jacob was introduced to Pharaoh, who asked his age, and Jacob said 130 years, they are few and evil, and have not reached the years of my father’s age in their pilgrimage; and Jacob blessed Pharaoh and departed. Joseph located and settled his family in Rameses as Pharaoh commanded and nourished them through the famine in Egypt and Canaan. Joseph sold grain for money to all in Egypt and Canaan, and deposited the money in Pharaoh’s house, when the people no longer had money, Joseph bartered and traded their cattle in exchange for food, and the next year, when they had no more cattle, he traded for their bodies and their lands, buying them and their land for Pharaoh, to feed them and give them seed to sow seeds in the land, and he relocated from one end of Egypt to the other end; but he did not buy any of the priests’ land. For their portion was from Pharaoh. Joseph gave the seed to plant that at harvest 1/5th % should go to Pharaoh, and they agreed it was more than fair; Joseph made it a statute that Pharaoh gets 1/5th % of the harvest of the land, except of the priests. Israel prospered and flourished in Goshen. Jacob lived in in Egypt for 17 years, attaining to the age of 147 as he approached death. Israel made Joseph swear an oath to not bury him in Egypt but to bury him in Canaan in his burial-place and said he would do so; and Israel bowed at the bed’s head. Joseph was told that his father was sick, he took his sons, Manasseh and Ephraim, and went to see him, Jacob was told that Joseph is coming, so he strengthened himself and sat up. He told Joseph that El Shaddai (God Almighty, the Sufficient God) appeared to him at Luz in Canaan, and blessed him, promising to increase and enlarge him into a company of peoples, and to grant to his seed the promised land for an everlasting possession; Jacob told Joseph that he has adopted his two sons as his own, but any other children to be born to Joseph will be his own and named after their brothers in their inheritance. He related to him that after he left Paddan to go to Canaan, Rachel died on the way before he came to Ephrath, and he buried her at Beth-lehem. Israel asked him the boys, he told him that they were his sons given by God, he bid him to bring them near to be blessed, for Israel aged and near blind; he brought them near and he kissed and embraced them. Israel said he did not expect to see Joseph again, yet God has shown his seed to him; Joseph put his sons before Jacob, and he bowed; Israel extended his hand and crisscrossed them to put his right hand on Ephraim’s head, but his left hand on Manasseh’s head; he blessed Joseph by the God of Abraham and Isaac Who fed him all his life to this day, and by the Angel Who has redeemed him from all evil, that He bless the boys, that Israel’s name be on them with the name of Abraham and Isaac, and enlarge them greatly throughout the earth. Joseph noticed Jacob’s hands were crossed and tried to switch them to bless the 1st born as Manasseh, Jacob refused, both will be great, but the younger so will be greater, and Ephraim’s seed will become multitude of nations. He blessed them: “In thee will Israel bless, saying, God make thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh.” He told Joseph he was about to die, and God will be with them, and bring them again to Canaan; and he told him that has given an extra portion above his brothers, portions that he took by sword and now from the Amorite.
Jacob gathered his sons and foretold them of their latter days: Assemble sons of Jacob, listen to Israel your father: Reuben: my 1st born, first in dignity and power, as boiling water you will lose 1st place; you defiled your father’s bed by incest. Simeon and Levi: brothers, their swords are weapons of violence; my soul and glory avoid their council (Sanhedrin) and their assembly (Synagogue); in their anger, cursed and fierce, they killed a man, in their self-will, cruel wrath, they hocked an ox; I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel. Judah: thy brethren will praise thee, thy hand on thine enemies neck, thy father’s sons will to thee,; Judah is a lion’s whelp, a predator of the prey, who dares to rouse him; the Scepter will never leave Judah, nor a Ruler from him, not till Shiloh (Messiah) come: to Him shall the peoples’ obedience: his foal He binds to the vine, His donkey’s colt, He washed His garments and clothes in wine of the grapes’ blood, His eyes become red with wine, His teeth white with milk. Zebulun: haven of the sea for ships, his borders near Sidon. Issachar: strong donkey, burdened between stalls, he sees a good resting-place, a pleasant land; carrying his burden as a servant at work. Dan: his people’s judge in Israel, an adder in the path, to bite the horse and fell the rider; thy Salvation (Yeshua) I await Jehovah. Gad: a troop shall press him, but he will press their heel (like a snake). Asher: his bread shall be fat with royal dainties. Naphtali: a loose hind or wild deer with beautiful utterances. Joseph: a fruitful bough by a fountain, his branches cover the wall, the archers persecuted him, but his bow stayed strong by the Hands of the Mighty one of Jacob ( there the Shepherd and Stone of Israel), by El (God) of thy father they Helper, by Shaddai thy Blesser, blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep below, blessings of the breasts (shadayim, from shad, meaning breasts, paps, mammary glands; this is the true and proper meaning of Shaddai; the mammary glands is what characterizes mammals, a category of which man is identified) and the womb; blessings of thy father (Jacob-Israel) prevails over my progenitors (Isaac and Abraham), to the highest place of the eternal hills: theses blessings shall be on Joseph’s head and crown, the one separate from his brethren. Benjamin: a ravenous wolf, in the morn devours the prey, in the eve divides the spoil. These are the 12 Tribes of Israel, this is their prophetic blessing. He charged them after his death to bury him in the Cave of the Field of Ephron the Hittite, the Cave in the Field of Machpelah near Mamre in the Land of Canaan, which Abraham purchased as a burial-place, where they buried Abraham’s wife Sarah, there they buried Isaac and his wife Rebekah, and there I buried Leah; the Field and the Cave which was purchased from children of Heth. Jacob finished his charge to his sons, laid in his bed, and died, and was gathered to his people.
Joseph embraced his father, cried, and kissed him; he commanded his servants the physicians to embalm Israel; 40 days were taken to complete the embalming; and the Egyptians mourned Jacob for 70 days; Joseph asked Pharaoh’s house a favor of kindness to him, that they speak to Pharaoh that Jacob made Joseph swear to bury him in Canaan, and that Pharaoh let him go to bury him, and then he will return. Pharaoh told him to go, and he went along with all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and the elders of the land of Egypt, and with all the house of Joseph, but not the children or flocks or herds in Goshen; there went up chariots and riders, it was a very great company. They came to Atad beyond the Jordan with great lamentations, and there he mourned his father 7 days; the Canaanites saw and heard, and said it was a grievous mourning for the Egyptians, and it was named Abel-Mizraim. So his sons buried as he commanded them; then Joseph and all others returned to Egypt. Joseph’s brothers sent a message to Joseph, that Jacob before he died commanded that Joseph forgive his brothers for their evil transgression against him, to forgive them as servants of his father’s God; but Joseph wept on hearing them speak, and they also wept and repented. Joseph assured them that he was not in God’s place, that they meant evil to him, but God meant it for good, to save and preserve life; that he will nourish and care for them, and he spoke kindly to them. Joseph dwelt in Egypt with Jacob’s house, and lived to be 110 years; he saw Ephraim’s children to the 3rd generation, his great grandsons, even the children of Machir ben-Manasseh were raised on Joseph’s knees. Joseph told his brothers, that after my death God will visit Israel and bring them back to the promised land of Abraham of Isaac and of Jacob; he made the sons of Israel swear an oath that when God visits them that they take his bones from Egypt to Canaan. Joseph died at 110 years of age, they embalmed him, and put him in a coffin in Egypt.
We have completed the Book of Genesis, the Great Finger, the Thumb of the Book, and we need only to bring together some reflections and references or resources to better understand the 4 dispensations that have thus far transpired. We have earlier laid out the first two dispensations of the Creation and Adam. The Sons of Noah or the Gentiles in Noah’s three sons of the 70 nations named, Shem being the last listed leads to Abram the Hebrew. We pointed out in the reflections on the Text relevant to that period, that Lord as Jehovah involved Himself with man in the nations, but at a distance and in confusion, the times being regarded as ignorance and childish. The Patriarchal Age we followed very closely, as exhibiting light from a Lamp, in the center or central to the Lampstand or Candelabrum or Candelabra. These 4 dispensations are revealed and developed in the 50 chapters, with countless seeds and germinal kernels which will grow throughout human or world history, especially of the people of God. The correspondence will now become clearer because the half way point has been reached. Genesis stands as the Key to the Bible, for it contains all that the rest of Scripture treats in progression and formation. The 5th Dispensation is that of Israel as the Nation generated and nurtured by God as Jehovah, and answers to the Gentiles in the Sons of Noah and separated by the Fathers or Patriarchs as related to and covenanted with El Shaddai. 5th period covers the rest of the Old Testament from Joshua to Malachi. The 6th Dispensation is of Christ and is contained in the New Testament of the 27 Books, that is, minus the last 4 Chapters of the Apocalypse, which deals with the last and 7th Dispensation to answer to the Creation Week. But we must first finish our Genesis reflections and then move on more rapidly towards Deuteronomy.
GENESIS: Reflections, References, Resources:
It is helpful to see the chronology of the Bible Generations in Genesis, whether we can ascertain their accuracy or interpretations. Ny have set their hearts and hands to make charts and tables to present these details, of them Bullinger is as good and simple as we find. Here I give my edited PDF of the first part of Appendix 50.8, the Summary, from Adam’s creation to Joshua’s death; after we complete Deuteronomy I will edit the second part.
(From the Companion Bible of E.W. Bullinger, 1910. The PDF edited by mjm.)
Appendix 50. VIII. Summary of Principal Events: (1st half now. later the 2nd half)
B.C. (That is, from the Common Era A.D.)
4004 Adam created.
3874 Seth b. “Adam begat a son in his own likeness” (Gen. 5: 3).
3769 Enos b.
3679 Cainan b.
3609 Mahalaleel b.
3544 Jared b.
3382 Enoch b. “seventh from Adam” (Jude 14).
3317 Methuselah b.
3194 Adam’s “day of grace” begins when he is 810 (Gen. 6. 3).
3130 Lamech b.
3074 Adam d. (930).
3017 Enoch translated, fifty-seven years after Adam’s d.
2962 Seth d. (912).
2948 Noah b.
2864 Enos d. (905).
2769 Cainan d. (910).
2714 Mahalaleel d. (895).
2582 Jared d. (962).
2448 Japheth b.
2447 Ham b.
2446 Shem b. (Noah 502).
2353 Lamech d. (777).
2348 Methuselah d. (969) in the first month of the Flood year.
2348} The Flood year. (Noah’s 600th year. Gen. 7: 6, 11.)
2347} The Flood year. (Noah’s 600th year. Gen. 7: 6, 11.)
2346 Arphaxad b. ”two years after the Flood”.
2311 Salah b.
2281 Eber b.
2247 Peleg b. “In his days the earth was divided”(Gen.10: 25). See note on 50. ii.
2185 Serug b.
2155 Nahor b.
2126 Terah b.
2056 Terah’s ”generations” begin with the b. of Haran.
2008 Peleg d. (239).
2007 Nahor d. (148).
1998 Noah d. (950).
1996 Abraham b. (1,992 years from the Nativity).
1978 Reu d. (239).
1955 Serug d. (230).
1946? Abraham’s First “Call”, in Ur of the Chaldees (Acts 7: 2-4).
1921 Terah d. (205). Abraham’s Second “Call” (Haran). The 430 years of the sojourning begin. (See note on Gen.12: 1, and Ap. 50. iii).
1920 Abraham goes down into Egypt. Attempted destruction of the Seed
(see note on Gen.12: 10, and Ap. 23).
1912 Abraham returns from Egypt.
1911 Abraham (85) marries Hagar (Gen. 16: 3).
1910 Ishmael b. (Abraham 86).
1897 Covenant of Circumcision. (Abraham 99).
1896 Isaac b. (Abraham 100).
1891 Isaac becomes “the Seed” (Gen. 21: 10; 12: 7). Ishmael” cast out”. The 400 years of Acts 7: 6 begin.
1878 Salah d. (433).
1863? Isaac (33) offered up.
1859 Sarah d. (127). The only woman whose age is given in Scripture. For significance of this, cp. Gal. 4. In Sarah’s age we have, allegorically, the period of duration of the Old Covenant.
1856 Isaac (40) marries Rebekah.
1846 Shem (Melchizedek?) d. (600). Abraham (150) marries Keturah?
1836 Jacob b. (Isaac 60).
1821 Abraham d. (Isaac 75. Jacob 15).
1817 Eber d. (464), outlives Abraham by four years.
1812? The famine of Gen. 26: 1. The cause of sale of the birthright.?
1796 Esau (40) marries Hittite wives.
1773 Ishmael d. (137. Jacob 63).
1759 Jacob (77) gets the Blessing, and flees to Padan-aram.
1758 His “servitude” begins.
1752 His marriages.
1751 Reuben b.
1750 Simeon b.
1749 Levi and Dan b.
1748 Judah and Naphtali b,
1747 Gad b.
1746 Asher and Issachar b.
1745 Zebulun and Dinah (twins?) and Joseph b.
1742 Jacob’s bargain about the cattle.
1739 Jacob flees from Padan-aram.
1738 Jacob meets Esau.
1737 Jacob at Succoth.
1736 Jacob comes to Shechem.
1732 Dinah raped. Another attempt to destroy the ”Seed”, by raising the country against the “tribe”.
1726 Jacob (110) joins his father Isaac (170) at Hebron (after a separation of thirty-three years).
1717 Joseph (28) in Egypt. Interprets butler’s dream.
1716 Isaac d. (180. Jacob 120. Joseph 29).
1715 Joseph (30) interprets Pharaoh’s dream.
1707 First year of the famine.
1706 Second year of the famine. Jacob (130) goes down into Egypt. The 215 years of the sojourning in Egypt begin. (Half of the 430 years from Gen.12: 4.)
1705 Third year of the famine.
1704 Fourth year of the famine.
1703 Fifth year of the famine.
1702 Sixth year of the famine.
1701 Seventh year of the famine.
1689 Jacob d. (147), after seventeen years in Egypt. (Joseph 56. Benjamin 39.)
1635 Joseph d. (110).
1612 Levi d. (137).
1635} Gap of sixty-four years from d. of Joseph to b. of Moses.
1571} Gap of sixty-four years from d. of Joseph to b. of Moses.
1571 Moses b.
1544 Joshua b. (Moses 27).
1529 Caleb b.
1491 The Exodus. 430 years from Gen.12: 4, & 400 years from Gen.21:10.
1490 The Tabernacle set up. This year the people should have entered the Land.
1452 Miriam, Aaron, and Moses d.
1451 Entry into the Land.
1444 The “Wars of the Lord” end (Josh. 14. 15). Caleb 85. Joshua hands over the leadership to Eleazar.
1444} First Sabbatic year.
1443} First Sabbatic year.
1434 Joshua d. (110).
The Charts and Chronology of the Companion Bible by E. W. Bullinger, 1910:
The charts of Appendix 50 are presented in their order:
(From Levend Water site: © Levend Water. All rights reserved.)
I. a.-g. From the creation to the Flood, 4004-2348.
II. From the Flood to Abraham, 2348-1996.
III. a.-c. From Abraham to the Exodus, 1996-1491.
IV. a.-b. From the Exodus to the Kingdom, 1491-1000.
V. a.-e. From the Kingdom to the Captivities, 1000-426.
VI. From Ezra-Nehemiah to the destruction of Jerusalem.
1. Details of the Exodus Week in 1491 B.C.
2. General Plan of the Forty years.
3a. Details of the First two years 1491-1490.
3b. Details of the First two years 1491-1490.
4. Details of the Fortieth & Forty-first years.
5. Details of the Ezra-Nehemiah Period.
6. Details of the Prophets and Kings.
220.127.116.11.10. The Prophets and Kings.
11. The “LO-AMMI” Periods.
VIII. SUMMARY OF PRINCIPAL EVENTS.