These selections are only a very small example that are available to us of the ancient and varied inferences and interpretations of the details of the texts of Scripture. But they were necessary to help us see and learn of the hidden things that have found their way in our biblical understanding from traditions and culture. The selections of more scholarly or academic nature are even more abundant. For this reason, it is most important to adjust our views, with those doctrines that are established and common by the authorities of the schools, churches, synagogues, and other centers of learning among us. For among the Jews the authority of the Talmud and Mishnah with those Elders, Sages, or Rabbis in them, is of the highest regard, and in Torah studies, first and foremost is the Mikraot Gedolot and Rashi, then a host of others like Maimonides, Nachmanides, Karo, Luria, Ba’al Shem Tov, S.R. Hirsch, etc. In like manner among Christians the authority of Augustine and Aquinas must be given the first place in the comparison and evaluation of our doctrines, then the other authorities, which are too vast to cite.
We were reflecting upon the Creation Week. The words we read were: Beginning, God, created, heaven, and earth. We discovered that the Text of verse 1:1 is translated in several ways: ‘in the beginning’, ‘in beginning’, ‘originally’, ‘in [the] beginning of’, ‘in [the] beginning [when]’, and so forth. The grammar (absolute or construct, relative or indicative, full or shortened, etc.) will determine our understanding, and our understanding will influence the grammar. The context, near and remote, will alter our views and doctrines as we proceed. ‘God’ in the Hebrew is ‘Elohim’ the -im ending tells us it is a plural word and a masculine noun or substantive, which in Hebrew is quite common as in ‘shamayim’ (heaven (s)), ‘mayim’ (water(s)), ‘chayim’ (life or lives), etc. Those who rashly and naively advocte the plural rendering here, and in most of its occurence, do not pay close attention to the Text and usage; for the verb ‘create’ is ‘bara’ in the singular masculine, ‘he-created,’ and not the plural ‘they-created’ ‘bara-u’ (compare Ps. 148:5: ‘we-nib-ra-u’ = and-they-were-created; also: ‘asu’ = ‘they made’, ‘asah’ = ‘he-made’). So, Elohim is ‘He’ and not ‘they’ even though there are mysteries within this plural form for God, which will unfold in the Bible as it has in the world. (In like manner we will inform the reader that in the Quran, the Arabic plural is used repeatedly as a singular in relations to God or Allah, Who often says of Himself, We, Us, Our, and with striking emphasis.) The heavens and the earth are the objects and essence or constituents of creation which embraces and embodies the entire natural world or universe. The Heavens or Heaven is the Universe, and the Earth or Planet is a member of the Heavens. And in turn, as the highest place is heaven, so too, the earth is the best and special member or planet within the universe; and then in the next progression is the Garden of Eden, then Man, and so forth.
We wonder that if creation had a beginning, then what existed before that beginning. Some think that Genesis does not declare the origin of the natural creation or universe, but that the universe always existing, that is preexisting, is here transformed by God into the ordered universe we now see and know. The Torah Anthology of the MeAm Lo’ez on verse one, warns us: “It is important that we not probe too deeply into the mysteries. We should not try to find out what the world was like before heaven and earth was created, or what it will be like after they no longer exist. Neither should we seek to find out what is above the heavens, below the earth, or beyond the four directions, east, west, north and south. The human mind obviously cannot even grasp a thousandth of all this, so it is best not to think of these things at all. If a person spends his time contemplating these things, it would have been better if he had never been born.” Then again at verse two: “The Torah did not have to tell us what the earth was like before the creation, but it does so teach that everything, without exception, was created in these six days. After this, nothing new would be formed, and nothing that was completed would be changed. The world constantly follows a single set of laws, which were set in the days of creation.” We think this is a wise warning but does not discourage us from searching the hidden things of God. For the idea that the angels were created in the natural creation was in part due to the thinking and teaching that the natural creation is the same as the spiritual world, or spiritual creation. As God is different and other than His creation, so the natural world is not the spiritual world. We may admit and allow that the Heavens and the Earth infer, imply, suggest, or reflect the other world which is higher and prior to the present world. We may not go beyond what is written but bound by biblical limits we might explore some notions of the other world. We have had certain learned and wise men throughout the many centuries tell us that the universe is very large, and very old. We too understand that the universe is infinite, immense, and eternal, and our ability to mentally and cognitively contemplate such a vast and complex cosmic system is quite intriguing. We have advanced in our comprehension from a universe of thousands of miles, to millions and billions of miles and light years, to trillions and beyond; and our rational perceptions have gone from planets and stars in the thousands and millions in our solar system and galaxy, to trillions of stars within billions of galaxies. And not just the big big things, but the small and very small world has been brought to our minds and understanding of the invisible world that exist all around us, and within us.
We do not know in Genesis of the spiritual world of which God is the Prime and Chief Member along with those spiritual beings and creatures found in the Bible as angels and messengers, cherubs and seraphs, archangels and princes, and principalities and powers. It is clear that spirits, spiritualities, and spiritual beings and things have clearly occupied the human heart and mind wherever we find man. Not only Jews and Christians, Muslims and religious adherents of every kind, primitives and moderns, all have this spiritual disposition in one degree or other. So, when we read that “the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God moved upon the surface of the waters”, we immediately begin to think and ask some questions. If God created the creation, and the earth was in chaos and formlessness, waste, ruin, void and emptiness, and embryonic and undeveloped; then why was it created thus? Or was it in a perfected state then became ruined and destroyed? Some advocate the verb ‘was’ (Heb. ‘haiy’thah,’ from ‘haiyah’) could and should be rendered ‘became’, which I was taught as a young Christian, and it very much appealed to me along with some other dispensational doctrines, but now I feel no need to hold this grammatical alternative as helpful or fruitful. That the condition of the earth in its undeveloped form and appearance (tohu and bohu) with darkness and submerged in the depths (tehom) of waters, is not a sight or picture that speak of perfection or completion, and by logical extension, of creation proper. It is creation but not proper, for the state must be changed into something better, or more perfect. We infer that the Text implies a judgment on or about the Creation, so that this Judgment hides what we cannot see or know apart from His revelation of that mystery. We are told by science at present, that the universe originated in a cosmic universal blast producing a Big Bang, and that this cosmic explosion of infinite and immense energy in its outburst or releasing of its state and form in all its elements and properties resulted in time and space with all matter that exists. Of course, this is man’s feeble attempt to explain some big big problems and questions. God created the earth, and the earth needed further creation, and that creation is covered in the Creation Week.
We have before the Creation, God as God, then when He created and made anything, He as God is also now the Creator, and as the Creator God He is the Maker of all things. Now God as God, existing in Himself, and subsisting in Self, and by Himself, must by nature and being or person, contain all that is created, all things of the creation or nature or the universe, in whatever elements of its energy, its space, and its time. The matter and the life of creation must also be in Him, and of Him. In whatever way we as men or women, of science or religion, of philosophy or theology, reflect and ponder about God and creation we cannot penetrate the darkness and nothingness of eternity, that meets us as we grope to grasp the beyond. We must have some form of truth and facts, some revelation or experience, which will transcend and transport us to the unknown and to the mystery. The picture painted in verses 1-2 is the mystery that so much of human imagination and speculation has recorded from the earliest of historic times. The ancient peoples of the Middle East, India, Africa, Europe, and the Far East, have all left records of their thoughts and beliefs of creation. We pass over for the moment any preview of their witness, for we are here occupied with the Bible Text.
The Days of the Creation Week commences with Light called out of the Darkness, and the Creator is quoted as speaking, and shows by speech, that He thinks and wills. The Divine Person and His Personality is immediately presented to us in anthropomorphic terms, which reflect and answer to our humanity or human personalities. The Bible God is human-like in relations to the natural world, and in this manifestation, He is rational, intelligent, wise, and all that man as the highest natural being on earth is, so too, God as such, but infinitely higher, is also. But the doctrine of the Anthropomorphic God is not based on the lower nature ascending to the higher Nature, although in human history of the world it appears so, but the higher Nature descends or condescends to the lower in creation and revelation. The transcendent God is also the ‘descendent’ God, Who in creation manifest Himself in condescension to share His nature and person with us in the natural world. The natural world is a dark night, filled with lifelessness, emptiness, and chaos and confusion, disorderly and without proper structure. The spiritual world is governed by the Divine Spirit, that is by God, both in presence and relations of the highest manifest nature, that is, the can be shared by God to and with His creation and its creatures, both of the natural world and more so of the spiritual world. The Bible reveals man to be a little lower than the angels, so human nature is inferior to angelic nature; and likewise, animal nature is inferior to human nature in countless ways and properties, despite what evolution tries to teach. But we must restrain our thoughts for the moment.
The progression from the inanimate reality of the universe or nature, as it is in its original constitution, and its essential intrinsic properties and elements in its smallest state, moves on to higher or better orders of reality, which consummates in man as the final order of life in reality and nature of the natural world. The Day and Night, the Heaven and the Earth (as Sky and Land, Air and Ground, etc.), the Seas or Oceans and Lakes and Rivers, are inanimate creation, they are the world and nature without the element or property of life, or in simple Bible terms, without the Seed of Life. So that the progression, or to sanctify a naturalist word, the evolution, moves from non-life to life and living things. This progression, evolution, development, generation, and growth will constitute natural and world history, that is the history of the universe, of the earth, and of man or humanity. We are not trying to create a Bible Science filled with scientific-biblical terms and categories, but rather we are reflecting on Scripture from our present natural understanding of modern times, to understand creation and humanity as seen in the Bible. We may note that in this first citation of God speaking, calling, naming, blessing, approving, we will continue to see Him thus and more as we continue. (A few years ago, I decided to go through my Bible with a high-lighter marker all the words and verses of God that I encountered. I went through several Books of Moses in amusement, at times amazement, when I discovered a recently published printed edition with that very feature. It’s quite common to find a New Testament with the Words of Christ printed in red, but quite exceptional to find the Old Testament with the expressed words of God printed in red. So, I bought a copy, for I am very fond of Study and Reference Bibles, of the Sword Bible or the King James Easy Read (KJVER, ©2001, -07, 2010) by the Kings Word Press of Whitaker House.)
In reading the Creation Week we have the mineral or inanimate kingdom, then the vegetable or plant kingdom, then the animal kingdom, and last, the human kingdom, Naturalists class man as a mammal of the animal kingdom. In Science we are taught that the Tree of Life of Evolution as in Darwin-Haeckel’s doctrine, consists of kingdoms or taxonomic ranks, first the super-kingdoms or domains or empires of organisms, then it descends in the animal kingdom to phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. In the study of nature, we learn and identify an infinite and varied arrangement of things, both inanimate and animate, and the more we study, and the more of us given to natural study, along with research and experimentation, the more we discover how great and magnificent is nature and nature’s God. In the Creation Week we are shown the Seed of Life in plants and vegetation, from grass to trees, then we have the half-point of the Creation Week on Day Four, where the government of life is determined and maintained by the heavenly bodies of Sun, Moon, and Stars, in order that higher forms of life might be created, exists, evolved, developed, adapt, and generate and grow in reproduction as the seeds do. This higher form of life come in various degree of life as souls that move, breath, grow, generate or procreate, all after their kind and order. Living things (‘nephesh chaiyah’ = ‘souls of life,’ 1:20) of the seas and oceans, marine life in all variations, then those who move in the air as birds, who fly with wings, and last land creatures of animals of wide variety. These animals sharing natural affinity with man, in form, features, and structure in countless ways. But with animals we have countless variety, of many kinds and relations, but with man we read of only one kind. Man, or Adam, the Human Creation, is made and created differently to any other animal, and in a single pair, male and female.
Man is created in the Divine Image and Likeness, and as lord over all, to dominate all. and this as a divine creature, like God. But we ask Scripture and search Scripture as to why God should relate such a story and account, simple and beautiful, of Creation. What is meant by the creation of the universe being reduced to 7 days, 6 days to work, and the 7th day to rest. When we were human infants in world history, as in the time from Adam to Moses, we believed the world was very simple and small in relations to its reality and truth. Our language was childish, our understanding was as babes at the breast, and we thought of time and space, of life and matter, in short, of eternal infinite inscrutable things, and were all mysteries of God (or as it was often the case, of gods and goddesses). In time from Moses to Christ mankind grew up a little, sometimes a little smarter, sometimes a little dumber, but in all more advanced in many ways. Thus, as we studied nature and the world, nay, the universe, first in our heads, then with our toys, we discovered very many secrets of the Most High. This new knowledge brought new experiences, and we soon had difficulty in sympathizing we the ancients in many of their notions and beliefs. Our ancient ancestral elders were judged as naive simpletons for their myths, legends, and fables, especially the sacred ones in the sacred texts. Thus, a form of natural agnosticism and atheism evolved in the world over the many centuries, and increasing as we grew and discovered more secrets, and secrets that the ancients never dreamed of in their wildest dreams. And with this new kind of Bible criticism the Creation Week is called into debate, dispute, and doubt, yes, and denial.
Did God really create the universe in 6 literal days of 24 hours, and then rested on the 7th day? We read of the original creation of God, that part of that creation needed to be changed, that the change occurred in 6 days and finished on the 7th. What we think and understand is that the original creation of heaven and earth is not perfect or complete, but rather it is good. God is perfect and complete, lacking nothing as a deficiency, but altogether whole and full, with all that fulness and perfection may imply or require. The creation by nature cannot be as complete and perfect as the Creator, for the creature is dependent on its the Almighty its Maker. Therefore, we reason and reflect that in the generation of the original creation, in whatever way inferred or implied, that what follows, as described in the text of verse 2, is a corruption or deviation and alteration of the original state and condition. Then, the original state being corrupted, and afterwards altered, the altered and changed corrupted state needs to be corrected and further changed in order to renew, refresh, restore a completeness or perfection. The spiritual world that precedes the natural world, which we cannot know or experience outside of revelation or manifestation, is later in Genesis and the entire Bible afterwards and throughout, is spoken of as itself becoming corrupted and altered, and more specifically, judged. But we will not now entertain this doctrine at this early place of our investigation of Scripture. We must assume this much in our deduction and reduction of the principle that every creation and generation must by nature undergo decay and corruption, by use or abuse, by age and growth, and unless continually renewed and refreshed must needs be salvaged by restitution and resurrection or rebirth.
We do not call a state or condition, or situation, corrupted or ruined because it exists in a raw or original state, but only if it has been built or developed then damaged or unkept. We may give three examples: The land that has stones and sand scattered about, is not viewed as ruined, but as undeveloped; but once built or constructed into a building, then not maintained against the natural forces, or abused, or used without repairs, we judge it to be ruined, deteriorated, devalued, and waste. Again, a field exist with trees and plants and what is needed for building a house or home; yet the trees are not cut, and the plants not arranged, the weeds not pulled, or shrubs cleared; we do not condemn the field as a ruin and waste for its natural state of wilderness or forest; but once we developed and build our house and home, and it falls in disrepair, broken down and cluttered with trash, our condemnation is strong against the house and the owner. Lastly, man, like the animals, has in the body of male and female, all that is required for an offspring; the DNA, the cells, the chemicals and hormones, and many other thigs essential to life and living; but we do not regard the potentiality of any merit or value, good or bad in itself, unless conception takes place; which in turn grows, develops, and generates into a child, a baby, which brings joy to the world; but the conception being damaged, obstructed, and its development and growth interfered with, or halted, aborted, and destroyed, we label in the strongest negative judgment and condemnation, with full legal penalties. So too with creation, God must maintain actively what He makes and forms in all the varied ways of the universe or nature, so that His intention and purpose might be fulfilled. For read that in each of the Creation Days He spoke, and it came about, it was done as He desired.
We may answer the question thus created, that creation requires judgment, and in turn judgment is balanced by salvation. Not all creation will be preserved in every form and feature, but in judgment with justice must all be treated, whether good or bad, and only the best, the good, the better will be preserved for God’s fuller purposes. The Creation Days no doubt hides far more than they reveal, and as time moves on in the human experience in the world of all the nations, we are daily discovering what Paul said: “O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! how unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!” (Rom.11:33) And again he wrote to Timothy: “I charge thee in the sight of God, Who giveth life to all things, and of Christ Jesus, Who before Pontius Pilate witnessed the good confession; that thou keep the commandment, without spot, without reproach, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ: which in its own times He shall show, Who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; Who only hath immortality, dwelling in light unapproachable; Whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to Whom [be] honor and power eternal. Amen.” (Ist Tim. 6:13-16)
On the 6th Day after the animals are created, we read that God says: “Let Us make man (adam) in Our image. after Our likeness: and let them have dominion….and God created man (adam) in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.” If Elohim speaks of man as divine, God-like, then man is not a mere animal, nor is he angelic, though angel-like in the manner that angels share the divine image and likeness, as we said earlier that man is a little lower than the angels and a little higher than the animals. A Divine Council as some interpret the “Us” is not clear, nor in what way angels relate to man, especially in his creation, but that an angelic creation is clearly implied in the plural pronoun even if we take the Christian and New Testament view of the Trinity, of the God speaking to the Word, or the Father to the Son. Further, the interpretation of the Lord as the pre-incarnate Word, as the Agent of Creation, Who by means of the Holy Spirit (the Spirit of God, Ruach Elohim), executes the will of God, and Who with the Angels and Spiritual Beings, constitute a divine and spiritual family in a spiritual world or creation. The Lord then would be speaking as God to the Angels (as in the Targum of Johnathan Ben Uzziel, and Jerusalem Targum). These and other important doctrines must be understood in those verses and places as they occur from time to time. What is clear in these verses of the 6th Day is man shares God’s image and likeness, and potentially, His nature. This alone sets the Bible in clear opposition to the Science or Philosophy which makes man an ape or monkey with no superiority than a subtle serpent.
In the creation of man, we have a divine design which will unfold for several thousands of years to display the divine nature to be seen in man. The work of the 6th Day was very good. God finished His work on the 7th Day and God rested on the 7th Day. Many say He finished his work on the 6th day before the 7th day and then rested (sabbathed) on the Sabbath, but it is clear, that they are clearly wrong; and even if we allow them that His finishing touch or work was the creation of the Sabbath Day. As we have said there are many hidden things in the words of the Text, and here is one of those things which unfolds later on. As to the word ‘day’ or in Hebrew ‘yom’, we need not argue over its meaning, it is a day or part of a day, consisting of eve and morn, pm and am, night and day, as we read. That we need to insert 12 hours or 24 hours is unwise; for we will discover very soon (2:4; 5:1-2) that day is not limited to hours, and even three hours of a day is enough to make a day. And special usage of ‘day’ as in the Lord’s Day, Day of God, Day of Judgement and Resurrection, Eternal Day, Millennial Day (as “one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day”). In this special usage we may persuade the reader and Bible believer to regard or consider that the Creation Week consists of Creation Days, like regular ordinary days, and not like ‘ages’, as many have found pleasure in the typology of the Creation Week in relations to world history, and quite frequent in both Apocryphal and dispensational works. We will speak more of this shortly in regard to the 2nd Creation Account in chapter 2.

(I insert from my previous attempt of Bible Reflections this selection: Years ago a brother in Christ, and a beloved friend, wrote a song in meditation of the Sabbath of God in Creation: (JPH; Feb.22, 1981).

God is at Work! Hallelujah! God is at Work! Hallelujah!
God is at work, is at work in you.
Both to will and do in measure, All that is in own good pleasure.
God is at work, is at work in you.
Oft without your comprehension: Not by your own good intention;
God is at work, He’s at work in you.
How the mystery relieves us: That by grace He has received us:
This is His work, is His work in you.
Both to will and do in measure All that’s in His own good pleasure.
God is at work; He’s at work in you.
He works to put us where He’s resting, In His Christ Who’s passed all testing.
God is at rest, He’s at rest in Christ!
Oh dear saints tis such a blessing. That our God can work while resting.
God is at work; He’s at work in Christ!

GENESIS: 2-4: Generations of the Heavens and Earth:
We must point out that in biblical hermeneutics or scriptural interpretations, Bible believers have noticed and identified various rules or principles that should be observed in bible study. Rules as Scripture explains Scripture, a quote versus a statement, answering the questions of interrogation and investigation as who, what, when, where, why, etc. One of the rules is Text in Context without Pretext. But an often-forgotten or neglected rule is that of the First Occurrence, that a word in its first occurrence or instance is too be carefully noted and remembered, for it will govern all occurrences and usage thereafter. Already from the Creation Week we have encountered many first instances which govern our reflections and consideration, thus our doctrines, even now. The words: beginning, created, God, heaven, earth, God’s Spirit, and many more, are important to govern and form our views of understanding. An example is God or Elohim in the Creation Week, no other word or term is used of Him Who is revealed as the Creator, and thus Elohim, or God as Elohim, is related to Creation and creatures. So when we read there after that God as Elohim speaks and acts, or exists and lives, the relations is with creation, whether it is the universe, earth, man, the nations, or the like. Thus, when we meet God in our reading of this next account of the Generations of the Creation, we are prepared to notice and consider that He is now Jehovah Elohim or the LORD God, and then later we follow the text as it presents Him as Lord or God, or the Almighty or El Shaddai, and all such. In the Creation the Word of Power is obvious, that when and where the Creator wills and speaks it is done. The act of power is of His Spirit or Wind and Breath as an Energy or Force which proceeds from God and resides in God. God does not need to accomplish or effect His will and desire by physical means and instrumentation, or by extension of arms and hands, of legs and feet, not even a Divine Nod or Blink is essential to His Power. But Scripture describes Him in manifestation with these invisible forms and attributes. And when man is created it is in a divine image as human, that is, a divine-human creature.
God was resting on the 7th Day, and we are not told that the 7th Day had a evening and morning, that it ended at a certain hour or moment. What Scripture immediately records are the Generations of the Heavens and of the Earth. The creation is the origin of God’s work, the Generations, the Toledoth, are the history and biography of the creation or genesis as it pertains to the heavens and the earth. These Generations are Ten in the Book of Genesis, Esau is referred to twice but counted only once. The Generations of the heavens and the earth, of Adam, of Noah, of the sons of Noah, of Shem, of Terah, of Ishmael, of Isaac, of Esau (twice), and of Jacob. They are genealogies and biographies in a peculiar way, we may say they are records and documents of the times and life of the persons, places, and things which they treat. Genesis is a Book of Creation and Generations, a living history of God and the Lord God interacting with the world and man. This account reveals how the creation was generated, created, made, formed, arranged, adorned, ordered, and all else. The Lord God is interested in His creation for the single purpose of a man to be in the place He has set his eyes and heart upon. The Earth was not ready for the Man, and man was not yet created in reality or in generation, though he was created in the Creation Week. But in order for the divine image and likeness to be generated in creation he must be formed and enlivened. The Formation of man is of the dust of the ground, the dirt of earth, but his life is to be divine, that is, we may say, of heaven. This infusion and impartation of the breath of life (nishmah chaiyim) into this human form called man, a body and substance not yet alive, but called Man or Adam, and in creation perfectly made as Male and Female; and now becomes a living soul (le-nephesh chaiyah). Here Adam is created alone as the male. (We will understand the human constitution of body, soul, and spirit as we read of man’s behavior and experiences. Man’s nature of composite being but a simple unit or person, and his dual and trine division and distinction, his dichotomy and trichotomy, will also become clear.) Though the Earth was an Eden, yet the Eden needed a Garden to be a proper place for man, that is home. So Adam was moved into the Garden of Eden eastward (Gan-be‘Eden miqqedem). The Garden with its pleasant trees, and for food; but also, the tree of life, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; and even had 4 rivers that parted in the garden. The 4 rivers are in pairs, two go downward southward (Pishon and Gihon), and two went upward northward (Hiddekel (Tigris)and Euphrates); two was eastward from the Garden, and two was westward; one went towards Assyria and Armenia, the other towards Syria and Canaan; another flowed to Havilah, Sinai, and Ethiopia, and the other toward the Persian Gulf and India. Thus, GanEden becomes the Land as man’s Home to live and work.
God would train Adam by instruction and commandments, Man must not be alone, it is no good, but He will form for Adam living things, animals, so Adam might learn and identify them by name. But the proper mate and fit for Adam must be what comes from him, made or built (wai-yiben) into a woman. Adam as Ish and the Woman as Ishah (the Male and the Female, the Husband and the Wife) are now one flesh in reality or generation as they were already in creation. As we have said before, we repeat again, that many hidden things are not disclosed to us, but as seeds are already germinating and generating to His design. Adam and Eve in the Garden are tempted and failed the test. The Fall of Man is recorded as part of the generations of creation and as the creation itself in corruption and judgment needed to be renovated in regeneration so now the creation in man must undergo like judgment and salvation. The Serpent is the Old Serpent and the Devil we are told in the Book of the Revelation, and as he is the Evil One of the other world, so too now, he is in man or human nature. (We pass over all debate or ideas about talking snakes or animals communicating as humans. Nor do we venture by exegesis or eisegesis to explore or explain if snakes once walked with feet, or had hands, or looked like apes. Sorry.) All the temptation and seduction, the lies and deception, leads man in sin and disobedience, and the Sin is generated in man, and sin becomes man’s nature. The divine nature is then opposed and challenged in all human development. This sin condition with its disobedient disposition of disbelief and rebellion, will wage war in man personally and individually, but more so, will became a universal struggle and conflict of all mankind.
God must pass judgment by His intervention of this tragic fall and defeat, Man’s nature changed from light to darkness, and from life to death, must be eradicated if he is to live eternal. Their folly of conceit, their guilt and shame, the fear and cowardness, displays the nature of the Serpent who has begotten them in sin. The Lord God exposes this sin as the seed of the evil one, and thus He must judge sin unto death. The curse must be upon the serpent as the vilest and lowest of all creatures and animals; and continual conflict and warfare will exist throughout human history in the world between the Two and their Seeds, till the Seed of the woman crushes the serpent’s head. The curse in woman is multiplied sufferings in pain and conception, bound in desire to her husband and her lord. In Adam the earth is cursed and labor long and difficult, to eat with sweat till death and dust comes. This then is the new order and the world to be brought about by the Divine Word of Judgment which leads to Salvation and Redemption in the dispensations of the generations to follow unto the Messiah. Mother Eve is life for the generations of all mankind. The Lord God exchanges the garment of sin and shame with the blood of life in skins to hide human nakedness. But Adam and Eve are no longer fit for the Garden of Eden, they must be driven out in exile to a strange land to labor and dye. The Tree of Life is guarded, and in time buried. We must not forget that the generations of the world continue in Adam’s family and history.
The story of Adam and Eve with their children, or of the first family, will be the seed and seeds of world history up to the Flood. The world of Adam will generate the nature of the serpent in human depravity, or sinfulness in every way. The carnal knowledge in the sexual experience will alter both the man and the woman, and the change into parents will govern the human family for better or worse. The murder or killing of Abel by his brother Cain, will play out in many others, and with other families, tribes, peoples, nations, and kingdoms. But the divine nature will also struggle to prevail, to rule over sin and serpents, as well as over every creature of the earth. It is in the history of Adam and Eve that God now is identified and signified as the Lord (JHWH); thus, the first occurrence is from Eve of her birth of Cain (’eth–Qain), saying: I have gotten a man by Jehovah (qanithi ’ish ’eth–Yeh’wah) and no longer Jehovah Elohim, for man now is the Lord’s quest to save and restore. Human infancy, though in corruption and condemnation, need God as Lord Which is merciful and kind, understanding and patient, tolerant with human nature in infancy and foolishness. The two sons become two different kind of men, one a shepherd, and the other a farmer, and the two worshiped God in different ways; and the Lord regards Abel and his offering (Heb.’minchah’, 1st occur., and shows only the kernel or seed or nucleus of the later developed sacrificial system) but rejected Cain and his sacrifice. Cain is warned and instructed sin and its power. Abel the victim must be vindicated and honored, nay, valued, and Cain the murderer must be punished in measure, though protected by righteousness and justice, because mercy hides itself. The Two Brothers show Two Ways, and like the Two Trees in the Garden, so now in East Eden, the Two Trees are to be seen played out. The Seeds are germinating and generating a world of Two Kinds, and the natural evolution will display the Word of God and the Lies of the Serpent. As with Day and Night, as with the Good and the Evil, and as with so many contrasts and opposites, we are not allowed into the thousands of details of the antediluvian world of East Eden. We will however need to reflect on that world after the Flood, for the world that follows the Flood is generated by the same seeds. The Lord marks Cain with a sign ((Heb. ’oth, a sign like the celestial bodies above, like serpent who was once Lucifer the Shining One, like white leprosy of Moses and Miriam), —a miracle of judgment set and appointed to be clearly seen and known), with the warning of increased vengeance. So, Cain is spared, the world increases its population, human development and expansion continues. The beginning of primitive civilization begins, as cities are formed from simple families and clans and tribes. The village grows as man multiplies and fills the earth. The City of Enoch is built, a new kind of home for man, from which comes polygamy, later tent-dwellers, then cattle-keepers, and music-makers, metal-forgers for work, play, and war. But homicides still continue and will increase.

GENESIS: 5-9: Book of the Generations of Adam & Noah’s Generations:
We move from ‘these’ to ‘this’, from general and universal to specific and local, from the world to Adam or Man. And as in the New Testament, the Gospel according to Matthew opens: “The Book of the Generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham.” We have said that there are 3 great themes that run thru the Bible: the land, the people, and the book. The Book (Sepher, Scroll, Biblos, Liber, Libro) is now for the first time introduced, and is connected to Man or the People, as the Man or People was connected to the Land or Place, namely, the Garden, and Eden, and Earth. It is repeated here that God (note it is again Elohim and not the Lord God (YHWH Elohim) or the Lord (YHWH or Adonai)), created and made man, in God’s likeness, both male and female were created the day (yom) when they were created. The creation and the generation are one in the formation, for what God wills He creates, what He creates He makes and forms and generates. Generation is living, begetting, multiplying and growing. The Adamic family is the generation that now appears in the Bible history. Seth is Adam’s seed of life and is produced in living so many years; and the birth is procreation of a new generation which bears the image and likeness of Adam. The children of Adam of sons and daughters are his seed through the woman who births life, by conception and pregnancy and delivery. The 10 generations are Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, and Noah. The generations before the Flood was Adamic, it was from Adam to Noah. The years given of their years are 930, 912, 905, 910, 895, 962, 364, 969, 777, and 950, which totals 2006 years, and 1656 years at the time of the Flood and the death of Methuselah. The ages of the patriarchs of these generations at the time of given birth to the next generation is likewise given: 130, 105, 90, 70, 65, 162, 65, 187, 182, and 500 years. Each father births sons and daughters that are not named. No account is given of the collective progress of these families as is done with Cain. It is plain that the Bible teaches that mankind was generated by interbreeding of siblings, that is, Adam’s and Eve’s children intermarried to procreate the generations to follow. We are not instructed about these things, and the Bible is silent about many details and particulars to portray that generation and age. We also are not aided in understanding the chronology of that early age of mankind. The doctrine that man lived about 1,000 years before dying, or that he fathered children when he was hundred s of years old, is mere speculation out of ignorance of what is not clearly revealed to us. Man lived about a hundred years, more or less, then as he does now, in the best cases. How years were calculated before the Flood is not known, Genesis never records the 11th month, which first occurs in Deuteronomy. We must reflect carefully concerning the ancient calendars, especially of those of different nations, who in comparison with one another show great differences.
The human race (ha-adam) increased and spread throughout East Eden (ha-adamah), the sons of God (beney-ha-Elohim,) were attracted to the daughters of men (ha-adam), and they married them. The expression My spirit (ruchi) is a first occurrence, and shows man’s relations to God, although he is flesh. Man’s years are numbered and limited to the judgment of the Great Flood, because man’s world is now corrupt. The giants or nephilim are introduced as distinct from the sons of God, and we are made to consider if they are the offspring of the union between the sons of God and the daughters of men. The children of the union were mighty-men, ancient, and men of name. These were the ancient heroes and champions, the giants and monsters, that arise still in the world, men and women of unique exception, of super talents; but those before the Flood were not good. The Lord saw mankind (ha-adam) was depraved, total depravity was to be seen wherever man migrated. The creation and creature again dispensationally has failed their new estate. We do not trouble the reader with the ideas and stories found in Jewish, Christian, and Muslim apocryphal and epigraphal (pseudepigraphic, in contrast to epigraphical; as in the Kabballah and the Zohar, for example) literature; nor venture to reflect on the pornographic realities that must have existed in man’s primitive state. Mankind was full of vice and violence, rape and robbery, malice and murder, lies and deceit, and every unimaginable imagination and images of sin and sinfulness. So, The Lord’s heart was sad and broken, He changed to anger and wrath, and will destroy mankind (ha-adam) His unique creature of creation. Man, as lord of the earth must perish in such an evil nature, and with him also all the other creatures or animals. Man’s home must be destroyed, and as he was exiled from the Garden of Eden (Gan Eden) so now he will be removed from East Eden to start afresh in another time, age, and dispensation. The grace and favor (Heb. ‘chen’, whence John, the Lord’s grace, and this is the 1st occurrence of grace) of the Lord towards His creation will rest on Noah, the rest and comfort of mankind.
Before we look at the next Generations in Genesis, we will review the dispensations and covenants already treated. In my former writings I have deliberately obscured the divine flow or stream in fear of being mechanical or methodic, not wanting to create a superficial hermeneutical system that others might use or abuse. I have told the story that as a young Christian I was greatly in love with God and His Word, I read and studied the Bible as a baby nurses at the paps. The church was a mother to me, and I craved the milk of the word. I dwelt among dispensationalist of the Plymouth Brethren and Missionary Baptists; my Bibles were editions of Schofield, Bullinger, Darby, and Dake. I set out very early to chart the Dispensations and the Tabernacle, making two large oil-cloth wall charts, one 12 feet by 5′, and the other 6 ‘ by 5’. These I worked on for several years, then at the end of 1974 destroyed them. Only recently have I decided to return to work, but much smaller, and more guarded. At the end of this work, I will reproduce this chart for the public. The two Dispensations and Covenants are thus far the Creation and Adam. The Creation is governed by Elohim (God, Dios, Deus, Theos); for God as Eternal and the All from eternity before time and space, or any creation and creature, with all that He is in qualities and attributes of every kind, known and unknown, manifest Himself by creation in all its ways and nature. This Creation in dispensation and divine government consists of the heavens and the earth created in 7 days of a divine week, and these three divisions of Heaven, Earth. and the 7 Days commences the great dispensation and government or domain or kingdom of Creation, the Theme, or Branches, of the Bible, along with the Judgment and the Salvation. Creation is the Alpha and the Aleph of all that pertains to and relates to God as Elohim. The Creation Week progresses from Light to Life to Man, and Man as God’s Seed. The 2nd dispensation of divine dominion is governed by Elohim-Jehovah or Jehovah-Elohim, the Lord-God, that is God as Lord and God. It is dispensation of Adam in the Garden without Sin, then in the Temptation in Sin, and the last, outside the Garden in Sinfulness. It is from Adam to Noah, some 2,000 years proper, with the Great Flood terminating the old world of mankind. It is of the Theme and Branch that begins with Adam and ends with Christ. Genesis will disclose or present two more dispensations, namely of the Gentiles and of the Patriarchs or Fathers. Within the dispensations of the divine government of God interacting and influencing man, both by covenants and commandments as of the Divine Word, which will create and produce or form the Bible, which in turn will accomplish His creation, judgment, and salvation to and for His eternal glory, till He is All in all. We return to our reflections.

The Generations of Noah begins with mercy and judgment, the earth was corrupt, man depraved, the human way and life, all his living, was all contrary to Go’s nature and way. Man, as flesh was now rotten meat. Noah was an exception, and God would like to save man from total wrath of destruction and death. Though man was His creature, the human creation and generations was all evil, nothing good to save. The civilization, the culture, the customs, the lifestyles, the work and business, the friends and families, the divine worship and doctrine, and all the language of mankind was all bad. East Eden was ruined, including and especially Nod. Both the Cainites and the Sethites were altogether fallen, just like the nephilim, the fallen ones. But an Ark or House-Boat (tebah, a chest or coffin), which like Moses’ ark, will be salvation. The Ark of Noah measured in cubits (18′-24″, they say from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger): 300 long, 50 wide, and 30 high; in 3 floors or decks; with a window for light 1 cubit at the top. and a door on the side, and a removeable roof or covering. It was a big tabernacle in appearance. In order to save mankind in Noah, due to man’s fall, ruin, and corruption, it is necessary that God establish His Covenant (berith, this is the first instance) with Noah. Noah with his family, his three sons and their wives, with select pairs and numbers of animals, clean and unclean, with sufficient food for all of them, all in the ark. The house (baiyith, beth, 1st occurrence) of Noah will become the new generation and a new mankind. Thus, God as Lord judges the world.

       ((It appears I have lost a portion of my Reflections on the Generations of Noah in chapters 7-9, so I will here rewrite that missing section.))

      The Flood came in Noah’s 600th year, 2nd month, 17th day, the rains for 40 days and nights, the fountains of the great deep, and the windows of heaven, all contributed to the great flood. The waters of the flood increased and prevailed for 150 days till the mountain tops were covered, 15 cubits upwards (some 22’-25’), God remembered Noah and those in the ark, and caused a wind (ruach) to blow, and stopped the waters above and below from inundating the land, and the waters decreased, till the ark rested on the mountains of Ararat in southern Armenia in the 7th month 17th day, the waters continued to decreased, and in the 10th month 1st day, the mountain tops were visible; then 40 days later Noah opened the window of the ark, and sent out a raven, then a dove twice weekly, then he removed the covering or roof of the ark. In 2nd month 27th day of the 601st year of Noah God commanded Noah to leave the ark. So, Noah, his sons, their wives, and all the animals left the ark, and descended from the mountains of Ararat. The Flood event and the time in the ark consists of 1 year and 10 days. The months of the 2nd, 7th, and the tenth are expressly mentioned, no mention of a 11th or 12th months, and in fact those months are not mentioned in the Bible till the time of Moses. A 300 days calendar year is possible, and the months being followed in its phases of 4 weekly cycles of about 28 days and nights. Details of the daily routine of life in the ark is not given; no logistics of the feeding, cleaning, of the supplies of food and water, of the maintenance or handling of the animals, of births of sickness, and many other particulars. The doctrine and notions of the Flood being global or universal, over all the earth’s continents and lands, and that it involves every animal imaginable, and that a representation of all the animal species were included in the ark is not Biblical nor possible. That the Bible speaks of the ‘earth’ and ‘all the earth’ in a local sense is seen easily and simply in the Text. The earth was the Mesopotamian geography, then the Middle East, and centuries later the world of lands and people on many continents in two major hemispheres. The Flood of the Bible is the Flood of Mesopotamia, and the people and animals were all of those in the area of the Great Rivers and the basin or valleys and plains and hills of that time. We not know enough details to construct theories of either a local or universal Flood. The Text reveals that mankind existed in East Eden, that the Tigris and Euphrates, both south and north, was the man’s earliest civilization and culture. After the Flood that same area and geography was repopulated by the sons of Noah, and the earliest cities and civilization and cultures were Babel, Sumer, Akkad, Assyria, etc. And further whether every single human who may have migrated beyond that local were drowned is not the concern of God or Scripture; and I say plainly and freely, at my age, after so many years of struggle with these things, it is not my or our concern either. Those who seek to make it essential and critical to impose the exegesis of a universal global flood as orthodoxy are mistaken, and must resort to eisegesis to complete their doctrine, and contention. God interacted and intervened in the world to accomplish His interest.
Noah resettles in a new world on the burial of the old world which was baptized unto death. He built an altar (mizbeach, 1st occur,), and sacrificed (burnt offerings, Heb., y’‘al ‘oloth, offered offerings, 1st occur.; compare Gen. 4:3: offering Heb., minchah, gift, present, 1st occur.) a token of all the clean beasts and birds. The smell was sweet to the Lord (YHWH), His heart changed towards man, the world was revalued, and He would never again curse the earth because of man who was naturally depraved, nor will he ever again destroy man as He did. A new dispensation was to come about, with a new covenant. God (Elohim, because related to creation and the world) blessed and commands Noah and his sons, to start over, and as with Adam, so now the earth must be repopulated of man and animals. But now the fear and dread of man will be on the animals because they are handed over to man for food, except they shall not partake of the blood. Further, the blood as life (dam of the nephesh), the soul’s blood or life, is now required of beast and man, even a man’s brother, will God require man’s life, since man is God’s image. They are to be blessed by God, to flourish and increase, in the new covenant and dispensation without fear of the extreme wrath and judgment of God. The Divine token of the covenant. the Oth Berith, is to be His Rain Bow in the cloud of heaven, to remind God to never ever again terminate and obliterate mankind, no matter how evil he becomes. The covenant is between God and creation, nature, the world, the earth, the animals, and man, forever, an eternal covenant in perpetual dispensations.
The Sons of Noah were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, and Ham was Canaan’s father. The new world and all the earth was repopulated by these three. They would migrate, expand, explore, venture, travel, by wanderings and roaming, as individuals and by groups, then in time the search and quests would become migration and invasion and conquests. Man would settle, and families would turn into clans and tribes, into villages and cities, and culture and civilization would evolve and develop. Thus, Noah became a farmer, had a vineyard, drank of its wine, and got drunk, and was naked in his tent (’ohel, 1st occur.); Ham. Canaan’s father, noticed his father’s state, and told Shem and Ham, but they took a garment and walked backwards and covered Noah without seeing his nakedness. When he was sober, and knew of what Ham had done, he uttered a prophetic curse and judgment on Ham’s son Canaan, who is resigned to service and slavery to Shem and Ham. The Lord (YHWH) will be the God of Shem (Elohe Shem), and God will enlarge Japheth who also will dwell in Shem’s tents. A prophetic curse that indeed has become actual history to this date. Noah lived after the flood 350 years and died when he was 950.

(Notes & Comments from Bible Reflections.mjm):
1. The Divine Name: Tetragrammaton: YHWH:
We return to God. The LORD God is YHWH, Yod-He-Waw-He, Elohim; Who’s Name is not explained here, but shall be hereafter. The Hebrew Tetragrammaton, ha-Shem, is related to creation as it pertains to man, and not as it pertains to God. The Hebrew roots of the Divine Name I understand to be derived from four roots, for which we turn to the lexicons to get a better understanding: (The following is from the 1906 Abridged and Unabridged Gesenius’s Hebrew-English with Biblical Aramaic-Chaldee by Brown-Driver-Briggs, compare also the New Edition of 1974. I have here revised this, especially transliterating all Hebrew letters in brackets.)

יהוה (YHWH) i.e. יַהְוֶה (YaHWeH) personal name of Dei, God, Yahweh, or ה וָ הֹ יְ (YeHoWaH), Y’howah, Yehowah, Jehovah, the proper name of the God of Israel (1. MT יְהוָה (YeHWaH) (Qeri, read Adonai) אֲדֹנָי (’ADoNaI)), or יֱהוִה (YeHWiH) (Qeri, read Elohim) אֱלֹהִים (’ELoHiM), in the combinations אדני יהוה & יהוה אדני (YHWH ’ADNI & ’ADNI YHWH) (see אֲדֹנָי, ’Adonai)), and with prep. בַּיהֹוָה, לַיהֹוָה, מֵיהוָה (baYHoWaH, laYHoWaH, meYHoWaH (Qeri, read בַּאדֹנָי, לַאדֹנָי, מֵאדֹנָי ((ba’Donai, la’Donai, me’Donai)), do not give the original form.). II. 1. יהוה (YHWH) is used with אלהים (’ELHIM) with or without suffixes…. 3. יהוה (YHWH) is also used with several predicates, to form sacred names of holy places of YHWH. Whence יָהּ (Yah), God contraction from יהוה (YHWH), first appears in early poems. Elsewhere יָהּ (Yah) is used only in late ψ (Psalms), especially in the Hallels, in the phrase הַלֲלוּ־יָהּ (Hallelu-Yah, Hallelujah, and Alleluia).

The Name is derived from or related to four roots: hayah, hawah (unused), chawah (unused), and chaiyah.
הָיָה (hayah) verb, fall out, come to pass, become, be — Qal I. 1. A. fall out, happen. B. occur, take place, come about, come to pass. 2. esp. & very often come about, come to pass, become, sq. substantive (subj.) clause almost always + modifying (usually temporal) clause or phrase.: A. (1) וַיְהִי (way’chi) and it came to pass that, most often following be….
חָיָה (chayah) verb, live — Qal 1. live: A. have life; also in phrase וַיְחִי (way’chi) and he lived (so many years) with acc. of time. B. continue in life, remain alive; also נפשׁ ˊח (ch’ nphsh) live, of the soul or the self; לִפְנֵי ˊח (ch’ liphney) live in the presence of; ˊב ˊח (ch’ b’) live among. C. sustain life, live on or upon (על, ‘al), of the animal life, by the sword, by bread; elsewhere in pregnant sense of fulness of life in divine favour, sustained by (על, ‘al) everything that issueth out of the mouth of ˊי (Y’); his promises (?); of wicked man, by repentance; c. בְּ (b’) by the statutes and judgments of ˊי (Y’) if a man do them. D. live (prosperously). 2. be quickened, revive: A. from sickness. B. fr. discouragement of the spirit. C. fr. faintness. D. fr. death; by return of נפשׁ (nphsh), of רוּחַ (ruach). Pi. 1. preserve alive, let live; keep in existence heaven and earth; nourish, young cow, lamb. 2. give life, to man when created. 3. quicken, revive, refresh: A. restore to life, the dead; the dying. B. cause to grow, grain. C. restore, a ruined city, stones destroyed by fire. D. revive, the people of ˊי (Y’) by ˊי himself with fulness of life in his favour. Hiph. 1. preserve alive, let live. 2. quicken, revive: A. restore to health, a leper, Hezekiah. B. revive the לֵב (leb) and רוּחַ (ruach). C. restore to life, the dead.
([הָוָה] (hawah) verb, become — Qal, unused root.)
(חַוָּה (chaiwah, chawah) nom.prop.fem. (life). II. חַוָּה (chawah) village, v. infr. sub II. חוה (chwh). יחואל (ychw’l) Kt; Qr יְחִיאֵל (yechi’el) q.v. sub חיה (chych).)
I. חַי (chai) adjective, alive, living — 1. a. of God, as the living one, the fountain of life אֵל חַי; חי יהוה (’El chai, chai Yhwh) Yahweh is living; the formula of the oath is… as used by God Himself it is חי אנכי (chi ’anki), elsewhere חי אני (chi ’ani); with exception of בְּחֵי הָעוֹלָם (bechai ha‘olam) by him who liveth for ever, חֵי (chey) is always (as an artificial distinction of scribes) used of non-sacred oaths, v. b. b. of man: אָדָם חַי (’adam chai) a living man, in antith. מֵת; הַחַי (meth-hachai) collective; Absalom; Naboth; a son or lad; usually pl. חיים (chyim) alive, living; taking prisoners alive; living (prosperously). Note phrases: ((‘odh chyim)= ים) עוֹד הַי (ym) yet alive; חַיִים(הַ) אֶרֶץ (chaiyim (ha) ’eretz) land of the living; ˊצרור הח (tzror hch’) bundle of the living. In the oath by life of men חי (chy) is pointed always חֵי (chey). c. of animals, alive, living: ox; goat; bird; dog; animals in general; בשׂר חי (bsr chy) living raw flesh. d. animals and man, phrases for either or both…. 3. reviving: כָּעֵת חַיָּה (ka’eth chaiyah) at the time (when it is) reviving, the spring.
I. חַיָּה (chaiyah) nom.fem. living thing, soul, animal — 1. animal, as a living, active being: a. in general. b. wild animals, on account of their vital energy and activity. c. living beings, of the cherubic chariot. 2. life, only in late poetry. 3. revival, renewal: of strength (re-invigoration); v. חָיָה 2 (chaiyah).
חַיִּים (chayim) nom.masc.plural, abstract emphatic, life, lives, souls — 1. life: physical. 2. life: as welfare and happiness in king’s presence; as consisting of earthly felicity combined (often) with spiritual blessedness; used only once distinctly of eternal life (late) עולם ˊ(‘ ‘olm) ח. 3 (ch.) sustenance, maintenance, v. מִחְיָה (mich’yah).

The four roots are only two primary or strong, namely, hayah and chayah, ‘being’ and ‘life’ or ‘to be’ and ‘to live’. The strongest and most used is hayah, from which the Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh (I am That I am, I become Who I become) is derived, and reveals the proper meaning of the Divine Name. The proper or best pronunciation of the YHWH is of little importance to me; the ignorance and confusion of it has been permanently and universally fixed. I will say this in these reflections that the harsh criticism against the old pronunciation of three syllables, in favor of the new scholarly two syllables, is a great mistake. The common English transliterated Jehovah was originally Yehowah, the J early being Y, and the V being W, the alterations due to French and German influence. The Spanish since the 1500s is Jehova pronounced ‘Ehovah’, the J in Spanish being softened or aspirated or muted, often to Y as in Juan pronounced ‘Wan, ‘Uan, or “One”, but we say John. Many just translate it as the Eternal or the Name. The sacredness is not in its exact enunciation, but in fear and honor and love to Him as God Eternal. The Jews have continually guarded the Sacred Name by various substitutions and clever alterations, even to applying the protection or fence to other languages. In English the most popular of these substitutes or alternatives are Lord, LORD, ha-Shem, the Almighty, and G-d. I will give Gesenius’ Lexicon translated and edited by Tregelles in which most of the history and controversy is touched upon briefly.

(Gesenius’s Hebrew & Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures, translated from Latin and German with Additions and Corrections from Gesenius’s Thesaurus and other works by Tregelles (1846-1864-1893-1974) and Robinson (20th edition, 1871; also Gesenius of Brown-Driver-Briggs both old and new edition 1906, 1974.)

“(YHWH, YeHoWah, Y’howah): Jehovah, the proper name of the supreme God (ha’Elohim) amongst the Hebrews. The later Hebrews, for some centuries before the time of Christ, either misled by a false interpretation of certain laws (Ex. 20:7; Lev. 24:11), or else following some old superstition, regarded this name as so very holy, that it might not even be pronounced (see Philo, Vitae Mosis (Life of Moses) t. iii. p.519, 529). Whenever, therefore, this nomen tetragrammaton occurred in the sacred text (haShem, Shem Hamphorash, the ineffable incommunicable unpronounceable Name), they were accustomed to substitute for it (’Adonai) and thus the vowels of the noun (’Adonai) are in the Massoretic text placed under the four letters (YHWH), but with this difference, that the initial Yod receives a simple and not a compound Sh’va (Y’howah, Yehowah, and not Yahowah) prefixes, however, receive the same points as if they were followed by (’Adonai), thus , (laiHowah, baiHowah, me-Howah). This custom was already in vogue in the days of the LXX (Septuagint, Seventy) translators; and thus it is that they everywhere translate (YHWH) by (ho Kurios, Dominus, Senor, Herr, Lord) (’Adonai): the Samaritans have also followed a similar custom, so that for (YHWH) they pronounce (Shima (i. q. hashShem). Where the text has (’Adni Yhwh), in order that Adonai should not be twice repeated, the Jews read (’Adonai Elohim), and they write (’Adonai Yahowih).” “As it is thus evident that the word (Yehowah, Y’howah) does not stand with its own vowels, but with those of another word, the inquiry arises, what then are its true and genuine vowels? Several consider that (Yahaoh is the true pronunciation (according to the analogy of (Yaaqob, Yakob, Jacob; Paroh, Par’oh, Pharroah), rightly appealing to the authority of certain ancient writers, who have stated that the God of the Hebrews was called (IAO) (Diod. i. 94 (historousi….tous nomous didonai—para de tous Ioudaious Mosen ton IAO epikaloumenon Theon). Macrob. Sat. i. 18. Hesych. v. (Ozeias), interp. ad Clement. Alexander. Stromata, v. p. 666. Theodotion quajst, 15 ad Exod: (kalousi de auto Samareitai) IABE [Yahweh, Yahaweh] Ioudaioi de IAO); to which also may be added, that this same form appears on the gems of the Egyptian Gnostics as the name of God (Irenaeus adversus. Hseres. (Against Heresies) i. 34; ii. 26. Bellermann, uber die Gemmen der Alten mit dem Abraxasbilde, i. ii.). Not very dissimilar is the name IEYO of Philo Byblius ap. Eusebius praep. Evang (Preparation for the Gospel). i. 9; and IAOY (Yahu) in Clement Al. Strom, v. p. 562. Others, as Reland (decad, exercitatt. de vera pronunciatione nominis Jehova, Traj. ad Rh. 1707, 8.), following the Samaritans, suppose that (Yahweh) was anciently the true pronunciation, and they have an additional ground for the opinion in the abbreviated forms (Yahu) and (Yah). Also those who consider that (Yehowah, Jehovah) was the actual pronunciation (Michaelis in Supplement p. 524) are not altogether without ground on which to defend their opinion. In this way can the abbreviated syllables (Yehu) and (Yo), with which many proper names begin, be more satisfactorily explained. [This last argument goes a long way to prove the vowels (Yehowah) to be the true ones.] {{See also Ginsburg Massorah Ha Massorah, four volumes of most of the manuscript readings and all variations of usage and occurrences.}} To give my own opinion [This opinion Gesenius afterwards Thoroughly retracted; see Thesaurus. and Amer. trans, in voc.: he calls such comparisons and derivations, “waste of time and labour;” would that he had learned how irreverent a mode this was of treating such subjects!], I suppose this word to be one of the most remote antiquity, perhaps of the same origin as Jovis, Jupiter, and transferred from the Egyptians to the Hebrews [What an idea! God Himself revealed this as His own name; the Israelites could never have received it from the Egyptians]. (Compare what has been said above, as to the use of this name on the Egyptian gems [but these gems are not of the most remote antiquity; they are the work of heretics of the second and third centuries]), and then so inflected by the Hebrews, that it might appear, both in form and origin, to be Phenicio-Shemitic (see Mosheh, behemoth).” (From Brown-Driver-Brigg’s Gesenius: “The pronunciation Jehovah unknown until 1520, when it was introduced by Galatinus; but it was contested by Le Mercier, J. Drusius, and L. Capellus, as against grammatical and historical propriety (compare F. Bottcher’s Lehrbuch d. Hebr. Sprache).)
(Notes on the Name YHWH; George F. Moore; the Pronunciation Jehovah. “In modern books of reference the origin of the hybrid Jehovah is usually attributed to Petrus Galatinus, a Franciscan friar, confessor of Pope Leo X, in his De arcanis catholicae veritatis, published in 1518. Thus, in the New Hebrew and English Lexicon (p. 218), Professor Briggs writes: “The pronunciation Jehovah was unknown until 1520, when it was introduced by Galatinus.”‘ (1. Similarly, and with the same error in the date, A. B. Davidson, in Hastings’ Dictionary of the Bible, II (1899), p. 199; and E. Kautzsch, ibid.. Extra Volume, p. 625 (with the correct date).) The writers who in the seventeenth century combated the pronunciation Jehovah make similar assertions, though not all with equal positiveness. Drusius, in the preface of his Tetragrammaton (1604), (2. Reprinted, with other discussions, on both sides of the question, by Reland, Decas exercitationum philologicarum de vera pronuntiatione nominis Jehova, 1707. For convenience of reference I cite these dissertations, some of which in their separate form are rare, by Roland’s pages,) calls Galatinus “pater vulgatae lectionis;” and, again (p. 67), declares “primus in hunc errorem nos induxit Galatinus;” but, when he comes to discuss more particularly Galatinus’ words (p. 90), expresses himself more cautiously: “Fieri potest ut errem, tamen inclino ut credam, parentem lectionis Jehova Petrum Galatinum esse. Nam, ante qui sic legerit, neminem novi.” (In a note on this passage Reland pointed out that Jehova was used by Porchetus de Salvaticis, who wrote in 1303. See below, p. 147.) Sixtinus Amama (De nomine tetragrammato, 1628), a pious pupil of Drusius, says (Decas, p. 205): “Nullus certe, vocem earn cuiquam ante P. Galatinum usurpatam, adhuc ostendit.” He rightly attributes the occurrence of Jehova in certain printed editions of Jerome, (Breviarium in Psalterium, on Ps. 8, Plantin edition.) Paul of Burgos, and Dionysius Carthusianus, to the editors. Cappellus (Oratio de SS. Dei nomine tetragrammato, 1624) (5. The Oratio was first printed at the end of Cappellus’ Arcanumpunctationis (1624), pp. 313-332; then in the revised edition of the Arcanum (1643); finally, as an appendix to his Critica Sacra (Paris, 1650), pp. 690-712, with a Defensio, chiefly against the reply of Gataker (ibid., pp. 713-739). In this ultimate form it is reprinted by Relaud.) and is less guarded; he speaks of “Galatinus, quern primum dicunt in orbem terrarum vocem istam Jehova invexisse” (Decas, p. 270); and roundly affirms, “Nemo ante Galatinum legit vel Jova, vel Jehova” (ibid. p. 291).)
“To this origin, allusion is made Exod. 3:14; (Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh) “I (ever) shall be (the same) that I am (to-day);” compare Apocalypse 1:4.8. (ho on kai ho en kai ho erchomenos): the name (YHWH) being derived from the verb (hawah) to be, was considered to signify God as eternal and immutable, Who will never be other than the same. Allusion is made to the same etymology, Hosea 12:6, (Yehowah Zikro).”Jehovah (i.e. the Eternal, the Immutable) is His name.” [We have thus the authority of God in His word, that this name is derived from the idea of being, existence, and not from any relics of Egyptian idolatry.] With this may be compared the inscription of the Sai’tic temple, Plutarch de Iside et Osiride, c. 9, (ego eimi to gegonos kai esomenon). [This shows how Pagans borrowed ideas from the true theology of God’s revelation, and not that the latter borrowed anything from the former.]”
“As to the usage of the word, the same supreme God, and the (Theos epichorios) [God was in an especial sense the God of the Israelites, but no idea must be admitted for a moment which would even seem to localize the God whose name is Jehovah of Hosts] tutelar God of the Hebrews, is called in the Old Testament by His proper name (Yehowah) and by the appellative (Elohim haElohim) (ho Theos, Allah), sometimes promiscuously, and sometimes the one or the other is used according to the nature of the expressions, or the custom of the writers (see p.49, B), (neum Yehowah, koh amar Yehowah, Ruach Yehowah, am Yehowah, ebed Yehowah), etc. The use of the word is to be especially observed in the following cases. (A.) (Yehowah Elohim) i.e. Jehovah God (in apposition, and not, as some have maintained, Jehovah of Gods, sc. the chief), the customary appellation of Jehovah in Genesis chap. 2:3, elsewhere less frequent, see however ….”
The pronunciation of the Four-Letters is certainly no longer positively known, for the Jews in guarding the Sacred Name, lost and then confused the pronunciation forever. However, the substitution and alteration of the vowel-points of the four letters does not change the possible valid pronunciation. We have the single syllable form of the Name; we also have dual and triple syllables of pre-reformation-renaissance form and now those of modern times. The Hebrew text is pointed in several ways, with some intention to hide the true sound, or accidental profanation. The analogies of the compound forms with the Name suggest both Yeho-, and Yah-, or –iah, and –yah. The changes of each letter in transliteration into other languages are several: y, I, and j; e, a, h, and o, u, v, and w; and these variants are unavoidable when the tongue of a certain people limits the ability to pronounce exactly the letters or vowel points. The tri-syllabic form was in use since the 13th century among the Jews going back to the innovation of the vowel points as a writing system. The Aramaic-Syriac-Chaldean and Arabic system of vowel-points attest to the possible possibilities within the cognate and the close related languages for the Biblical Hebrew. The Ancient Hebrew as with the Modern Hebrew has its own variants and options. It is certain that as with the advocates of the Documentary System of the many Bible books, especially their reconstruction of Genesis, these same scholars are not hesitant to advocate their dual-syllable sound as absolute truth and established fact. The assertion that the tri-syllable was a Roman Catholic invention of the early 16th century is a scholarly myth without creditability as to documentation, beyond scholars slinging and making accusations against the new liberty of the Reformers; since before then the Jewish orthodoxy prohibited and concealed the obvious. If the root is hayah and chayah by way of Ehyeh then the probability is far stronger as a tri-syllable word rather than dual. If Joshua or Judah be taken as the example, then Yehoshua (the last letter is a silent Ayin sustained by a vowel-point) Yehudah. Finally, the very first word that proceeded from God’s mouth was yehi, let-be, become, exist, spoken of day one; followed by yehi and yehi for the first day and repeated on the following days; then the last words He spoke of the Creation week at the end of day six, verse 29, was yihyeh. It-shall-be, let it be, food for them, and the them also refers, verse 30, to man and animals as nephesh chayah, living souls, breathing life, which is given in the margin of both AKJV and the ASV. Later we will have Adam’s name for his wife is Eve or Chaiwah and Havah which means Life.


About mjmselim

Male, 65, born in Jamaica, USA since 1961, citizen in 2002; cobbler for 40 plus years, Christian since 1969; married to same wife since 1979; 6 daughters and 2 sons, with 7 grandkids. Slowly adapting to the digital world of computers and internet; hobby in digital editing.
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