Christian Biblical Reflections.30

(Christian Biblical Reflections.29. Here is submission or part 30 of CBR, pages 320-374 , of the Book of Ezekiel. mjmselim.Dec.2019.)
Here is the Link in my OneDrive to the Adobe, Word 635, & WordPad files of the completed Major Prophets Chapter IV. These files will show the original format of the work, which is not able to be replicated in WordPress. I have also put the two files, pdf & word of volume 1 in the folder. In Ezekiel of have used the colored texts more frequent than in Isaiah or Jeremiah, as very helpful to follow the prophetic word of the Son of Man. I have again gone through the chapter to correct errors. I had circulated a few weeks ago a Chronological Chart of 100 years to answer I question sent to me; that chart I fond later had many errors, and some of a serious kind; they are corrected in this completed work. I encourage those who I sent the chart to replace it with what is in this work.
I tried to complete the work by December 7th, my 50th year in Christ. I expect to finish Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets (Chapter V, the last chapter of the Old Testament Books) within 3 months. If my health permits in the will & grace of God I would like to finish the entire New Testament within 6 months after chapter 5. I have again altered my style in Ezekiel as a necessity. I have tried to limit any speculative comments or views from this Book.

CBR files in PDF & Word:
https://1drv.ms/u/s!AgcwUEJ0moRUg_Ua3IHBwOxi9NWARA?e=2b3BsD

Here is the link to my Internet Archive.org library page for those interested:
https://archive.org/details/@mikemjm

 

 

(7) Holy Bible in Authorized Version; with Introductions & Notes. vol. 5 Part II, Jer, Lam, Ezekiel, by Chr., Wordsworth, D.D., Bishop of Lincoln. Old Testament. (1875)gs

Introduction: Book of Prophet Ezekiel: The names of the Hebrew prophets have a sacred significance. Of the four greater prophets, two prophesied at Jerusalem —Isaiah and Jeremiah; and two prophesied in Babylonia —Ezekiel and Daniel. The names of the two who prophesied at Jerusalem, Isaiah and Jeremiah, are compounded with the divine Name JAH or JEHOVAH, the appellation of God as the Lord of the covenanted people, Israel. The names of the other two prophets, Ezekiel and Daniel, who prophesied in the land of Babylon —the great Empire of the world as distinguished from Sion, the Church of God,— are compounded with the sacred Name EL, which designates God in His universal supremacy as Creator and Ruler of all things, and which bears the same relation to ELOHIM, as JAH does to JEHOVAH. This assignment of names to these four great Hebrew seers was providential. As has been already observed, Jeremiah reiterates and authenticates the words of Isaiah; and, as may readily be shown, not only did the prophet Daniel, at Babylon and at Susa, study the Book of Jeremiah and refer to it in his own prophecies, and act upon the revelations made therein, and thus set his own seal upon the writings of Jeremiah, but the prophecies of Ezekiel also are like a responsive echo to those of Jeremiah. Both Jeremiah and Ezekiel were Priests as well as Prophets. Jeremiah is the prophet of the tenderest affections, Ezekiel is the prophet of the most fervid imagination; Jeremiah is more than the Euripides, Ezekiel is more than the AEschylus, of Hebrew prophecy. Ezekiel, at the river Chebar in northern Mesopotamia, bore witness to the divine utterances which came from Jeremiah at Jerusalem. The prophet Jeremiah at Jerusalem was set there by God to be a faithful witness in an evil generation: “I have made thee to be a defenced city, an iron pillar, and brasen walls against the whole land, against the kings of Judah, the princes, and the priests, and the people of the land.” And to the prophet Ezekiel, among the Hebrew captives in Babylonia, God said, “Behold, I have made thy face strong against their face, and thy forehead strong against their foreheads; as an adamant harder than flint have I made thy forehead; fear them not, neither be dismayed.” The two prophets stood like two opposite cliffs hanging over intervening straits —such as Calpe and Abyla, or Sestos and Abydos,— confronting one another, rising above the swell of the ocean, and dashed upon by a stormy sea rolling between them. This phenomenon displays a truth which ought ever to be present to the mind of the student of Hebrew prophecy. All the prophets, in whatever time and in whatever land they lived, prophesied by one and the same Spirit; and, as St. Peter affirms, that Spirit was the Spirit of CHRIST. St. Peter says that the prophets “searched diligently, what the ‘Spirit of Christ’, which was in them, did signify, when it testified beforehand the ‘sufferings of Christ’ and the glory that should follow’.” This apostolic sentence is the clue to all right prophetic interpretation. The Spirit in all the prophets was the Spirit of Christ, and it testified of His sufferings, and of the glory that would follow from them. This truth is displayed in the names, persons, and prophecies of the four greater Hebrew prophets. Isaiah, which means the ‘salvation of Jehovah’, is the first Hebrew prophet who calls the Messiah ‘the servant of the Lord’; and he sets before us more clearly than any other of his predecessors the Passion of Christ. Jeremiah, as we have seen, is the prophet of ‘suffering’, and his prophecies are followed by a national dirge in his Lamentations. He is the type of the ‘Christus patiens’. But Ezekiel is the prophet of the ‘glory’ that would follow the suffering. The prophecies of Ezekiel are introduced with a revelation of glory. He himself a priest, called to his prophetic office at the river Chebar in his ‘thirtieth’ (30th) year (Ezekiel 1:1: Ezekiel began to prophesy on the fifth day of the fourth month of the fifth (5th) year of the captivity at Babylon of King Jehoiachin or Jeconiah (B.C. 595); the fifth (5th) year of his successor, Zedikiah; and about seven years (7) before the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans, in the thirteenth (13th) year of Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 588) Ezekiel continued to prophesy for at least twenty-two (22) years. See 29:17; 40:1) and designated by God throughout his prophecies as ‘son of man’, (which no Hebrew prophet who prophesied at Jerusalem ever is); and seeing the heavens opened, and beholding visions of God’s glory, is a signal type of the Incarnate God, “the Son of Man,” standing in His thirtieth (30th) year, at the river Jordan, and inaugurated there as Prophet, Priest, and King, when, the Gospel says, “the heavens opened unto Him, and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting upon Him, and lo! a voice from heaven, saying, ‘This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased’.”
Jeremiah’s prophecies begin and end with a vision of suffering; Ezekiel’s prophecies begin and end with a vision of glory. The last nine chapters of Ezekiel describe the visionary Temple and the ideal Holy Land, in a mysterious transfiguration, and are prophetic representations of the grace and glory of the Catholic Church of Christ, and are like a prelude to the visions of the Apocalypse, and the splendours of the Church glorified in heaven. His brother prophet, Daniel, at Babylon completes this glorious picture, by his descriptions of the Second Coming of Christ, and the general Resurrection, and the Judgment of quick and dead, and the bliss of the saints in glory. And thus these two great Prophets of the Exile and the Captivity of Israel are also the two great prophets of the everlasting peace and heavenly joy of the Church or Christ. The sufferings of Christ as revealed by Isaiah and Jeremiah, the two greatest prophets who prophesied at Jerusalem, and whose names are compounded with the sacred appellation of JAH or Jehovah, the Lord God of Israel, the God of the Hebrew Church, lead on by a beautiful transition to the glories of Christ, which followed those sufferings, and which are revealed in Ezekiel and Daniel, who prophesied in a heathen land, and whose names, —one, that of Ezekiel, referring to the ‘strength’ of ‘God’, and the other, that of Daniel, to the ‘judgment’ of ‘God’, —are compound with EL, the Hebrew designation of God the Creator in His Universal Supremacy, and Who unfolded in their prophecies the gracious assurance that although the material Jerusalem was levelled in the dust, and though the Church of God was in exile and captivity, hanging up its harp on the willows which overhung the waters of Babylon, yet the ‘glory of the Lord’ can never fall away, nay, it gleams forth more brightly from the gloom of sorrow and suffering, it derives fresh life from death; and a new creation from destruction. Although banished from Jerusalem, it is diffused into the heathen world, which has become a temple and city of God, and is a place of preparatory probation for the Church glorified in heaven.
Ezekiel, whose prophetic designation is “son of man,” is the priest and prophet, not of the Temple and City of Jerusalem, but of the spiritual Temple or Universal Humanity. This is his great value: he catholicizes Hebraism. He leads us on to contemplate and adore the Lord God of the Old Testament in all the breadth and depth and height of His divine attributes, as Universal Father and Saviour of all.
Observe how he displays God’s Omnipresence and Omniscience. A short time before the destruction of Jerusalem, Ezekiel, the captive prophet in exile on the banks of the river Chebar, being severed, at a distance of more than 400 miles on the north-east from Jerusalem, was enabled, by the Holy Spirit, to behold and to describe the strange mysteries of impure worship which were celebrated in the secret chambers and dark crypts of the Temple there; his inner eye was illumined by the Spirit of God, and he was enabled to specify by name the men who were standing there with censers in their hand, and raising a thick cloud of incense, through the misty veil of which he descried the vermilion paintings on the wall, of grotesque figures of creeping things and abominable creatures of Egyptian idolatry in the chambers of their imagery; he was enabled to see the women mimicking the ritual of Phoenicia and weeping for the Syrian Thammuz, or Adonis, in the courts of the Lord God of Israel; and he saw the men between the porch and the altar in Sion turning their backs on the Temple of Jehovah, and bowing down their heads in lowly adoration to worship the rising sun. The prophet Ezekiel, dwelling in exile in Babylon, was also enabled to foresee and describe the scene of that last fatal night of Jerusalem besieged by the Chaldaean army, when the last king of Judah, Zedekiah, who had mocked the warnings of the prophet Jeremiah, stole secretly out of his palace with a few attendants, and passed along through the gate between the two walls which were by the king’s garden, with his face muffled up in his mantle, and was caught, as it were, in a net, with his companions, by his Chaldaean enemies in the plain of Jericho.
Not merely was Ezekiel enabled to see these things, and to describe them, but he was commanded to show his faith in his own inspiration by enacting them in the presence of the captives in Babylon. He was commanded to portray the siege of Jerusalem by a picture drawn with chalk on a dark brick of Babylon, and to represent it a blockade by visible actions; and he was commanded to show his faith in his own revelations from God, by removing his own furniture from his own house in Babylonia in the dim twilight, as a token that Zedekiah, the king of Judah, would in like manner go forth in the dusk of the evening from his palace; and he was ordered to declare the meaning of these prophetic actions to those who were with him in Chaldaea, so that, if these symbolical actions had not been realized by that which they were intended to symbolize, Ezekiel would have become a laughing-stock to the captives, and would have been rejected with scorn by the Hebrew Nation, and have never been received by them as an inspired prophet of God. Ezekiel ‘was’ recognized by the Hebrew Church as a prophet of the Lord; he was owned as such by Christ and His Apostles. And therefore these words and acts of Ezekiel preach to us and all the world the great doctrines of the Divine Omnipresence and Omniscience, and of our own personal responsibility. If Ezekiel, at the river Chebar, was enabled by God to reveal the hidden things of the secret chambers of the Temple at Jerusalem, and to specify by name the persons who were there engaged in those unhallowed mysteries, and to see through the thick cloud of the incense which enveloped them; can it be supposed that there is anything in the inmost recesses of our hearts which the eye of Ezekiel’s God does not penetrate and pierce? Can it be imagined that there is any idolatry —carnal, intellectual, or spiritual— which we ourselves practise in the secret crypts and subterranean chambers of the imagery of our own thoughts, which is not clear as noon-day to His view? And can it be imagined that there is anything which He will not bring forth to judgment as He brought forth the men of Jerusalem to be judged by the Man, an impersonation of Christ, whom Ezekiel saw clothed in linen, with a writer’s ink-horn at his side, to note down, in a book, the actions of the princes and people at Jerusalem, and who executed sentence upon them, and who also set His mark —a mark, it was, of the cross— on the forehead of every one who sighed, wept, and mourned over their hateful abominations —in order that they might be spared in the terrible slaughter which destroyed the rest. This prophetic representation of the divine attributes of Omnipresence and Omniscience is combined in Ezekiel with a solemn declaration of the hollowness of all mere formal, ceremonial worship; and of the necessity of a deep sense of man’s individual responsibility, and of the duty of searching self-examination, and of practical repentance, and of spiritual, vital, and personal religion. ……The prophet Ezekiel completed the picture. He beheld the Glory of the LORD, enthroned upon the cherubim, forsaking the Temple of Jerusalem, which was profaned by the sins of Priests, Princes, and People. He saw the Glory of the LORD rising aloft and floating away over the east gate of the Temple, to the Mount of Olives and towards the land of Chaldaea…..
…..Whatever in God’s providential visitation may be in store for the Nation and national Church of Ireland and England-whatever may befall other Nations and other national Churches —Ezekiel, at the river Chebar, provides comfort for the faithful in every age and clime. The destruction of the City and Temple at Jerusalem was like the death of a beloved wife. It was a sadder pang to them than the death of a dear Rachel to the patriarch Jacob at Bethlehem. The expatriation of the citizens of Jerusalem from that home of their hearts, their dispersion as wanderers and captives in a far-off heathendom, was like a national widowhood and a national orphanhood. But yet the Lord God of Israel was the God of all true Israelites in Chaldaea as well as in Judah. He is the God of every land and every age. He is JEHOVAH ELOHIM. And this great truth was brought out more clearly by the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple, and by the scattering of her princes, priests, and people into the far-off regions of the East. They learnt thus to realize God’s Omnipresence. They learnt that true religion does not depend on the material fabric of a Temple, however glorious; nor on its religious Ritual, however gorgeous, and even though it be prescribed by God Himself; but that it depends on the presence of God in the hearts of His people. The Glory of the Lord God had been seen by the prophet Ezekiel floating away in the clouds on the winged chariot of the Cherubim from the Temple of Jerusalem. And why? Because that Temple was profaned by the sins of the worshippers in it. And this migration of the God of the Temple was a signal that He had given it up to destruction. But that Glory of the Lord was seen by the prophet in the wilderness of Chaldaea on the banks of the river Chebar, four hundred miles from Jerusalem; and God had said to him, “I will be your Sanctuary.” Thus it was revealed to the world, that though Thrones may totter and fall, though Cities may be thrown prostrate on the ground, though Dynasties, Empires, and Kingdoms pass away like visionary shadows and spectral phantoms, though Nations may be scattered, and national Churches may fall, yet there is the same JEHOVAH —the same Triune God— ever sitting enthroned upon the cherubim, ever riding upon the winged chariot of the fourfold Gospel throughout the world; and though we be exiles and prisoners in Chaldaea with Ezekiel, or with St. John at Patmos, yet with them we may have visions of God. And this blessed assurance is confirmed to us by the Holy Spirit speaking to us by Ezekiel, and revealing to us in the last nine chapters of his sublime prophecy the glories of the Church of Christ Universal, which is our indestructible Sion; and summing up all with those memorable words, “the name of the city from that day shall be JEHOVAH SHAMMAH,” —the LORD is THERE. A great conflict seems to be near at hand. And we know from the sure word of Prophecy that the Church of God will be assailed in the latter days by an Antichristian confederacy of discordant powers combined against her. The thoughtful reader of Ezekiel’s prophecies may calmly contemplate that conflict; and may behold its issue revealed to his eye by the Holy Spirit of God, and may derive holy comfort and courage from that divine revelation……

The Four Living Creatures, or Cherubim [Cherubs]:
5. ‘four living creatures’] These verses, to the end of the chapter, will best be considered continuously in one note. The living creatures are ‘four’; four is a number symbolical of universality (see the note at end of Rev. 11). They are called ‘Cherubim’ below (10:2-9, 14-16, 18-20; 11:22). In the Apocalypse of St. John they are called (zöa), ‘living creatures’. There they are about the Throne of God. In Ezekiel they form the Throne or Chariot, on which He sits and rides above, on (see above, on ‘v.’3 note 2). They lift up their wings and mount up from the earth, and the glory of the Lord is upon them (see 10:17-19; cp. here ‘v.’26). Their feet are straight, vigorously extended —a symbol of strength and of rectitude; and their soles sparkle like the splendour of polished brass. The hand of each is that of a man under their wings. Their wings are joined together; and they turn not when they go, but go straight forward. Each of the four living creatures has a fourfold aspect; the likeness of a ‘man’ and of a ‘lion’ on the right side, and the likeness of an ‘ox’ and of ‘eagle’ on the left. Their faces and their wings are separated from above (the word does not mean ‘streached upward’, as in the text); each has a distinct face and wings; but one pair of the wings of each is joined to the wings of another cherub, to denote unity in flying, and with another pair they cover their bodies in reverence (cp. lsa. 6:2). Whither the SPIRIT willed to go, they go; they are like burning coals of fire, and lamps or torches, Hebr. ‘laphidim’; the same word is used to describe Gideon’s ‘lamps’ or ‘torches’ (Judg. 7:16, 20), and therefore very suggestive (see the note above, at the end of Judges, chap. 7) as describing the flashing forth of Divine Truth by Evangelical preaching. The fire goes up and down among them, like the fire at Pentecost (Acta 2:3), and there is splendour in the fire; and from the fire goes forth lightning; and the living creatures run to and fro like a lightning flash. Each of the living creatures has wheel for each of its four faces. The wheel are like beryl; literally, like the ‘eye of Tarshish’ or ‘Tartessus’; i.e. like the ‘brightness of topaz’ or ‘chrysolite’ found at Tarshish, and called from it; as ‘gold’ is called from ‘Ophir’, and ‘ruby’ is called carchedonius from ‘Carchedon’, or ‘Carthage’ (‘Gesen’. 875; ‘Fuerst’, 1494). Each of the four living creatures, or cherubim, has one likeness; and their wheels are like a wheel within a wheel, set transversely, so as to move in any direction without turning. And the rings, or felloes [rims, spokes,?], of the wheels are full of eyes; when the living creatures go, the wheels go with them; and when the living creatures are lifted up, the wheels are lifted up. Whither the Spirit wills to go, they go, and the wheels go with them; for the Spirit is in the wheels. And above the heads of the living creatures is the likeness of the firmament (Hebr. ‘rakia’, Gen. 1:6; cp. below, 10:1), as the brightness (literally, ‘the eye’) of crystal, terrible, stretched forth over their heads. And under the firmament their wings straight (cp. ‘v’. 7, where their feet are described as ‘straight’) one toward another (literally, ‘each to its sister’); each one has two, covering on this side, and each one has two, covering on that side their bodies. (It seems, therefore, probable, from a comparison of ‘v’. 11, that each cherub had six wings; as the Seraphim have in Isa. 6:2.) And I heard the sound of their wings “as the sound of many waters” ( cp. Rev. 1:15; 14:2; 19:6), as the voice of the Almighty, the voice of a multitude (see Gesen. 227), the voice of an army. When they stand they let down their wings. And there is a voice from above the firmament over their heads, when they stand and let down their wings. And above the firmament over their heads, as sapphire -stone, is the likeness of a Throne; cp. Exod. xxiv. 10, “They saw the God of Israel, and there was under His feet as it were a paved work of a ‘sapphire-stone’, and as it were the body of heaven in clearness; and upon the likeness of the Throne is the likeness after the appearance of a Man above upon it. And I saw like the splendour of Chashmal (see on ‘v’. 4), as the appearance of fire within it round about, from the appearance of his loins downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and it had brightness round about. As the appearance of the rainbow that is in the cloud (cp. Rev. 4:3, “there was a ‘rainbow’ round about the Throne”) in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round. It was the appearance of the likeness of the ‘glory of the Lord’ (cp. Isa. 6:1-3). And I saw it, and I fell on my face, and I heard the voice of one speaking.”
What is the meaning of this Vision?
The prophecies of Ezekiel are distinguished by their ‘universality’. In them the Lord God of Hosts is presented to the view, not as a localized Presence at Jerusalem, but as filling the whole Earth with His Glory. This Vision is a prelude to these prophecies. It represents the Lord God of Israel, the Lord of Glory, enthroned upon the Cherubim, or Living Creatures, and riding upon them, as upon a chariot, into all lands. These four living creatures, which reappear in the Apocalypse in a somewhat modified form, are supposed, with good reason, by ancient Christian Interpreters (such as ‘S. Irenaeus’, ‘S. Athanasius’, ‘S. Jerome’, ‘S. Augustine’, and ‘S. Gregory the Great’, and others), to represent the ‘fourfold Gospel’, on which the Lord, the Triune God, is borne, as on a royal Throne and triumphal Chariot, into the ‘four quarters’ of the world. (The patristic authorities to this effect may be seen below, in the note on Rev. 4:4, pp. 182-184; and in the Editor’s Lectures on the Canon of Scripture, p. 163, and need not be repeated here.)
The Gospels are four, and four only; they are Living Creatures, for they are the living Oracles of the Ever-living God; each has four faces, for each displays the fourfold attributes of Christ. Each reveals Him as Man, as King (symbolized by the Lion), as a Sacrificial Victim (typified by the Ox), and as the Resurrection and the Life, Who mounts on an Eagle’s pinions to heaven, and Who carries us thither, as eaglets, on His wings. See below, on Matt. xxiv. 28. Luke xvii. 37. As is said in the ancient Christian Hymn:
‘”Quatuoi’ describunt isti: Quadriformes actus CHRISTI;
Natus ‘Homo’ declaratur: ‘Vitulus’ sacrificatur,
‘Leo’ Mortem déprédateur: Et ascendit ‘Aquila’.”
Each Gospel has wings, and a man’s hand is under the wings; for in each is human ministry winged by Divine Power. They have straight feet and wings; nothing is distorted in them ; they move wherever the Spirit guides them. One and the same Spirit moves in the Four Gospels, and by them all. They are marvellously joined together, intertwined with coincidences and varieties, wing interwoven with wing, and wheel inwound in wheel; and their wheels are full of eyes, and they sparkle with Divine light; and they cover their bodies in reverent adoration of Him Who rides upon them; and they fly with lightning’s speed, and with a lightning’s flash, and carry the Church upon their wings into every clime, and to the four corners of the Earth (see on Rev. 12:14); and their sound is like that of many waters, and of a mighty host; “their sound is gone out into all lands, and their words unto the ends of the world.” See on Ps. 19:4.
This Vision was designed to comfort Ezekiel in his captivity, and to encourage him to do his work as a Prophet to Israel and the world. Isaiah, who foretold the captivity of Israel and Judah, was consoled by his vision in the Temple, declaring that “‘all the earth’ is full of the glory of the Lord;” so Ezekiel, who was commissioned to be a Prophet of woe to Judah, and to the city and Temple of Jerusalem, was cheered, and was enabled to cheer others, with the revelation, that, whatever might happen to the walls of Sion and to its Temple, yet the Lord of Hosts, Who sat there between the cherubim, and was there worshipped, was the Almighty God (‘v’. 24); and that the cherubim would become to Him a heavenly chariot, and He would ride upon it as a Mighty Conqueror and King into all lands in the ‘Gospel of Christ, and in all true preachers of it’, and ‘in all faithful believers of it’, who are transfigured into the likeness of Christ, Who is revealed in the Gospels, and partake of His attributes and His glory. There is, therefore, a divine truth in the opinion, that these fourfold Cherubim, or Living Creatures, represent the whole glorified society of Believers who show forth their faith in the Gospel, and live forever in Christ. Cp. ‘Calovius’ and ‘Luther’ quoted by him, pp. 499. 501; and ‘Pfeiffer’, Dubia, p. 407.
The scope of the whole Book of Ezekiel (says ‘Carpzov’, Int. 209, and ‘Villalpandus’, Prooem. p. ix.) is to display CHRlST and His kingdom; therefore, at the beginning of it, Christ is manifested riding on His Evangelic chariot, and about to advance His Gospel throughout the world. In the sequel of the prophecy, the union of Israel and Judah in Christ is represented (chaps. 11; 20; 29; 37), and the remission of sins through Him (chap. 16). He is displayed as the Good Shepherd (chap. 34); and the conversion of the Gentiles is exhibited (chap. 36); and the resurrection of the faithful to life everlasting (chap. 37); and the destruction of the enemies of the Church (chap. 38 sq.); and the glory of the Church triumphant. Lastly, the Holy Spirit in the Apocalypse (4:4-11) blends together the imagery of the Vision of the Prophet Ezekiel at the river Chebar with the imagery of the Vision of the Prophet Isaiah in the Temple at Jerusalem, and teaches us to recognize in both a revelation of the Triune God. The four Living Creatures, or Cherubim, of the former, have six wings, and are full of eyes ‘around’ (literally, as in a ‘wheel’, (kuklothen)), and within; and they rest not day and night, saying, in the words of the Seraphim in Isaiah, “HOLY, HOLY, HOLY, Lord God Almighty.” (Rev. 4:8).

(8) Commentary on Holy Scriptures: Critical, Doctrinal, & Homiletical, & Special Reference to Ministers & Students. Ezekiel & Daniel. John Peter Lange, D.D., & Number of Eminent European Divines. Translated from German, Edited , & Additions Original & Selected by Philip Schaff, D. D. & American Scholars of Various Evangelical Denominations. Prophet Ezekiel; Theologically & Homiletically Expounded by Fr. Wilhelm Julius Schroder, Late Pastor of Reformed Church at Elberfeld, Prussia. Translated, Enlarged, & Edited by Patrick Fairbairn (p. 241-331 close of Chap. 34), D.D. late Principal of Free Church College, Glasgow, & Rev, William Findlay (p. 1-179), M. A. Larkhall Scotland, aided by Rev. Thomas Cherar (p. 180-240),M.A., & Rev. Sinclair Manson (p. 331-492).(1875) gs.

§ 5. Contents & Division of Book:
1. The work of our prophet, the picture of his prophetic life,—and this is most truly his life-picture,— has furnished us first of all by the contents of his book, according to Umbreit’s description, “as in a prophetic diary carried on by himself.” “Where the work of the prophets was ‘par excellence’ a spiritual one, consisting in the preaching of the word, there the communication and preservation of this word is itself the portraiture of their activity, in very deed their prophetic biography. The latter is the case with Ezekiel” (Havernick). The very first three chapters give us a glimpse ‘as into a programme’. Still more as regards the object of the ‘vision’ in ch. 1, with which the book opens, than as regards the divine commission in ch. 2 and 3, the prophet appears to us at the very beginning as he will be up to the end in the peculiarity of his prophetic work according to the divine appointment. This is ‘not merely’ that he is to be a ‘prophet in the exile’, which is the only thing Calvin makes prominent, but rather that he has to represent ‘the glory of Jehovah in the exile’. ‘This is the key to his prophetic labours in their strictest individuality’. As regards the ‘divine commission’ to the prophet in ch. 2 and 3, what stands opposed ‘on man’s part’ to the carrying out of the same, partly ‘outside’ (ch. 2:3 sqq.), partly ‘in’ himself (ch. 2:8 sqq.), just as what is said with respect to the equipment of Ezekiel on ‘God’s’ part (ch. 3:4 sqq.), is immediately connected with what is very similar in the case of Jeremiah (see the exposition).
Ch. 4 and 5, however, change the scene entirely to the (§ 4) foresaid ‘parallelism of Ezekiel and Jeremiah’, which we found significant as regards the first labours of our prophet: from a ‘fourfold’ (ch. 4:1-8, 4 sqq., 9 sqq-, v. 1 sqq.) ‘symbolical representation’ of the impending fate of Jerusalem and its inhabitants, the accompanying interpretation of the symbols leads to ‘two almost Jeremiah discourses of rebuke’ against Judah, ch. 6 and 7. What was already made prominent in these discourses of rebuke as ‘guilt, the idolatrous apostasy from Jehovah’, is represented with the plastic art of heathen worship and a liturgical vividness —’by the vision of the abominations in the temple’ (ch. 8), in which from the first the “image of jealousy” and the glory of Jehovah (ch. 1) confront each other (ch. 8:3,4). and ‘this latter’ (ch. 9:3 sqq.) causes ‘the judgment’ to be carried out inexorably ‘on the guilty’, especially ‘on the city’ (ch. 10). As the 11th chapter, in which the vision closes, once more, and through a striking case of death, brings into prominence the leaders of the people (the demagogues), so the ‘symbolical transaction’ in ch. 12 singles out the lot of the king at Jerusalem, so that with the “bread” and “water” a termination is reached in the meantime of the misery which is to come upon the hind and its inhabitants. The only thing remaining is, that the prophet should announce the execution of the punishment as being one that is ‘near’, ver. 21 sqq.
The circumstance that his repeated (vers. 21 sqq., 26 sqq.) ‘previous announcement of the nearness’ of the judgment takes the shape in ch. 13 of a ‘discourse against the false prophets and prophetesses’, cannot (according to ch. 12:24) lie outside the context, and the explanation come to with the ‘idolatrous seekers after oracles’ in ch. 14 easily fits into it; the elders of the people who are guilty of such consultation are just sitting before the prophet, and the guilt, essentially similar to their own, of ‘faithless Jerusalem’ (ver. 12 sqq.) justifies to their consciences the righteousness of the punishment in the one case as in the other, just as such justification will also take place through the remnant from Jerusalem (vers. 22,23), who will come to be seen by them. But after ‘Jerusalem’ has been depicted in ch. 15 as ‘a vine tree for the burning’, especially after she has been depicted in detail as ‘a lewd adulteress’ in ch. 16, —idolatry in that case being adultery and lewdness,— and after the ‘riddle with respect to the royal house of David’ in ch. 17 is followed by the thorough ‘statement of the divine righteousness’ In ch. 18, and lastly by ‘the lamentation’ in ch. 19 over the perishing kingdom of Israel, ch. 20 merely contains in addition a ‘survey’ of the objective as well as subjective guidance of the people from of old, for the purpose in ch. 21 of setting forth with the most living distinctness ‘the express announcement of the nearness’ of the judgment (comp. ver. 12), and then ‘alike the punishment and’ (with equal sharpness) ‘the guilt —Jerusalem in particular, and Judah’s and Israel’s in common’— are portrayed in ch. 22 and 23.
In ch. 24 the predicted ‘nearness’ of the judgment is ‘a fact’ of such a kind, that the prophet must for himself write down the day, that the fact of the death of his wife furnishes the mournful illustration, and that the prophet does not now any longer speak, but is silent respecting Jerusalem. But during this silence ‘respecting Israel’ the prophetic word goes forth with loud voice ‘against those without’, (A similar juxtaposition of predictions respecting the heathen is found both in Jeremiah (ch. 46-51, at the close) and in Isaiah (ch. 13-23). Comp. Delitzsch, Comm. on Isaiah, p. 294 sqq. [Clark’s Trans.]. In Isaiah, as in Ezekiel, it is a provisional temporary silence; in Jeremiah, one that is final respecting Israel.) such as Ammon (comp. ch. 21:38 sqq.) and Moab, Edom, the Philistines (ch. 25), then Tyrus and Sidon (ch. 26:26-28), and lastly Egypt (ch. 29-32). There is no passing, as in the case of Paul, from the synagogue to the heathen. Neither is it the joy with Zion’s joy, but the joy in Zion’s suffering, that forms the point of departure. They are therefore predictions of judgment; the downfall of Jerusalem determines the colour and tune of these chapters, which appear like an appendix to what goes before. The judgment begins at the house of God, yet it will not spare the rest of the world. And here the predominating element as regards the carrying out of the judgment and the foreign nations that are named is the connection with Nebuchadnezzar, just as on the other hand the more intimate historical relation to Jerusalem down to the last days of Judah. (As to the chronology, see § 6, and the introductory observations to ch. 25-32)
These predictions rightly form the transition to the predominantly comforting labours of Ezekiel after the destruction of Jerusalem. For the ever repeated closing statement as the judgments are announced, “and ye shall,” or “thou shalt,” or “they shall know that I am the Lord” (comp. ch. 25:5, 7, 11), necessarily contained for the exiles the consolation, that the malicious delight in Judah’s misery (ch. 25:3, 6; 26:2) is not to issue in contempt for Judah’s God also (ch. 25:8; 28:2, 6, 22; 29:3, 9), but that their Judge will rather seat Himself in judgment on their false heathen friends also, especially on Egypt (ch. 29:6, 7, 16). If Jehovah made Himself known in such a way to the heathen, then the judgments over them and their gods, with whom Israel had sinned, to whom they had looked up in trust or in despair, removed at the same time many a stone out of that path which the people had to tread for their salvation. But with their conversion to the only true God —that was the path— the former more negative consolation arising from those judgments on the heathen nations grew into a very positive one for the people of Jehovah. As already, in the previous announcements of Judah’s punishment (comp. ch. 6:9; 11:16 sqq.; 16:60 sqq.; 17:22 sqq.; 20:40 sqq.), ‘prospects of salvation’ are opened up, so the closing note of the prediction of judgment on Sidon (ch. 28:25 sqq.), on Egypt (ch. 29:21), is ‘express’ consolation for the exiles. Now what comes in the shape of ‘consolation’, as being salvation for the people of God, cannot in the end be accomplished without ‘blessing’ for the heathen world, in which and for which Israel is placed from the beginning as a ‘mediator’ of salvation. The judgments on one and another and another of the heathen nations are consummated, of course, in the additional judgment on the heathen world-power antagonistic to the kingdom of God; yet the salvation of the Jews comes to be for the good of the human race. The recovery of the consciousness of her peculiar spiritual calling as a nation must be the highest, the ‘full consolation’ for Israel, to whom alike her own judgment and that on the heathen shaped themselves into a process of purification for her divine world-task.
The ‘silence’ of Ezekiel (ch. 24) had been accordingly, as the predictions with respect to the other nations have informed us, not merely for judgment on Israel, but at the same time ‘a waiting for the promise of God with respect to His people’, and that ‘from among the heathen also’. Comp. ch. 47:1 sqq., 22,23.
As the prophet ‘is now entering again on his labours among the children if his people’, it is thus suitable that in ch. 33 he ‘again’ becomes ‘conscious’ of his ‘prophetic mission’ from God ( Especially when the symbolical representation (ch. 2:8-3:3) of this mission and of the divine charge to the prophet from the outset made the taste of sweetness follow after the lamentation and woe.), when this has to take effect in face of the fact now accomplished and in view of the present situation. The promise of ch. 34 starts therefore from the shepherds of Israel, under whom the sheep have been scattered; in their stead ‘the Lord Jehovah will interest Himself in the flock’, and, when it is again gathered, will make His servant David the ‘one shepherd’ amid blessings which have as their aim mankind generally. And as the bad shepherds furnish the occasion for the restoration of the ‘Head’, so we have for that of the ‘members Edom’ as a nation (ch. 35), in contrast with which ch. 36 celebrates ‘the mountains of Israel’ and ‘the sanctification of the name of Jehovah in His people’ (ver. 23 sqq.), to which prospect so rich in promise a temporary conclusion is furnished in ch. 37 by ‘the vision of the resurrection and quickening of the dead bones’, as well as by ‘the symbolical action with the one stick out of the two sticks’ (ver. 15 sqq.), which is intended to signify ‘the reuniting of Israel with Judah under the One King David’.
The bearing toward ‘what is without’, the ‘world-position’ of the people of God in ‘this’ connection, as following upon their ‘inward’ restoration (which has hitherto been the object of promise), is brought into view by ch. 38 and 39 ‘against Gog of Magog’. In this symbolical and typical representation of the powers hostile to the kingdom of God, the glory of the Lord will be perfected alike in the consuming judgment toward Gog, and in glorifying mercy toward Israel.
The ‘close of the book’ (ch. 40-48) is devoted to the ‘prophetic portrayal of the divine glory in the glory of His kingdom’; the temple and its service (ch. 40-46), the holy land and the holy city ”Jehovah Shammah” (ch. 47 and 48), furnish the types consecrated from of old for the purpose.
2. The statement of the ‘contents’ which we have thus attempted, as it has at the same time shown the profound ‘inner connection’, the ‘carrying out of the all-dominating idea of the glory of Jehovah’, is still further confirmed by ‘the division of the book’. The collection of visions, emblematical actions and facts, of discourses and predictions, of which it is composed, is divided, alike by the downfall of Jerusalem and by the silence of the prophet with respect to his own people, into the ‘two principal parts’: (1) Ch. 1-24: The Prophecy ‘of Judgment’; (2) Ch. 33-48: The Prophecy ‘of the Mercies’ of God toward His people in the world. (By these two principal parts of the book is Josephus (‘Antiq.’ x. 5. 1) perhaps to be explained, who, in speaking of Jeremiah, says further: “But it is not he alone that predicted such things to the people beforehand, but the prophet Ezekiel also, who (prötos peri tautön due biblia grapsas katelipen). By ‘Havernick’ and others the (prötos) is referred to Jeremiah. ‘Umbreit’: “The first large half of his book contains the bitter element of his discourse, the second the sweet element, i.e. the promise of the coming times of redemption; the first begins with the departure of the glory of Jehovah from the old profaned temple, the second closes with the return of the same into the new cleansed sanctuary.” ‘Hitzig’: “The oracles of Ezekiel are put together in an arranged, organic book. Against the sum-total of forty-eight (48) chapters no objection is to be brought: it cannot therefore he regarded as an accident, if at ch. 24, exactly with the half, the series of domestic predictions before the fall of Jerusalem comes to an end. This, which is forthwith (ch. 24:2 eqq.) presupposed as having taken place, forms the middle and downing point of the book. The foreign oracles, words of threatening against seven neighbouring nations, from the commencement and for the most part date from the period after the downfall of Judah, and are occasioned by this very catastrophe; the whole collection was placed suitably at the beginning of the second part, which is in this way just the more sharply contrasted with the first.” ‘Hengstenberg’ (‘Christology’, 2d edit.) likewise distinguishes two principal parts, but in this way: “Predictions before the destruction (ch. 1-32), and after the destruction (ch. 33-48); in the former the tendency being mainly to counteract the foolish illusions, to call to repentance as the only means of salvation; in the latter to combat despair by portraying that salvation before the eyes of the people, etc.” Similarly also ‘Havernick’: “Two great sections, of which the destruction of Jerusalem forms the turning-point (ch. 1-32 and 33-48). In the former period Ezekiel discharges the prophetic office of ‘rebuke’, afterwards the office of comforting and of ‘promise’.” On the other hand, ‘Kliefoth’ looks upon “the collection of predictions against foreign nations as a separate part of the book,” and makes this division: -“The Introduction, ch. 1:1-3:21; the First Part, ch. 3:22-24:27; the Second Part, ch. 25:1-33:20; the Third Part, ch. 33:21- 48:35.” ‘De Wette’: “The ‘first’ part is arranged with perfect accuracy according to the chronology; the foreign oracles in the ‘second’ part, however, are grouped together in accordance with an arrangement by contents. This collection is, as it were, a supplement or episode, inasmuch as at ch. 24:27 a resting-point is given, or because several of these predictions really belong to the period between ch. 24:27 and 33:21, while the others are ranged with them because of the similarity of their contents. With the tidings of the destruction of Jerusalem at ch. 33:21 the prediction advances a step, and the whole of the ‘third’ part belongs to this period after the destruction.” ‘Neteler’ distributes each of the three parts of the book into four sections, and each section into four pieces.) A ‘third transition-section’ is formed by ch. 25-32: ‘announcements of judgment on the seven heathen nations, i.e.’ cities.
The twofold division of the book, as Hitzig makes it, is an example of arithmetical division: 2 into 48 gives 24 chapters to each. As to the details of ‘subdivision’, he looks upon each of the principal parts as forming three unequal sections: I. (1) ch. 1-7; (2) ch. 8-19; (8) ch. 20-24. II. (1) ch. 25-32; (2) ch. 33-39; (3) ch. 40-48. According to Hitzig, the thing aimed at was merely “to incorporate the mass of the oracles.” (!) If this appears to be too little for an “arranged, organic book,” Kliefoth’s principle of division, according to the formula, “And the word of Jehovah came to me thus,” gives the impression of something that is too artificial. Our position must be this: The chronological element cannot be the determining one everywhere, nor even for the most part, as regards the division in detail; for neither are the dates so generally given, nor do they even regulate a separate part, such as ch. 25. sqq. More tenable as a division of our book in respect to details —more tenable even than one furnished by the matter-of-fact, ‘historico’-material element— is that afforded by the ‘inner’ substance, a method by which we shall have to look ‘at the fundamental idea of the glory of Jehovah manifesting itself in judgment and pitying grace’.

‘Subdivision of Principle Parts’:
A. ‘First Principal Part’: Ch. 1-24: ‘Prophecy of Judgment’:
I. ‘Divine Mission of Ezekiel’: ch. 1-3:11.
1. Vision of Glory of Jehovah, ch. 1.
2. Divine Commission to Prophet, ch. 2:1-3:11.
II. ‘First Execution of Divine Commission’: ch. 3:12-7:27.
1. Installation & Instructions, ch. 3:12-27.
2. Four Signs & their Interpretation, ch. 4:1-5:17.
3. Two Discourses of Rebuke, ch. 6 & 7.
III. ‘Subsequent Execution of Divine Commissions’: ch. 8-24.
1. Vision, ch. 8-11.
(1) Abominations in Temple, ch. 8.
(2) Judgment on Guilty, ch. 9.
(3) In particular of Coals of Fire on City, ch. 10.
(4) Leaders of People, ch. 11.
2. Signs, ch. 12:1-20.
(1) Sign of Departure of King, ch. 12:1-16.
(2) Sign of Bread & Water, ch. 12:17-20.
3. Near Execution of Punishment, ch. 12:21-24:27.
(1) Repeated Preliminary Announcement, ch. 12:21-28.
(2) Discourse against False Prophets & Prophetesses, ch. 13.
(3) Testimony against, Idolatrous Seekers after Oracles, ch. 14.
(4) Parable of Vine Tree for Burning, ch. 15.
(5) Story of Lewd Adulteress, ch. 16.
(6) Riddle about Royal House of David, ch. 17.
(7) Laws of Divine Punitive Righteousness, ch. 18.
(8) Lamentation over Kings of Israel, ch. 19.
(9) Survey of Leading of People from of old, ch. 20.
(10) Approaching Judgment, ch. 21.
(11) Conviction of Ripeness for Judgment:
a. as well of Jerusalem in particular, ch. 22.
b. as of Judah & Israel collectively, ch. 23.
(12) Marking down of Event that is taking place, Discourse in Signs, & Virtual Sign (Silence of Ezekiel), ch. 24.
A—B. Ch. 25-32: ‘Transition from Prophecy of Judgment to Prophecy of Mercy by means of Predictions against’:
I. Chapter 25: 1. Ammon. 2. Moab, 3. Edom, 4. The Philistines.
II. 1. Tyrus, ch. 26:1-28:19. 2. Sidon, ch. 28:20-26.
III. Egypt, ch. 29-32.
B. ‘Second Principal Part’: Ch. 33-48: ‘Prophecy of Mercies of God toward His People in World’:
I. Renewal of the Divine Mission of Ezekiel, ch. 33:
1. His office of Watchman in itself, ch. 33:1-20.
2. Same in view of Event that has taken place (re-opening of mouth of Ezekiel), & in face of state of affairs as well as of hearts, ch. 33:21-33.
II. ‘Divine Promises’:
1. Against Shepherds of Israel of, Shepherd Mercy of Jehovah toward His Flock, & of His Servant David, ch. 34.
2. Against Edom with respect to Mountains of Israel in consequence of Self-sanctification of the Name of Jehovah, ch. 35 & 36.
3. (1) In Requickening of Dead Bones, ch. 37:1-14. (2) By means of Symbolical Action with One Stick out of Two Sticks, along with Interpretation, ch. 37:15-28.
4. Against Gog of Magog for Glorification of Jehovah in World, ch. 38 & 39.
5. In Vision of Glory:
(1) Of Temple & its Services, ch. 40-46.
(2) Of the Holy Land & of the Holy City, ch. 47 & 48.

§ 6. Chronological Sketch According to Dates in Book: Day: Month: Year of King Jehoiachin’s Captivity: Chapters:
5thD: 4thM: 5thYC: Ch. 1-7.
5thD: 6thM: 6thYC: Ch. 8-19.
10thD: 5thM: 7thYC: Ch. 20-23.
10thD: 10thM: 9thYC: Ch. 24-25 ?.
12thD: 10thM: 10thYC: Ch. 29:1-16; 30:1, 19 ?.
1stD: 1stM: 11thYC: Ch. 26-28.
7thD: 1stM: 11thYC: Ch. 30:20-26.
1stD: 3rdM: 11thYC: Ch. 31.
5thD: 1OthM: 12thYC: Ch. 33 (ch. 34-39 ?)
1stD: 12thM: 12thYC: Ch. 32:1-16.
15thD: 12thM: 12thYC: Ch. 32:17-32.
10thD: 1stM: 25thYC: Ch. 40-48.
1stD: 1stM: 27thYC: Ch. 29:17-21.

It is clear from this chronological sketch, so far as dates in the book make it possible, that several of the predictions of judgment on the heathen encroach on the second principal part of the book. As the prophecy of the divine mercy begins on the ground of the renewed call to conversion, and with repeated earnest accusation of Israel (ch. 33; 34; 36), so the promises of God for His people are accompanied by the tone of judgment on the hostile world-powers, their judgment and downfall —comp. Ch. 35; 38; 39— as contrast, background, as well as necessary transition to the glorification of the Lord in His kingdom; and so there belong also to this class the predictions, ch. 32:1-16, 17-32; ch. 29:17-21; 30:1-19, which thus occupy in the transition section (A-B) a preparatory place. It is likewise clear from the above table, that many a question will have to be answered just by the detailed exposition of the passages referred to, and perhaps only in accordance with probability.

Appendix: [Only two distinct works on the Prophecies of Ezekiel have of late years been issued from the British press: one by Patrick Fairbairn, D.D., the editor of the present translation, in the Lange series, published by the Messrs. Clark of Edinburgh, first edition in 1851, third edition in 1863; and another by the late Dr. E. Henderson in 1855, Hamilton, Adams, & Co., London the latter work consists only of 219 pages, of which considerably more than the half is occupied by the text. P. F.]

Additional Note on Ch. 1:4-28.
[To gather up now the leading features and symbolic purport of this wonderful vision, we can easily perceive that the groundwork of it was derived from the patterns of divine things in the most holy place in the temple; yet very considerably modified and changed, to adapt it to the present occasion. Here also there is the throne of the divine Majesty, but not wearing the humble and attractive form of the mercy-seat; more like Sinai, with its electric clouds, and pealing sounds, and bursting effusions of living flame. Here, too, are the composite forms about the throne the cherubim with outstretched wings touching each other; but instead of the two cherubic figures of the temple, four, each with four hands, four wings, four faces, looking in so many directions, doubtless with respect to the four quarters of the earth toward which the divine power and glory was going to manifest itself. These four are here further represented as peculiarly living creatures, full of life and motion, and not only with wings for flight, but wheels also of gigantic size beside them, revolving with lightning speed, and all resplendent with the most intense brightness. The general correspondence between what Ezekiel thus saw in the visions of God and what was to be found in the temple, indicated that it was the same God who dwelt between the cherubim in the temple, and who now appeared to His servant on the banks of the (Chebar; while the differences bespoke certain manifestations of the divine character to be now at hand, such as required to be less prominently displayed in His ordinary procedure.
1. That He appeared specially and peculiarly as the God of holiness; this, first of all, was intimated by the presence of the cherubim. For here, as in the temple, the employment of these composite forms pointed back to their original destination in the garden of Eden, to keep the way to the tree of life, from which man had been debarred on account of sin: ideal creatures, as the region of pure and blessed life they occupied, had now become to men an ideal territory. Yet still they were creatures, not of angelic, but of human mould; they bore the predominant likeness of man, with the likenesses superadded of the three highest orders of the inferior creation (the lion, the ox, the eagle). “It is an ideal combination; no such composite creature as the cherub exists in the actual world, and we can think of no reason why the singular combination it presents of animal forms should have been set upon that of man as the trunk or centre of the whole, unless it were to exhibit the higher elements of humanity in some kind of organic connection with certain distinctive properties of the inferior creation. The nature of man is immensely the highest upon earth, and towers loftily above, all the rest, by powers peculiar to itself. And yet we can easily conceive how this very nature of man might be greatly raised and ennobled, by having superadded to its own inherent qualities, those of which the other animal forms here mentioned stand as the appropriate types.” —These composite forms are here called (chaiyoth) for which the Septuagint, and John in the Apocalypse, use the synonymous term (zöa), ‘living ones’. The frequency with which this name is used of the cherubim is remarkable. In Ezekiel and the Apocalypse together it occurs nearly thirty times, and may consequently be regarded as peculiarly expressive of the symbolical meaning of the cherubim. It presents them to our view as exhibiting the property of life in its highest state of power and activity; as forms of creaturely existence, altogether instinct with life. And the idea thus conveyed by the name is further substantiated by one or two traits associated with them in Ezekiel and the Apocalypse. Such, especially, is the very singular multiplicity of eyes attached to them, appearing primarily in the mystic wheels that regulated their movements, and at a later stage (ch. 10:12), in the cherubic forms themselves. For the eye is the symbol of intelligent life, the living spirits most peculiar organ and index; and to represent the cherubim as so strangely replenished with eyes, could only be intended to make them known as wholly inspirited. Hence, in ver. 20, the spirit of the living creatures is said to have been in the wheels; where the eye was, there also was the intelligent, thinking, directive spirit of life. Another and quite similar trait is the quick and restless activity ascribed to them by Ezekiel, who represents them as running and returning with lightning speed, and then by John, when he describes them as resting not day and night. Incessant motion is one of the most obvious symptoms of a plenitude of life. We instinctively associate the property of life even with the inanimate things that exhibit motion such as fountains and running streams, which are called living in contradistinction to stagnant pools that seem comparatively dead. So that creatures which appeared to be all eyes, all motion, are, in plain terms, those in which the powers and properties of life are quite peculiarly displayed; but life, it must be remembered, most nearly and essentially connected with God —life as it is or shall be held by those who dwell in His immediate presence, and form, in a manner, the very ensure and covering of His throne pre-eminently, therefore, holy and spiritual life.” (The ‘Typology of Scripture’, 3d edit. vol. 1. pp. 229-248, where the whole subject of the cherubim is fully Investigated.)
2. But this idea of holy and spiritual life, as connected with the presence and glory of God, was greatly strengthened in the vision by the fervid appearance, as of metallic brightness and flashes of liquid flame, which shone from and around all the parts and figures of the vision. It denoted the intense and holy severity in God’s working, which was either to accomplish in the objects of it the highest good, or to produce the greatest evil. Precisely similar in meaning, though somewhat differing in form, was the representation in Isaiah’s vision (ch. 6), where, instead of the usual name cherubim, that of seraphim is applied to the symbolical attendants of God —the ‘burning ones’, as the word properly signifies— burning forms of holy fire, the emblems of God’s purifying and destroying righteousness. Hence their cry one to another was, “Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God of hosts.” And in token of the twofold working of this holiness, it was by the application of a burning coal to his lips that the prophet, as the representative of the elect portion of the people, was hallowed for God s service, while in the message that follows, the ungodly mass are declared to be for burning (as the word literally is in ver. 13). The same element that refined and purified the one for God s service, was to manifest itself in the destruction of the other. And it is this also that is symbolically taught here by the dazzling light, the glowing embers, and fiery coruscations, with which all was enveloped and emblazoned. It made known God’s purpose to put forth the severer attributes of His character, and to purify His Church by “the spirit of judgment and by the spirit of burning.”
3. Even these fiery appearances, however, in the cherubim and the other objects of the vision, did not sufficiently express what was here meant to be conveyed; and, therefore, to make out the idea more completely, wheels of vast proportions were added to the cherubim. The prophet would thus render palpable to our view the gigantic and terrible energy which was going to characterize the manifestations of the God of Israel. A spirit of awful and resistless might was now to appear in His dealings; not proceeding, however, by a blind impulse, but in all its movements guided by a clear-sighted and unerring sagacity. How striking a representation did such a spirit find for itself in the resolute agency and stern utterances of Ezekiel! In this respect he comes nearest of all the later prophets to Elijah.
4. Finally, above the cherubim of glory and their wonderful wheel-work was seen, first, the crystal firmament, and then, above the firmament, the throne of God, on which He Himself sat in human form, a form, as here displayed, beaming with the splendour of heavenly fire, but, at the same time, bearing the engaging aspect a man, and surrounded with the attractive and pleasing halo of the rainbow. In this shone forth the mingled majesty and kindness of God overawing authority on the one hand and the gracious sympathy and regard on the other which were to distinguish His agency as now to be put forth for the reproof of sin among the covenant-people, and the establishment of truth and righteousness. The terror which the manifestation as fitted to inspire, was terror only to the guilty, while, for the penitent and believing, there was to be the brightest display of covenant love and faithfulness. Especially was this indicated by the crowning appearance of the rainbow, which, from being the token of God’s covenant with Noah, in respect to the future preservation of the earth, was like the hanging out from the throne of the Eternal of a flag of peace, giving assurance to all, that the purpose of Heaven was to preserve rather than to destroy, and to fulfil that which was promised in the covenant. Even if the divine work now to be carried forward in the spiritual world should require, as in the natural world of old, a deluge of wrath for its successful accomplishment, still the faithfulness and love of God would be sure to the children of promise, and would only shine forth the more brightly at last, in consequence of the tribulations which might be needed to prepare the way for the ultimate good.
Such, then, was the form and import of this remarkable vision. There was nothing about it accidental or capricious; all was wisely adjusted and arranged, so as to convey beforehand suitable impressions of that work of God to which Ezekiel was now called to devote himself. It was substantially an exhibition, by means of emblematical appearances and actions, of the same views of the divine character and government, which were to be unfolded in the successive communications made by Ezekiel to the covenant-people. By a significant representation, the Lord gathered into one magnificent vision the substance of what was to occupy the prophetic agency of His servant, as in later times was done by our Lord to the evangelist John, in the opening vision of the Apocalypse. Fairbairn’s Ezekiel, pp. 30-34. W. F.]
(9) Book of the Prophet Ezekiel, with Introductory Notes; by Henry A. Redpath, D.Lit. Sometime Grinfield Lecturer on Septuagint in University of London. Methodist. (1907) gs. (Redpath’s commentary is very instructive; he is a sound interpreter with great linguistic skills & able conservative scholarship.)

Introduction: Ezekiel: Prophet, his Life & Character; Book: Text; Chronology; Style: Illustrations; Book of Ezekiel: & Pentateuch, & Books of Jeremiah, Daniel, Apocalypse, & Book of Common Prayer. Theology of Ezekiel: Idea of God; Man & Man’s Sinfulness; Angels; Day of the Lord; Life After Death; Messianic Ideas. Condition of Jews in Time of Ezekiel; Commentary & Index. Plans of Temple Grounds & Court; Section of Chambers; Side Elevation of Altar of Burnt Offerings.
3. Chronology of Book. Whole of prophecies of this book are arranged in sections each of which begins with date. Ezekiel’s own captivity & deportation is fixed for B.C. 597 (1:1) —His prophecies are dated, as in the following table :
A. B.C. 592 (5th day of the month) 1:2-3:15.
B. B.C. 592 (12th day of the month) 3:16-7.
C. B.C. 591 (5th day of the 6th month) 8-19.
D. B.C. 590 (10th day of the 5th month) 20-23.
E. B.C. 588 (10th day of the 10th month) 24, 25.
F. B.C. 586 (1st day of the month) 26-28.
G1. B.C. 587 (12th day of the 10th month) 29:1-16.
H. B.C. 570 (1st day of the 1st month) 29:17-21.
G2. (really part of (G1) 30:1-19.
I. B.C. 586 (7th day of the 1st month) 30:20-26
J. B.C. 586 (1st day of the 3rd month) 31.
K. B.C. 585 (1st day of the 12th month) 32:1-16.
L. B.C. 585 (15th day of the month) 32:17-33:20.
M. B.C. 585 (5th day of the 10th month) 33:21-39.
N. 3.0. 572 (10th day of the month “in the beginning of the year”) 40-48.
Book of Prophet Ezekiel: (Chapters & Verses):
A: Prophet’s 1st Vision & His Charge, B.C. 592. Chapters 1-3:15.
1: Introduction of Prophet, with his 1st Vision, (1:1-3-28): (1:4-28): In considering this and the other visions of the Prophet, it is well to remember that we have in them an attempt to describe in human language, with all its imperfections, what to the prophet were visions of the Divine. That the language he used conveyed to him the impressions that were formed on his mind by the visions seems quite clear, for the language describing them is harmonious with itself, as we can see by a comparison in detail of the description here with that of chapter 10. But we have not seen the visions, and therefore it is not to be wondered at if the impressions formed upon our minds by the language the prophet uses fail of definite clearness, and only give us vague ideas of the incomprehensible majesty and glory of God. For the most notable attempt of Art to reproduce this vision, we may refer to the picture in the Pitti Palace at Florence, entitled “The Vision of Ezekiel,” “which if not the work of Raphael’s own pencil, is certainly a contemporary copy of the lost original” (Lanciani, ‘The Golden Days of the Renaissance in Rome’, p. 261).
1st Vision. (1:5-14): Four (4) Living Creatures. (1:15-21): Wheels & Movement of Living Creatures. (1:22-28): Firmament & Throne.
2: Prophet’s Call & Mission (Son of Man). (2:1-3:3).
3: Charge given to Prophet (Son of Man). (3:4-11).
4: Presence of God with Prophet, & his transference to Tel-abib. (3:12-15).
B: After Seven (7) Days, Further Charge to Prophet & Further Vision, Symbolic Actions by Prophet with Explanations & Prophecies of Doom, B.C. 592. Chapters 3:16-7.
5. Further Charge to Prophet (Son of Man). (3:16-21).
6. Renewal of Prophet’s (as Son of Man) Vision, & Charge repeated. (3:22-27).
7. 1st of a series (4-5:1-4) of symbolic actions (Son of Man) to illustrate siege of Jerusalem: tile & iron pan. (4:1-3). The whole of this section (4-5:1-4) is intended to pourtray the prophet’s occupation during his time of silence. Though he is shut up in his house and abstains from all prophetic utterance, he is accessible to those who come to see him and to observe his actions. The actions which the prophet is bidden to perform must have gone on within the same period. To our prosaic western minds it seems difficult to imagine that the prophet would do such things as he is bidden to do here. But Oriental habits of thought and action are far different from ours.
When we think of the actions of a Simeon Stylites, or of some of the ascetics even in these days in India, we may well hesitate to say that it was impossible for Ezekiel to do them —even to the constant lying upon one side for so many days. Such actions as those of Ezekiel would appeal naturally to his fellow countrymen. Other prophets had acted in similar ways before. Isaiah, for instance, ‘walked naked and barefoot three years for a sign and a wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia’ (20:3). Jeremiah wore a girdle without putting it in water, and then hid it in a hole of the rock (13:1-5). Similar actions have appealed to Oriental minds at other times. Agabus the prophet from Judaea taking St. Paul’s girdle and binding his own feet and hands as symbolical of what was to happen to the owner of the girdle is a case in point. It was this appeal to outward actions and surroundings that made our Lord’s teaching so attractive to his hearers. The finding nothing but leaves on the fig-tree and its cursing in consequence is a notable example of this; and it is to satisfy the natural craving of many minds that external symbolism has found so marked a place as it has in many forms of Christian worship. It has been questioned how long the prophet’s silence is supposed to be maintained. It seems quite clear that it terminates at v. 4. The prophet had been told to prepare his message with the words, ‘Thus saith the Lord GOD.’ V. 5 begins with these identical words and they are followed by what is to all intents and purposes an explanation of the actions of the time of silence. Others have held that the silence lasted till the news of the fall of Jerusalem reached Ezekiel (33:22), but the passage referred to, taken in conjunction with what goes before (24:26,27), implies rather that the prophet had to pass through various periods of enforced silence.
8. 2nd symbolic action: —the prophet (Son of Man) to lie first on his left side & then on his right side, & to have limited rations for set time. (4:4-17).
9. 3rd symbolic action (of Son of Man) with sharp sword or barbers razor, & prophet’s hair. (5:1-4).
10. 1st of a series of 5 prophecies (Son of Man) consequent upon & interpretative of 3 symbolic actions, as foretelling tripartite destruction of people. (5:5-17).
11. 2nd prophecy of series (Son of Man) : —address to natural characteristics of country— mountains, hills, watercourses, valleys. (6:1-10).
12. 3rd prophecy of series: —denunciation of idolatry as cause of tripartite destruction of people. (6:11-14).
13. 4th prophecy (Son of Man): short announcement of coming end. (7:1-4).
14. 5th prophecy: development of last with all horrors of siege depicted. (7:5-27).
C. Series of Visions & Prophecies Commencing 591 B.C. Chapters 8-19.
15. 1st of series of visions (8-11): —vision of God carries prophet (Son of Man) off in spirit to see various forms of false worship in Jerusalem:— (a) image of jealousy (vv. 3-6); (6) animal worship (vv. 10-12); (c) Tammuz worship (v. 14); (cf) sun-worship (v. 16). It is a question how far, if the Hebrew text is right, these visions fell within the period during which the prophet was to lie, first upon his left side and afterwards upon his right side. If the Greek reckoning is right (see note on 8:1), they would fall outside that period.
16. 2nd vision: one of destruction. (9:1-11).
17. Further stage in vision of destruction of city. It is destroyed by fire taken from Divine presence, which is a 2nd time fully described. (10:1-22).
18. Another stage (Son of Man) in judgements of God. False teachers are condemned, & one of them, Pelatiah, is smitten with death. (11:1-13).
19. Final stage of vision & return of prophet (Son of Man) in spirit to Chaldaea. Judgement must come, & Divine presence must be withdrawn: but in future there is to be time of restoration & spiritual renewal, when God will again be their God. (11:14-25).
20. 1st of two prophecies (of Son of Man), both of which are accompanied by symbolic actions. Transactions done with view to going into exile, symbolic of exile of remaining inhabitants of Jerusalem to Babylonia. (12:1-16).
21. 2nd symbolic action (Son of Man) to indicate times of famine & distress that would ensue upon captivity. (12:17-20).
22. Two popular sayings (Son of Man), one of them being in the form of proverb, are stated & declared to be false. God’s word is declared to be sure & immutable & no farther delay is to be expected. Fulfilment is at hand. (12:21-28).
23. Denunciation (Son of Man) of false prophets & prophetesses in 3 separate pronouncements; 2 referring to prophets, 3rd to prophetesses. (13:1-7; 13:8-16; 13:17-23).
24. Sundry detached utterances (Son of Man). (14:1-15:8): (a) Concerning idolaters & prophet who is deceived. (14:1-11). (b) No human power can deliver land: yet there shall be remnant. (14:12-23). (c) Jerusalem, like vine branches, given to fire. (15:1-8).
25. Long & elaborate description (Son of Man) of history of Jerusalem. (16). Its development from a poor, humble and heathen origin is described as well as the sore straits and impoverished condition it was in, when God selected it for Himself and bound it to Him by a covenant His love then adorned it with all manner of glory and beauty, both in situation and in decoration.
26. Riddle & its interpretation (Son of Man). 2 eagles, cedar, & vine, i.e. Babylon, Egypt, & king & princes of Jerusalem, with their destruction. Restoration of Jerusalem & Davidic house will come in future with universal acceptance of its authority. (17:1-24).
27. Discussion of proverb ‘The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge.’ Sin & personal responsibility of man for it. (18:1-32).
28. Lamentation over royal family of Judah. (19:1-14).
D. Collection of Prophecies Dated 590 B.C. Chapters (20-23):
29. Israel (Son of Man), in past, in present & in future. (20:1-44). (See: ‘Christian Year’ ‘Keble’s’ (18th Sunday after Trinity))Perhaps the best comment that can be made upon the spirit of this chapter as a whole is to be found in The Christian Year (18th Sunday after Trinity):—
In the waste howling wilderness: The Church is wandering still,
Because we would not onward press: When close to Sion’s hill.
Back to the world we faithless turned,: And far along the wild,
With labour lost and sorrow earned,: Our steps have been beguiled.
Fain would our lawless hearts escape,: And with the heathen be,
To worship every monstrous shape: In fancied darkness free.
Vain thought that shall not be at all!: Refuse we or obey,
Our ears have heard the Almighty’s call,: We cannot be as they. —Keulk.
30. Short (1st) separate prophecy (Son of Man) against South. (20:45-49). This prophecy according to ‘the Hebrew notation forms the commencement of chapter 21. It stands independent both of what precedes and of what follows.
31. Another short (2nd) utterance (Son of Man) explanatory of parable of preceding verses. (21:1-7).
32. Another (3rd) prophecy (Son of Man) of invasion, cast in quasipoetic form: ‘The song of the sword of the Lord’ (A. B. Davidson). (21:8-17).
33. Further (4th) prophecy (Son of Man) of sword, more dearly defined as that of sword of king of Babylon; & sequel of deposition of king of Judah for indefinite period. (21:18-27).
34. Prophecy against Ammonites. (21: 28-32). The second lot had fallen to the king for the route to Kabbah. So when Jerusalem is destroyed the destruction of that city and its people is to be taken in hand in its turn.
35. 1st of series of 3 prophecies (Son of Man) against Jerusalem & land of Judah, 1st being directed against city & denunciation against its wickedness. (22:1-16).
36. 2nd utterance (Son of Man) in which judgement of people is announced in parabolic form: they are to be put in melting pot, when siege takes place. (22:17-22).
37. 3rd utterance (Son of Man) in which the terrible corruption which prevailed among various classes of inhabitants —prophets, priests, princes, people— is described. (22:23-31).
38. 2 adulterous sisters (Oholah & Oholibah; Samaria & Jerusalem) & their wickedness, (Son of Man). (23:1-49). (See Chapter 16.) This whole chapter is a very difficult one and must be read in connection with chapter 16. It is one long utterance intended to describe the results of the spiritual fornication of the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
E. Further Collection of Prophecies Dated 588 B.C. on very Day of Commencement by Nebuchadrezzar of Final Siege of Jerusalem (2nd Kings 25:1 : cp. Jer. 39:1). Chapters 24 & 25.
39. Parable of caldron & its interpretation (Son of Man). (24:1-14).
40. Death of prophet’s (Son of Man) wife, & lessons to be deduced from it. (24:15-27). The problems of this short section are considerable. The prophet is told of his wife’s approaching death. He speaks to the people: is it to announce the calamity that is coming upon him to them? the narrative leaves that unsolved. Then he is to make no lamentation for the dead. Would this strike him in his day as a pitiless command? We must remember that Ezekiel was a priest and that the law limited very much, and in the case of the high-priest practically prohibited, anything like ceremonial mourning for the dead (see Lev. 21 & cp. Lev. 10: 6). This may have arisen as a protest against ancestor worship or kindred beliefs prevalent in old times and still surviving among Eastern nations. Moreover Ezekiel looked upon himself no doubt as under special divine influences, and was ready to endure all and suffer all, if only he could bring God’s people back to Him.
41. Short prophecies (Son of Man) against Amman, Moab, & Philistines. (25). Although this chapter is, in the present arrangement of the book, which is chronological, assigned to the same period as chapter 24, yet it really forms the first of a series of chapters denouncing God’s judgements upon various heathen nations, which are intended to clear the way for and lead up to the prophecies of the Restoration of the people. Chapter 25 therefore really belongs, strictly speaking, to the following section, 26-32. It is interesting to notice that in this series of prophecies Babylon is not included, though in order to reach the number seven, Zidon has somewhat artificially to be counted separately from Tyre. This may be due partly to the fact that these prophecies were delivered in Babylon, where the Jews for the most part met with a very kindly reception, and partly to the view which the prophet took of them as God’s instruments in carrying out His plans, and therefore “righteous men” (cp. 23: 45). If this prophecy comes under the last chronological heading (24:1), the captivity of ‘v’. 3 cannot be the final captivity under Zedekiah, but perhaps that under Jehoiachin (2nd Kings 24:11-16).
F. Collection of Prophecies Dated at Least more than Year after Last & Dealing with Tyre & Zidon. 586 B.C. Chapters (26-28). (Compare with Apocalypse (Revelation).) In subject matter chapter 25 connects itself with these chapters, though apparently the prophecies in it preceded these by some months. But whilst chapter 25 has to do with peoples these three chapters contain a series of five prophecies dealing with two of the richest cities on the borders of Israel, prosperous from their position on the sea-coast —Tyre and Zidon (cp. 32:30). If the chronological headings are correct, then this section should certainly come later. The number of the month is not stated, so that it is not clear at first sight whether it should precede or follow 30:20-26: 31. But as the date of the final breach in the wall of Jerusalem is fixed (Jer. 39:2) as the ninth day of the fourth month of the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah, and the laying waste of Jerusalem took place in the fifth month (Jer. 52:12), and in this prophecy (26:2) Jerusalem is spoken of as ‘broken’ and ‘laid waste’, it is quite clear that the place for these chapters, in chronological order, is after chap. 31. Tyre and Zidon were the subject of prophecy by other prophets (Is. 23; Jer. 25:22; 27:3; Joel 3:4; Am. 1:9,10; Zech. 9:2-4). The language of this chapter, as may be seen in the notes, had considerable influence upon the writer of the Apocalypse.
42. 1st prophecy (Son of Man) against Tyre. (26)
43. Description (Son of Man) of Tyre, its wealth, commerce, & magnificence at time of its siege by Nebuchadrezzar. (27). This chapter should be compared with the description of Babylon in Rev. 18. which evidently looks back to this as its model. Special resemblances will be noted in the commentary. The text is, in some verses of this chapter, rather doubtful, for they are much abbreviated in the Septuagint Ezekiel’s geographical knowledge is very extensive, but he would easily acquire such knowledge in Babylonia. A map of the world is still in existence dating from about the time of Hammurabi, ‘i.e.’ somewhere about the days of Abraham.
44. Judgement (Son of Man) of prince of Tyre. (28:1-10).
45. Lamentation over king of Tyre, as representative of magnificence of Tyre itself. (28:11-19). It should be remembered that in this passage the language is founded upon (a) the account of the Garden of Eden; (b) the descriptions in Exodus of (1) the giving of the law; (2) the breastplate of the high-priest; and (3) the cherubim overshadowing the mercy-seat.
46. Short prophecy against Zidon, followed by intimation of return of Israel to its own land. (28:20-26).
G1,2: Series of Prophecies Against Egypt, Interrupted by Misplaced Insertion of 29:17-21, which ought to come after 28:19, 587 B.C. G1 Chapter 29:1-16. (These prophecies are dated earlier than 26-28 and are attributed to a time seven mouths anterior to the fall of Jerusalem.) These prophecies are dated earlier than 26-28 and are attributed to a time seven mouths anterior to the fall of Jerusalem.
47. Prophecy (Son of Man) against Egypt & its king. (29:1-16).
H: Prophecy of much Later Date (570 B.C.) & Inserted Here Because of its Connection with Fall of Egyptian Kingdom. Chapter 29:17-21. (Prophecies concerning Tyre were uttered by prophet sixteen (16) years before present one (26:1-28:19) & this is sequel to those.)
48. Prophecy (Son of Man) in which is indicated how little profit Nebuchadrezzar had from his long siege of Tyre: but it is announced that Egypt shall fall to him as compensation. (29:17-21).
G2: Further Prophecies Against Egypt Following upon & closely Connected with 29:1-16. As they Proceed, Prophet becomes more Definite, Till at length (p. 10) he Mentions Nebuchadrezzar by Name. Chapter 30:1-19.
49. Utterance (Son of Man) shewing that devastation was to extend far & wide. (30:1-6).
50. Further declaration against Egypt & her helpers. (30:6-9).
51. Further Divine declaration. At this point prophet introduces for 1st time name of instrument used by Jehovah to carry out His punishment of Egypt. It is to be Nebuchadrezzar. (30:10-12).
52. Another declaration of Jehovah, entering into details as to judgements of particular places. (30:13-19).
I: Another Prophecy concerning Egypt, about 3 Months Later than Last Series. Chapter 30:20-26.
53. This prophecy (Son of Man), in point of date, stands alone, & exhibits Nebuchadrezzar as Jehovah’s agent in humiliation of Egypt, & carrying out of Divine punishment. (30:20-26). The year of this prophecy is 586 B.C.
J: Prophecy Against Egypt Uttered Few Weeks Before Final Disaster to Jerusalem. Chapter 31:1-18.
54. This prophecy (Son of Man) though divided by R.V. into paragraphs really forms only one prophecy & describes magnificence of Egypt & its correspondingly deep fall. (31:1-18). Date of this prophecy is 586 B.C.
K: After Considerable Interval Prophet Takes Up His Burden Again Against Egypt. Chapter 32:1-16. The date of this prophecy is 585 B.C. Prophecies against Egypt cover parts of 3 years. In consequence of length of interval separating this prophecy from preceding one; Toy alters the date from 12th year to 11th. The date of this prophecy is 585 B.C. The prophecies against Egypt cover parts of three years. In consequence of the length of the interval separating this prophecy from the preceding one Toy alters the date from the twelfth (12th) year to the eleventh (11th).
55. Desolation & spoiling of Egypt & its king by Nebuchadrezzar is distinctly foretold in this prophecy (Son of Man) which forms one utterance by itself. (32:1-16).
L: Prophecies Classed Under Date 32:17 of Various Character; One, 2nd Lamentation over Egypt, & Two, Defining Responsibility of Prophetic Preacher & Individual Responsibility of Each Man for his Sins. Chapters 32:17-33:20. Date (585 B.C.) is apparently fortnight later than last prophecy, though number of month is not given.
56. Further lamentation (Son of Man) over Egypt, with description of companions which Egyptians will find in Sheol. (32:17-32).
57. At this point, though there is no new chronological statement, entirely different departure is made which culminates in prophecies (Son of Man) of restoration of Israel, & its ideal settlement in idealised Canaan, with which book concludes. Transitional prophecies are two in number, one declaring ministerial responsibility of prophet (33:1-9), other moral responsibility of each individual member of house of Israel (33:10-20). 33:1-9 deals then with prophet’s responsibility.
58. Definite assertion of individual responsibility for sin. This is made in way in which it had never before been made to Jewish people, & therefore marks distinct step forward towards enunciation of evangelical truth in Gospel dispensation. Implicitly the duties of repentance and faith are also inculcated in these verses. (33:10-20).
M. From Moment that News of Final Fall of Jerusalem Reaches Captives, Prophet’s Tongue is Set Loose, & He Begins to Speak of Resuscitation & Resurrection. Kingdom of Jehovah to be Restored & Full Spiritual Power, while Enemies of God’s People, Heathen Nations, are to be Utterly Destroyed. 585 B.C. Chapters 33:21-39. There is a difficulty here about the length of time which is supposed to elapse between the fall of the city and the announcement of that fall. Then fall took place 18 months previously. In consequence some would read here, & probably rightly, 11th for 12th, which is the reading of Syriac version. Years ‘of our captivity’ are dated from Jehoiachin’s captivity (1:2).
59. The news arrives: the prophet is no more dumb: the judgement is to be thorough: and then men will begin to seek to hear the prophet’s words, though at first they may not carry them out. 33:21-33.
60. The Lord through His prophet condemns the rulers and guides of His people, and pronounces judgement upon them. A separation is to take place between the good and the bad, and Jehovah will be the Good Shepherd of His people, while David shall be their ruler. 34:1-31. The break indicated by a new paragraph at P. 20 is not needed.
61. Edom because of its perpetual hostility to Israel is to have severe punishment meted out to it, and thus to realise the power of the Lord. 35:1-15.
62. A further prophecy looking back to the last. As the last was addressed to Mount Seir, so this one, in due symmetry, is addressed to the mountains of Israel. It continues the promise of restoration to God’s people. 36:1-15.
63. A further prophecy of cleansing and restoration for Israel. 36:16-38. The main idea conveyed in this prophecy is that it is clearly necessary that by the restoration of the people Jehovah’s position should be asserted and His omnipotence declared to the world. He who had power to punish had power also to restore to favour and in that power to guide His people for the future. The heathen nations were to be disabused of the idea that Jehovah was not strong enough to guard Israel
64. The vision of the valley of dry bones, and the Divine interpretation of that vision. 37:1-14. The language descriptive of this vision is of a unique and magnificent kind. There is a weirdness about the first part, and a realism about the whole that enthrals us. We seem to see the entire scene enacted, stage by stage, as the loose dry bones of each human frame collect together, and each takes its natural place in the building up of a skeleton. Then in due order sinews, flesh and skin come upon each to cover its framework. But the principle of life is still lacking. So a new development in the scene is required. The prophet is directed to invoke the spirit or breath from all quarters to enter into and take possession of the lifeless forms; the breath from the four winds arrives and immediately an immense host springs into existence, full of life and vigour. It is clearly obvious that the primary signification of this vision, both to the prophet and to those to whom the prophet spoke, had nothing whatever to do with the resurrection of the individual from the dead. We may justly see in it language which expresses for us the idea of that ‘Resurrection of the body,’ or ‘of the flesh’ as it is called in our Baptismal Service, in which our simplest form of Creed calls upon us to declare our belief. But for the prophet and his audience the vision was intended to convey a promise not to the individual, but to the body politic, ‘the whole house of Israel,’ and to speak to them of a renewal, under Divine inspiration, of the national life, and of a restoration to their own land.
65. By a symbolical action is pourtrayed the reunion as well as the restoration of Ephraim and Judah under David as their head, with an everlasting covenant between God and His people. 37:15-28.
66. The world-powers are to be permitted to make a final struggle against God’s people. 38:1-13. The whole idea intended to be conveyed by this chapter and the greater part of the next is of countless hordes of barbarians coming from various quarters and sweeping down upon the lands which they were to invade with relentless force and violence. Other countries were to suffer as well as Israel. But this invasion was to be followed by a judgement of God upon the invaders, involving their entire destruction, which is described as taking place in the land of Israel, and being so universal that seven months would elapse before it would be entirely cleansed from the pollution caused by the multitude of dead which would have against Gog. It describes the utter destruction of his people, and the burial of the hosts of dead which is to go on for seven months. 39:1-16.
69. Gods great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, together with the punishment of His people and their restoration and spiritual regeneration. 39:17-29.
N. Ezekiel De Civitate Dei, 40-48: This forms the last collection of the prophet’s utterances, with the exception of 29:17-21 which is dated fifteen years later. The dating throughout is from Jehoiachin’s captivity. The year intended here is 572 B.C. This section may be looked upon as an appendix to the rest of the book and as giving an idealised description of restored Israel, her country, her city and her Temple. “The Temple is Jehovah’s earthly residence: in the restored community, which Ezekiel imagines to be so transformed as to be truly worthy of Him (36:22-36), He will manifest His presence more fully than He had done before (37:25-28); His re-entry into the Temple, and His abiding presence there, are the two thoughts in which ch. 40-48. culminate (43:1-9; 48:35); to maintain, on the one hand the sanctity of the Temple, and on the other the holiness of the people, is the aim of the entire system of regulations.” (Driver, ‘O. T’. Lit. p. 274). A connection has been constantly traced between these chapters and those parts of the Pentateuch, which are commonly ascribed to a source P. It does not come within the purview of a commentator on this book to discuss the composition of the Pentateuch or the sources from which it is derived. For a discussion of the two questions as to the relation of these chapters to any particular part of the Pentateuch, and as to the relative dates of the two, see Introd. pp. 21 ff. The ideal is, in some respects, imperfectly worked out. No mention is made of a high priest, and the second of the great yearly Jewish feasts, the Feast of Weeks, is ignored. No satisfactory explanation for the omission of these, important as they are from a Jewish point of view, can be given. In the ground-plan at the end of this volume, ‘A’ is the Holy of Holies, ‘B’ the Holy Place, ‘C’ the “separate” place and its building, ‘D’ the position, as conjectured, of the chambers of the Temple.
70. The preface: The prophet is taken in vision to the land of Israel, and given a guide, and bidden to observe and hear all that is shewn and told to him. 40:1-4.
71. The outside wall of the Temple, the gate and lodges are described. 40:5-16.
72. After passing through the miter gateway, the outer court is reached. This is now described with its three gates, guard-rooms, and pavement, and the three gates opposite them leading into the inner court. 40:17-27.
73. The prophet now enters the inner court which is described in its turn with its guard-rooms, arches, gates and jambs. 40:28-37.
74. A description of various chambers, with the arrangements for the offering of sacrifices, the measurement of the court, and a mention of the altar in the court. 40:38-47.
75. Description of the porch of the Temple itself. 40: 48,49.
76. A description of the Temple with its side-chambers, basement, and ‘the building that was before the separate place.’ 41:1-14.
77. Sundry measurements; an account of the decorations of the Temple, of the altar, and of the doors. 41:15-26.
78. A description of the chambers and the uses to which they were to be put. 42:1-14.
79. The external measurements of the whole Temple enclosure. 43:15-20.
80. The Divine Being takes possession of His Temple, and gives directions to His people, upon the fulfilment of which He promises to be with them forever. 43:1-9.
81. The people are to have made known to them the details of the house and all the regulations connected with it and with its rites and ceremonies. 43:10-12.
82. Description of the Altar. 43:13-17.
83. The Dedication of the Altar. 43:18-27.
84. The prince’s entry to the Temple, and a specification as to who else is to have the right of entrance. 44:1-14.
85. The duties of the priests, the sons of Zadok, in detail, and their privileges and emoluments. 44:15-31.
86. Apportionment of the land for the Temple, the priests, the Levites, the city and the prince. 45:1-8.
87. Enactments as to weights & measures & offerings from the people for the prince to make. 45:9-17.
88. Of the two half-yearly fasts and festivals, which are apparently intended, one being still the Passover, to take the place of the Day of Atonement, and the three great feasts of the Torah legislation. 45:18-25.
89. Regulations about the entry of the priest and various festivals. 46:1-15.
90. Regulations as to the inheritance of land. 46:16-18.
91. Provision of places for cooking the sacrifices. 46:19-24.
92. The vision of the waters that came out of the house to make the land productive. 47:1-12:

“East the forefront of habitations holy: Gleamed to Engedi, shone to Eneglaim:
Softly thereout and from thereunder slowly: Wandered the waters, & delayed, & came.
Then the great stream, which having seen he showeth.
Hid from the wise but manifest to him,
Flowed and arose, as when Euphrates floweth,:
Rose from the ankles till a man might swim.
Even with so soft a surge and an increasing,:
Drunk of the sand & thwarted of the clod, Stilled & astir & checked & never ceasing:
–Spreadeth the great wave of the grace of God; Bears to the marishes and bitter places:
–Healing for hurt and for their poisons balm, Isle after isle in infinite embraces:
Floods and enfolds and fringes with the palm.”
(Myers, Saint Paul, p. 22.)

93. The borders of the land which is to be divided by lot. 47:13-23.
94. The portions of seven tribes to the north of the consecrated portion. 48:1-7: It is impossible to delineate on any map of Palestine these ideal sections of territory assigned to each tribe in the ideal land. They could only be represented by horizontal lines drawn across the country, and would not fit in with the natural features of the land. All is plainly ideal.
95. The consecrated portion with its various divisions. 48:8-22.
96. The portion of the remaining tribes to the south of the sacred enclosure. 48:23-29.
97. The gates of the city and its name [The LORD is there (Yehowah-Shammah, Jehushamah)]. 48:30-35.

(10) Prophet Ezekiel, Analytical Exposition. Arno C. Gaebelein; Author of Commentaries on Daniel, Joel, Zechariah, Matthew, Acts, Revelation, etc., Editor of “Our Hope.” 1918.gs

Analysis of Book:
{{ A careful reading of the Book of Ezekiel shows, in the first place, that the Prophet received messages and saw visions before the final destruction of Jerusalem, and after that catastrophe had taken place in fulfillment of his inspired predictions he received other prophecies. The predictions preceding the fall of Jerusalem are the predictions of the judgment to fall upon the city and upon Gentile nations, the enemies of Israel. The predictions Ezekiel received after the city had been destroyed are the predictions of blessing and glory for Israel and Jerusalem in the future. The first part of the book has found a fulfillment in the destruction of the city by Nebuchadnezzar. The second part is awaiting its fulfillment at the close of the times of the Gentiles, when Israel will be regathered, restored and the glory of the Lord returns to another temple, which Ezekiel beheld in a magnificent vision. All will be accomplished when the Lord returns to dwell in the midst of His people, so that the name of the city will be “Jehovah-Shammah” —”the Lord is there” (chapter 48:35). These two main divisions are clearly marked in the book itself. In chapter 43:21, after the Prophet had received a renewed call as watchman. We read: “And it came to pass in the twelfth (12th) year of our captivity, in the tenth month, in the fifth day of the month, that one that had escaped out of Jerusalem came unto me, saying, “The city is smitten.”” This determines the two parts.
Part I. Predictions before the Destruction of Jerusalem, (Chapters 1-32.).
Part II. Predictions after the Destruction of Jerusalem, (Chapter 33-48).
To show the perfect and orderly arrangement of the whole Book of Ezekiel we shall give a complete analysis. }}

{{ Part I. Predictions before Destruction of Jerusalem. Chapters 1-32.
Section A. Judgment Predictions concerning Jerusalem. Chapters 1-24.
1. Vision of Glory of the Lord & Call of Prophet (1-3:14).
2. Judgment announced. Four signs & their meaning. Two messages. (“The Word of the Lord came unto me,” chapters 6 & 7; chapters 3:15-7:27).
3. Visions in relation to Jerusalem (chapters 8-11).
a. Vision of abomination in Temple. Chapter 8.
b. Vision of man clothed in linen with inkhorn. Chapter 9.
c. Vision of coals of fire. Chapter 10.
d. Vision concerning leaders. Glory departs. Chapter 11.
4. Signs, Messages & Parables (chapters 12-19).
a. Signs given through Prophet. Chapter 12:1-20.
b. Message concerning speedy judgment. Chapter 12:21-28.
c. Message against false prophets & prophetesses. Chapter 13.
d. Message against idolatrous elders. Chapter 14.
e. Parable of Vine given to fire. Chapter 15.
f. Parable of abandoned child & Jerusalem’s harlotry. Chapter 16.
g. Parable & Riddle of two eagles & vine. Chapter 17.
h. Message concerning righteous judgments of God. Chapter 18.
i. Lamentations for Princes of Israel. Chapter 19.
5. Further & Final Predictions concerning Judgment of Jerusalem (chapter 20-24).
a. Jehovah rehearses His mercies bestowed upon Israel. Chapter 20.
b. Impending Judgment announced. Chapter 21.
c. Jerusalem’s sins & whoredoms. Chapter 22-23.
d. Parable of boiling pot. Last word. Chapter 24.
Section B. Predictions of Judgments against Nations. Chapters 25-32.
1. Against Ammon, Moab, Edom & Philistines (chapter 25).
2. Against Tyrus & Zidon (chapters 26-28).
3. Against Egypt (chapters 29-32).

Part II. Predictions after the Destruction of Jerusalem. Chapters 33-48.
Section A. Watchman & Shepherds. Chapters 33-34.
1. Renewed call of Ezekiel as Watchman (chapter 33:1-20) .
2. Ezekiel’s mouth opened after Jerusalem’s fall (chapter 33:21-33).
3. Message against Shepherds of Israel (chapter 34:1-19).
4. True Shepherd & Restoration promised (chapter 34:20-26).
Section B. Judgment announced against Mount Seir & Israel’s final Restoration promised. Chapters 35-36.
1. Message against Seir & Idumea (chapter 35).
2. Message of Comfort for Israel (chapter 36).
Section C. Future Blessings of Israel. Nation regathered. Their enemies overthrown. Millennial Temple. Chapters 37-48.
1. Vision of Dry Bones. Judah and Israel reunited (chapter 37).
2. Last enemies Gog & Magog & their destruction (chapters 38-39) .
3. Millennial Temple & its Worship (chapter 40-47:12).
4. Division of Land (chapter 47:13-48).

Ground Plan of Ezekiel’s Temple: House & Temple & Walls & Court & Chambers: East, West, South, North:
House & Temple: Central: A, B, C, D, E. Priest’s Inner Court: F, G, H, I. People’s Outer Court: K, L, M, N, O.
A. Temple House, 41.
B. Altar of Burnt Offering, 43:13.
C. Inner Court.
D. Gates to lnner Court, 40::28.
E. Separate Place, 46:10.
P. Hinder Building, 41:12.
G. Priest’s Kitchen, 46:19
H. Chambers for Priests, 42:1.
I. Chambers, 44.
K. People’s Kitchen, 46:21-24.
L. Gates into Outer Court, 40:6.
M. Pavement, 40:18.
N. Chambers in Outer Court (80) 40:17.
O. Outer Court. Temple Stream

Millennial Temple & its Worship. Land & its Glory. Chapter 40-48.
I. Description of Temple. Chapters 40-42.
II. Temple Worship. Chapters 43-46.
III. Vision Concerning Land. Chapters 47-48.

I. Description of Temple. Chapters 40-47.
Chapter 40:
1. Introduction. Verses 1-4.
2. Gate toward East. Verses 5-16.
3. Outer Court. Verses 17-27.
4. Inner Court. Verses 28-37.
5. Tables for Offerings & Chambers for Inner Court. Verses 38-47.
6. Porch of House. Verses 48-49.
Chapter 41:
1. Holy Place. Verses 1-2.
2. Most Holy. Verses 3-4.
3. Side Chambers. Verses 5-11.
4. Hinder Buildings & Measurement. Verses 12-14.
5. Description of Interior of Temple. Verses 15-26.
Chapter 42:
1. Priest’s Chambers in Inner Court. Verses 1-14.
2. Final Measurements. Verses 15-20.

II. Temple Worship. Chapters 43-46.
Chapter 43:
1. Return of Glory of the Lord & Filling House.
Verses 1-9.
2. Address to Nation. Verses 10-12.
3. Dimensions of Altar. Verses 13-17.
4. Offerings to be Brought. Verses 18-27.
Chapter 44:
1. Outward Eastern Gate for Prince. Verses 1-3.
2. Charge concerning Strangers & Rebellious Tribes.
Verses 4-14.
3. Charge concerning Priests, Sons of Zadok. Verses 15-27.
4. Inheritance of Priests. Verses 28-31.
Chapter 45:
1. Portions of Priests, Levites, of whole House of Israel & Prince. Verses 1-8.
2. Concerning Prince. Verses 9-17.
3. Feast of Passover & Feast of Tabernacles. Verse 18-25.
Chapter 46:
1. Worship of Prince. Verses 1-8.
2. Further Instruction as to Worship. Verses 9-15.
3. Concerning Prince, his Sons & his Servants. Verses 16-18.
4. Final Description of places in Temple. Verses 19-24.

III. Vision concerning Land. Chapter 47-48.
Chapter 47:
1. Waters of Healing from Temple. Verses 1-12.
2. Borders of Land. Verses 13-21.
3. Concerning Stranger in Land. Verses 22-23.
Chapter 48:
1. Portion of Seven Tribes. Verses 1-7.
2. Oblation for Sanctuary, for City & for Prince. Verses 8-29.
3. Gates of City & its new Name (Jehovah-Shammah). Verses 30-35.

Plan of Division of Land & Tribes of Israel: Central: Sanctuary & Area & Priests & Levites & City of Jerusalem (Yehowah-Shammah):
North: Judah, Reuben, Ephraim, Manasseh, Naphtali, Asher, Dan. South: Benjamin, Simeon, Issachar, Zebulon, Gad.
Territory belonging to City: Sanctuary & Area, City of Jerusalem, Possession of Prince, Entire Oblation. }}

(10) Temple of Ezekiel: Elucidation of 40th-48th Chapters of Ezekiel, Consistently with Hebrew Original; & a Minute Description of Edifice, on Scientific Principles; Illustrated by a Ground-Plan & Bird’s Eye View; with Appendix, Containing Critical Remarks on Authenticity of Book of Daniel; & Inquiry into Discrepancy between Jewish & Christian Universal Chronology; by Solomon Bennett, R.A. of Berlin; Author of ‘Constancy of Israel’. 1811, 1824.)gs

Solomon’s ‘Temple of Ezekiel’ of 1811 & 1824.
{{ Preface: The part of the book of Ezekiel, which contains the Prophet’s description of the Temple, as seen by him in his Vision, presents greater difficulties, and is less accurately understood, either by the Christian world, or by the Hebrews themselves, than any other portion of the holy Scriptures. If, indeed, we believe the learned among both, by whom the subject has been discussed, and who have pronounced the Vision to be altogether allegorical, we are to consider the time as wasted, and the labor fruitless, which we bestow upon its investigation; for who is able to expound, what is beyond the reach of human comprehension? (ki mi ‘md bsud Yhwh) “Who,” says the prophet, “hath stood in the council of God?” (Jer. 23:18.) Prejudice, which is ever as ready to condemn as it is unable to confute, and which is doubly virulent on subjects of a literary nature, has not failed to assail the present attempt —and the child has been stigmatised before its birth. For this reason it is incumbent on me to notice the premature objections to this comment; and in so doing I hope satisfactorily to refute them. I have met with individuals who were of opinion, that an attempt to explain the text on scientific principles, was heretical, and an attack on Revelation: ‘that it should therefore be explained figuratively, as signifying the temple of Christ, &’. According to this opinion, we should be obliged to reject all the minute details and the accurate admeasurements, recorded by Ezekiel, accounting them merely as mystical symbols. Two objections are urged against the reception of the vision according to its simple meaning. The first, that the temple built by Zerubabel and the Great Synagogue who re-established the commonwealth of Judea, was inferior in ‘splendor’ to that which Ezekiel here describes, and consequently could not be the temple so revealed to him. And the second, on the ground of its ‘instability’ —Jerusalem and this temple having been destroyed by the Romans. For these reasons many of the Rabbinical commentators concluded that the temple of the Prophet must mean a ‘third’ temple, viz. for the time to come; which opinion has been almost universally adopted. The opponents of Judaism have not failed to turn this to their own advantage, and adduce it as a proof that the whole is a mere emblematical representation of the ‘Temple of Christ’. I can only characterise this view of the subject, as an attempt to explain one mystery by another, and a greater one! But we are to recollect that the object of Ezekiel in almost all his prophecies and exhortations to the Jews during the Babylonish captivity, was, to encourage them under their sufferings, and to stimulate their exertions for the re-establishment of the commonwealth; that therefore most of those prophecies had direct reference to such an event, which had been severally foretold by Jeremiah, by Haggai, by Zachariah, and by Malachi; and which duly came to pass. Now where would have been the use of telling the dispersed and captive Jews of a ‘third’ temple, when they were actually suffering under afflictions, from which they could only look forward to a ‘second’ as a signal of their release? what consolation were they to derive from the prospect of an imaginary temple, —a temple as it were ‘in the air’,— when they stood in immediate want of a real and material one? Yet such has become the opinion, and such is the (miscalled) reasoning, of modern scholars. What reasonable being would thus pervert the clear, and simple meaning of the Sacred writings, into mysteries little less absurd than the fictions of romance! We read in Exodus the description of a tabernacle, erected after a plan given by Moses, with all its dimensions, ornaments, vessels, &c.; and which continued until the Israelites settled in Palestine. Shiloh then became the place of residence for the tabernacle, and this place was the metropolis of Israel, during a period of more than 450 years; until King David transferred the seat of government, and with it the tabernacle, to Jerusalem. David gave order to his son Solomon, to erect a temple in Jerusalem, for the performance of divine worship, according to a plan and a model which he had in his possession; and this temple was erected by king Solomon, as described in 1st Kings, ch. 6. This temple also lasted above 400 years, and until the Babylonian captivity. During this period, which extended to 70 years, there were among the Israelites many learned men, —prophets, poets, and teachers; one of the most eminent of whom was the priest and prophet Ezekiel. Among the visions imparted to him was one, of a magnificent temple, which he minutely describes in the chapters I am about to discuss, and which was to be built upon the restoration of the Israelites from their captivity. What then could induce enthusiasts to pervert the plain expressions and meaning of the text, so as to make a mystery of it? and to fabricate temples which had no existence but in their own imaginations? (hythpa’er haggarzen ‘l hchtzb bo ’ythgdl hmsor ‘l mnipo ) “Shall the axe boast itself against him that heweth therewith? or shall the saw magnify itself against him that shaketh it?” (Is. 10:15.) Shall the school-boy, then, instruct his preceptor; or the apprentice teach his master? shall the Christian better understand the Hebrew literature, and know its history from its primitive to its present state, than the Hebrews themselves?………..
I have given due attention to the several draughts of the temple of Ezekiel, proposed by different authors; particularly, those of Calmet, Stackhouse, &c.; but am quite unable to discover upon what authorities they are founded —they are altogether unsupported by the text. Dr. Gill has, in his Exposition of the Bible, taken more pains than any subsequent critic; he has however only aimed at collecting the opinions of the various Hebrew commentators, such as Rab. Solomon Jarchi, David Kimchi, Rab. Lippman, and others, Rabbinical and Christian. But the confusion arising from these multifarious and conflicting opinions, would embarrass the clearest understanding; so that the reader, after a laborious but vain attempt to grapple with them, is compelled to relinquish the attempt; and for want of a positive exposition, and a well-arranged design as a key to it, again relapses into uncertainty or error. In order to facilitate the reading of these chapters, I have taken upon me the task of presenting the reader with such comments on Ezekiel’s vision of the temple as are contained in the works of the most celebrated doctors and commentators among the Hebrews, particularly Rab. Solomon Jarchi, and Rab. Lipmann; and in some places, where they fall short, or are contradictory in their explanations, I have given my own opinion by way of reason and demonstration. To this I have adapted a ‘ground-plan’, accurately constructed upon the measurements, dimensions, and calculations, described in the above-mentioned passages; and a ‘bird’s-eye view’ in its full perspective and elevations. By these helps it is hoped that the reader will find his path cleared of the difficulties by which it has been hitherto impeded. I also think it proper to observe, that though the visions of Ezekiel were in part relating to a time to come, yet we all agree in the opinion that the greater part of them were temporary, and were fulfilled at the restoration from the Babylonish captivity. The temple of Ezekiel, then, was a ‘temporary one’, as well as for the ‘time to come’; for which reason I shall not omit to remark, that the construction of the second temple, which was effected by Zerubabel, his cotemporary prophets, and colleagues, viz. the(Knsth hGdolh, (Great Synagogue, Knesset, Parliament)) “Great Congress” in general, was, in its essential parts, an ‘imitation’ of that of Ezekiel, particularly those parts of it which constituted the separate place, i.e. the holy of holiness; and all the buildings adjoining to this latter place were an imitation of the description given by the prophet, of those correspondent parts of the western side. This I shall notice in the course of the comment, as authenticated by the doctors of the Mishnah (Massecheth Midoth), who have given us a full description of the second temple, and whose authority, being that of eye-witnesses, should be considered as unquestionable, for they were most of them contemporary with the second temple; and it is from this source that all the commentators have derived their assistance. It is also worthy of notice, that the later prophets, viz. Ezra, Nehemiah, Haggai, Zachariah, and Malachi; and Zerubabel, and Joshua the high priest, with his colleagues of the priesthood, and also the great synagogue of the Judeans of that period, who were the constructors and promoters of that great undertaking, had some of them known the prophet Ezekiel personally, and most probably had received verbal instructions relating to their future political state, and to the above-mentioned work, exclusively of what he gave in writing…….
We now come to the re-established and ‘reformed’ government of the Judeans. Cyrus, king of Persia, having by permission of divine providence become ruler over all the east, issued a proclamation, purporting, that the Judeans should be set at liberty, and be allowed to re-establish their government, on a reformed system, congenial to patriarchal principles, and the Mosaic code. This decree, in all probability, ordained, that the new republic should be, in some measure, dependent upon, and protected by the court of Persia, which indeed was ‘requisite’ at the time of its first re-establishment. We read in Ezra (chap. 1.) the proclamation of Cyrus, which ran as follows: “Thus said Cyrus, king of Persia. The Lord, God of heaven, hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and hath charged me to build Him a House at Jerusalem, which is in Judah, &c. &c.” Cyrus also restored the gold and silver vessels belonging to the temple, which Nebuchadnosor had carried away to Babylon, and which amounted to 5400 in number (Ezra, chap. 1. v. 11.) As to the number of the Hebrew congregation, who returned to re-establish the Judean government, it does not appear that it amounted to more than 40,360, exclusive of those whom they found inhabitants of Jerusalem, the posterity of those who had not been carried into captivity. The leading men in the early part of the restoration of the Judeans, were, Ezra, and Zerubabel, with their adherents, and Joshua the high priest, with his suite of priests, Levites, &c. But while the restored government was yet in its infancy, and the number of the people comparatively small, their prosperity drew upon them the jealousy of their neighbors, who hired counsellors, and wrote accusations against them (Ezra, chap. 4.). These enemies of the Hebrews succeeded in their designs, and the rebuilding of the temple was interrupted during the time of Artaxerxes, or Ahasuerus, until the second year of Darius, who was the third successor of Cyrus (Ezra, 4:24). From the proclamation of Cyrus, until the second year of the reign of Darius, there elapsed a period of eighteen (18) years. Notwithstanding difficulties, Haggai, and Zechariah the prophet, together with Joshua the high priest, and many other conspicuous characters among the Judeans, still encouraged them to persevere in the re-establishment of Jerusalem, and of the temple. They also endeavored to counteract the designs of their enemies by sending copies of the Treaty made with Cyrus, and documents relating thereto, regarding the rebuilding of the city and temple; and at the same time represented the liberality of Cyrus in defraying the expense of rebuilding the temple from his own treasury, as well as in restoring its gold and silver vessels. These representations had their desired effect, and Darius, having searched the depositories for these documents, and found the ‘roll’, as executed by Cyrus, renewed the treaty, and passed a decree, that no one should venture to disturb the future progress of the work. He granted, that the future expenses of the building, and of the sacrifices, should be defrayed from the royal treasury. The decree concluded as follows:
“Whosoever shall alter this decree, let timber be pulled down from his house, and let him be hanged thereupon, and let his house he made a dunghill, for I Darius made the decree, and let it be executed, &c.” (Ezra 7:11,12) The new ‘Democratic’ Judean government was conducted by the before-mentioned prophets and chief members, under the denomination of the (Knsth hGdolh, (Knesset, Parliament)), Great Congress; who were the later prophets, Ezra, Nehemiah, &c. Zerubabel, &c. Joshua the high priest, &c., consisting of 120 members chosen from among the most learned and pious men among the Jews. This body received the countenance and support of the succeeding Persian monarchs.
Let us now resume the most essential part of our subject, viz. The rebuilding of the Temple. I stated, above, that during the 70 years of the captivity, the civil and religious ordinances of the Hebrews were continued by their prophets, and great men; who, as they doubtless had personal intercourse with each other, transmitted verbally, or in writing, to their successors, all the particulars relating to the present subject, as well as what related to the reorganisation of the civil government. I have already mentioned the great difficulties which the Judeans had to encounter, from the jealousy of their surrounding neighbours, who endeavoured to excite the distrust and enmity of Cyrus’s successors; and in particular of Ahasuerus, during whose reign the famous, or rather notorious, Haman, spoken of in the Book of Esther, endeavoured his utmost to prejudice them in the mind of his sovereign. But all those obstacles were finally surmounted in the second year of the reign of Darius, as before mentioned; and the re-establishment of the Judean government went progressively on, during the reign of the last-mentioned monarch and the succeeding kings of Persia. When we contemplate the conduct of the leading men among the Judeans, and particularly of the prophets, during the term of their captivity, we cannot but be struck with admiration at their zeal, perseverance, and wisdom, and the dignity with which they filled their important stations, until the restoration of their government in its original patriarchal form. The new establishment was under the direction of the Great Congress already mentioned; who, there is every reason to suppose, acted with equal justice, prudence, and piety; and who thought it a duty ‘not to impose on the liberality’ of the Persian monarchs in the restoring of the city, and building of the Temple. So that, notwithstanding the liberal decree of Darius, they resolved to ‘deviate’ in part from the original grandeur of the plan proposed and described by Ezekiel. Another subject of consideration with them, was, that they could not expect much assistance from the bulk of the Hebrew congregation who returned from the captivity. These amounted to little more than 40,000, and were chiefly of the poorer class, such as husbandmen and mechanics, who could do little more than subsist themselves and their families. Therefore, having justly considered all the circumstances, they determined to adopt the plan of Ezekiel in its ‘principal parts’ only, viz. The actual Temple, and the Sanctuary, with its adjoining buildings, which formed the western side of the proposed fabric, as we find testified in Mishnah Midoth. The remaining and less essential parts, such as the halls, porches, courts, &c., they judiciously determined to defer, until a more favourable opportunity; when the increase of the population, and the prosperous state of the commonwealth, should justify the completion of the plan in its full extent, agreeably to the scriptural direction given to Ezekiel. They accordingly contented themselves for the present with a smaller and a simpler building, or with the remnants of the first temple, as we are told from the same authority.
Notwithstanding that, at the period of the restoration of the second Temple, the House of Israel was rich in the possession of men skilled in divinity and jurisprudence, and eminent for heroism, yet it was far from distinguished for pecuniary wealth. As the population increased, and the territory improved, there arose a necessity for many public works, such as, aqueducts; fortresses, to secure them from the annoyance of their jealous neighbours; and arsenals, with magazines of war like stores. These were supplied at considerable expense, consisting principally of body-armour, of which we are told they possessed great abundance. These burdens necessarily increased with their increasing population and prosperity; and extended defensive warfare became necessary in proportion as their growing importance drew upon them the envy and the fears of their neighbours. Abundant proof of this may be seen in the Books of the Maccabees, in Josephus, Philo, and others; from whom we learn, that from the time of the re-establishment of the Second Temple, the Hebrews were engaged in, continual hostilities with the neighbouring Greeks and Arabians; and, finally, in the long and uninterrupted war with the Romans, which ended in the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus Vespasian. These reasons will be considered, I hope, as a sufficient explanation, why the Temple was not completed according to original intention; which the Judeans had neither the means, nor the opportunity, of effecting. But although the House of Israel did not experience, during the period of the second Temple, the blessings promised to them by their Prophets, it does not follow that those promises are not yet to be fulfilled: “The hand of God is not shortened that it cannot save;” (Isai. 59:1.) and Samuel says, “God will not forsake His people, for His great name’s sake.” (Bas. I. 12:22.) And as it pleased God to establish them when He brought them out of the Egyptian and the Babylonian captivities, and to preserve them during so many calamities, from the earliest until the present time, so it may yet please Him to raise up the House of Israel, as foretold by His prophets: when “God will turn to the people a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of the Lord with one consent,” (Zeph. 3:9.) “And all nations will flow into it, and will say; Come ye, let us go up into the Mountain of God, &c.” Then will there be a general unanimity among all people; and then also, not only will the Temple for God’s service be completed in its proposed magnitude and grandeur, but there shall be no future restrictions or impediments in discharging the duties due to the House of God. Amen.
It remains to observe, that each verse or passage is prefixed to the comment of which it forms the subject; and in those places where the text has been corrupted, and misconceived, or the version is obscure, I have introduced the original Hebrew text, ‘at the same time endeavouring to rectify the errors of former translations by giving the true sense. The dimensions and calculations belonging to the context I have marked in alphabetical order, referring to the ground-plan; by which method the reader may continue to read without interruption. And, finally, to render the elucidation complete, a second plate is added, exhibiting a bird’s-eye view of that perfect and magnificent structure, with an explanatory appendix, and references to the Scripture text. This will be found, in many instances, as essential to the text as the ground-plan itself; and without such aid, the Vision of the prophet Ezekiel will ever remain obscure, even to the most acute and intelligent inquirer. ‘London, February’, 1811. }}
(11) Temple of Ezekiel’s Prophecy; Exhibition of Nature, Character, & Extent of Building Represented in Last Nine Chapters of Ezekiel, & Shortly to be Erected in Land of Israel, “A House of Prayer for All People,” (Isa. 56:7; Mark 11:17) with Plates, Drawn from Specification of the Inspired Testimony, by Henry Sulley; Published by Author. (1887)gs
Sulley’s ‘Temple of Ezekiel’s Prophecy’:
{{ Preface: The last nine chapters of the prophecy of Ezekiel contain a description of a building never yet erected. On this there is a general agreement among critics, notwithstanding that considerable difference of opinion has existed, and does exist, among them, as to the nature, construction, and purpose of the building seen in vision by the prophet. There is, in fact, a babel of voices upon the subject, which has never hitherto been fully understood. It may safely be asserted that for centuries these chapters have been a mystery, alike to both Jew and Gentile. Neither ancient nor modern writers appear to have comprehended the wonderful things contained in them. Many books have been written, and elaborate drawings made to explain the vision. The writer of this treatise has inspected many plans, and has read many expositions of the prophecy that have been put forth by the learned; but he has found nothing satisfactory among them. The problems, architectural and otherwise, that are involved in the vision, are not solved by their suggestions or theories. The writer ended his investigation in that direction some years ago, with the conviction that the true interpretation had not been grasped by any of the manifold students of the subject in past times. Failure is frankly confessed in some cases, and nearly all would, probably, join in the wish expressed by one writer, that “a book may be produced which will put the question at rest”. The causes of failure to understand the vision are not enigmatical to those who know the truth. (Some have ignored the prophetic character of the vision, and have worked on the supposition that it is merely a record of the chief features of Solomon’s Temple, so far as remembered by Ezekiel and his fellow exiles, in order to enable the children of Israel to rebuild the Temple when the time of their promised restoration took place; and that to those features the prophet added fanciful features of his own, or embodied in his description improvements which were considered desirable to introduce whenever the building should be re-erected. It is needless to say, that such an idea not only renders the prophecy unintelligible, but ignores the character of Ezekiel as a prophet; or, at all events, tarnishes his Name in making him publish as a vision that which he himself has merely concocted as an aid to memory. Such a theory casts a doubt upon his inspiration, and dishonours him as a prophet of God; but the vision can be shewn to be prophetic, and this removes one great obstacle raised by such writers in the way of a solution……
It was at the request of some of these, conjoined with supplication to the God of heaven, that He would reveal to us the secret, that the study of the Ezekiel Temple prophecy was commenced by the writer some ten years since. Friends supposed his profession would be some qualification for the work. His studies were pursued with more or less continuous application for seven years, and were largely supplemented by critical assistance of those qualified to interpret the Hebrew tongue, without which one unacquainted with Hebrew could not expect to arrive at a correct understanding of the vision. The work now presented to the reader is the result. This result has been attained by patient investigation and careful construction. It has been a work of analysis first, and synthesis afterwards. The writer has carefully avoided jumping to conclusions. Almost every passage of Scripture having a bearing upon the subject has been examined, criticised, and put to the test. In the process of investigation every care has been used to get at a correct rendering of the original, for there were difficulties in the translation —not insuperable difficulties, nor difficulties involving any great alteration in the translation, but, from the very nature of the case, it was necessary to search for any variety of technical meaning which might underlie the original. The chief difficulty, however, is not the translation, but the absence of any plan to explain the descriptions, Architects, and other trained experts, find a difficulty in understanding even a comprehensive description of any building without a plan, accompanying the written description. How much more difficult to understand Ezekiel’s brief specifications, unaccompanied by any plan, even the most rudimentary; but of course this was the problem to be solved.

The solution has been reached, first, by ascertaining indisputable general facts, and then, having attained a correct understanding of the different elements composing the structure, to proceed to fit them together. Almost innumerable drawings were made during the course of this process, and those which contained some element inconsistent with the general specification of the prophet were eventually cast aside. In this way, one feature of the building after another became visible upon the horizon of thought, and was registered as an accepted fact to be transferred to paper when the whole should be complete. In this process, almost every preconceived notion, plan, or suggestion, came to be thrown aside. In fact, the greatest difficulties in the way of the comprehension of the true plan were ultimately discovered to be these preconceived notions. The reader must therefore follow the writer in this, in order to do justice to the study of the subject. He must put away from his mind all preconceived ideas on the subject; he will then be the better prepared to follow the argument that elucidates the prophecy. He will see that Ezekiel’s specification represents a building unique in construction, and entirely different from anything the world has ever seen; indeed it can hardly be said that other plans have been drawn from the prophet’s specifications —they are mostly guesses, with which the vision is supposed to agree. The plans before the reader of this book are the result of a strict and scientific examination of the vision itself. They are totally different from anything present to the mind of the writer when he began the study. A patient perusal on the part of the reader will probably lead him to join in the opinion expressed by many who have seen the drawings, that they represent the kind of building required by the whole scope of the vision shown to Ezekiel. If a true solution of the prophecy has been attained, we must conclude that it has been given by the Father, through the Son; for, as it is written concerning the building itself, “Except the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it” (Psalm 127:1 ), so it may be said that the understanding of this vision could only come by His directing hand. Man need not be inspired to be the subject of His direction and control. There are innumerable ways in which thoughts are caused to come into the mind, and a man may analyse and synthesize from youth to old age without getting at the comprehension of a prophecy unless the Father give’ the key. The development of the present exposition appears explicable only upon this principle. In the course of his study, curious incidental circumstances have at certain points led the writer’s mind, directed his thoughts, and called his attention to features which are essential to the understanding of the vision, and yet which a casual attention could not have noticed…….}}

Contents: Analysis & Outline & Comments:

{{ Chapter 1: (Israelitish people — Their future — “He that scattered will gather” — nations (Gentiles) & Israel: blessings to former in restoration of latter — Temple & Tabernacle of past history designed by God, & erected under divine supervision —Analogy— Logical deductions.)
Section I: Relation of the subject to the Israelitish People
Section II: Nations & Israel —Blessing to former, in Restoration of latter.
Section III: Summary — Statement Deductions.

Chapter 2: (Ezekiel 40:1-4) Time of vision, significant fact in connection with subject matter of prophecy— locality of things seen, exactly defined & subversive of previous notions on & subject— Coming physical changes in locality — measuring angel, i.e., “a man like unto the appearance of brass”— line of flax in his hand— measuring reed— opening injunction, its importance to readers of prophecy, & its ultimate significance.)

Section I: Time of Vision: (….Thirdly—The year mentioned by Ezekiel is a year of Jubilee, i.e., a year which arrives in recurring periods of fifty. For proof of this assertion the reader is referred to the opening verses of the first (1st) and fortieth (40th) chapters. In the former, it is stated that Ezekiel saw certain things in the ” thirtieth (30th) year.” The question is, the thirtieth (30th) year of what? A comparison of facts will show that it was the thirtieth (30th) year of a Jewish epoch of fifty (50) years. Thus the thirtieth (30th) year was also the fifth (5th) year of king Jehoiachin’s captivity. Now, as we have seen, the vision of the Temple was given in the five and twentieth (25th) year of the same Jehoiachin’s captivity; so, if we deduct five (5) years from the five and twenty (25), we get twenty (20) which, added to the thirty (30) mentioned by Ezekiel in the first chapter of his prophecy, completes the epoch of fifty (50) years. (*A simple and approximate calculation has been made to show that the year in which Ezekiel saw the vision was a Jubilee year: —Josiah reigned 31 years. He held the Passover in his 18th year —Deduct 18 years. This leaves a period of thirteen (13) years from commencement of Passover to end of his reign. Jehoahaz reigned 3 months. Jehoiachim reigned 11 years. Jehoiachin reigned 3 months. Zedekiah reigned 11 years. This would give what would be the time when the city was smitten: 35 years & 6 months. Ezekiel received the vision after this event 14 years. Total 49 yrs. 6 mnths. Thus accounting for a period of 50 years, allowing a short interval for the removal of one king and the setting up another during the troublesome times of the Babylonish captivity.) Therefore, the vision recorded in the 40th chapter was given in a year which would have been reckoned as a year of Jubilee in the days of Israel’s prosperity. Under the circumstances, however, it was to them a year, amongst others, of sorrow, mourning, and woe.)
Section II: Locality of Things seen: Very High Mountain.
Section III: Man like unto appearance of Brass.
Section IV: Line of Flax.
Section V: Measuring Reed.

Section VI: Opening Injunction. (Taking the last quotation as explanatory of the first, and comparing the one with the other, the salient features of this injunction appear to be— 1. That Ezekiel is styled “Son of Man.” 2. That deep and sincere concentration of mind is essential for the comprehension of the vision. 3. That such comprehension can only come by carefully collating every fact stated, even to the minutest detail, and that such a conspectus must include every “law,” every “ordinance,” every “coming” in, and every “going forth of the sanctuary.” 4. That all Ezekiel saw and heard he was to make known to the House of Israel. The salutation “Son of Man” is significant, in view of the fact that Ezekiel is a man of sign to the House of Israel. It becomes more so when those things addressed to him under that title are noted. The measuring angel is represented as saying to Ezekiel, “Son of man, thus saith the Lord God”:…..From this testimony, it is evident that when the things exhibited in the Ezekiel vision become accomplished facts, Ezekiel will be there, and take a prominent part in the organization of the Temple worship. He thus stands forth as a representative of the ‘resurrected’ class, and therefore is a man of sign to the Spiritual House of Israel, as well as to the natural descendants of Abraham. From this, it would follow, that the injunction given to Ezekiel is also intended for ‘every prospective constituent of the spiritual house’, of which he forms a part. To such, the Spirit saith, “Behold with thine eyes, and hear with thine ears, and set thine heart upon all that I shall shew thee;” observe also, “all that I say unto thee concerning all the ordinances of the House of the Lord, and all the laws thereof; and mark well the entering in of the house, with every going forth of the sanctuary.” The writer has taken the injunction as a “‘touch-stone'” with which to test the many attempts that have been made to expound this vision. None have answered the test. The non-observance of the ‘injunction’ by the authors of many absurd drawings probably explains their failure to expound the ‘vision’. Not even the most careful students of the subject seem hitherto to have grasped its meaning. Some have done good service in critical and scholastical emendation of the text, but no one has produced a drawing which can be said even to pretend to find a reasonable place for all the features mentioned in the prophecy. In every case, some important element is missing. One writer, whose attempt to understand the vision is frustrated by his refusal to believe that the Temple is to be a house of sacrifice and prayer unto all people during Messiah’s reign, does not even presume to think his work is conclusive, and says of it, that he “hopes it may lead someone to produce a book upon the subject which ‘will set the matter at rest’.” This, then, is the writer’s aim. Whether that object is accomplished, others must decide.
So far, however, as the writer can see, this exposition does find a reasonable place for everything mentioned by Ezekiel, even if it be not the exact pattern of what Ezekiel saw….)

CHAPTER III: Ezekiel 40, verses 5-43; 41, verses 1-12; 46, verses 19-24.
The wall round about the house, co-extensive with and forming the outside boundary —The gates with their twofold divisions, and their relation to the wall —The chief constructional features of the outer courts —The pavements —The “chambers” flanking the outer wall —The arches roundabout—The “arithmetical” proof —The extent of the outer courts —The gates of the inner courts vis a vis with those in the outside wall —The chambers flanking the inner court —”The galleries” —”The porches of the court” ” —and the “Corner courts.”
Section I. Wall on Outside of House Round About.

Section II. Gates: (A certain celebrated architect said: “The gateways, notwithstanding the minuteness of his (Ezekiel’s) details, are a puzzle not easy to solve.” He also ventured to assert that they were “hardly worth spending much time upon.” One ventures to think, that if the gentleman in question had understood the subject, he would not have spoken in this manner. Study has convinced the writer, and may convince the reader, that the understanding of the construction of the gates is of supreme importance to the understanding of the whole structure. This may be gathered from the fact that the bulk of the fortieth (40th) chapter is occupied in their description. They are, indeed, the ‘key’ of the specification. Entering the building with this key, and carefully remembering the injunction of Ezekiel’s guide, we may unlock the mystery of the vision. These gates, though used for purposes of ingress, are not a mere opening in the wall. Even a cursory glance at the chapter reveals this fact. They are composed of several important parts, which, put together, make a perfect whole, and comprise entrances, posts, columns, chambers, &c. The gates partake more of the character of ‘gate buildings’ than structural entrances, as we conventionally understand “gates.” The Hebrew word translated “gate,” in its primary meaning, does not involve a gate building. It only has this meaning in a derived sense. The word is used several times throughout Ezekiel’s specifications in its primary sense, and therefore it must be remembered that the word “gate” does not necessarily refer to a “gate building” in every case, or even to a gate at all in the sense in which Englishmen understand the term. In our conception of the gates of the Temple described by Ezekiel, we must not be guided by any foreign instances, ancient or modern, but must follow strictly the specifications given.
Conducted by the angel “to the gate which looketh toward the east” (verse 6), Ezekiel sees its several features measured. These are—
1. The entrance thresholds.
2. The chambers of the gate.
6. The pedestals of the gateway.
4. The threshold of the gate “by the porch of the gate within.”
5. “The porch of the gate within.”
G. The porch of the gate within the court.
7. The length and breadth of the gate building.
8. The boundary and the roof of the little chambers.
9. The “palm trees” of the gate.
10. The arches.
11. The lattice work.
These details are not all fully specified in the description of the first gate, but they come out on collating all the items scattered in the description of the other gates. All the gates are alike (see chap. 40, verses 21,24, 28, 32, 35), and that which is affirmed of one applies to all. It is, in fact, a feature of the specification, that important details are, to all appearance, incidentally mentioned, and are also found where they appear to be out of place in the testimony. Such matters, taken in their isolated occurrences, appear to be unconnected with the immediate context; but taken in connection with the vision as a whole, they supply important links. The whole vision is, in fact, the context to each part…….

A. Entrance Thresholds.
B. Chambers of Gate.
C. Pedestals in Gateway.
D. Threshold of Gate by Porch of Gate within.
E. Porch of Gate within.
F. Porch of Gate within Court.
G. Length & breadth of Gate Building.
H. Roof of Chambers of Gate & their “Boundary”.
I. Palm Trees of the Gate.
J. Arches.
K. Lattice-Work.
Summary: (We have now followed Ezekiel’s guide in his delineation of the several features of the gate to the end. We commenced by observing how he ascended the steps and measured its two thresholds on the front (or entering) end of the gateway. We have looked into the little chambers, and have peered through the lattice into the court beyond. We have seen the length and breadth of those enormous entrance doors, whose breadth is twice as great as any ordinary gateway, and whose height exceeds the height of the eaves line of an ordinary two-story dwelling. We have seen the companion doors on the exit side of the gateway, through whose portals the returning visitor will pass in peace. We have looked at those massive pedestals and their sub-bases or foundations standing between the little chambers; and we have glanced upwards to those immense columns, rising like palm trees above the gateway on either side, with leaf-like spreading top, whose majestic arms receive the arches of the gate. Consider this gateway in its length and breadth —one hundred feet long by seventy-four feet broad: (* The chambers on either side measure six cubits, and these, together with the width of the gateway (twenty-five cubits), make up the total English measure of seventy-four feet, taking two feet to equal one cubit.) a building itself, and larger than most public halls in England. Such a gateway, furnished with its latticed or crystal screens, would almost overwhelm the observer with a sense of its magnificence, and would be a noble entrance way to that which lies beyond.)

Section III: Outer Courts:
A. “Pavement” & “Gates”.
B. Cellae flanking Outer Court . (Upon consulting the general ground plan of the sanctuary, the reader will notice four square courts marked off from the rest in each corner. These are the “corner courts” mentioned in the forty-sixth (46th) chapter. They are shown on the plan one hundred and eighty (180) cubits square. The reason for this will be given further on, when dealing with that part of the specification. Now for the arithmetical proof already referred to, indicating that a correct interpretation of the specification has been found:—
Cubits = (2 Feet ‘ ):
Side of Sanctuary: 3000 cubits (6000 ft’); Deduct space occupied by two corner courts, each one = 180 cbts: 2×180 cubits = 360 cubits = 720 ft’; Remainder 2640 cubits = (5280 ft’)
Arches = 25 cbts = (50 ft’) span; Pedestals = 6 cbts = (12 ft’) across, & taking two half sides of 3 cbts each = adding 6 cbts (12 ft’); we get distance from centre to centre of Archway supports = 25 cbts + 6 cbts = 31 cbts total = (50 ft’ + 12 ft’ = 62 ft’)
‘Take this divisor, and divide two thousand six hundred and forty’ cbts (2640 cbts = 5280 ft’ ). Result is remainder of five cbts (5 cbts = 10 ft’). ‘Now, five cubits’ is just the measure required to provide a ‘complete column’ at either end of the Outer Court, for the purpose of carrying the last Arch, which would finish up to each of the Corner Courts.
This fact may be re-stated in the following form:—
Cubits: (Feet): 2 Corner Courts: 180 cbts X 2 = 360 cbts = (720 ft’); 85 Arches, 31 cubits from centre to centre of their supports, = 2635 cbts (85×31=2635 cbts = 5270 ft’); 2 half Columns, in order to form complete column at each end, equal 5 cbts ( 10 ft’); ‘Measure of one side of Sanctuary’ = 3000 cubits (6000 feet). These figures demonstrate the unity of the construction of the Gates and the Cellae, and also “prove” the Plan.)
C. Extent of Outer Court.
D. Inner Court Gates & Cellae flanking Inner Court.
E. Porches of Court & Galleries.
F. Details of Buildings on South, East, & North sides, & Entrances to whole.
G. Fourth Side.

Section IV: Corner Courts.
CHAPTER IV: Ezekiel 40, verses 44-49 ; 41, verses 1-26.
The inner court and its sub-division —The buildings in it —The “inner Temple” and “the Tabernacle,” the difference between the Two —The cella: encircling the central area—Its entrances, porches, posts, and doors —The ribs — The “wall” —The “covered openings” —The place left —The Cherubim , their important position and their spiritual significance —The general dimensions
of the “inner house” —The lattice work —The “Most Holy” and the tent —The way in which a vast area is covered —The fire and the cloud in relation thereunto —The separate place —The altar and its court — Its position in the inner court —Coming changes upon the site—The altar of wood —and “the table before the Lord.”
Section I: Temple Cellae.
A. Porch.
B. Posts of Temple & Entrances.
C. Temple.
D. “Place Left”
E. Arithmetical proof.
F. Cherubim.
G. General Dimensions of “Temple”.
H. “Covered Openings”.
J. Lattice Work.
K. Summary: (The central building is vast and massive to an extent truly wonderful. It is both beautiful and imposing. Architectural skill could not devise a more magnificent facade. Let the reader approach in thought the structure, of which an attempt has been made on Plate ix., page 44, to give a natural perspective. Let him look at its pillars, colonnades, cherubim, and galleries —in total height ‘two hundred feet’. Let him look at those sculptured figures, with faces of varied expression, as he passes round the three mile circuit; and he may faintly realize why the Spirit should invite his backsliding people to inspect the pattern of the house, saying: “Son of man, show the house to the house of Israel, that they may be ashamed of their iniquities; and let them measure “The Pattern”” (Ezekiel 43:10).)
Section II: Most Holy.
Section III: (Gidzra, Gizrah) or “Separate Place”.
Section IV: Altar & its Court.
A. Altar of Wood.

Chapter V: (The furniture of the Sanctuary —The position and important use of the Lattice-Work — The covering to the House, above, around, and to the sides of the Porches, &c. —The formation of the Sanctuary into a magnificent “booth,” and shelter by growing trees —The production of wine for the celebration of the memorial feasts, shewn to be an element of importance in the house —A correct drawing of the building, proved by the explanation of obscure words. This use of the several buildings composing the Sanctuary —Provision for slaughter of animals —A place for depositing the present and the offering —The extensive arrangement for offering sacrifices —The probable method —A powerful lever of government —Millions able to take part —Provision for holding the feast foretold in Isaiah 25:6 —Sanitary arrangement —Numerous Courts of Justice —A portion of the house set apart for Levites —The eastern side for the Prince —The manifestation of the divine presence in the Most Holy. The provision of water, flowing out on both sides of the house —Ezekiel and the water —The physical and spiritual things involved in those things which he did —Universal baptism a probable law of the Kingdom. Review of the argument.)

Section I: Furniture of the Sanctuary.
Section II. Use of Buildings of which Sanctuary is composed.
A. Provision for Slaughter of Animals.
B. Provision for Depositing “Present,” &c.
C. Simultaneous Offering.
D. Arrangements for feeding Multitude.
E. Sanitary Arrangements.
F. Courts of Justice.
G. Reservation of a part of the House for use of the Levites.
H. Reservation of Eastern side for Prince.
J. Use of Most Holy.
Section III: Provision of Water everywhere.
A. Baptism—Law of Life.

Section IV: Review of Argument: (The last Section brought to a finish the exegetical exhibition of the buildings forming the sanctuary; other matters in the prophecy have been incidentally touched upon, and there are still others which, though not essential to the consideration of the subject, are full of interest. The scope of this work precludes their investigation beyond a chapter devoted to a brief explanation of the “Holy Oblation,” and a few notes which will be found in the Appendices at the end of this volume. At this point it seems convenient to summarise the arguments advanced in support of the exposition now laid before the reader, while at the same time adding a few others in passing. The summary may be classed under two heads: the positive and the negative.)

A. Negative Arguments in support of the Exposition: (1. Nearly all expositors recognize the extraordinary character of the prophecy, and admit that it speaks of a building which has never been erected at any time. 2. The prophecy is by general consent regarded as a mysterious one; and one of which a clear exposition has never yet been published. 3. Many attempts have been made to supply such an exposition. The number of books on the subject, and the diversity of theories advanced, prove the unsatisfactory nature of these attempts; they have been based on the assumption that the building is five hundred cubits square, in face of the express declaration that its outer measurement is “five hundred reeds.” No wonder that every attempt to expound the vision on the basis of such a radical fallacy should be abortive. 4. No plan of the sanctuary hitherto drawn can claim to be in complete agreement with Ezekiel’s specification. Some measures are omitted, some do not “fit”; and, worse than all, some are altered to suit the theory advanced. None of these things can be affirmed of the exposition now submitted.)

B. Positive Arguments: (The accuracy of the general plan advanced in this book has been demonstrated in detail in a manner that cannot be successfully confuted. It is confirmed by these considerations: — 1. The building seen by Ezekiel from a distance appeared “like the frame of a city”; i.e., like an ancient city. [See Frontispiece.] 2. The buildings looked like “the frame of a city,” although its outside “wall” was but one reed high and one reed thick, which shows there must be on this wall a superstructure of greater size. [See exposition.] 3. The outside of the building must be five hundred reeds square (c. 1 mile x 4) if it is to look like a city, and the testimony declares this to be the dimensions. 4. If the building is five hundred reeds square (c. 1 mile x 4) outside, its internal construction must fill an area in harmony with its external breadth. How this is done has been shown in the course of this explanation; no other exposition pretends to shew such a structural occupation of the space enclosed by a five hundred reed (c. 1 mile) wall. 5. All the specifications of the vision are harmonised without contorting the evidence. 6. There is a symmetry and a fitness in the elevation of the building, suitable and proportionate to the extent of the ground plan. 7. Numerous gateways are a necessity in such an extensive building; the evidence of their existence is, therefore, not a surprise. 8. Each gate is perfect in its construction as elaborated from the testimony, and proved to be just such a structure as would be required for such a building. The gates have a common plan; this plan explains difficulties in connection with other parts of the structure, and forms a key with which to unlock other mysteries in the vision. 9. The correctness and unity of construction subsisting between the cellae and the gates is proved by the arithmetical dimensions of various parts of the building, as well as by the verbal testimony. 10. The prescribed use of the outer court buildings is shown to be in harmony with their construction, and the whole series in connection with the “corner courts,” a deftly contrived arrangement for the fulfilment of the promise of the Deity to make a great feast, both literal and spiritual, unto all people, in millennial times. 11. The specified use of the inner court cellae lends strength to the last argument. They are just in that part of the house which intervenes between the outer and the inner court, where the functions of the officials of the house vary. They pass the place where they wash and change their garments when entering upon the inner or outer court service. This unforeseen coincidence (so far as the writer is concerned) between the ordinances of the house and its architectural construction, is a strong corroboration that a correct interpretation has been found. 12. That the Temple should be of such gigantic dimensions appears appropriate when we consider that a large building will be required for the centre of government when the “Lord is King over all the earth.” 13. The construction of the house is not only unique and unapproached by any building ancient or modern, but it is different from any idea which might on any presupposition have been formed of it, and is pre-eminently fitted for the use indicated in all the prophecies of the House or Temple of the age to come. 14. A place is found for every dimension given in Ezekiel; and this in a practical form, and not in a fanciful or strained manner. 15. Not only do the dimensions “fit,” but this exposition gives a satisfactory explanation of certain Hebrew words occurring in the text which heretofore have been considered without a definite meaning. One Hebrew scholar said to the writer: “I do not know how you can arrive at a correct understanding of this prophecy, because there are certain words in it which do not convey to our mind (i.e., to the Hebraist’s mind) any meaning.” This same scholar has since confessed that the writer’s explanation is perfectly satisfactory.
16. The exposition throws light upon specified features hitherto admittedly obscure: such as the palm trees, the lattice-work, the cherubim, &c. 17. Doctrinal significances are shown to be associated with the construction of the house. This argument might be carried further. It might be pointed out that the circle called the “Most Holy” is a symbol of eternity, and therefore a suitable figure for architectural incorporation in the building which is to form the centre of God’s worship in the age to come. The circle fittingly represents: First, the eternal Creator; and secondly, eternal life as the realized privilege of those who have been made immortal up to the time of its construction; and thirdly, of the everlasting life which will be given to the approved at the end of Christ’s reign upon earth. 18. There is, in fact, perfect architectural and doctrinal harmony throughout, which is an argument sufficient in itself to commend the explanation given. 19. The order in which the different parts of the prophecy are given, helps also to shew that a definite plan and method has been followed, although the different details are given apparently in promiscuous disconnection. This is best illustrated by the accompanying explanation of Plate xii., to be found on page 82. 20. The Temple of Ezekiel’s prophecy, as exhibited in this exposition, could not be the invention of the writer, because its several features are evolved from the testimony against his own pre-conceived idea of the subject. The plan of the house never would have been thought of apart from the evidence contained in the prophecy; and if this be not the true exposition, it is singular that out of the study of it should come the plan of a building so perfectly suitable for a house of prayer at a time of universal worship and dominion. 21. Such a building as here described could not be the invention of any human being. Its conception is so vast and bold, and its construction so impracticable from a human point of view, that the theory of human invention is quite out of the question. 22. It is also evident that a dreamer could not evolve such a practical scheme. Whence, then, came the exposition, if it be not an explanation of the testimony? 23. One would think that when Deity sets His hand to build, the thing which He would do must of necessity surpass all human efforts, and dwarf, by its magnificence, all humanly-constructed buildings; and one would also think the design would be unique, and the building unprecedented in its constructional features. All these things can be affirmed of the building shewn in this exposition. 24. By the Ezekiel specifications, as elucidated in this exposition, many passages of Scripture hitherto obscure are made plain; and the connection of these passages with the fulfilment of Ezekiel’s Temple prophecy is evidence of the truth of this exposition, so far as that connection involves the different features of the building.
Some of these passages are here appended. Their connection with the vision of Ezekiel is obvious, and will readily be discerned by the reader. They are classed under appropriate descriptive headings :—(Some 30 passages are given under 15 headings. ))
Exhortation…
Explanation of Plate XII: (This explanation is intended to show the course of Ezekiel’s journey through the house, as indicated by red letters and a red line. Some of the letters are repeated thus, A-A., in order to shew the full extent of the prophet’s movement in those cases where a single sentence implies a broad interpretation, such as the sentence, “He brought me to the east gate,” the meaning of
which, in most cases, is that he caused him to traverse the side of the sanctuary, and pass all the eastern gate openings:—(all the verses (some 30 passages) are given & explained))

Chapter VI: (The Division of the Land —A New Feature — Parallel Cantonments —A portion set apart for the Prince: its Subdivisions and its Extent —The Position of the Sanctuary in relation thereto —The line of Separation between the two Principal Divisions passing through Jerusalem —”The Possession of Twenty Chambers” explained —The Valley of Achor, a Door of Hope — Some Remarkable Coincidences resulting from the True Delineation of the Holy Oblation —The Inheritance of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob —The “Right” and the “Left” Hand position in the Kingdom. The City “Jehovah Shammah” —”Round about Eighteen Thousand (18,000) Measures” —A City of Service, wherein the Hospitality of the People of the Land is extended to all Nations. Coming Physical Changes —Jerusalem to be Elevated —The Holy Oblation to be encircled by a Deep Valley —The “Through Route theory” inadmissible —Conclusive Arguments — Valley of Shittim to be Watered by the Stream which comes from the Sanctuary —A Fresh Water Lake —The Possible Outlet to the Mediterranean, and to “the Former Sea” Southward — Probable Submergence of the Sites of Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum, and possible Elevation of the site of Sodom out of the Dead Sea —The Borders of the Land Enlarged —Translation of Psalm 82 by Dr. Thomas.)

Holy Oblation & Division of Land.
Section I: Division of Land.
Section II: City “Jehovah Shammah”.
Section III: Coming Physical Changes.

Appendices:
Appendix A:
Restoration of Israel: (….The consensus of the above testimony proves that the children of Israel will be restored to their own land by Christ. In fact, the prophets are discredited altogether, and made false witnesses for God if such a restoration is not to take place. This people, then, who have such a remarkable history, have a momentous future. Their “witnessing” career in the earth is not at an end; and, inasmuch as they have been “for a sign and for a wonder” hitherto, so they will, in the further fulfilment of prophecy, develope into a monument of such magnitude as to call the attention of all the earth unto the name of Him who is the cause of their preservation unto this hour (Isa. 18:3-7). The prophets of the Holy One have declared it, and the very existence of the children of Israel at the present day waits upon the fulfilment of His words which have gone out concerning them.)
Appendix B: Word as to Proposal of some to alter Hebrew —Ezekiel 42:16-20.
Appendix C: Origin of Arch.
Appendix D: “Inventions”.
Appendix E: Time of End.
Appendix F: Suggestion respecting Corner Courts.
Appendix G: “Thy Servants take pleasure in the Stones thereof”.
Appendix H: Some Interesting Features in Construction of House; or, How is Sanctuary to be Constructed? Order in which the Building is in be Erected. Building Material. Building of House Merciful Provision during a Time of Need. Comparison: (In order to assist the reader in realizing the vastness of the Temple structure, the size of some modern erections are here given :—……)

List of Illustrations: Plates (Drawings) & (Pages):

I.—FRONTISPIECE : BIRD’S-EYE VIEW OF THE SANCTUARY. (1)
II.—GENERAL GROUND PLAN. (14)
III.—PLAN OF THE GATE.(18)
IV.—ELEVATION OF THE GATE. (22)
V.— SECTION OF THE GATE. (26)
VI.—PERSPECTIVE DRAWING OF GATE. (30)
VII.—VIEW DOWN OUTER COURT. (36)
VIII.—PLAN OF “THE TEMPLE”. (40)
IX.—EXTERIOR VIEW OF DITTO. (44)
X.—ISOMETRICAL VIEW OF THE ALTAR. (52)
XI.—MAP OF THE HOLY OBLATION. (52)
XII. -THE ITINERARY OF EZEKIEL AND HIS GUIDE. (82)

The Temple of Ezekiel’s Prophecy: Plate II: (Page 14-15)
EXPLANATORY PLAN OF THE SANCTUARY SHEWN UPPER AND LOWER STORIES:
(Plan: Square & Circle & Center: A, a, B, b, C, c, D, d, E, f, g, H, I, k, N, p ) (Top=North, Bottom=South, Left=West, Right=East) (W-E Outside = 1000 cubits (both North & South Sides); W-E Inside = 500 reeds (both North & South Sides); N-S = 500 reeds of 3000 cubits (both West & East Sides); Waters: (South Side) Depth: W-E = Ankles < Knees < Loins < Swimming); Cellae (Cellas): 30 in Circular Form.

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS REFERRED TO IN THIS BOOK: (Christadelphian: # 3-8)

1. Mount Seir. — By Professor Hull.
2. Recovery of Jerusalem: A Narrative of Exploration and Discovery by Sir Charles William Wilson, Sir Charles Warren. Introduction by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley. Edited by Walter Morrison. 1871.
3. The Trial of the most notable lawsuit of ancient or modern times. ‘The Incorporated Scientific Era Protection Society v. Paul Christman and others’, in the Court of Common Reason. Before Lord Penetrating Impartiality and a special Jury. Issue: “Did Christ rise from the dead?” Verbatim report by a shorthand writer. 1882. Robert Roberts. (Christadelphian)
4. Eureka (in 3 vols.) : An exposition of the Apocalypse in harmony with the things of the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, and an explanation of all the mysteries of “Revelation,” in their bearing upon the history of the past 1800 years, and the state of things upon the earth for a thousand years to come. By Dr. John Thomas. 1850. (See: Elpis Israel: Being an Exposition of the Kingdom of God; with Reference to the Time of the End, & the Age to Come, By John Thomas, M.D. 1851.) (Christadelphian)
5. Prophecy and the Eastern Question; the light shed by the Scriptures on the current political situation in the East, showing the approaching fall of the Ottoman Empire; war between England and Russia; the settlement of the Jews in Syria under British protectorate; the appearing of Christ, and the setting up of the Kingdom of God. In ten chapters, by Robert Roberts. 1877. (Christadelphian)
6. Coming Events in the East. Four Lectures, delivered at Swansea, on the future of the Holy Land and its People. By Robert Roberts. 1878. (Christadelphian)
7. The Bible Defended from Religious Unbelief: A review of four lectures delivered in St. Mary’s Church, Nottingham. The two first lectures reviewed by H. Sulley, and the last two by J. J. Andrew (author of “Jesus Christ and Him Crucified”).
8. Christendom Astray: Popular Theology (both in Faith & Practice) Shewn to be Unscriptural; & the True Nature of the Ancient Apostolic Faith Exhibited in 18 Lectures; (by the author of ‘The Trial’). Robert Roberts. 1877.1897. (Christadelphian)

(12) An Exegetical Commentary on EZEKIEL by James E. Smith Originally published as part of the Bible Study Textbook Series by College Press, 1979. Revised Edition 2004 ©James E. Smith (No notice or warning of Copyright restrictions given. I’ll attempt to secure direct permission for my selection.)

Preface: ….The commentary follows the chapter divisions of the book. The translation of the text is that of the author, at least up to ch 40. For the tedious ‘‘blueprint” chs 40-48 the American Standard Version of 1901 has been followed with only minor adaptation. Verse by verse comments follow the translation of the individual units of the text….

Introduction: (James E. Smith Florida Christian College January 2002.) Book of Ezekiel: ….G. Structure and Arrangement. The Book of Ezekiel has been carefully constructed. It is to Ezekiel himself that the credit for this arrangement belongs. The fall of Jerusalem was the mid-point in the ministry of the prophet and also in the book. Chapters 1-24 come from the period prior to the fall of Jerusalem; the last twenty-four chapters in the main are post-fall (*Because of the importance of the destruction of the temple, some will divide the book at 33:21.). In terms of subject matter, the book breaks down into three divisions—oracles against Israel (1-24), oracles against foreign nations (25-32); and a second section pertaining to Israel (33-48). (*The structure of Ezekiel is similar to that of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible and Jeremiah in the Greek Bible where the oracles against foreign nations are grouped in the middle of the book.)

Structure of Ezekiel: Oracles Concerning Israel, (Chs 1-24), Prior to the Fall of Jerusalem, Condemnation & Catastrophe; Oracles Concerning Nations, (Chs 25-32), During the Siege of Jerusalem; Oracles Concerning Israel, (Chs 33-48), After the Fall of Jerusalem, Consolation & Comfort.
Whatever interruption of strict chronological sequence that the book displays is best accounted for as the work of Ezekiel himself, not some perplexed editor. The prophet at times desired to group his prophecies by the subjects to which they related rather than by the dates on which they were spoken. The Book of Ezekiel displays a chronological system (K.S. Freedy and D.B. Redford, “The Dates in Ezekiel in Relation to Biblical, Babylonian and Egyptian sources,” JAOS 90 (1970): 462-485.) unparalleled in any prophetic book, save Haggai. Sixteen dates are given in fourteen passages. In two cases (1:1-2; 40:1) a double dating is employed, utilizing two different counting systems. In the following chart, the chronological references are tabulated and converted into the modern calendrical system.
Reference (Chapters & Verses): Year/Month/Day: Conversion:
1:2 : 5/4/5 : Aug 1, 593
8:1 : 6/6/5 : Sep 19, 592
20:1 : 7/5/10 : Aug 14, 591
24:1 : 9/10/10** : Dec 29, 588
29:1 : 10/10/12 : Apr 30, 587
30:20 : 11/1/7 : Jun 21, 587
31:1 : 11/3/1 : Sep 18, 587*
26:1 : 11/ ? /1 : Jan 4, 585
33:21 : 12/10/5 : Mar 4, 585
32:1 : 12/12/1 : Mar 18, 585*
32:17 : 12/ ? /15 : Apr 29, 573
40:1 : 25/1/10 : Apr 29, 573
29:17 : 27/1/1 : Apr 26, 571
(* Since the month is not given in the Hebrew text, the date is conjecture. See discussion at the relevant passage. The conversion column is based on the assumption that Ezekiel used the Spring calendar that was common in Babylon rather than the Autumn calendar that at various times was employed in Palestine. **Ezekiel here is using the dates of Zedekiah for this event as in 25:1.)

The dating in the Book of Ezekiel is based on the years of the deportation of King Jehoiachin. This young king went captive in 597 B.C. Apparently he was still considered by many of that time the legal ruler of Judah vis-à-vis Zedekiah who was looked upon as a mere regent of Nebuchadnezzar. (*Even after his deportation to Babylon, Jehoiachin appears to have possessed land in Palestine. A seal of his steward, dating after 597 B.C., has been found in Palestine, See W.F. Albright, “The Seal of Eliakim and the Latest Pre-Exilic History of Judah, with Some Observations on Ezekiel,” JBL, 51 (1932): 77-106.) Harrison (*Harrison, IOT, 848-49.) follows Brownlee in suggesting that the Book of Ezekiel is “a literary bifid,” i.e., the book reveals a two part arrangement. Harrison puts a great deal of emphasis on the statement of Josephus (Ant. 10:5.1) that Ezekiel left behind two books. These books, originally separate productions of the prophet, have been combined in the present book. Harrison thinks that chs 1-23 constitute Book One and chs 24-48 Book Two. The following chart indicates parallels between the two “books” of Ezekiel.

Book One (Chs. 1-23) : Book Two (Chs 24-48) :
Vengeance of the Lord against His People : Vindication of the Lord through His People
Name Ezekiel appears once (1:3) : Name Ezekiel appears once (24:24) #
Commissioning of the prophet (3:25-27) : Commissioning of the prophet (33:1-9)
Commission followed by dumbness (3:25-27) : Commission followed by release from dumbness (33:21f.)
Divine glory forsakes the temple (chs 8-11) : Divine glory returns to sanctify the land (43:1-5)
(#Such renewed claim to authorship is made by Thucydides in his History (5:26), the probable beginning of the second roll of his work.)

{{ Special Note: Interpretation of Ezekiel 38-39:
In chs 38-39, Ezekiel is predicting an unparalleled invasion by a dreadful foe. Commentators generally concede that these chapters contain an apocalyptic element. In apocalyptic literature, the setting is usually the end of the age. This kind of literature is full of symbols, especially numerical symbols. Great catastrophes befalling God’s people and dramatic rescues by divine agencies characterize this type of writing. Most of the characters are painted much larger-than-life in these word pictures. Deliberate vagueness and purposeful incongruities are further identifying marks of apocalyptic. One can note at least three incongruities in the Gog-Magog chapters: (1) In 38:4 the Lord brings Gog forth, but in 38:10 Gog himself devises the plan of attack; (2) in 38:18-22 Gog is overthrown by earthquake and storm, but in 39:1-2 Gog is still very much active; (3) in 39:4 Gog and company are devoured by birds and animals, while in 39:11-16 the bodies of the fallen host are buried; but again in 39:17-20 the carcasses of the fallen enemy are picked clean by birds and beasts. As in apocalyptic literature in general, ‘‘the final catastrophe is looked at from various angles, without any attempt to trace a logical order in the sequence of events.” (*Cooke in ICC as cited by Blackwood, EPH, 228.) The purpose of apocalyptic writing such as this is the “unveiling” of the future, not in the sense of chronicling every event prior to its occurrence, but in the sense of showing God’s lordship over the future. It serves the function of letting the faithful know that God knows where history is heading, and that He is ultimately in control of the situation. Thus apocalyptic literature guides and strengthens God’s people in dark days of uncertainty.
Having recognized the apocalyptic elements within these two chapters, commentators are still divided as to the fulfillment of the prediction here made. Four major categories of conclusions have been formulated.

A. ‘The Historical Views’: Some commentators hold that the invasion of Gog was an actual event, future from the standpoint of Ezekiel, but ancient history from the present-day vantage point. Gog has been identified with every outstanding general from the time of Ezekiel to the time of Christ and even beyond. Among those suggested are Cambyses king of Persia, Alexander the Great, Antiochus the Great, Antiochus Epiphanes, Antiochus Eupator, and Mithridates king of Pontus. Within this general category of approach, perhaps the strongest case can be made for equating Gog with Antiochus Epiphanes. Antiochus Epiphanes was a bitter opponent of the Jews in the second century before Christ. The center of his kingdom was in Antioch on the Orontes River. To the east, his territory extended beyond the Tigris. To the north, his reign extended over Meshech and Tubal, districts of Anatolia.
In his excellent commentary on the Book of Revelation, William Hendriksen argues that Ezekiel’s Magog represents Syria, and Gog, Antiochus. He comments as follows on the relationship between the Gog invasion of Ezekiel and that recorded in the Book of Revelation: “. . . The Book of Revelation uses this period of affliction and woe as a symbol of the final attack of Satan and his hordes upon the church.” (*Hendriksen, MTC, 233.) That Ezekiel’s description of the defeat of Gog (Antiochus) is an appropriate type of the final overthrow of the enemies of God can be seen in the following parallels pointed out by
Hendriksen: 1. The last great oppression of the people of God under the Old Testament era was sufficiently severe to typify the final attack of anti-Christian forces upon the church in the New Testament age. 2. The armies of Gog and Magog were very numerous and came from wide-ranging territories. This would be most appropriate to symbolize the world-wide opposition to the church in the days just preceding the second coming. 3. The persecution under Antiochus was very brief, but very severe. The tribulation through which God’s people will pass toward the end of the present dispensation will apparently also be of short duration, but extremely severe (cf. Rev 11:11). 4. Defeat of Gog and Magog was unexpected and complete. It was clearly the work of God. So also will be the sudden overthrow of the eschatological Gog and Magog of the Book of Revelation. Linking the invasion forces of Ezek. 38-39 with the hosts of Antiochus Epiphanes is an interpretation not as easily overturned as some commentators seem to think. It will not do, for example, to argue that the timeframe for the Ezekiel passage is the ‘latter years’ or ‘latter days’ (38:8, 16). These expressions are clearly used in the Book of Daniel to include events that transpired after the Babylonian captivity. (*See Dan 2:28 and 10:4. Similar expressions clearly referring to the closing days of the Old Testament era: ‘time of the end’ (Dan 8:17; 11:35, 40; 12:4, 9); ‘end of years’ (Dan. 11:6).) Especially weak is the argument that the apocalyptic character of these chapters necessitates a prophecy dealing with the end-time. Clearly Daniel uses highly symbolic (apocalyptic?) language to describe certain events in the intertestamental period (Dan 8), as does Zechariah as well (Zech 9:11-17). Furthermore, the ruthless assault of Antiochus against Israel and the divine protection of God’s people in the midst of that assault are major themes in the prophecies of Ezekiel’s contemporary Daniel (Dan 8:9-27; 11:21-35). Why should it then be thought strange that Ezekiel would devote two chapters to describing, in highly idealized language, this same invasion?

B. ‘The Literal Futuristic View’: Some commentators believe that the invasion of Gog and Magog has not yet occurred. Ezekiel is describing the final invasion of the land of Israel by a ruthless coalition following the Millennium. C. I. Scofield popularized this view. He writes: That the primary reference is to the northern, (European) powers, headed up by Russia, all agree ‘Gog’ is the prince, ‘Magog,’ his land. The reference to Meshech and Tubal (Moscow and Tobolsk) is a clear mark of identification. Russia and the northern powers have been the latest persecutors of dispersed Israel, and it is congruous both with divine justice and with the covenants that destruction should fall at the climax of the last mad attempt to exterminate the remnant of Israel in Jerusalem. The whole prophecy belongs to the yet future ‘day of Jehovah’ and to the battle of Armageddon …, but includes also the final revolt of the nations at the close of the kingdom-age . . . .(*SRB, comments on Ezek 38.) A disciple of Scofield, John F. Walvoord, cites two reasons for believing that a Russian invasion of Israel is being prophesied. First, he points out that three times in chs 38-39 the invading armies are said to come from the extreme north (38:6, 15; 39:2). Second, he points to the fact that Gog is said to be “the prince of Rosh.” The nineteenth century lexicographer Wilhelm Gesenius is cited as the authority for equating Russia with Rosh. (*Walvoord, NP, 106-108.) The geographical argument offered by Walvoord is weak. Jeremiah frequently speaks of armies coming from ‘the uttermost parts of the earth’ by which he means no more than Babylonia. (*See Jer 6:22; 25:32; 31:8; 50:41.) In some sense Mount Zion itself is said to be situated in the uttermost part of the north (Ps 48:2). The etymological argument offered by Walvoord linking Russia with Rosh is also weak. For one thing, the precise translation of the Hebrew term ‘rosh’ is uncertain. Several modern versions render the word as an adjective modifying the word ‘prince’. (*KJV, RSV, and NASB margin have ‘chief prince of Meshech’.) Even conceding that Rosh is a proper name (*The Greek Old Testament supports Rosh as a proper name.) here (as in ASV and NASB), that by no means proves that Rosh is to be identified with Russia. For one thing, hard etymological evidence for this identification is lacking. Rosh is here connected with Meshech and Tubal, now generally accepted as being regions in eastern Anatolia.
Gesenius was making an intelligent guess at the identification of Rosh, but he was writing at a time when Assyrian texts mentioning these places were not available. His etymologies are now generally disregarded. Even the dispensational writer Feinberg rejects the Rosh = Russia identification. (*Feinberg, PE, 220.) A cylinder text of the Assyrian king Sargon mentions a land of Râshi on the Elamite border. The same text speaks of Tabalum (Ezekiel’s Tubal) and the land of Mushki (Ezekiel’s Meshech). (*Luckenbill, ARAB, 2:48.) Could this Râshi be Ezekiel’s Rosh? In any case, the evidence seems to point to Rosh as a region of Anatolia far north of Israel, but far south of Russia. Patrick Fairbairn does perhaps the best work in setting forth the arguments against any literal interpretation of Ezek 38-39. He enumerates six arguments that are here summarized: 1. It is impossible to identify Gog and Magog with any historical person or place. 2. It is improbable that such a conglomerate army as is here described would ever form a military coalition. 3. The size of the invading force is disproportionate to that of Israel or any spoil that they might have derived from Israel. 4. The mind cannot imagine a situation in which it would take seven months to bury slain soldiers, much less the utilization of discarded weapons for seven years as fuel. Fairbairn conservatively estimates that the corpses would have to number over three hundred million. How would any living thing survive the pestilential vapors arising from such a mass of corpses? 5. The gross carnality of the scene is inconsistent with messianic times. 6. This prophecy was the same that had been spoken in old times by the prophets (38:17). While no prophecies concerning Gog and Magog are recorded elsewhere, prophecies of a final assault against God’s people and the miraculous overthrow of the invaders is a constant burden of prophecy. (*Fairbairn, EE, 204-205.)

C. ‘Future Idealistic View’: Since there are no clearly identifiable historical events to which the prophecy can be attached, it is possible that this invasion is yet future. The commentators holding to the future idealistic view would distinguish between what is of primary and what is of secondary significance in the two chapters. The primary significance is that the ruthless enemies of God’s people will attack with the avowed intention of utterly destroying them. God will rescue His people by divine agencies. The secondary or “representative” elements in the two chapters are the place names, the weapons used, the chronological statements and the like. The future idealistic school interprets Ezek 38-39 this way: God’s people will face implacable enemies; the leader of the enemy will not necessarily have the name Gog, nor will he fight with bows and arrows. (*Hall, WBC, 470) By his use of the same names, and a short summary of the same description, the Apostle John has shown that he regarded Ezekiel’s vision as typical, and its fulfillment still future. Thus the commentators holding the future idealistic view see in Ezek 38-39 the final climatic struggle between the forces of good and evil. With the help of God, His people will ultimately be victorious in this struggle.

D. ‘Prophetic Parable View’: The parabolic view of Ezek 38-39 is very popular among conservatives as well as liberals. These chapters illustrate a great truth, but refer to no specific event in time and space. Israel can have assurance from these chapters that, once restored, the power of God would protect her from the worst foe. At the same time, the church can gain strength from this passage in that here is a promise of God’s deliverance from the most severe attacks. Gardiner sets forth this view when he states that . . . there are several clear indications that he did not confine his view in this prophecy to any literal event, but intended to set forth under the figure of Gog and his armies all the opposition of the world to the kingdom of God, and to foretell, like his contemporary Daniel, the final and complete triumph of the latter in the distant future. (*Gardiner, OTC, 352.) Blackwood adds these words: If the passage is apocalyptic, the identity of Gog becomes meaningless. He represents every force of evil that is marshaled against God. It is immaterial whether or not Ezekiel had in mind a historical prototype. (*Blackwood, EPH, 227.) From the more liberal camp Allen writes: The chapters should be treated as an elaborate piece of symbolism, an attempt to portray some of the ultimate problems of human life with the help of figures and incidents borrowed from the repertoire of mythology. (*Allen, IB, pp. 272-274.)
Thus according to this view, Ezek 38-39 speaks of concepts, not events, the clash of ideologies rather than armies. Those who seek to identify Gog with some ancient tyrant, and those who seek here specific predictions of some imminent attack upon the Zionist state of Israel are equally wide of the mark. This apocalypse “deals with every threat to faith in every time and every nation.” (*Blackwood, EPH, 228.) In criticism of the parabolic view, three points need to be made. 1. Many of those holding this view fail to take the oracle as a serious teaching of the word of God. However, within these two chapters, there are seven distinct claims to inspiration. This is a divine revelation and not Ezekiel’s speculations. 2. The parabolic view does not unite the interpretation of these chapters with a real return of God’s people to their land. Yet history records the fulfillment of many items in the background and setting of this prophecy. 3. Those holding this view do a rather poor job of correlating the predictions of Ezekiel with the Gog-Magog prophecy of Rev 20:9.

‘Conclusion’: Ezekiel’s prophecies regarding the invasion of Gog are enigmatic and difficult. Honest and capable expositors will continue to have differences of opinion regarding the specific fulfillment of the prediction. Probably Ezekiel is speaking about a specific event that has not yet transpired. That he employs hyperbole, symbolism and apocalyptic imagery is readily admitted. That the passage has an application to any situation in which God’s people are under trial may also be readily admitted. But that which Ezekiel had in mind was an eschatological event —the final showdown between God’s people and their enemies. }}

{{ Ezekiel 40: God’s Future Temple: (*See R.J. McKelvey, ‘The New Temple’ (London: Oxford, 1981).
The Book of Ezekiel ends as it began, with a vision. In chs 1-3 Ezekiel saw a vision illustrating how God had visited His people in exile; these last chapters depict God dwelling in the midst of His people who have been re-established in their own land. Earlier in vision Ezekiel had seen the departure of the divine glory from the profaned temple (8:1-11:25). In these final chapters, God again dwells in the midst of His temple (43:5). Thus chs 40-48 are not a superfluous appendix to the book, but rather the climax of Ezekiel’s prophetic thought. (*Cf. Rimmon Kasher, “Anthropomorphism, Holiness and Cult: A New Look at Ezekiel 40-48,” ZAW 110 (1998): 192-208.)
In the angelic guided tour of the Zion-to-be, the tedious details are not especially significant. The subject of the closing chapters of Ezekiel is the restitution of the kingdom of God. This theme unfolds in a vision in which are displayed in concrete detail a rebuilt temple, reformed priesthood, reorganized services, restored monarchy, reapportioned territory, and a renewed people. Because chs 40-48 form a veritable continental divide in biblical interpretation, it is necessary first to survey the various approaches that have been taken in interpreting these chapters. This introductory section is followed by a description of the new temple envisioned by Ezekiel.

Interpretation of Ezekiel’s Temple:
The problem of the interpretation of Ezek 40-48 is one of the most difficult in biblical hermeneutics. Three main approaches to these chapters have been taken by scholars: (1) the literal prophetic; (2) the literal futuristic; and (3) the symbolic Christian.
A. ‘The Literal Prophetic View’: According to those who hold to the literal prophetic view of the temple, Ezekiel is here giving the blueprints for the temple that God intended for His people to build upon their return to the Holy Land. Philip Mauro is perhaps the most forceful proponent of this view. He argues: God’s plan had always been to give His people the exact pattern of the sanctuary they were to build for His name . . . . And now again a house was about to be built for the Name of the Lord in Jerusalem. Therefore . . . we should expect to find at this period a revelation from heaven of the pattern to be followed in the building of that house. And just here we do find the revelation from God of the complete pattern and appointments of a temple, with directions to the prophet to show the same to the house of Israel. (*Mauro, HI, 119.) It is sometimes argued against this view that too many details are omitted if Ezekiel intended these chapters to be a set of blueprints. This is certainly true, but it is no less true of the tabernacle specifications given to Moses at Sinai. Plumptre, however, points to a more telling indictment of the literal prophetic view of the temple vision. He points out that: there is no trace in the after history of Israel of any attempt to carry Ezekiel’s ideal into execution. No reference is made to it by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah, who were the chief teachers of the people at the time of the rebuilding of the temple. There is no record of its having been in the thoughts of Zerubbabel, the Prince of Judah, and Joshua the high priest, as they set about that work. No description of the second temple or its ritual in Josephus or the rabbinical writings at all tallies with what we find in these chapters. (*Cited by Whitelaw, PC, xi.) In rebuttal to this line of argument, Mauro points out that: there is no evidence now available as to the plan of the temple built in the days of Ezra. Herod the Great had so transformed it in the days of Christ . . . as to destroy all trace of the original design. That question, however, which we cannot now answer, does not affect the question of the purpose for which the pattern was revealed to Ezekiel. (*Mauro, HI, 121.)

B. ‘The Literal Futuristic View’: Much support in recent years has been given to the Dispensational view, or what might be dubbed the literal futuristic view of Ezekiel’s temple. According to this view, God still has physical Israel very much in His plans. All prophecies pertaining to a glorious future for Israel are to be literally fulfilled in a millennial dispensation that is to follow this present age. Dispensationalists believe that the Jews will one day rebuild the temple in Jerusalem following the specifications given by Ezekiel. The Old Covenant blood sacrifices, festivals and rituals will be restored. The sacrificial offerings will be sacramental, rather than propitiatory, on the order of communion in the church age. Among those holding this position regarding Ezekiel’s temple, the statement of G. L. Archer is typical: Much caution should be exercised in pressing details, but in the broad outline it may be reasonably deduced that in a coming age all the promises conveyed by the angel to Ezekiel will be fulfilled in the glorious earthly kingdom with which the drama of redemption is destined to close. (*Archer, SOTI, 363.) Erich Sauer adds this thought: We stand here really before an inescapable alternative: Either the prophet himself was mistaken in his expectation of a coming temple service, and his prophecy in the sense in which he meant it will never be fulfilled; or God, in the time of the Messiah, will fulfill literally these prophecies of the temple according to their intended literal meaning. There is no other choice possible. (*Sauer, FEE, 181.)
According to Dispensational principles of interpretations, all prophecies pertaining to physical Israel that have not been carnally or materially fulfilled are to be assigned to the millennial age. The Millennium becomes a convenient dumping ground for every prophecy that offers any difficulty. The unhappy result of this procedure is that many prophecies that were fulfilled at the first coming of Christ, or are being fulfilled even now, are relegated to some distant future. This postponement system is popular because it is safe and easy. It is safe because no one can conclusively refute it until the Millennium arrives. It is easy because it requires little spiritual discernment.
The Dispensational view fails to come to grips in any meaningful way with certain basic New Testament principles. The first principle is that the once-for-allness of the sacrifice of Christ nullified all animal sacrifices forever (Heb 10:18). (*For a more recent Dispensational attempt to harmonize animal sacrifices with the sacrifice of Christ, see Jerry Hullinger, “The Problem of Animal Sacrifices in Ezekiel 40-48,” BS 152 (1995): 279-89.) In the light of the argument of Hebrews (7:18-19; 9:6-10; 10:1-9) that the Old Testament sacrificial system was abolished by Christ’s death, it would be impossible to place Ezekiel’s temple in any dispensation subsequent to Calvary, at least if these sacrifices are to be interpreted literally. The Dispensational retort that the animal sacrifices of the millennial temple will be sacramental—a memorial to the sacrifice of Christ —is weak. All five offerings of the Levitical system are mentioned. It is a gratuitous assumption that these sacrifices serve some different function in Ezekiel’s temple than in the Old Testament Levitical system. Still another New Testament principle to which the Dispensationalists fail to do justice is that the heirs of the kingdom are not national Jews (Matt 21:43), but true Jews (Rom 2:28-29), who along with converted Gentiles constitute the new Israel of God (Gal 6:16; 1 Pet 2:9-10). Ezekiel’s temple visions present difficulties of interpretation, as is generally recognized; but whatever they may or may not mean, they certainly afford no support for the doctrine of a political future for the earthly Israel in the period just before and just after “the rapture.” The Dispensational view also fails to come to grips with the reality of God’s present-age temple, the church of Jesus Christ. That temple is real, it is literal; but it is not physical (1 Pet. 2:5; 2 Cor 6:16; Eph 2:13-22).
C. ‘Symbolic Christian View’: Many of the older commentators held that the entire vision of these final chapters was fulfilled symbolically in the gospel age and the Christian church. Much of the symbolism of these chapters has been borrowed by the apostle John in Revelation as he pictures the new Jerusalem, the church in the kingdom of God (Rev 21:9-22:5). As John repaints the picture, he removes all traces of Judaism. Beasley-Murray sets forth this view as follows: The conclusion of Ezekiel’s prophecy, therefore, is to be regarded as a true prediction of the kingdom of God given under the forms with which the prophet was familiar, viz., those of his own (Jewish) dispensation. Their essential truth will be embodied in the new age under forms suitable to the new (Christian) dispensation. How this is to be done is outlined for us in the book of Revelation 21:1-22:5-6. (*Beasley-Murray, NBC, 664.) To this may be added the appropriate comments of Young: It is obvious that the prophet never intended these descriptions to be taken literally. It is clear that he is using figurative or symbolic language. Every attempt to follow out his directions literally leads to difficulty. (*Young, OTI, 264-65) Ezekiel himself may have anticipated that his plans would be carried out to the letter. The real question, however, is not what Ezekiel may have had in his mind, but what the Holy Spirit, who is the ultimate author of this temple vision, intended to convey through these chapters. A literal interpretation of the New Testament teaching regarding Christ’s present-day temple (the church) surely suggests, if not demands, that one view these chapters as preparatory for the establishment of this spiritual, but nonetheless real, worship edifice. The hermeneutical principle involved is this: fullness of promised blessing is here expressed in terms of restorative completeness. The vision, then, must be viewed as strictly symbolical, the symbols employed being the Mosaic ordinances. This is not spiritualization, but realization. In 2 Cor 6:16, Paul is not merely borrowing Old Testament language (Lev 26:12; Exod 29:45; Ezek 37:27); he is proclaiming fulfillment. The material and physical fulfillment of some prophecies does not demand the material and physical fulfillment of all prophecy.
‘Conclusion’: All things considered, the symbolic Christian view of chs 40-48 seems the best alternative. The vision then pertains to the church of Christ upon earth, and perhaps in heaven as well. The prophets of the Old Testament often employed dark speeches and figurative language. They spoke in shadowy forms of the Old Covenant. But they spoke of Christ. Here Ezekiel, in his own unique way is preaching Christ. The temple vision is an elaborate representation of the messianic age. If it be objected that these promises were made to physical Israel, it need only be pointed out that all these promises were conditional (43:9-11). Israel of the flesh did not fulfill the conditions laid down. Hence, these promises (along with all the others) have been forfeited irretrievably. They find their “yea” and their “amen” in Christ (2 Cor 1:20). (*Mauro, HI, 114.) Regardless of the interpretation to which one is inclined, certain great truths are expressed in these chapters: (1) Worship is central in the new age. (2) God dwells in the midst of his people. (3) Blessings flow forth from the presence of God to bring life to the most barren regions of the earth. (4) Responsibilities as well as privileges belong to God’s people in the messianic age.
Why does Ezekiel give such exact details of the plan of the city and the temple? There is no evidence that the measurements of the exalted city contains any spiritual symbolism. Nonetheless, Ezekiel was a preacher, not an architect. In these tedious details, these truths are underscored: 1. The details underscore the reality of the future city and temple. Much religious teaching is unimpressive because it is general and abstract. 2. The details emphasize the definiteness of the future city and temple. The new Jerusalem does not exist in the ephemeral land of clouds. The man with the measuring line helps Israel to understand that the Israel of the future will have a definite shape and a divine design. Man’s ideas are generally hazy; but God’s are definite. 3. The details depict the order that prevails in God’s kingdom. There is a place for everything, and everything is in its place. These chapters stress the principle of 1 Cor 14:40. 4. The details force the conclusion that in God’s kingdom all things are arranged by divine directive. Moses was to make the tabernacle after the pattern shown to him in the mount (Exod 25:40). Ezekiel wrote as a prophet, as a messenger of God. God’s cares for the smallest details of His people’s life and work. We should seek His guidance in these matters. (*These thoughts have been adapted from W.F. Adeney in PC, 2:329.) 5. The details signal the inauguration of a new covenant. At Mount Sinai, God gave Moses similar details for constructing the tabernacle. The old covenant commenced with tedious details of worship and structure. A similar section here, in the midst of discussion of the last days, suggests that God will enter into a new covenant with his people. Ezekiel 40-43 contains the second of three great architectural visions in the Bible. (*The other two architectural visions are (1) Moses’ vision of the tabernacle pattern (Exod 25-30); and (2) John’s vision of the New Jerusalem (Rev 21:9-27). Cf. Susan Niditch, “Ezekiel 40-48 in a Visionary Context,” CBQ 48 (1986): 208-224; Bruce Vawter, “Ezekiel and John,” CBQ 26 (1964): 450-58; Stevem Tuell, “Ezekiel 40-42 as Verbal Icon,” CBQ 58 (1996): 649-64. For the exiles, this temple vision fueled hope. It was a celebration of faith. Ezekiel provided the exiles with the raw material that permitted them mentally to visit the temple. }}
(13) Numerical Bible Ezekiel: The Numerical Bible, Being a Revised Translation of the Holy Scriptures With Expository Notes: Arranged, Divided, and Briefly Characterized According to the Principles of Their Numerical Structure, by Frederick W Grant. New York. Loizeaux Brothers, Bible Truth Depot. (1903, 1930) “Ezekiel: The Text of the whole book and the Notes on Chaps. 1 to 37 by the late F. W. Grant. Notes on Chaps. 38 to 48, with a Historical Chart of the Prophets, Plans illustrating the Temple, and the Future Division of the Land, by J. Bloore.”

{{ Preface: “This book was F. W. G.’s last labor, showing as Mr. Ridout has said, no less brilliant work than his previous volumes. He completed the text, but in compiling his Notes laid down his pen at the 38th chapter, at the threshold of the city which he longed to enter. From that point Mr. Bloore has ably taken up the Notes, which point out the great lesson which the temple and the holy city with their precise measurements are intended to impress upon the people of God: “Show the house, that they may be ashamed of their iniquities; and let them measure the pattern.” It brings to a focus the continued repetition through the prophecy to each nation of the purpose of God’s dealings with them: “They shall know that I am the Lord……That years have passed since the Notes were written has not lessened their value, but rather added to it, for Ezekiel speaks of eternal and unchanging principles, and time has only brought us nearer to their full display. Since Mr. Grant laid down his pen momentous changes have taken place in the countries that once formed part of the old Roman Empire, and the stage is set for the fulfilment of Ezekiel’s later prophecies, as Mr. Bloore has shown in his Notes on the land. We are living in days when History is rapidly being made, days when events are occurring whose result is foretold in Ezekiel’s prophecy, and which make such books as the present one so interesting to every student of Scripture. People desire to know the future; in the prophets it is unfolded for them, written by the Holy Spirit. We place the pages of Ezekiel beside the History of the World and trace what has been fulfilled of the prophecies. Kingdoms and nations have passed away, leaving such memorials of the glory that has been that remind us most of their ruin, for they belong to man’s day and his glory. Ezekiel directs our attention to this, for God’s judgments fall upon the nations, and the glory of man is humbled to the dust. But another glory has filled the prophet’s vision. His book opens with the description of “the brightness of the likeness of the glory of Jehovah;” he speaks of that glory departing from Israel, yet lingering as though loth to go; but the closing sentence of the book shows, “The glory of God did lighten it, and the Lamb is the light thereof.” This is the glory that abides, nevermore to be removed. —E. F.” }}
{{ Scope & Divisions of Ezekiel: “Ezekiel, as the third of the greater prophets, most evidently fills
this place. His prophecy is as much related to Jeremiah on the one side as it is to Daniel on the other. Jeremiah sees the historical breaking of the link between God and His people —”Lo-ammi ” written upon them; while Ezekiel is already among the captives, and enters in detail into the causes of the terrible breach. The prophet’s name, “the Mighty One makes strong” or “firm,” is characteristic of the book, there being a manifest application of it at the outset, where God giving him his charge against a people “hard of brow and stiff of heart,” declares that He has made his face hard against their faces, and his forehead hard against their foreheads. This implies not merely the strengthening necessary for his difficult position, but much more the attitude of Jehovah Himself towards them. The prophet with his message of wrath is indeed Ben-Buzi, “the child of my contempt,” as God would declare with regard to him. They have treated Jehovah with the scorn which He must now needs recompense in judgment……Thus with a people such as Israel have manifested themselves to be, judgment must have its course. Judgment is therefore largely the theme here, though the end is grace…….Judgment has however in Ezekiel a peculiar character. It is not upon the great final judgment (upon which the eyes of the other prophets are so fixed) that Ezekiel dwells; although at the close we do in measure find this; but a nearer one, executed by the hands of men —of Nebuchadnezzar as the main instrument of it —whether upon Israel or upon the surrounding nations. Nebuchadnezzar introduces us, as we know, to a new period, which it is the part of Daniel fully to bring before us, “the times of the Gentiles” —of Gentile supremacy over Israel— and which lasts during the whole time of God’s indignation against her. In Ezekiel we have not this as yet, but the preliminary clearing of the field upon which the new world-empires are ready to display themselves. Thus the judgment is not simply upon Israel, although in the first place there: the nations round come under it, and Nebuchadnezzar for thus executing it is awarded compensation (chap. 29:18-20)…… The divisions of the book are therefore manifest: In the 1st Div. (Chaps, 1-24) Israel’s rebellion is brought into the presence of Jehovah’s unchangeable righteousness. God Himself appears, as it were, to plead His cause against a rebellious people; and Israel is brought into the light of the awful Presence, every detail of her wanderings perfectly exposed. Div. 2 (Chap, 25-32) gives the judgment at the same time upon the surrounding nations, the enemies of the people of God as such, while —Div. 3 (Chaps, 33-48) gives the prophetic history of Israel’s resurrection and restoration.” }}
{{ Notes: Subdivision 1: “…..The opening verses, as an introduction to the whole book, should be of
the deepest significance. As we look at them, at first they may seem but a mere record of dates and places; but we may be sure that underneath we shall find a true Introduction, every word of which bears upon that which is to follow. It is thus only that we can read these scriptures aright when we willingly pass over nothing, assured that everywhere the word of God will vindicate itself as that, and that to make one word from the divine mouth idle, is the insult of unbelief to Him who speaks in it. There is a studied emphasis here, manifestly put upon that which we might overlook. This 30th year, this 4th month, this 5th day of the month, are manifestly specifications full of purpose. The 30th year is, no doubt, as it is generally considered, the year of the prophet. It was the period at which the priest entered upon his office; it was the year in which it pleased Christ, Himself the true Priest, to begin His public ministry. This 30th year has in it as one of its factors that number 5 which we shall find accompanying us remarkably through the book: We have thus the 5th day, the 5th year of Jehoiachin’s captivity. “Five is the number of man in relation to God. It is the number, therefore, which speaks of responsibility under His government, and that is most suited in the book of Ezekiel. Yet we must not forget that there is another side to it, and that the weak with the strong, the 4 + 1, we have found many times to speak of Immanuel. The New Testament is thus a 5th Pentateuch, and of what does it speak? Certainly the burden of its message is not responsibility, but the blessed way in which the weakness of humanity and the strength of Deity have come together in the Person revealed.” }}

Ezekiel: (Chapters 1-48):
Division 1 (Chaps, 1-24): Israel’s rebellion brought into the presence of Jehovah’s unchangeable righteousness.

Subdivision 1 (Chaps, 1-7): The charge given to the prophet.
Section 1 (Chap, 1): Jehovah the Almighty Whom all creation, all events, harmoniously obey.

Subdivision 2 (Chap, 8-19): Conviction of the sin for which the glory leaves the city.
Section 1 (Chaps, 8-11): The shepherd’s rod becomes a rod of iron.
Section 2 (Chaps. 12-15): The judgments in detail.
Section 3 (Chap. 16): Jerusalem’s profanation of her marriage covenant, yet final restoration.
Section 4 (Chap. 17): The mercy to an abased kingdom; yet its failure.
Section 5 (Chap, 18): The righteous ways of God.
Section 6 (Chap. 19): The victories of the Gentiles over the line of David, so that under them Israel
never obtains her hope.

Subdivision 3 (Chaps, 20-24): The full exposure of the people’s sin, the heart laid bare.
Section 1 (Chap. 20:1-44). Rebellion from the beginning hitherto, though still God’s purpose as to
them abides.
Section 2 (Chaps, 20:45-21:32). The sword upon the righteous & the wicked.
Section 3 (Chap. 22). The corruption in Jerusalem manifest.
Section 4 (Chap, 23). Yielding themselves to the world.
Section 5 (Chap. 24). The judgment reached.

Division 2: (Chaps, 25-32): The judgment upon the Gentile enemies.
Section 1 (Chap. 25:1-11). Ammon-Moab, one in descent, in sin, & retribution. Their land given to the sons of the East.
Section 2 (Chap. 25:12-14). Edom the unbrotherly enemy; the Lord’s vengeance for his vengeance.
Section 3 (Chap. 25:15-17). The Philistines under ban.
Section 4 (Chaps, 26-28). Tyre & Sidon, the world of mammon under the abasing hand of God.
Section 5 (Chaps, 29-32). Egypt: the abasement of creature-pride for ever before God.

Division 3 (Chaps, 33-48): Resurrection & Restoration.

Subdivision 1 (Chaps, 33-37): Jehovah acting from & for Himself.
Section 1 (Chaps. 33,34) The opening of the prophet’s mouth.
Section 2 (Chap, 35) The enemy answered.
Section 3 (Chaps, 36,37). Restoration and reorganization.

Subdivision 2 (chaps, 38,39): Salvation fully realized through Jehovah’s Judgment of Israel’s last enemy
Section I. (chap, 38:1-7) The leaders in this final conflict.
Section 2. (chap, 38:8-13) The evil designs of the enemy
Section 3 (chap, 38:14-23) The revelation of Jehovah to the nations in the judgment of Gog. (See Note below.)
Section 4. (chap, 39:1-7) Creature impotence: the overthrow of the proud foe.
Section 5. (chap, 39:8-16) Almighty strength: the glory brought to Israel through its exercise.
Section 6. (chap, 39:17-21) The mighty a prey.
Section 7. (chap, 39:22-29) The perfect completion of God’s ways with His people

(Subdivision 3. (chaps. 40-48). The Glory dwelling in the Restored Land. The principal subjects are:
The new Temple buildings, the entry of Jehovah into the House, the great altar, and the service of consecration (chaps. 40-43). The ordinances regarding the personnel of the Sanctuary —priests and Levites (chap. 44). The ordinances regarding the provision for the priests, Levites, and Prince, with his special responsibility to provide for the ritual in the Temple (chaps. 45: 1-17). The ordinances regarding special and daily services in the Temple —the feasts, sabbaths, new moons, and offerings of the Prince (chaps. 45: 18-46: 24). The river issuing from the Temple (chap. 47: 1-12). The boundaries of the holy land, and the privileges granted to strangers who sojourn among the tribes (chap. 47: 13-23). The divisions of the land (chap. 48))

Subdivisions 3. (Chaps, 40-48): The Glory dwelling in the Restored Land.
Section 1 (Chaps, 40,41). The “Sanctuary, the holy of holies,”* where the glory will dwell.
1. (40: 1-4) The occasion of the vision. (1-3) The time, place, and communicator. (4) The eyes, ears, and heart to be engaged. The testimony to be given.
2. (40: 5-47) The Gates and Courts: the precincts of the House.
1. (5-27) The first court: the place of genera] assemblage. (5) The wall. (6-16) The Eastern Gate.
(17-19) Chambers, Pavement, and measurement of Court. (20-23) The Northern Gate. (24-27) The Southern Gate.
2. (28-46). The inner court: and its gateways: the place of separation for priestly service. (28-31) The Southern Gate. (32-34) The Eastern Gate. (35-37) The Northern Gate. (38-43) Chambers for washing the burnt-offering. Four tables for slaying the burnt, sin, and trespass offerings. Eight tables for the sacrifices. Four tables for the instruments. Double hooks for sacrificial purposes. (44-46) Chambers for the priests, keepers of the charge of the House, and keepers of the charge of the
altar.
3. (47) The Altar: the divine centre.
3. (40:48—41:4). The House itself into which the visible glory shall enter.
1. (40: 48,49) The porch.
2. (41: 1,2) The holy place.
3. (41:3,4) The most holy.
4. (41:5-11). The chambers around the House: the encompassment of divine fulness realized through accomplished creative sovereignty (3x10x3, 90 chambers in all). (5-7) Their construction and relation to the house. (8) The elevation of 6 cubits. (9-11) Adjacent spaces and way of entrance to chambers.
5. (41:12-14) The separate place: God in government maintaining holiness, according to the fulness of the divine measure (10×10). (12) The building to the west. (13, 14) The two squares of 100 cubits each occupied by the two previously described buildings. (a)—The house, 100 cubits long. (b)—The separate place (20 cubits), and the building(80 cubits), total, 100 cubits,
(c)—The breadth of the house, 60 cubits, with the separate place, 20 cubits on each side, making the total breadth at the east end of these two squares 100 cubits.
6. (41:15-26) Interior details: symbolic of Messianic triumph.
1. (15-21) General character: all established by measure in glory and righteousness.
2. (22) The altar of wood: fellowship.
3. (23-26) The doors: the manner of entrance. The doors: the manner of entrance. Porch entrance, 14 cubits=7×2. Temple entrance, 10 ” =5×2. Entrance to the Holy of Holies, …. 6 ” =3×2.

Section 2. (chap. 42). The arrangements provided to preserve the service of the Sanctuary in separation from defilement.
1. (1-12) The chambers before the separate place.
2. (13-14) The purposes served by these chambers.
3. (15-20) The established separation of the whole sacred enclosure.

Section 3. (chap. 43). The glory of Jehovah filling the House.
1. (1-12) The place of the throne, glorious in majesty and holiness.
1. (1-6) The glory itself.
2. (7-11) The place of the throne —the seat of government.
3. (12) The mount of holiness.
2. (13-17) The altar —the place of sacrifice.
3. (18-27) The offerings at the sanctification of the altar & the priests —the place of worship.
(Note, The people and their riders are reproved and corrected, 7-11).

Section 4. (chap. 44). Regulations concerning those who minister in the Sanctuary.
1. (1-3) The supremacy of Jehovah: regulations regarding the Eastern gate, & the Prince’s privilege to use it.
2. (4-14) The judgment & holiness which become His House: regulations regarding service in keeping the gates, & slaying the sacrifices; those who shall not be permitted to serve, & the Levites who are to minister in these ways, with the reason for their exclusion from the priesthood.
3. (15-31) The priests: the features of their place and portion as sanctified unto Jehovah. They minister at the altar, are to be only sons of Zadok; their garments, their marriage, their service as teachers and judges, their preservation from defilement, their maintenance, are subjects of regulation.
(Note, The people, Levites & priests are reproved & corrected, 6-13).
1. Regulations regarding their place & service in the Sanctuary.
i. Their sacred charge (ver. 15a).
ii. Their holy service in this charge (vers. 15b, 16).
iii. Their holy garments (vers. 17-19).
2. Regulations regarding their habits & relationships.
i. Their hair —moderation, no extremes (ver. 20).
ii. Their abstinence —sobriety (ver. 21).
iii. Their marriage —purity (ver. 22).
3. Regulations regarding their service toward the people.
i. Their work of teaching (ver. 23).
ii. Their work of judgment (ver. 24a).
iii. Their responsibility to observe & care for the order of divine worship (ver. 24b).
4. Regulations regarding their separation from defilement.
i. As to the dead (vers. 25-27).
ii. As to inheritance (ver. 28).
iii. As to their food (vers. 29-31).

Section 5 (chaps. 45,46). Divine government exercised in the apportionment of the land, & the establishment of ordinances for worship & service.
1. (45:1-8) The division of the land in which the Lord’s claim is given first place. The portion for the priests.. .25,000 x 10,000
The portion for the Levites. .25,000 x 10,000 \ 25,000 x 25,000.
The portion for the City 25,000 x 5,000.
The portion for the Prince…
2. (45: 9-12) Justness in practical dealings required by Him whose ways are full of mercy & truth. Regulations as to weight, measure, & coinage.
3. (45:13-46:15). The materials for, & the order of, worship.
1. (13-17) The gifts of the people: these are rendered to the Prince whose charge is to provide for the sacrifices.
2. (18-25) The yearly feasts.
(a) The offerings to cleanse & atone for the House.
(b) The Passover & feast of unleavened bread,
(c) The feast of tabernacles.
3. (46:1-7) The sabbaths & new moons.
4. (8-10) The manner of entrance and exit.
5. (11) The regulation as to the meal-offering.
6. (12) The Prince’s free-will offering.
7. (13-15) The daily burnt-offering.
4. (46:16-18) Warning against oppression.
5. (19-24) Guarding the holy things.
(Note, Princes are reproved and corrected, 45: 8-12 and 46: 16-18).
(Note the prominence of the Prince throughout this section).

Section 6. (chap. 47:1-12). The victory over curse. The waters of continual refreshment & blessing flowing forth from the Temple.

Section 7. (chaps. 47: 13—48: 35). The perfect land, for “the Lord is there.”
1. (47: 13-21) The boundaries of the land.
2. (22,23) Care for the stranger.
3. (48: 1-7) The tribes north of the sacred oblation.
4. (8-22) The sacred oblation: the universal centre of glory, government, & worship.
5. (23-29) The tribes south of the sacred oblation.
6. (30-35) The gates of the city.
7. (35) The name of the city: Jehovah Shammah: Jehovah is there.

{{ (Note to Section 3, chap. 38:14-23: “This gathering of armies to besiege Jerusalem cannot be those of the western or revived Roman empire to which Rev. 19 refers, for that power is allied to and would support the Willful King against whom the King of the North comes in his whirlwind campaign. The nations then of which Zechariah and Joel speak are those to the north and east of the “pleasant land.” They are the enemies of the Willful King and the Western confederacy which supports him —the false Messiah in the Land. Keeping this in mind, and remembering that God is working at this time to bring all these forces together for judgment at the Lord’s appearing, a thought suggests itself as to what tidings reached the King of the North when in the vicinity of Egypt. May they not be the news of the gathering hosts of the Western powers coming into Palestine to effect the cutting off of his return to the north, thus severing his communications from the rear, purposing then to strike one final blow which will decide the question of world-supremacy once for all in favor of the Beasts of Rev. 13, which are the instruments of Satanic power and policy? Putting together with this the prophecy of Rev. 16, we learn that this mighty host will gather at Har-Mageddon, identified as the plain of Esdraelon, which lies across the path of travel through Palestine between the north and the south.*Tidings of such movements may well explain Dan. 11:44, and the northern leader commences his return, likewise determined to strike the blow which will place in his hand the coveted world-supremacy. ) (*At the seaward end of this notable plain is situated the Bay of Acre, the line of which stretches from Haifa to Acre, or Acco. Perhaps it is of more than passing interest to note that the American Zion Commonwealth has purchased 15,000 acres of land right along the shore and back, covering a very fertile section; and that the Commonwealth is undertaking a great development of this vast sea frontage, making a new channel to the sea for the River Kishon, and preparing to establish important industries with garden cities lying back from the sea, around what will be soon the greatest port of the Mediterranean, as a high British official has declared. The Palestinian Government is to spend millions to make a genuine harbor at Haifa. It is just such extensive developments which would be needful for the assembling of the vast forces of the Roman empire upon this great plain, for it is natural to suppose that they will be gathered from many parts of the ten-kingdom confederacy, and transported under naval convoy to the shores of Palestine. Already 5 00 miles of railroad connect this bay and its harbor facilities with different parts of the Land, including Jerusalem and reaching as far south as Beer-sheba. At Haifa, where at the close of the world-war (1918) there were only 3,000 inhabitants, ten years after (1928) there were 13,000. For centuries this town has been at a standstill, but now it pulsates with life, and under the urge of industrial enterprise the mountains are being cut through and the sea front developed to meet the demands of the projects in view.) }}

{{ References to Outline Plan:
1.-Outer Wall around Court ( ch. 40: 5). 2.-Outer Court, its details ( ch. 40:6-27).
3.-East Gate of Outer Court (ch. 40:6-16).
4.-Cells and Pavement around the Outer Court arranged on three sides in groups of five on each side of the Gate Buildings (ch. 40:17-19).
5.-North Gate of Outer Court (ch. 40:20-23).
6.-South Gate of Outer Court (ch. 40:24-27).
7.-South Gate of Inner Court (ch. 40:28-31).
8.-East Gate of Inner Court (ch. 40:32-34).
9.-North Gate of Inner Court ( ch. 40:35-37).
10.-Cell for washing the Burnt Offering near North Gate (text does not definitely fix the location) (ch. 40:38).
11.-Sacrificial Tables connected with the North Gate. These are placed in the Porch of the Gate & adjacent to its ascent (ch. 40:39-43).
12.-Cells for the priests who are keepers of the charge of the House & the Altar (text does not definitely fix the location except that they are said to be outside the Inner Gate, in the Inner Court (ch. 40:44-46).
13.-The Altar (ch. 40:47). For its dimensions: see ch. 43:13-17.
14.-Porch of the House (ch. 40:48,49).
15.-The Temple itself, Holy & Most Holy Places, the side Chambers & the separate place (ch. 41:1-11).
16.-The Building to the west of the House, & summary of the principal measurements ( ch. 41:12-15) .
17.-The Cell Building on the northside of the separate place (ch. 42:1-9).
18.-The Cell Building on the southside of the separate place* (ch. 42:10-14). (•Note: The text describing these two buildings are difficult to interpret, and in certain features obscure. The general location is clear, and this is indicated on the plan; but the actual arrangement of the several parts presents a problem to which a really satisfactory solution is hard to find.)
19.-Cooking Places for the Priests located at the west of the Cell Buildings devoted to their use: see 17 & 18 (ch. 46:19,20).
20.-Cooking Places for the Sacrifices of the People (ch. 46:21-24). }}

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Christian Biblical Reflections.29

(Christian Biblical Reflections.29. Here is submission or part 29 of CBR, pages 271-320 , of the Book of Ezekiel. mjmselim. Dec. 2019.)
Here is the Link in my OneDrive to the Adobe, Word 635, & WordPad files of the completed Major Prophets Chapter IV. These files will show the original format of the work, which is not able to be replicated in WordPress. I have also put the two files, pdf & word of volume 1 in the folder. In Ezekiel of have used the colored texts more frequent than in Isaiah or Jeremiah, as very helpful to follow the prophetic word of the Son of Man. I have again gone through the chapter to correct errors. I had circulated a few weeks ago a Chronological Chart of 100 years to answer I question sent to me; that chart I fond later had many errors, and some of a serious kind; they are corrected in this completed work. I encourage those who I sent the chart to replace it with what is in this work.
I tried to complete the work by December 7th, my 50th year in Christ. I expect to finish Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets (Chapter V, the last chapter of the Old Testament Books) within 3 months. If my health permits in the will & grace of God I would like to finish the entire New Testament within 6 months after chapter 5. I have again altered my style in Ezekiel as a necessity. I have tried to limit any speculative comments or views from this Book.

CBR files in PDF & Word:
https://1drv.ms/u/s!AgcwUEJ0moRUg_Ua3IHBwOxi9NWARA?e=2b3BsD

Here is the link to my Internet Archive.org library page for those interested:
https://archive.org/details/@mikemjm

 

Reflections on the Book of EZEKIEL & Summary of the Three Major Prophets:

It’s been a long journey to complete the Book of Ezekiel in our Reflections. I almost doubted if I would complete this 4th Chapter of Isaiah with Jeremiah & Ezekiel. I again found myself adapting to this new style of prophecy in Ezekiel, as I had to yield to that of Jeremiah, and Isaiah before him. I would be pleased if I am allowed to live to complete the Old Testament as the 5th Chapter of Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets, this completing one of the two Divine Hands of the Bible, namely the Old Testament, or the Hebrew Covenant, the TaNaKh. I almost feared the fate of Calvin & Grant (see the Selections) who both died leaving their work on the Book of Ezekiel unfinished. It is no longer certain if I might see the completion of the 3rd volume of Christian Biblical Reflections of the New Testament, the Christian Covenant, the 2nd Divine Hand of the Bible with focus on the 5 Key Books. But I do rejoice that on the 7th of this month I reached my 50th year in Christ, to Whom & for whom we owe all.
Ezekiel is dependent on Jeremiah and those before him; Jeremiah was contingent on Isaiah; Isaiah continued from the Poetical Books, especially David’s Psalms which King Hezekiah with Isaiah’s ministry completed in the form we now have. The 3 Major Prophets advanced from the Poetical & Historical Books; Isaiah on the Psalms & Deuteronomy. Genesis is the historical foundation for the God’s work in man, and as such the Law of Moses is built on that Foundation of God’s creation, His judgments, and His salvation of humanity, and of focus on His chosen & called people, the Israelites. We have from Genesis to Jeremiah drawn attention to these matters for the reader & believer, so we will not linger on those things at this moment. The Major Prophets are preparatory to Daniel & the Minor Prophets as the consummation & conclusion to the old dispensation, and the inauguration of the new economy & testament. The Intertestamental period, books, & history are transitional from the old to the new, and are of secondary but essential importance or value. The Major Prophets present a triple picture of the same thing; in like manner as the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew – Mark – Luke), being distinct from John’s Gospel; and so Daniel if added to the Major Prophets, is distinct from them. The names Isaiah & Jeremiah is related to Jehovah or Yah, whereas Ezekiel & Daniel is with Elohim or El. They all deal with the same message & vision, namely of God’s creation, judgment & salvation in relations to Israel & the Gentiles. We need to examine the Book of Ezekiel based on our previous digest & paraphrase, our targum, of the Text as presented above. The reader is encouraged to read & reflect on the Selections that we have added to the Reflections.

The Prophet-Priest Ezekiel, who will be introduced to us the Son of Man throughout the entire Book, which is a unique designation of his prophetic ministry, with important Messianic meaning. Though a Priest he is called to be a Prophet as a significant indicator of Israel’s state. Though Jeremiah was also of the priest family & tribe, he is no-where called a priest, but repeatedly ‘the Prophet’; whereas Ezekiel is called both Priest & Prophet, and as we said a moment ago, Son of Man. When he was about 25 years of age he was taken to Babylon, in the 11th year of Judah’s King Jehoiakim’s reign, which was the 8th year of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Daniel & his Hebrew companions had been now 7 years in Babylon. It’s important for us to note that Ezekiel & Daniel were contemporaries in the Captivity (with some overlapping of Jeremiah with them, since Jeremiah was some 45 years old when they were born, and his prophetic ministry lasted till the beginning of the Babylonian Captivity when they were in their twenties), unlike Jeremiah & Isaiah, who were separated by 4 generations (80 years). He is married at his calling & the 1st Vision; but no children are mentioned, as in Isaiah. King Jehoiachin was enthroned at the death of Jehoiakim in his 11th year, now five years later, Ezekiel is shown the Visions of God’s Glory.
The Vision of the 4 Living Creatures as 1 Living Creature with a Human form composed of Animals, or the Human-like Creature with the 4 faces of creatures of the creation, of man, lion, ox, & eagle. The details, the description, the appearance is a unique picture of a composite creature not seen before or after. Their movement is unique, energized by the Spirit of Life; their 16 faces & 16 wings defies our imagination; their wings & wheels & eyes are mysterious. But above the Living Creatures’ heads was a vision of a Man in splendor of fiery brightness & rainbow effulgence. This vision is said: “This was the appearance of the likeness of the Glory of Jehovah”. We must note that the Living Creatures are not here called Cherubim or Cherubs, later in chapter 10 Ezekiel will tell us they are Cherubim, or if you wish, Cherubims. If we wonder what this Vision is & what it means we must read on & look back, for it is all connected. After being shocked at the Vision, he hears the Lord’s Voice, and surely this is the Man enthroned above the Living Creatures or Cherubim. The Voice reveals to Ezekiel that the Nation of Israel, the Lord’s People, are a Rebellious House, and have continued in rebellion for generations. The Lord will attempt another time to recall them to Himself in obedience through the prophetic ministry of the Prophet Ezekiel as the Son of Man. To do this Ezekiel has the Spirit within to strengthen him, but he needs the food for that energy to operate; so he is given the Book or Scroll to eat, which will become his prophetic message of lamentations, mourning, & woe from the Lord to His People, though the word was sweet as honey in his mouth, but bitter in his stomach. The Book will continue to unfold as the third essential development of the Divine Purpose & Desire: as we have said: the Land, the Man, & the Book.
The Lord had reached a point with Israel that He was almost certain that the nation would not heed this call of repentance, even in their Captivity. In fact He stated that the Gentiles, of a strange speech, would more readily hear & heed the message than the Jews; as in the case of Nineveh or Persia. In the Exile & Captivity in Babylon, scattered throughout the empire, the Jews were to learn from their punishment the full meaning of their disobedience & violations against the Lord and His Covenant, as it was described in Deuteronomy, the which was only a generation ago re-discovered & re-covenanted in the 18th year of Judah’s King Josiah. Yet by the time King Josiah died in battle, in the middle of Jeremiah’s prophetic ministry the nation was reverting back to their perpetual rebellion. Now 10 years later Ezekiel is sent to reason with them, as did Isaiah; or plead with them, as did Jeremiah; but to no avail. So the Lord, in Ezekiel as the Watchman to the House of Israel, attempts anew with the prophetic call to His People in their Captivity, to preserve them till the judgment was finished, and the time came for their restoration. A dispensational responsibility was committed to Ezekiel as the Son of Man in order that the Divine Testimony to the world in the Gentiles might be made sure & clear, of which Daniel would take up in a fuller way. The Prophet would encounter rejection like the prophets before him, he would be persecuted; in this suffering he must seek to faithful to the Lord, as well as to stay alive. The nation in their leaders from kings, princes, nobles, priests, prophets, scribes, & scholars, all contributed to the Rebellious House, for which the Jews were now in Exile & Captivity.
To illustrate the pending doom, and the state leading to it, the Prophet, as Son of Man, must a Sign & living Parable to the nation. Jerusalem will be besieged & destroyed as retributive justice in order that some might be rehabilitated. The Prophet must lay on one side for 390 days, then on the other side for 40 days, he is to enact symbolically the siege of Jerusalem, he is not to turn from side to side, and must prepare his own limited bread and provide a limited amount of water for the entire 390 days, which he is told represents 390 years, and the 40 days is 40 years. He must cook it in an unclean manner, to which as a priest he objected, so cow’s dung was allowed in place of human dung (feces, shit). The 390 days of years is the period from the Divided Kingdom of King Jeroboam the 1st of Israel’s 10 tribes, who rebelled against the House of David over excessive taxes; and King Rehoboam of Judah, with Benjamin and the Tribe of Levi, who was an unwise son of Solomon, in his refusal to address the grievance of the people. The 40 days of years is the remaining years of the Captivity before the restoration. The limited bread & water is the experience of suffering for the Jews in Exile & Captivity. Another sign is given to them in Ezekiel, as Son of Man, shaving off his hair & beard, dividing it into 3 parts and in 3 acts of burning, striking, & scattering, to show & testify of the Divine Retribution for their abominable crimes against the Lord, against His Covenant, & His Sanctuary. But His justice & righteousness is fair, and seasoned with mercy, ready to change His Heart & Mind at the least sign of genuine repentance.
The Prophet continues in warning the People as a faithful Watchman. The Land of Israel & Judah will not be spared in the invasion of the coming power. The idolatry & immorality committed everywhere & in every form will be abolished. Though a Remnant will survive, it will be in fear, shame, & hiding. The Lord at any time could & would reverse or alter or mitigate the disaster soon to occur; but His People refuse; so in turn He must vindicate Himself, His Name, His Word, His Promises, and all that He involved Himself in with Israel & Judah. Ezekiel was called in King Jehoiachin’s 5th year of Captivity, the next date recorded is the 6th year, which we must believe to follow from the 5th year, so understand this is the 6th year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity in Babylon, still regarded by God & man as the rightful heir to the Throne of Judah & Jerusalem. God was still dealing with Israel in relations to its headship, despite the vassal King appointed by the Babylonian King to sit on the Throne in Jerusalem, namely Jehoiachin’s uncle Mattaniah, renamed by the Babylonian King, Zedekiah. Once King Zedekiah was killed, Jehoiachin continued to be the rightful regal heir to David’s Throne, a King in exile, the Davidic Kingdom in suspension or abeyance. The lawful or rightful King from Zedekiah to the present has never succeeded (and that includes John Hyrcanus the Maccabean (Priest-King) or King Herod 1st, the Great, the Idumean, client-king of Rome), since Judah & Israel have become Lo-Ammi, a non-people to the Lord. Nor is the Kingdom or the Throne abolished by God, put all is pending a dispensational change yet to be manifest & realized.

Ezekiel was at home, visiting him were Judah’s Elders, the Lord also decides to visit him. The Prophet’s Vision was of that Effulgent & Radiant Man of Burning Splendor enthroned above the Living Creatures that he saw in the Plain near the River Chebar. Here the Lord of Glory appears to judge the Elders & Leaders, the Priesthood & Monarchy. He was in spirit, in the ‘visions of God’, by the Lord transported to Jerusalem, while the Elders in his home was sitting there wondering. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, look toward the north and see at the entrance of the gate of the Altar this Image of Jealousy. Again, Son of Man, see their deeds; the great abominations Israel’s House do, that I should desert My Sanctuary?’ The Lord leads the Son of Man through Jerusalem’s Temple & City, showing him the abominations, idolatry, & violence in offence & insult to the Lord for which reason He must destroy them, and abandoned His House. The Lord must go deeper. He turns the Prophet’s attention to a slaughter of the Jews at the Altar, led by a Man clothed in white linen, with a writer’s inkhorn, a scribal pen at His side. The Glory of the God of Israel moved from above the Cherub to the House’s doorway. The Lord instructed the Man with the inkhorn to go through Jerusalem and mark those who are visibly repentant, the other men who carried weapons of slaughter were told to follow Him in Jerusalem, beginning at God’s Sanctuary, and slaughter anyone & everyone without pity who are not marked as repentant; and defile Jerusalem with the corpses. Ezekiel shocked at the massacre, prostrate pleaded to the Lord; the Lord tells him that the nation, both Israel & Judah, have done this very thing in the Land in defiance to the Lord, and He must punish them with their own ways & deeds. This was a horrific visual vision for the Prophet to see & relate to Leaders & Elders of Judah. We are being trained by the Word to understand the nature of prophetic visions & divine prophecy, both as to what the prophet saw & heard & experienced in spirit & mind. The Spirit of God operating in such a way to bring Ezekiel into spiritual things of a spiritual world. All prophecy is of such nature, though the methods & messages may change. False prophecy seeks to imitate this in a poor & bizarre way.
The Prophet sees another Vision of the Throne above the Cherubim, from which the linen clothed Man to retrieve from below the Cherub burning-coals in His Hands to sprinkle over the City of Jerusalem. Ezekiel continued to see in visions a spectacular picture revealed to Him of God’s Glory & His Movements, which we will also be awestruck in contemplating what is written. The sound of the Cherubs’ wings was as the Voice of God, Shaddai, when He speaks. In the describing the 4 faces of the Cherub, three are repeated as in the 1st Vision, human, lion, & eagle; but the Ox is not named, but instead it says: ‘1st was of Cherub (ox-shaped, calf-like, bull-form)’This informs us that the distinct (I was about to write ‘natural’) face of a Cherub is ox-like, which is often overlooked by so many for so long. The entire Vision of the Cherubim or Living Creatures is that of Creation as it pertains to Judgment & Salvation. The Spirit then transported the Prophet in spirit to East Gate of Jehovah’s House, showing him the Remnant who refuse the Words of Jeremiah as to submission to & cooperation with the King of Babylon, but they are determined to save themselves in the sins & disobedience. So the Lord must reduce the Remnant to a smaller Remnant in His judgment on the nation. The City is a large Kettle and they are the meat being boiled. Again in shock at the vision he prostrates pleading with the Lord concerning the Remnant. The Lord’s Word to him was that the Remnant will survive even after full judgment, that they will be restored & renewed after their repentance, that they will live with God in a New Covenant. At that point: ‘The Cherubim raised their wings, the wheels beside them; and God’s Glory was above them. Jehovah’s Glory moved out of the City and stood on the mountain east of the City’. ‘The Spirit raised him, transported him in the Vision by God’s Spirit to the Captivity Remnant in Chaldea. The Vision vanished. Ezekiel related to the Captivity Remnant Jehovah’s Visions’.
The Son of Man lives in a House of Rebels, estranged from God. The Lord instructs him to act out a scene of the departing exiles, with a few stuff, trying to escape by the night. This signifies & illustrates the Prince in Jerusalem (King Zedekiah), and the Remnant of the Jews with him will be exiled in shame & confusion, taken to Babylon to be killed. The nearby nations in their small bands that helped the Jews will likewise be punished in their resistance to Babylon. Yet the Lord will spare a Remnant to survive unto Himself & and a testimony to the Gentiles concerning their crimes. The end is a desolate Land of her people. The word & vision is sure, and it will now quickly be executed to its fulfillment.
The false prophets are a primary cause for the state of things with the Jewish Remnant, telling them the Lord says everything is OK, that it will soon be over, that peace is at hand. They are like builders who cheapen their work by untempered mortar, by falsification of the quality of their material. These daubers are deceiving the Lord’s People, destroying the Jews, and encouraging the Remnant to persist in their sins of idolatry, wickedness, and immorality. But soon they will be shut up for good.
The Lord then opens the eyes of the Son of Man, in the 7th year of Jehoiakim’s Captivity, to see the Elders of Judah seeking from the Prophet what he’s seen & heard from the Lord, yet in their heart set in idolatry & deceit. The Lord will treat them with priority of judgment & condemnation. The idolater & deceiver will both be led to complete ruin, and cut off from the Lord’s People. The House of Israel will soon be purged to return to the Lord, never again to stray or betray. In the day of Divine Retribution only the righteous like Noah, Daniel, & Job will barely escape judgment or destruction. The severe punishment on Jerusalem will not exterminate or annihilate the Remnant in Exile & Captivity. The nation has become a useless fruitless vine-tree, not even good fire-wood; but they must be consumed in divine wrath. The Son of Man is shown the history of Jerusalem with the Lord. She was an unclean child from birth in Canaan, having an Amorite father & a Hittite mother; she was abandoned as an abortion, whose navel-cord was left uncut; she laid as a babe in blood, alone in the field to die (in Egypt). The Lord came by and had pity on the child, and commanded her to live. She grew in her care, she became beautiful, an attractive young virgin; her breasts were developed, her hair was long; yet she still was naked without clothes. Again, the Lord noticed her, and He pitied her; He saw she was now an appealing beauty; he proposed to her with His robe to cover her, and He espoused her to Himself in covenant & vow, bathing her, clothing her, anointing her, adorning her with fineries, jewels, costly & imported items; He made her astonishingly beautiful in a royal estate. Her fame spread far and wide among the Gentiles, she was desired as a most beautiful perfect woman. She was so self-absorbed she played the Harlot with her fame & shame, treated as a sexual object with every visitor that wanted her. She revealed as a popular prostitute for the lovers of her beauty & her body; she perfected the art of prostitution, inventing her own craft as a one-of-kind whore. She had used & abused her Husband’s gold, silver, & jewels; His clothes, food, & His children, who she sacrificed to idols. She forgot her past, and His mercy & kindness; but continued in or shameless fame to teach others her ways; her brothels were everywhere. She was insatiable: the huge Egyptians did not satisfy her, nor the Assyrians, nor the Chaldeans. She no longer needed their gifts & money in payment for her prostitution & immorality, but she continued in her disgusting sexuality by paying her lovers. But the Lord, as a jealous vindictive Husband will cause her lovers to turn on her as her haters, despising her whoredom, disgusted with her immorality; they will destroy her, strip her, and cast her out. She is just like her mother, just as her sisters in her adultery, but desired to reach greater fame in becoming worse than them, in fact more shameless & defiling than any other woman. The Lord will cure her of this disease and restore her to a former purity & health, re-establish His Covenant with her, make her forever ashamed of her past, her sisters, and herself. With this vision of Israel before the eyes of the Son of Man, the Prophet’s mind & spirit would be traumatized into a paralyzing silence.
The Lord must now turn from Israel as an Unfaithful Wife to the nation among the Gentiles. So the Prophet is given a Riddle & Parable in Vision concerning the Two Great Eagles & the Cedar Trees & the Vine: The King of Babylon as the Great Eagle came to Jerusalem (the Cedar Tree) and took the King & the princes, (the Twigs) with many other captives to Babylon to reduce Jerusalem to a lowly kingdom as vassal to Babylon; he took of the Royal Seed (the Twig) in covenant & oath replanted it in Babylon by the rivers; it grew & flourished in the city of commerce, it was seeded & planted in a good soil, to grow as a Willow Tree. It grew into a spreading Vine rooted & leaning towards the King of Babylon. But Jerusalem’s King rebelled against the King of Babylon, breaking covenant; as a well-watered Vine its roots spread towards a 2nd Great Eagle (Egypt) to be watered thereby & to be valued by it, and be supplied with weapons & warriors, to resist & escape the King of Babylon. But it will not prosper, the Lord will make the King of Babylon destroy both Jerusalem & Egypt. King Zedikiah & the Jewish Remnant will be destroyed by Babylon; but a Remnant will be replanted in Israel to prosper & grow to a fine cedar tree among all the trees of the field, never again to be over exalted or under abased: ‘The trees of the field will know Jehovah cut down the tall tree, exalted the low tree, dried the green tree, and made the dry tree flourish’.
Another prophetic lesson concerns the parable of the ‘fathers sour grapes, setting the children’s teeth on edge’. This is wrong; the father’s sins must not be paid by his children, nor the children’s crimes paid by the parents. Every sinner who sins in any evil thing of any violation of the Mosaic Law or God’s Covenant must pay for their own personal sins & crimes. If the parents are sinners like the children, or the children sinners like the parents, only then they must all pay. But Israel objects to the Lord’s judgment that the one shares the guilt & price of the other. The Lord responds that that is wrong; the righteous must be treated as righteous, the wicked as wicked. So he deals with His People; and He pleads for them to repent & live, for ‘He takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked’.
Another prophetic lesson is in a Lamentation for the Princes of Israel concerning Mother Israel as a Lioness & a Vine. As a Lioness she made one of her cubs to be a terrifying Young Lion, till the Gentiles heard about him, and caught him in their pit, and with hooks dragged him to Egypt. So she took another cub to become another terrifying Young Lion; but again the Gentiles heard, snared him, and dragged him to Babylon, and caged him, never again to roar in Judah. Mother Israel as a Vine well-watered & very fruitful , desirable rods for the Gentiles’ scepters, she was exalted; but they turned against her, uprooted her, tossed her to the ground, she withered dry, her rods broken and thrown in the fire; she was replanted in a waterless place, she is destined to the fire, her fruit devoured, they will no longer desire her rods for their scepters: “This is a Lamentation of Lamentations .”

In King Jehoiachin’s 7th year of Captivity, some of Israel’s Elders were sitting with Ezekiel to seek info from the Lord. The Son of Man is told to judge the Leaders of Israel as unfit to inquire of the Lord because of all their sins, crimes, & abominations. The Lord rehearses Israel’s history from the Exodus to Wilderness to the Promised Land, that He demanded of them to forsake their idolatry, but they refused. He had covenanted with them, given them His Law & His Sabbaths to preserve His Name & Testimony among the Gentiles. Israel was uncooperative, ungrateful, & unconcerned with His Holiness. Their ways enraged Him to destroy them, to exile them to captivity among the Gentiles. They became so vile & cruel that they sacrificed babies to their idols; they polluted themselves & others with their whorish ways; they said: ‘We’ll be as the Gentiles, as the families of the countries nearby, to serve wood & stone.’ He will regather them for judgment, to rid them of adultery & idolatry; He will consume them in His fire. But to all this the House of Israel & the Jews of Jerusalem said: ‘Is he not a speaker of parables’? The prophecies continue in the Son of Man’s prophecy against Jerusalem’s Sanctuaries with an unsheathed sword for their state. The sword of slaughter & vengeance is determined & sent upon the wicked & the righteous, the People will not be spared till the Lord’s Wrath is exhausted. The sword of Babylon may come by two ways, one to Rabbah of the Ammonites, the other to Judah’s fortified Jerusalem. All the crimes, violations, iniquities & sins are remembered; no one will escape except to death or captivity. The Prince of Israel in Jerusalem must be dethroned & abased; the Monarchy & Covenant or Dispensation must be overturned, until the Rightful One comes. As with Israel, so with Ammon in judgment.
The prophetic word against the murderous City is given in details of her sins & abominations: murder, idolatry, dishonor to parents, oppression of strangers; mistreatment & neglect of orphans & widows; profanation of Holy Things & the Sabbaths; slander, immorality, filthiness, impurity; sexual perversity & vice, adultery & fornication, rapes; bribery, usury, racketeering, dishonesty, and much more. For which reason the Lord turns against them, and scatters them among the Gentiles. The House of Israel is Dross to the Lord of the residue from the melting of the metals in the furnace. Jerusalem is the furnace, the Jews are the melting metals, only a remnant or dross survives. The fire of the Lord’s Wrath, Anger & Rage is poured out on His People. Likewise is she an uncleansed Land, dry for judgment. Her prophets devour her, they rape, conspire & prey, confiscate valuables & impoverish widows. Her priests distort the Law & pollute Holy Things, they’re hypocrites & deceivers, they confuse & profane sacred things. Her people oppress the Land, rob, vex the poor & needy, mistreat the strangers & immigrants. The Lord said: ‘I sought a man among them to build the wall, stand in the gap before Me for the Land, that I do not destroy it, but found none. I poured out My Indignation on them, I consumed them with the fire of My Wrath: I repaid them with their own way .’
The Son of Man is given another prophetic word concerning Israel as Two Daughters, Egyptian Harlots, named Oholah & Oholibah. They were young virgins given to teasing & pleasing the Egyptians when they Lord took them to Himself, they birthed to Him children. Oholah was Samaria the older sister; Oholibah was Jerusalem the younger sister. Oholah was an adulteress harlot wife with her lovers the Assyrians, who she desired as fine young men, big & strong; she prostituted herself with the best of them; even as she had done in Egypt. He rejected & deserted her to her Assyrian lovers, who turned against her, using & abusing her till she was nothing. Oholibah knew all this, yet she too solicited the Assyrians, those desirable & satisfying youths, and she became more perverse & immoral than her older sister, She lusted after the Chaldeans of Babylon, she offered herself easily & freely to her lovers; made herself a sex-object; she was insanely insatiable with sex, she stripped as a whore & played as a slut; she perfected her craft that learned in the days in Egypt; her lovers where like donkeys & horses to her. But they too will turn against her to destroy her, enslave her, use & abuse het till she is nothing. She will be tossed among the Gentiles to take her & then toss her; as her sister was destroyed as a shameless harlot, so too will Judah & Jerusalem & the Jews come to the same tragic end by the Gentiles because they forgot & forsook the Lord in adultery & idolatry. They must be judged for their countless crimes, violations, travesty, treachery, against Lord, His House, Sanctuary, Sabbaths, and more. They must ‘bear the sins of their idols’.

In the 9th year the prophetic word the day that the siege of Jerusalem began by the Babylonian King, namely the 10th day of the 10th month. The word is in a parable of the Rebellious House of a rusty old Caldron of water with various butchered meat to boil. The meat is boiled to a broth then removed, but the Caldron remains on the fire till it melts. So is Israel the fire of judgment. The judgment continues in Ezekiel’s wife dying, but he must not mourn for with any outward signs. He tells the People this is the Sign of the Sanctuary being profaned by Babylon, that the People are slaughtered, that they are captured, exiled, & imprisoned. All will be doomed.
The Son of Man is told to face toward the Ammonites & prophesy against them. In their mockery of the Sanctuary profaned, the Land made desolate, and the Jews going into Captivity, they will be invaded by the Children of the East (Easterners), they’ll be destroyed & be spoil for the nations. As the Easterners did to the Ammonites so they are forgotten among the nations, so will they do to Edom & Seir for how they mistreated Israel. So also is the Lord’s judgment on the Philistines.

In the 11th year the prophetic word was concerning Tyre who spoke revenge against Jerusalem. The nations will come against Tyre to destroy its walls, city, & people. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, the King of Kings from the north, with a great army, will invade & destroy Tyre completely to be a perpetual ruin. They’ll lament Tyre with a lamentation concerning her greatness, her commerce, her influence, her power, her city & her people. Another prophetic lamentation is given concerning Tyre. The great coastal City boasts: ‘I’m perfect in beauty .’ Her importance as a global or international commercial center is well-known by the nations. She traded with the major powers of the day; her fame was wide-spread; they talked of her army, or ships, or products, her skill craftsmen, her wise men & scholars, her technology & innovation, and much more. But the hew song & lamentation will be: ‘Who is like Tyre, brought to silence in the sea .’ So too is the prophetic word against Tyre’s Prince who boasts: “I’m God, I sit in God’s Seat, in the midst of the seas .’ He is man not God, though he is wiser than Daniel, he understands mysteries, wise, wealthy, and boasts a god; yet he’ll be destroyed with a shameful death.
The prophetic word continues against the King of Tyre with a lamentation: He is perfect, wise, beautiful; he dwelt in Eden, God’s Garden, adorned with precious stones & gems; the Anointed Cherub appointed by God on His Holy Mountain. In short, he was unique, majestic, talented, charming, powerful, & exalted. But his beauty & wisdom ruined him; he changed from light to darkness, from servant to god. His boast will be exposed & deflated; he will come to a shocking end to wonder to all, never again to be a terror. Likewise the prophetic word is against Sidon in her judgment & destruction, shamed & brought to nothing, when the Lord gets His Honor & Holiness in her judgment.

In the 10th year, in the 12th month, the prophetic word is set against King Pharaoh of Egypt: He is the Great River Monster who boasts: ‘My river is mine alone, I’ve made for myself.’ The Lord will hook & drag him, with all the fishes of his rivers, into the desert to die, and become food for the wild animals & birds. Egypt’s boast will end in destruction, and 40 years of desolation; they’ll be exiled & captives among the nations & countries. The Lord will restore them to their land after the 40 years have ended; but never again will they be exalted to rule over the nations, but will be a lowly kingdom; Israel never again turn to Egypt for safety. They all will know I am Jehovah.

In the 27th year the prophetic word was concerning King Nebuchadnezzar’s campaign against Tyre; his army needed food supply, the Lord surrendered Egypt to feed his army. Another prophetic word concerning the coming Day of the Lord, a time for the Gentiles. Egypt & Ethiopia & their neighbors & allies are slaughtered; the Lord will put an end of the idols of Egypt by the sword of Babylon.

In the 11th year the prophetic word was concerning King Pharaoh of Egypt: The Lord broke his arm, it was not bandaged or treated; the Egyptians will be scattered among nations & countries by Babylon.

Again in the 11th year the prophetic word was against King Pharaoh of Egypt & the Egyptians: He is incomparable in greatness among the nations, but not as great as the Assyrian King who was a Cedar-Tree in Lebanon with large branches, spreading far & wide & deep & high; he was well-watered; the birds nested above, the wild-animals rested below to birth their young. The cedars in God’s Garden could not compare to it in beauty, they envied it. But Pharaoh is exalted & inflated above the other trees. But the King of Babylon will deal with him; the Lord drove him out for wickedness, he’s cut off, deserted; the birds & beasts feast on him, he’s abased; he descends to hell, he rests with the dead; he is mourned & despised, his companions descend with him. The incomparable Cedar-Tree in glory & greatness among Eden’s trees, is tossed into hell with despised & slaughtered dead. This is Pharaoh & his people.

In the 12th year the prophetic word is another Lamentation concerning King Pharaoh of Egypt: Pharaoh is compared to a Young Lion among the nations, a Sea Monster; he made his rivers flood, he stirred & dirtied the rivers, The Lord will catch him in His Net by many bands he’ll be dragged to shore, tossed in the field, the birds will rest on him, the beasts will feast on him, his remains will be everywhere. The sun & moon will be hidden, darkness is over the Land. Nations will hear of Pharaoh’s ruin; they’ll be shocked & confused; terror from the sword; Egypt’s pride is vanquished; his people destroyed. The rivers will again be clear, the land empty, the people gone. This is their lamentation with the daughters of the nations over Egypt & her people.

In the 12th year the prophetic word again is against the Egyptians: Wail for the daughters of great Egypt, toss her down to the lowest hell, she the most beautiful. There are those slain with sword, her helpers in war, the uncircumcised, the terror in the land of the living; there are her allies in shame, dishonor in the cemetery of the uncircumcised. The Son of Man’s prophetic word from the Lord to the Israelites & Jews: The Watchman of a City or People must warn the people of the approaching enemy; if he warns and they heed not he’s blameless; if he neglects to warn and the enemy captures anyone, then the Lord will deal with that guilty Watchman. So its is with Ezekiel as the Son of Man, the Prophet to Israel & Judah. He is to tell those way say: ‘ Our transgressions & our sins are on us, we pine away in them; how can we live’? The Lord takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked, rather He desires them to repent & live. The righteous will not escape in the day of their crimes; the wicked must not ignored in his repentance. The righteous who commits crime must die; the wicked who repents, does right, he must not die. But the Lord’s People say: ‘the Lord’s Way is unfair’. But the Lord will judge the House of Israel, each one for his ways.

In the 12th year of our Captivity, a Jerusalem refugee reported to Ezekiel: ’The City is smitten’. The prophetic word in response to the news: ‘Son of Man, Israel’s inhabitants of the wastelands say: ‘Abraham was one, and he inherited the Land: we are many; the Land is our inheritance’. Tell them for Me: You eat with blood, you lift your eyes to idols, you shed blood: will you possess the Land? You stand with yur sword, you work abomination, you defile another’s wife: will you possess the Land? Tell them for Me: Those in the wastelands will fall by sword; I’ll give the one in the open field to the wild animals to be devoured; those in strongholds & caves will die by pestilence. I’ll make the Land desolation & astonishment; her proud power will cease; Israel’s mountains be desolate; none will pass through. They’ll know I’m Jehovah when I’ve made the Land desolation & astonishment for their abominations practiced. Son of Man, the children of thy people talk about yu at the walls & doors of the houses, talking one brother to another to ‘please listen to what Jehovah says’. They come to yu as a seeking people, they sit with yu as My People, they hear yur words, but refuse to obey; with their mouth they show much love, but their heart goes after gain. Yu are to them a lovely song of a pleasing singer, who plays an instrument well; they her yur words but do nothing. When these things come about, they’ll know a Prophet was among them’.
Another prophetic word against the Shepherds of Israel: They feed themselves and neglect the Lord’s sheep, those who are hungry, sick, injured, persecuted, lost; instead rule them with force & severity. They were scattered and became food for the wild-animals, because they had no shepherd. The Lord will require His sheep from the shepherds, He’ll deliver them from these useless shepherds, He’ll never again let them shepherd His sheep. The Lord will seek His lost sheep & scattered flock; He’ll deliver them from the Gentiles, near & far, He’ll regather & restore them to their Land of Israel. He’ll judge between His sheep & His flock; between sheep & sheep, between goats & goats. He’ll judge those who eat & drink well, then trample the pastures with their feet, muddy the waters after they drink. He’ll judge between those who are fat & the lean; those who push with their horns and scatter the flock. The Lord as the Good Shepherd will save His sheep from death, from false shepherds, from persecution. He will appoint One Good Shepherd over them, David, His Beloved, His Servant, to feed & lead them. The Lord will be their God, David, His Beloved, will be their Prince; He’ll make a New Peace Covenant with them, free their Land of wild beasts, from evil men; they will live securely, rest safely; with blessings & they’ll flourish. Their enemies will be broken, the Gentiles beasts will never again prey on them or enslave them; they’ll never again bear the shame of the Gentiles: ‘They’ll know I, Jehovah, their God am with them, and Israel’s House are My People. You are My Sheep, the Sheep of My Pasture, I’m your God’.
Another prophetic word against Mount Seir: The Lord will desolate Mount Seir’s cities, because of their perpetual enmity against Israel, allowing the sword to bring calamity to them, refusing to help in war because they hate bloodshed. The Lord will prepare their bloodshed by her pursuers; Seir will become a perpetual desolation, with her mountains filled with her slain. She boasted: ‘These two nations & two countries will be mine, I’ll possess it’. The Lord will respond to Seir’s hatred to Israel and to their words: ‘They’re laid desolate, they’re given us to devour’. All of Mount Seir & Edom will be desolate.
The Son of Man’s prophecy against Israel’s Mountains: The enemy (Edom) has said: ‘The ancient places are our possessions’; because Israel was desolated on all sides, to be possessed by the other Gentiles, because she was the talk of the nearby countries, the Lord says to Land & People of Israel: Because Israel & the Jews have been desolated, derided, bearing Gentiles’ shame; the Lord will make them bear their own shame. He will restore the Land & the People according to His Word in the Book; the Land will flourish & be productive; the People & animals will multiply, Never again will they say: ‘Yu are a devourer of men, a bereaver of yur nation’. ‘Never again will yu (the Land) devour men, or bereave yur nation; I’ll never again let yu hear the shame of the Gentiles, or the reproach of the peoples, or cause yur nation to stumble’. Another prophetic word concerning the House of Israel: The House of Israel formerly dwelt in their own Land. They defiled the Land with their ways & deeds; they became as an unclean woman in her impurity. In My Wrath I repaid their bloodshed, their defiling idolatry; He scattered & dispersed them among the Gentiles. Still they profaned His Holy Name among the Gentiles, who said: ‘These are Jehovah’s People exiled from His Land’. The Lord must act to preserve & sanctify His Holy Name among the Gentiles despite Israel’s profanation & poor testimony. The Lord will regather them from all the countries of the Gentiles of their exile, return them to the Land of Israel, restore them, cleanse them, give them a new heart & spirit that they may walk in His Covenant in the Law of Moses according to Deuteronomy. He will bless them, multiply them, prosper them; never again will they forget their evil ways, their sins & crimes; He’ll renew & refresh them in the restitution of a new relationship. The desolate Land will become a Garden of Eden; the Gentiles will know it’s the Lord’s doings. ‘As the flock for sacrifice, as Jerusalem’s flock in her appointed feasts, the waste cities be filled with flocks of men; they’ll know that I’m Jehovah’.
The Lord’s Hand was on Ezekiel: He brought him out in the Lord’s Spirit, set him down in the valley, full of dry bones. He led him by them all around, there were many in the open valley; they were very dry. The prophetic was concerning the Dy Bones, if they can live: Ezekiel was told to prophesy to the Dry Bones to live: ‘Ezekiel prophesied as commanded: as he prophesied there was a noise & an earthquake; the Bones came together, bone to bone; with sinews, flesh, skin; but no breath in them. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Prophesy to the Wind, Son of Man: Come from the four Winds, Breath, and breathe on these slain to live’. He prophesied as commanded, the breath came, they lived, stood on their feet, a great army. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, these Bones are the House of Israel: they say, ‘Our bones are dried up, our hope lost; we’re cut off’. Prophesy: I’ll open your graves, cause you to come out of your graves, My People, I’ll lead you to Israel’s Land. You’ll know I’m Jehovah after I’ve opened your graves, caused you to come out of your graves, My People. I’ll put My Spirit in you, you’ll live, I’ll place you in your own Land: you’ll know I, Jehovah, spoke it & performed it’.’ Again, the prophetic word concerning Two Sticks become One: ‘Son of Man, take one Stick, write on it for Judah & for his Companions the Children of Israel; take another Stick, write on it for Joseph, the Stick of Ephraim, & for his Companions the House of Israel: join the Two Sticks as One to be One in your hands. When the children of yur People ask, ‘Tell us what this means’? tell them for Me: I’ll take the Stick of Joseph, in the hand of Ephraim, & his Companions, the Tribes of Israel; I’ll join it to the Stick of Judah to make One Stick, to be One in My Hand. The Sticks yu wrote on, will be in yur hand in their sight. Tell them for Me: I’ll take Israel’s Children from among the Gentiles, in their diaspora, regather them, and return them to their own Land: I’ll make them One Nation in the Land, on Israel’s mountains; One King will be King over them; never again be Two Nations, never again be divided into Two Kingdoms; never again to defile themselves with their idols & detestable things & their crimes; I’ll save them from their dwelling-places, where they sinned, and will cleanse them: they’ll be My People, and I’ll be their God. My Servant David (the Beloved) will be King over them; they’ll have One Shepherd: they’ll walk in My Ordinances, observe My Statutes, to practice them. They’ll dwell in the Land I’ve given to My Servant Jacob, in which their fathers dwelt; there they’ll dwell forever with their children, and grandchildren: My Servant David (the Beloved) will forever be their Prince. Also, I’ll make a Covenant of Peace with them; it will be an Eternal Covenant with them; I’ll resettle them & multiply them, I’ll set My Sanctuary forever in their midst. My Tabernacle will be with them; I’ll be their God; they’ll be My People. The Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah Who sanctifies Israel, My Sanctuary will be always be in their midst’.
The prophetic word against Gog (uncertain), of the Land of Magog (Japhetic, Scythians), the Prince of Rosh (chief, first, head), Meshech (Japhetic), & Tubal (Japhetic). ‘Prophesy against him: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll surround yu, put hooks in yur jaws, I’ll drag yu out, with yur army, horses & horsemen, clothed in full armor, a great company with buckler & shield, handling swords; with them Persia, Cush (Hamitic), & Put (Hamitic), with shield & helmet; Gomer (Japhetic) with his hordes; the House of Togarmah (Japhetic) in outskirts of the north & his hordes; many peoples with yu. Be prepared with yur companies gathered to yu, be guard to them. After many days yu’ll be visited: in the later days yu’ll invade the Land that is restored from the Sword, gathered out of many peoples, on the mountains of Israel, which has been a continual waste; but delivered from the peoples, they’ll dwell safely. Yu’ll ascend, yu’ll come like a storm, like a cloud to cover the Land, yu, & yur hordes, with many peoples. On that day, things will come to yur mind, yu’ll devise an evil device: yu’ll say, I’ll ascend to the Land of unwalled villages; I’ll go to them at rest, dwelling securely, without walls, neither bars or gates; to take spoil & prey; to turn yur hand against the wastelands reinhabited, against the people regathered from the Gentiles, having cattle & goods, dwelling in the Land (eretz, dry-land, ground, earth). Sheba & Dedan (Shemitic, Semitic, Arabia), & Tarshish’s (Spain or Cilicia) merchants, with their young lions, & ask yu: ‘Have yu come to take spoil’? Son of Man, prophesy, tell Gog for Me: In the day that My People dwell securely, will yu know it? Yu’ll invade from yur place in the furthest North, yu, and many peoples with yu, riding on horses, a great company & mighty army; yu’ll come against My People Israel, as a cloud to cover the Land: in the later days I’ll lead yu against My Land, that the Gentiles know Me, when I’ll be sanctified in yu, Gog, in their sight. Are yu the one I spoke of in earlier time by My Servants the Prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for years that I would lead yu against them? In that day, when Gog will come against the Land of Israel, My Wrath will come up into his nose. In My Jealousy & the fire of My Wrath I spoke, In that day there be a great shaking in the Land of Israel; the fishes of the sea, the birds of the skies, the wild-animals of the field, creeping things on the earth, and men on the earth, will shake at My Presence, the mountains will be thrown down, steep places will fall, every wall will fall to the ground. I’ll call a sword against him to the mountains: each man’s sword against his brother. I’ll enter judgment with him with pestilence & blood; I’ll rain on him, on his horses, on the many peoples who are with, an overflowing shower, and great hailstones, fire, & brimstone. I’ll magnify Myself, & sanctify Myself, I’ll make Myself known in the eyes of many Gentiles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.
‘Son of Man, prophesy against Gog: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll turn yu around, I’ll lead yu on, I’ll cause yu to ascend from the furthest North; I’ll lead yu on Israel’s mountains; I’ll strike yur bow out of yur left hand, I’ll cause yur arrows to fall out of yur right hand. Yu’ll fall on Israel’s mountains, yu, & yur hordes, & yur peoples: I’ll give yu to the ravenous birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field to be devoured. Yu’ll fall on the open field; I’ve spoken it. I’ll send a fire on Magog, on those dwelling securely in the isles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah. My Holy Name I’ll make known in My People Israel; I’ll never again permit My Holy Name to be profaned: the Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah, the Holy One in Israel. It’s coming, it will be done; this is the day of which I’ve spoken. The dwellers in the cities of Israel will go forth, they’ll make fires of the weapons & burn them, both shields & bucklers, bows & arrows, hand slaves, spears, they’ll make fires of them 7 years; so that they’ll take no wood from the field, neither out of the forests; they’ll burn weapons; they’ll plunder those that plundered them, rob those who robbed them. In that day, I’ll give Gog a burial place in Israel, the valley of travelers on the east of the sea; it will prevent travelers: there they’ll bury Gog & his multitude; they’ll call it the Valley of Hamon-Gog. 7 months Israel’s House will be burying them to cleanse the Land. The people of the Land will bury them; it’ll be to them renown in the day I’ll be glorified. They’ll employ workers full time to search for those to bury who remain unburied on the Land to cleanse it: after 7 months they’ll search. The travelers will travel; when anyone sees a man’s bone, he’ll set up a sign by it, till the buriers have buried it in the Valley of Hamon-Gog. Hamonah will be the City’s Name. The name of the city is Hamonah. They’ll cleanse the Land. Son of Man speak to the Birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field: Assemble yourselves, come gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice on Israel’s mountains to eat flesh & drink blood. You’ll eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink blood of the princes of the earth, of rams, lambs, goats, bullocks, of fatlings of Bashan. You’ll eat the fat till you are full, and drink the blood till you are drunk, of My Sacrifice which I’ve sacrificed for you. You’ll be filled at My Table with horses & chariots, mighty men & men of war. I’ll set My Glory among the Gentiles; the Gentiles will see My Judgment I’ve executed, and My Hand I’ve laid on them. Israel’s House will know I’m Jehovah their God, from that day & forward. The Gentiles will know that Israel’s House went into Captivity for their iniquity; they trespassed against Me, I hid My Face from them: I gave them into the hand of their adversaries, they fell by the sword. According to their uncleanness & transgressions I treated them; I hid My Face from them. I’ll reverse Jacob’s Captivity, have mercy on the whole House of Israel; I’ll be jealous for My Holy Name. They’ll bear their shame & trespasses they did against Me; they’ll dwell safely in their Land unafraid; when I’ve restored them from the peoples, and regathered them from their enemies’ lands, and I’m sanctified in them in the Gentiles’ sight. They’ll know I’m Jehovah their God, Who caused them to go into Captivity among the Gentiles, and regathered them to their own Land; I’ll never again abandon them there; never again will I hide My Face from them; for I’ve poured out My Spirit on the House of Israel’.

In the 25th year of our Captivity, in the beginning (first, 1st) of the year, on the 10th of the month, in the 14th year after the City was smitten, the very day, Jehovah’s Hand was on Ezekiel, and He transported him to there. In the Visions of God, He transported him to the Land of Israel, and set him down on a high mountain, on which was as if the frame (form, structure) of a city on the south. He transported him there; there was a Man, Whose Appearance was like the appearance of brass, with a line of flax in His Hand, and a measuring read; He stood at the gate. The Man said: ‘Son of Man, see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears, set yur heart on all that I’ll show yu; for this reason yu were brought here, that I may show to yu: declare all that yu see to Israel’s House’. A Wall was outside of the House all around it; in the Man’s Hand a measuring reed 6 cubits long, equal to 1 cubit & 1 handbreadth each cubit (cubit= 18″ or 1 1/2 feet; handbreadth= 4” wide; total reed-cubit= 22″ or 21″ plus or minus; measuring-reed= 6×22″= 132″ or 12 feet; if we make the sacred or great or angelic cubit 24″ then conversion to feet is simple: 2×12″= 24″= 2′; if we make the sacred or great or angelic handbreadth 6″ then it equals 1/2 foot; we then have the sacred reed= 6×24’= 144″ or 12 feet): The chapters from 40-48 give a detail description of the House of God and those things, persons, and places which pertains to it, its structure, form, dimensions, compartments, walls, gates, courts, posts, chambers, cherubims, palm-trees; its order, furnishings, altars, table, Sanctuary; its order, priesthood, charges, feasts; the land, location, divisions, order; the city, offerings, sacrifices, entrances, exits, doors, windows, borders, lots, tribes, etc.
We have already examined in great detail the Text, and have given a digest & summary of all its details recorded; here we will only cite those words & verses which explain very important matters of the House as the Sanctuary, Dwelling Place, Building, Temple, Tabernacle of the Lord God, Jehovah-Elohim. We have already explained the measurement of the cubit & reed, and later that of the ephah, homer, etc. We will number theses selections for the reader:

1. The Man & His Hand Who measures, leads, speaks, etc.
2. He told Ezekiel: ‘This chamber, facing southward, is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the House; the chamber facing northward is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the Altar: these are the sons of Zadok (BeniZadok), who are from the sons of Levi (BeniLevi) who approach Jehovah to minister to (serving) Him’.
3. He said to him: This is the Most Holy Place.
4. He said told Ezekiel: ‘The north & south chambers, before the separate place, are the Holy Chambers, where the Priests near to Jehovah eat the Most Holy Things: they’ll lay the Most Holy Things, the meal-offering, sin-offering, & trespass-offering; for its a Holy Place. When the Priests enter, they must not leave the Holy Place to enter the Outer Court, they must lay there their ministering clothes, for they are holy: they must change to other clothes, to approach to what pertains to the People’.
5. He led Ezekiel to the Gate facing eastward. The Glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east: His Voice was like the sound of many waters; and the earth (Land) shined with His Glory. It was like the appearance of the vision which he saw, according to the vision he saw when he (He) came to destroy (the destruction of) the city; the visions were like the vision he saw by the River Chebar; & Ezekiel fell prostrate. Jehovah’s Glory came into the House by the way of the Gate facing eastward. The Spirit lifted Ezekiel, transporting him into the Inner Court; & Jehovah’s Glory filled the House. Ezekiel heard One speaking to him from the House; a Man stood near him: He told him: ‘Son of Man, the Place of My Throne, & the Place of the Soles of My Feet, where I’ll dwell amidst the Children of Israel forever. The House of Israel will never again defile My Holy Name, neither they, nor their kings, by their whoredom, and by the corpses of their kings (in, and) their High Places; in their placing their doorway next to My Doorway, their door-posts next to My Door-posts, with only a wall between Me & them; they defiled My Holy Name with their abominations they practiced: so I’ve consumed them in My Anger. Let them put far away from Me their whoredom, the corpses of their kings; and I’ll dwell amidst them forever. Son of Man show the House to Israel’s House, that they be ashamed of their iniquities; let them measure the pattern. If they be ashamed of all they’ve done, reveal to them the form of the House, & its fashion, its egresses, its entrances, its structures, its ordinances, its forms, and its laws; write it in their sight; that they may keep all its form, and all its ordinances, to do them.
6. This is the Law of the House: on the top of the mountain the its whole area enclosed will be holy: this is the Law of the House.
7. He told Ezekiel, ‘Son of Man, Jehovah says: These are the ordinances of the Altar in the day they offer burnt-offerings on it, to sprinkle blood on it. You must give to the Priests the Levites from the seed of Zadok, who approach Me, to minister to Me, a young bullock for a sin-offering. Yu must take of its blood, put it on its 4 horns, on the 4 corners of the ledge, & on the border around it: thus, yu’ll cleanse & atone for it. Yu must take the bullock of the sin-offering, and it shall be burnt in the appointed place of the house, outside the Sanctuary. The 2nd day yu must offer a male-goat without blemish for a sin-offering; they’ll cleanse the Altar, as they cleansed it with the bullock. After yu’ve cleansed it, yu must offer a young bullock without blemish, and a ram from the flock without blemish. Yu must bring them near before Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them up for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. Yu must bring them near to Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. 7 days yu must atone for the Altar & purify it; so, must they consecrate it. When they’ve accomplished the days, on the 8th day, & forward, the Priests must make your burnt-offerings on the Altar, and your peace-offerings; and I’ll accept you’.
8. He led Ezekiel by the way of the Outer Gate of the Sanctuary, facing eastward; it was shut. Jehovah said to him: ‘This Gate must be shut; it must not be opened, neither must any man enter it; for Jehovah, the God of Israel, entered in by it; it must be shut. The Prince must sit in it as Prince to eat bread before Jehovah; he must enter by way of the porch of the Gate and exit by the same way’.
9. Jehovah told Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, mark & see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears what I tell yu concerning the ordinances of Jehovah’s House and its Laws; make note of the House’s entrance, and the Sanctuary’s egress. Tell the Rebellious House of Israel for Me: House of Israel, be content with yur abominations, in bringing in foreigners, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, to be in My Sanctuary, to profane it, My House, offering to yur abominations My Bread, the fat & blood, breaking My Covenant. You haven’t kept the charge of My Holy Things; you’ve set keepers of My Charge in My Sanctuary for yourselves. No foreigner, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, must ever enter My Sanctuary, of any foreigners among the Children of Israel. The Levites who deserted Me, when Israel went astray from Me after their idols, they must pay for their crime. Yet they must be ministers in My Sanctuary, having oversight at the Gates of the House, and ministering in the House: they must slaughter the burnt-offering & sacrifice for the People, they must stand before them to minister to them. Because they ministered to them before their idols, becoming a stumbling block of iniquity to Israel’s House; I lifted My Hand against them, they’ll pay for their crime. They must not approach Me, to execute the office of priest to Me, nor approach My Holy Things, to the Most Holy Things, they must bear their shame, their abominations they’ve committed. But I’ll make them keepers of the charge of the House, for its service, for what is done in it. The Levitical Priests, Zadok’s Sons, who kept the charge of My Sanctuary when the Children of Israel deserted Me, they must approach Me to minister to Me; they must stand before Me to offer to Me the fat & blood. They’ll enter My Sanctuary, they’ll approach My Table, to minister to Me, they’ll keep My Charge. When they enter in at the Gates of the Inner Court, they’ll be clothed with linen garments; no wool must be on them, while they minister in the Gates of the Inner Court, and inside. They must wear linen turbans on their heads, they must have linen breeches on their loins; they must not gird themselves with anything causing sweat. When they go out into the Outer Court of the People, they must remove their clothes in which they minister, lay them in the Holy Chambers; they must put on other clothes, that they don’t sanctify the People with their clothes. They must not shave their heads, nor let their locks to grow long; they must only have hair-cuts. The Priests must drink no wine when they enter the Inner Court. They must not marry a widow for wives or divorcee; they must marry virgins of the seed of Israel’s House, or a Priest’s widow. They’ll teach My People the difference between the holy & the common and help them to discern between the unclean & the clean. In a controversy they’ll stand to judge; according to My Ordinances they must judge, they must keep My Laws & Statutes in all My appointed Feasts; they must sanctify My Sabbaths. They must not go near a dead person to defile themselves; they may defile themselves for father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or an unmarried sister. After he is cleansed, they’ll reckon to him 7 days. The day he enters the Sanctuary, into the Inner Court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he must offer his sin-offering. They’ll have no inheritance: I’m their inheritance; you’ll give him no possession in Israel; I’m their possession. They’ll eat the meal-offering, the sin-offering, & the trespass-offering; and every devoted in Israel will be theirs. The first of the first-fruits of everything, and every oblation of everything, of all your oblations, will be the Priest’s: you’ll also give to the Priests the first of your dough, to cause a blessing to rest on your house. The Priests must not eat anything that dies of itself, or is torn, whether of bird or beast’.
10. When you divide the Land by lot for inheritance, you shall offer an oblation to Jehovah, a Holy Portion of the Land; the length must be 25,000 (perhaps reed, then x 12′ = 3000,000′ = c.60 miles) long, the width 10,000 (if reed, x 12′ = 120,000′ = 24 miles): it’ll be holy in all its border around. From this must be the Holy Place 500 by 500, square around; 50 cubits (100′) for its suburbs around. From this measure yu must measure a length of 25,000 by 10,000 wide: in it shall be the Sanctuary, which is Most Holy. It is a Holy Portion of the Land: it must be for the Priests, the Sanctuary’s ministers, that approach to minister to Jehovah; it must be a place for their houses, a Holy Place for the Sanctuary. 25,000 long by 10,000 wide, for the Levites, the House’s ministers, for a possession to themselves: 20 chambers. You must allot the City’s possession 5,000 wide by 25,000 long, side by side with the oblation of the Holy Portion: it’ll be for all the House of Israel. For the Prince: on both sides of the holy oblation and of the possession of the City, in front of the holy oblation & in front of the possession of the City, on both westside westward & eastside eastward; in length corresponding to the portions, from west border to east border. In the Land it will be to him for a possession in Israel: My Princes will never again oppress My People; but they’ll give the Land to the House of Israel according to their tribes. Thus says the Lord Jehovah: Let it be enough for you, Princes of Israel: remove violence & spoil, execute justice & righteousness; take away your exactions from My People. You must have just balances, just ephah (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer), & just bath (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer). The ephah & the bath (quarts & gallons) shall be one measure, the bath contains 1/10th a homer, the ephah 1/10th a homer: its measure is after the homer (10 times the ephah & bath). The shekel equals 20 gerahs (ounces or pounds); 20, 25, & 15 shekels will be your maneh (50 shekels). This is the oblation you must offer: 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of wheat; you must give 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of barley; the set portion of oil, of the bath of oil, 1/10th of a bath out of a cor (equals homer, 10 times the ephah or bath): 10 baths or ephah (10 baths equals an homer); 1 lamb from every 200 of the flock, from the well-watered pastures of Israel: for a meal-offering, burnt-offering, peace-offerings, to atone for them. The People of the Land must contribute to this oblation for the Prince in Israel. It will be the Prince’s part to give the burnt-offerings, meal-offerings, & drink-offerings, in the feasts, on the new moons, & on the sabbaths, in all the appointed feasts of Israel’s House’.
11. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘In the 1st, on the 1st of the month, you must take a young bullock without defect to cleanse the Sanctuary. The Priest must take the blood of the sin-offering, put it on the door-posts of the House, and on the 4 corners of the ledge of the Altar, and on the posts of the Gate of the Inner Court. Thus you must do on the 7th of the month for those who err, and for the simple: so you’ll atone for the House. In the 1st, on the 14th day of the month, you’ll have the Passover, 7 days feast; unleavened bread must be eaten; on that day the Prince must prepare for himself & for the People of the Land a bullock for a sin-offering. The 7 days of the feast he must prepare a burnt-offering to Jehovah, 7 bullocks & 7 rams without defect daily 7 days; a male-goat daily for a sin-offering. He must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, and a hin (2 gallon or 8 quarts) of oil to an ephah. In the 7th , on the 15th day of the month, in the feast, he must do like in the 7 days; according to the sin-offering, burnt-offering, meal-offering, according to the oil’.
12. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘The Gate of the Inner Court facing eastward must be shut the 6 working days; on the sabbath day it must be opened, on the day of the new moon it must be opened. The Prince must enter by the way of the porch of the Gate outside, and must stand by the post of the Gate; the Priests must prepare his burnt-offering & his peace-offerings, & he’ll worship at the entrance of the Gate: he shall exit; but the Gate must remain open till evening. The People of the Land must worship at the door of that Gate before Jehovah on the sabbaths & new moons. The burnt-offering that the Prince must offer to Jehovah must be on the sabbath day: 6 lambs & 1 ram without defect; the meal-offering must be an ephah for the ram, and the meal-offering for the lambs as he is able to give, and a hin of oil to an ephah. On the day of the new moon it must be an ephah for the bullock without defect, 6 lambs & 1 ram, without defect: he must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for the bullock, an ephah for the ram, and for the lambs as he’s able, an hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince enters, he must go by way of the porch of the Gate, and go out by its way. When the People of the Land approach Jehovah in the appointed feasts, he who enters by the way of the North Gate to worship must exit by way of the South Gate; he must not return by the Gate he entered, but he must continue straight ahead. The Prince, when they enter, must enter in their midst, when they exit, they exit. In the feasts and solemnities the meal-offering must be an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, for lambs as he is able, & a hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince prepares a freewill-offering, a burnt-offering or peace offerings as a freewill-offering to Jehovah, someone must open for him the Gate facing eastward; he must prepare his burnt-offering & peace offerings, as he does on the sabbath day: then he must exit; and after his exit someone must shut the gate. Yu must prepare a lamb a year old without defect for a burnt-offering to Jehovah daily: every morning yu must prepare it. Yu must prepare a meal-offering with it every morning, 1/6th of an ephah, 1/3rd of a hin oil, to moisten the fine flour; a meal-offering to Jehovah continually by a perpetual ordinance. They must prepare the lamb, the meal-offering, & the oil, every morning, for a continual burnt-offering. If the Prince give a gift to his sons, it is his inheritance, it belongs to his sons; it is their possession by inheritance. If he give of his inheritance a gift to his servants, it is his inheritance to the year of jubilee; then it returns to the Prince; but his inheritance must be for his sons. The Prince must not confiscate the People’s inheritance, to force them from their possession; he must give inheritance to his sons from his own possession, that My People are not scattered from his own possession’.
13. He led Ezekiel through the entrance at the side of the Gate, into the Holy Chambers for the Priests, facing northward: there was a place in the back westward. He said to Ezekiel: ‘This is the place where the Priests must boil the trespass-offering & the sin-offering, where they must bake the meal-offering; that they don’t bring them out into the Outer Court, to sanctify the People. He led him out to the Outer Court, causing him to pass by the 4 corners of the Court, at every corner of the Court was a Court. In the 4 corners of the Court were enclosed Courts, 40 long by 30 wide: these 4 in the corners were of one measure. There was a Wall around in them, around the 4, and boiling-places were made under the Walls around’. He said to him: ‘These are the boiling-houses, where the ministers of the House must boil the sacrifice of the People’.
14. He led Ezekiel back to the door of the House; waters issued out from under the doorway of the House eastward;…. When the Man went forth eastward with a line in His Hand,… He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, have yu seen this’? He caused him to return to the river’s bank, where on the river’s bank were many trees on both sides. He told him: ‘These waters flow toward the eastern region, flowing into the Arabah (desert, wilderness, south of the Dead Sea); flowing toward the sea which issued forth from it; healing waters. Every living creature which swarms, wherever the rivers flow, will live; there will be a great multitude of fish; for these waters flow there to heal, everything will live wherever the river flows. The fishers will stand near: from En-gedi (near the Dead Sea) to En-eglaim (perhaps continuing south in the Arabah towards the Gulf of Aqabah; if northward, then perhaps to the Sea of Galilee) will be a place for the spreading of nets; their catch will be fishes of every kind, as the fish of the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), so many. But its wetlands & marshes will not be healed; they’ll be given to salt. By its riverbank, on both sides, will grow every tree for food, whose leaf will not whither, neither its fruit fail: it will produce new fruit every month, because its waters flow from the Sanctuary; its fruit will be for food, its leaf for healing.
15. The border to divide the Land for inheritance according to the 12 Tribes of Israel: Joseph’s portions: You will inherit it, one each; for I swore to give it to your fathers: this Land will fall to you for inheritance. The border of the Land: On the North side, from the Great Sea, by the way of Hethlon, to the entrance of Zedad; Hamoth, Berothah, Sibraim, between the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauran’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazer-enon at the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauron’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazar-enon at Damascus’ border; on the north northward is Hamoth’s border. This the North side. The East side, between Hauran & Gilead, and the Land of Israel, will be the Jordan; from the border to the East Sea (Dead Sea) you’ll measure. This is the East side. The South side southward be for Tamar to the waters of Meriboth-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the South side southward. The West side will be the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), from the border to the entrance of Hamath. This the West side. So you’ll divide this Land to you according to the Tribes of Israel. You must divide it by lot for an inheritance to you & to the strangers who reside among you, who birth children among you; they must be the same as the native Children of Israel; they must have inheritance with you among the Tribes of Israel. In wherever Tribe the stranger resides, there you must give him his inheritance, says the Lord Jehovah’.
16. These are the names of the Tribes: From the North end, by the way of Hethlon to the entrance of Hamath, Hazar-enan at the border of Damascus, northward beside Hamath, (having both sides of east & west), Dan: 1.
Bordering Dan: east side to west side, Asher: 1.
Bordering Asher: east side to west side, Naphtali: 1
Bordering Naphtali: east side to west side, Manasseh: 1.
Bordering Manasseh: east side to west side, Ephraim: 1.
Bordering Ephraim: east side to west side, Reuben: 1.
Bordering Reuben: east side to west side, Judah: 1
Bordering Judah: east side to west side, will be the oblation which you must offer, 25,000 wide, and in length as one of the portions, from east side to west side: the Sanctuary will be in its center.

17. The oblation you’ll offer to Jehovah must be 20,000 in length, 10,000 in width. These for the Priests will be the Holy Oblation: northward: 25,000 in length; westward: 10,000 in width; eastward: 10,000 wide; southward: 25,000 long: the Sanctuary is in the middle. It’s for the sanctified Priests of Zadok’s sons, who kept My Charge not straying when the Children of Israel strayed, as the Levites went astray. It’s their oblation from the oblation of the Land, a thing Most Holy, by the border of the Levites. Corresponding to the Priests’ border, the Levites must have 25,000 in length, and 10,000 in width. They must not sell a part of it, nor exchange it, nor must the first-fruits of the Land be alienated; for its Holy to Jehovah. The 5,000 remaining of the width, in front of the 25,000, must be for common use, for the City, for welling & for suburbs; the City is centered in it. These are its measurements: the North side, the South side, the East side, & the West side must be 4,500 each. The City must have suburbs: northward, southward, eastward, & westward must be 250 each. The remnant in the length, matching to the Holy Oblation, must be 10,000 eastward& 10,000 westward; it must be matching to the Holy Oblation; and the surplus must be for food for the City workers. The City laborers from the Israel’s Tribes must till it. The oblation must be 25,000 by 25,000: you must offer the Holy Oblation four-square (25,000 x 4 = 100,000), with the City’s possession. The remnant must be for the Prince, on both sides of the Holy Oblation & the City’s possession; in front of the 25,000 of the oblation toward the East border, and westward in front of the 25,000 toward the West border, matching to the portions, it must be for the Prince: and the Holy Oblation & the Sanctuary of the House must be in its center.
Also, from the possession of the Levites, and from the City’s possession, being in the center of what belongs to the Prince, between the border of Judah & the border of Benjamin, it must be for the Prince. As for the rest of the Tribes: east side to west side, Benjamin: 1.
Bordering Benjamin: east side to west side, Simeon: 1.
Bordering Issachar: east side to west side, Zebulon: 1.
` Bordering Zebulon: east side to west side, Gad: 1.
Bordering Gad: at the south side southward, the border must be from Tamar to the waters of Meribah-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the Land which you must divide by lot to the Tribes of Israel for inheritance, these are their individual portions, says the Lord Jehovah. These are the egresses of the City: On the north side: 4,500 by measurement; the Gates of the City must be after the names of the Tribes of Israel:
3 Gates northward: Reuben’s Gate: 1; Judah’s Gate: 1; Levi’s Gate: 1.
East side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Joseph’s Gate: 1; Benjamin’s Gate: 1; Dan’s Gate: 1.
South side: 4,500 by measure: 3 Gates: Simeon’s Gate: 1; Issachar’s Gate: 1; Zebulun’s Gate: 1.
West side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Gad’s Gate: 1; Asher’s Gate: 1; Naphtali’s Gate: 1. It must be 18,000 around:

18. ‘the Name of the City from that day will be: Jehovah Shammah (The Lord is There)’.
Conclusions & Further Reflections on Ezekiel & the Major Prophets:

The Book of Ezekiel is divided by its dates, 14 dates of the years of Ezekiel’s prophetic word or message. These 14 dates are:
1. In the [his, my] 30th year, 4th month, 5th day,…
2. In the 5th of the month of the 5th year of King Jehoiachin’s Captivity (& coincides with Nebuchadnezzar’s 9th Regal Years, and the 9th Year of the 70 Years Captivity (the two always matching).
3. In the 6th year, in the 6th, on the 5th of the month
4. In the 7th year, 5th month, 10th day
5. Again, in the 9th year, the 10th month, the 10th of the month
6. In the 11th year, the 1st of the month
7. In the 10th year, on the 10th, in the 12th of the month
8. In the 27th year, in the 1st, on the 1st of the month
9. In the 11th year, in the 1st, on the 7th of the month
10. In the 11th year, in the 3rd, on the 1st of the month
11. In the 12th year, in the 12th month, on the 1st of the month,
12. In the 12th year, on the 15th of the month
13. In the 12th year of our Captivity, in the 10th, on the 10th of the month, that a Jerusalem refugee reported to Ezekiel: The City is smitten.
14. In the 25th year of our Captivity, in the beginning (first, 1st) of the year, on the 10th of the month, in the 14th year after the City was smitten, the very day,

There are several ways to divide the Book as to its contents, such as in the Selections we have given below. But the recorded dates are the intended divisions of Ezekiel’s prophecies. A careful & reading of the Text will easily convince the reader that there is reason & relation to the messages to the dates. We have divided the content of the Book by any other method than the 14 dates. The undated messages of Ezekiel’s prophetic word are given as a sub-division to the dated ones. It is seen in the first two & the last dated messages: numbers 1 & 2 includes chapters 1-7; number 14 includes chapters 40-48. Whether Ezekiel structured these messages or divisions as we know them, in their various order in various versions or manuscripts or copies, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin & other ancient languages, is not our concern in understanding the Text as it is commonly received. As we have said elsewhere that the order of the Hebrew Bible, the Tanakh, the Old Testament is arranged different than our Bibles, and the Latin Vulgate & the Greek Septuagint (LXX) adds the Apocryphal Books. Our interest is to discover what the Text reveals to our understanding of the Divine Word handed down to us. As with other divisions of the Sacred Scriptures, there our various types of divisions, such as the Generations of Genesis, as the 5 Books of Moses (the Pentateuch, the Chumash Torah); or the Bible, in Old Testament, divided into the Historical Books, Poetical, and Prophetic. These divisions may or not be helpful or accurate in some details, but are all instructive aspects of the Inspired Text.
In each Book of the Bible there is a peculiar property of its own, of which we labor to see & know. In the Books of the Three Major Prophets, are also distinct similarities & differences. Isaiah & Jeremiah are never called ‘the Son of Man’, but Ezekiel is called Son of Man some 90 times. The poetic style differs in each, Isaiah the most, then Jeremiah (excluding his Lamentations), then Ezekiel. But in all three the Parallelism as seen in the Poetic Books of Psalms – Solomon’s Songs is distinctly used as essential to Hebrew poetry. To understand the prophetic word of the prophets, we must notice & understand the poetic words & lines & verses. In contrast Isaiah & Jeremiah, the Messianic types & figures are more concealed, Ezekiel by his prophetic name prefigures the Christ as the Son of Man. The predictive aspect of his prophecies are fewer than the former two prophets. As with the former two the historical elements of the prophetic word in this Book continues as theirs. Ezekiel like Daniel deals with the Babylonian power as a dispensational change of divine government. The Assyrian power still continued, but God was involved with Babylon because it was the power used to judge the Monarchy of Judah in the Davidic Throne. As Babylon expanded its imperial arm, first against Assyria then Egypt, it swallowed up Israel & Judah, along with all the bordering countries. God was not impeding this nation, but on the contrary had predicted Babylon’s King to be His Servant upon all the Gentiles & His People. The entire global ministry of the Gentiles subjugation of the Jews was only retributive punishment of deserved justice & judgment.
To illustrate & compare the dimensions of cubits or reeds I’ve made this Chart or Table:

Chart: Cubic or Reeds: (Cubic = 2 Feet; Reed = 12 Feet) Each: . = cubit or reed; : = 5 cubits or reeds.

[In WordPress this chart is not properly reproduced; the reader must go the the PDF or Word to see it displayed properly, as well as the colors, etc.]
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30 . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . : . . . . 30
We must here consider in our Reflection the Gentile Times & Power in a larger manner, as it is revealed in the Major Prophets. The trine nature of the divine purpose in God’s interest in humanity is intrinsic to His original creation of man (Adam). It is again taken up in the Three Sons of Noah as the Gentiles or Nations. The Covenant made, as we have often said, was a new dispensation that would continue to the end of the Bible, although undergoing changes. The trine humanity in the world developed slowly, with countless variety of shapes, colors, sizes, forms, abilities, etc. The world was a Gentile world spread everywhere. The Hebrews descending from Abraham, descendant of Shem of Noah of Adam of God. He choose Abram of Ur of the Chaldees; through him by union with a Hagar the Egyptian (his wife’s maid or slave); with Sarah is wife & half-sister; with Keturah his concubine after Sarah’s death, the descendants of this union were the Arab tribes. The Middle-East is the Semitic & Hebrew center of the earth. The ancient or earliest Mesopotamians in Shinar, the ancient Egyptians & their neighbors; and other ancient centers of people from whom the present nations, races, peoples, and such, are derived. Likewise the global languages starting as on simple communication from a primal tongue or speech, became branches innumerable with certain clear recognizable relations & history.
From Abraham, Isaac, & Jacob (Israel) came the Israelites in 12 Tribes led by Moses out of Egypt. This people & nation were chosen by God (Jehovah Elohim) to be His special children, and constituted by miracles, laws, customs & traditions, to be a theocratic society governed by visible written word, as a code of laws & the like. The original institution of the Tabernacle, priesthood, the Ten Commandments, the Mosaic laws & requirements would also undergo changes in the Old Testament, and continue through the New Testament. The Temple as God’s House, His Sanctuary & Dwelling place, was an enlargement of the Tabernacle, with many changes. In the return exiles from their Babylonian Captivity rebuilt a Temple that was inferior to King Solomon’s great Temple (the Jews say in at least 5 points: Ark of the Covenant, Shechinah, Urim & Thummim, Holy Fire upon the Altar, & Spirit of Prophecy.); this 2nd Temple is called Zerubbabel’s Temple, finished at the close of the Old Testament, whose later history is uncertain many ways, till we get to the so-called 3rd Temple of Herod the Great, the Idumean as we encounter in the New Testament. It was not a new Temple but a rebuilt one, with many changes, some superior to the 2nd Temple, but inferior in other ways, lacking more items of Solomon’s Temple. But in Ezekiel in chapters 40-48 is revealed a New Temple, the Third Temple with distinct designs & new features. This 3rd Temple has never been built, not even attempted. The conditions to build such a Great & Holy Temple were never ever met by Israel. It was ever an Ideal Temple to shame the Jews of ways that led to the destruction of Solomon’s Temple. There are those who sigh to build such a Temple, but it is a useless sigh & expectation. It was Plan & Pattern never used or constructed. To say more of this at this point of our Reflections is unwise.
The prophetic word concerning & against Gog of Magog, & his allies or companions is of similar instance; predictive features must be balanced by the responsive rule of the relations to Lord & to Israel. The northern alliance to the distant north first northern Syria, then Turkey, then Russia; the land & people of ancient Turkey (Anatolia or Asia Minor & Thrace); and the land of Syria or Assyria have been the primary northern powers against Israel for several hundred years. The slow but steady southern migration of the northern tribes & people were always a pending threat, in time they descended as a power as with the Assyrians. The geography was the regions south of the Black Sea, spreading east & west as they migrated down or invaded. Those who see Russia as the Northern Power have much to explain both historically & biblically. The Medes & Persians were the newest power that dominated the Middle East at the close of the Old Testament. The primary message was directed against Israel & Judah, & her neighbors near & far. At any time the doom cold be averted by Divine Intervention, and that was the ministry of the Major Prophets in fuller manner than some of the earlier Minor Prophets.

A few final words as to the Major Prophets preparatory to the close of the Old Testament in laying the foundation of Daniel & the later of the Minor Prophets. Daniel being the last of the Old Testament prophets ‘Son of Man.’; and only once. Ezekiel had already signaled out Daniel in his Book; as also the Lord Jesus would in the Gospels. But it was the Gentiles’ place that the Major Prophets revealed in relations to Daniel International & Global concerns. I have no intention to write a commentary, degerming for the reader the meaning of the Text; rather a desire to share my results of the 50 years in reflections, meditations, study, research, & reading of the Bible. I am thankful to have reached this far in Old Testament Books. We are now ready to conclude the Old Testament in the Book of Daniel and the Books of the Minor Prophets.
Selections relevant to the Reflections on the Book of Ezekiel:
Ezekiel Selections (13): Calvin, Greenhill, Lowth, Fairbairn, Hengstenberg, Keil, Wordsworth, Lange, Redpath, Gaebelein, Bennett, Sulley, Smith, & Grant.
(1)
Commentary & Lectures on Book of Prophet Ezekiel, Chapters 1-20, Lectures 1-65. Volume 1 & 2. Jean (John) Calvin. 1st Translated from Original Latin, Collated with French Version, Thomas Myers, Vicar of Sheriff-Hutton, Yorkshire. (1560.1849.1850.2010). gs.as.ccel.org & bibletruthforum.com

{{“Translator’s Preface: “An Interest of no ordinary kind is excited in the mind of the Biblical Student by the mention of ”Calvin’s Lectures On Ezekiel.” The last Work which a great man leaves unfinished, because arrested by the hand of death, becomes at once an heirloom to posterity. After the lapse of nearly three hundred years, we read this affecting sentence with a tear and a sigh: (“After finishing this last Lecture (65th, Chapter 20), that most illustrious man, John Calvin, the Divine, who had previously been sick, then began to be so much weaker that he was compelled to recline on a couch, and could no longer proceed with the explanation of Ezekiel. This accounts for his stopping at the close of the Twentieth Chapter, and not finishing the work so auspiciously begun. Nothing remains, kind Reader, but that you receive most favorably and graciously what is now sent forth to the world.”) “….”As to the Genuineness Of Ezekiel’s Writings, it has never been seriously called in question by the learned, either Jew or Christian. Some self-sufficient Critics have impugned the last nine chapters: Their valueless arguments will be found, by those who wish to search for such unsatisfactory materials, in Rosenmuller, while their refutation is completed by Jahn, in his Introduction to the Sacred Books of the Old Testament, and is rendered accessible to the mere English reader by Hartwell Horne. So little weight, however, is attached to such opinions, that even Gesenius allows a “oneness of tone” to be so conspicuous throughout Ezekiel’s Prophecies, as to forbid the suspicion that any portions of them are not genuine. This Book formed part of the Canon in the Catalogues of Melito and Origen, of Jerome and of the Talmud. Josephus, indeed, refers to two Books of Ezekiel, probably dividing his ‘prophecies’ into two parts. His language has necessarily given rise to some discussion, which Eichhorn has set at rest as satisfactorily as the data will allow. The Arrangement Of The Various Predictions has been the subject of a variety of opinions. Some have supposed that Chronological Order has been interfered with, and that different collections of the separate Prophecies might be made with advantage. But Havernick, in his valuable Commentary, published as late as 1843, maintains that the present arrangement is correct. It proceeds, he asserts, in the order of time, and connects, as it ought to do, the Prophecies against foreign nations with those against Israel and Judah. Hence he divides the Book into the following nine Sections: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Call to Prophetic Office. (1-3:15).
2. Symbolical Representations Foretelling Destruction of Judah & Jerusalem. (4:16-7).
3. Series of Visions, Year & 2 Months Later than Former: Temple Polluted by Worship of Adonis, Consequent Vengeance on Priests & People, & Prospect of Happier Times & Purer Worship. (8-11).
4. Series of Reproofs & Warnings Against Prevailing Sins & Prejudices of his Day. (12-19).
5. Another Series of Warnings, One Year Later, still Announcing Coming Judgments. (20-23).
6. Predictions, 2 Years & 5 Months Later, Announcing Very Day of Siege of Jerusalem, & Assuring Captives of its Complete Overthrow. (24.)
7. Predictions Against Foreign Nations. (25-32.)
8. After Destruction of City, Future Triumph of Kingdom of God on Earth. (33-39).
9. Symbolic Representations of Times of Messiah, & Prosperity of Kingdom of God. (40-48).
There is a negative merit in Calvin’s Lectures, which has not been imitated by some later Commentators. He never makes those observations on Ezekiel’s Style & Diction which would reduce him to the level of a merely human writer. Grotius & Eichhorn, Lowth & Michaelis dwell on his erudition & genius, and assign him the same rank among the Hebrews which Aeschylus holds among the Greeks. They praise his knowledge of architecture, and his skill in oratory. They call him bold, vehement, tragical; “in his sentiments elevated, wars, bitter, indignant; in his images fertile, magnificent, harsh, and sometimes almost deformed; in his diction grand, weighty, austere, rough, and sometimes uncultivated; abounding in repetition, not for the sake of ornament & gracefulness, but through indignation & violence.” Such language as this clearly implies a very different view of the Prophet’s character & mission from that taken by Calvin. He looked upon him as a grand instrument in the hands of the Most High, and would have instinctively felt it to be profane thus to reduce him to the level of the Poets & Seers of heathenism. In this feeling we ought to concur. The modern method of criticizing the style & matter of the Hebrew Prophets deserves our warmest reprobation. They are too often treated as if their thoughts & their language were only of human origin. Their visions, their metaphors, & their parables, are submitted to the crucible of a worldly alchemy, in entire forgetfulness that these men were the special messengers of God.”…… “Comparing the Interpretations of Calvin with those of modern Continental Divines, we have no reason to conclude that the views of the great Reformer have been superseded. The progress of Biblical Criticism during the last 800 years has indeed been accompanied with some clearer views of the details, but the fundamental principles of these ‘Lectures on Ezekiel’ have never been successfully impugned. The Miracles of the Old Testament have been boldly assailed, both at home & abroad, and no slight outpouring of infidel wrath has fallen upon the Calvin interpretation of those of Ezekiel. Germany, the birthplace of the Reformation, has been also the seed-bed of spurious Rationalism. The novelty of any opinion on Biblical subjects has now become a sufficient atonement for its absurdity, and he receives the greatest applause from the many, who casts farthest from him whatsoever has commanded the veneration of ages. The direct interposition of Jehovah’s power in the affairs of men, as related in the writings of the Hebrews, has lately exercised the ingenuity of German skeptics to an almost incredible extent. The mysticism of the School of Schelling has rivaled the extravagancies of the theory of accommodation proposed by the celebrated Semler.”” ……}}

Lecture: Commentary:
{{Ezekiel 1:1-2: “We see that the Prophet was called to the office of a Teacher in the fifth (5th) year after Jehoiachin had voluntarily surrendered himself to the king of Babylon, (2nd Kings 24:15); and had been dragged into exile, together with his mother: for it was, says he, “in the thirtieth (30th) year.” The greater part of the Commentators follow the Chaldee Paraphrast, and understand him to date from the finding of the Book of the Law. It is quite clear, that this year was the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah; but in my computation, I do not subscribe to the opinion of those who adopt this date. For this phrase –“the thirtieth year (30th),” would then appear too obscure and forced. We nowhere read that succeeding writers adopted this date as a standard. Besides, there is no doubt that the usual method among the Jews was to begin to reckon from a Jubilee. For this was a point of starting for the future. I therefore do not doubt that this thirtieth (30th) year is reckoned from the Jubilee. Nor is my opinion a new one; for Jerome makes mention of it, although he altogether rejects it, through being deceived by an opposite opinion. But since it is certain that the Jews used this method of computation, and made a beginning from ‘Jobel’, that is, the Jubilee, this best explains the thirtieth (30th) year. If anyone should object, that we do not read that this eighteenth (18th) year of king Josiah was the usual year in which everyone returned to his own lands, (Leviticus 25) and liberty was given to the slaves, and the entire restoration of the whole people took place, yet the answer is easy, although we cannot ascertain in what year the ‘Jobel’ fell, it is sufficient for us to assign the Jubilee to this year, because the Jews followed the custom of numbering their years from this institution. As, then, the Greeks had their Olympiads, the Romans their Consuls, and thence their computation of annals; so also the Hebrews were accustomed to begin from the year ‘Jobel’, when they counted their years on to the next restoration, which I have just mentioned. It is therefore probable that this was a Jubilee year –it is probable, then, that this was the Jubilee. For it is said that Josiah celebrated the Passover with such magnificent pomp and splendor, that there had been nothing like it since the time of Samuel (2nd Chronicles 35:18). The conjecture which best explains this is, not that he celebrated the Passover even with such magnificence, but that he was induced to do so by the peculiar occasion, when the people were restored and returned to their possessions, and the slaves were set free. Since, then, this was the Jubilee, the pious king was induced to celebrate the Passover with far greater splendor than was usual –nay, even to surpass David and Solomon. Again, although he reigned thirteen (13) years afterwards, we do not read that he celebrated any Passover with remarkable splendor. We do not doubt as to his yearly celebration; for this was customary (2nd Kings 23:23). From this we conclude that the celebration before us was extraordinary, and that the year was ‘Jobel’. But though it is not expressed in Scripture, it is sufficient for us that the Prophet reckoned the years according to the accustomed manner of the people. For he says that this was “the fifth (5th) year of king Jehoiachin’s captivity:” who is called also Jehoiakim; for Jehoiakim succeeded Josiah, and reigned eleven years. The thirteen (13) years which remain of Josiah’s reign and these eleven (11), make twenty-four (24) (2nd Kings 23:36). Now, “his successor,” Jehoiachin, passed immediately into the hands of king Nebuchadnezzar, and was taken captive at the beginning of his reign, and reigned only three or four months (2nd Kings 24:8). After that, the last king, Zedekiah, was set up by the will of the king of Babylon. We see, therefore, that nine (9) years are made up: add the space of the reign of Jehoiachin: so it is no longer doubtful as to the reckoning of “the thirtieth (30th) year” from the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah. It is true that the Law of God was found during this year, (2nd Chronicles 34:14,) but the Prophet here accommodates himself to the received rule and custom.”……”Before I proceed any farther, I will briefly touch on the subjects which Ezekiel treats. He has all things in common with Jeremiah, as I have said, with this peculiarity, that he denounces the last slaughter against the people, because they ceased not to heap iniquity upon iniquity, and thereby inflamed still more and more the vengeance of God. He threatens them, therefore, and that not once only, because such was the hard-heartedness of the people, that it was not enough to utter the threatenings of God three or four times, unless he should continually impress them. But, at the same time, he shows the causes why God determined to treat his people so severely; namely, because they were contaminated with many superstitions, because they were perfidious, avaricious, cruel, and full of rapine, given up to luxury and depraved by lust: all these things are united by our Prophet, that he may show that the vengeance of God is not too severe, since the people had arrived at the very last pitch of impiety and all wickedness. At the same time, he gives them, here and there, some taste of the mercy of God. For all threats are vain, unless some promise of favor is held out. Nay, the vengeance of God, as soon as it is displayed, drives men to despair, and despair casts them headlong into madness: for as soon as anyone apprehends the anger of God, he is necessarily agitated, and then, like a raging beast, he wages war with God Himself. For this reason, I said, that all threats are vain without a taste of the mercy of God. The Prophets always argue with men with no other intention than that of stirring them up to penitence, which they could never effect unless God could be reconciled to those who had been alienated from Him. This then is the reason why our Prophet, as well as Jeremiah, when they reprove the people, temper their asperity by the interposition of promises. He also prophesies against heathen nations, like Jeremiah, especially against the children of Ammon, the Moabites, the Tyrians, the Egyptians, and the Assyrians (Jeremiah 26-29). But from the fortieth (40th) chapter he treats more fully and copiously concerning the restoration of the Temple and the city. He there professedly announces, that a new state of the people would arise, in which both the royal dignity would flourish again, and the priesthood would recover its ancient excellence, and, to the end of the book, he unfolds the singular benefits of God, which were to be hoped for after the close of the seventy (70) years. Here it is useful to remember what we observed in the case of Jeremiah: (Jeremiah 28) while the false Prophets were promising the people a return after three or five years, the true Prophets were predicting what would really happen, that the people might submit themselves patiently to God, and that length of time might not interrupt their calm submission to his just corrections. As we now understand what our Prophet is treating, and the tendency as well as the substance of his teaching, I will proceed with the context.” ……}}

Notes & Comments by Editor: Promised Contribution: Complete Apparatus Criticus Arranged (See Translator’s Preface, Volume 1): Sections:
1-3: Indexes: End of Vol. 4-7: Follow One Another. Vol. 8: Is Preceded By Its Own “List of Contents.”
Complete Synopsis of Contents of Whole of Ezekiel’s Prophecies: 1. Prophet’s Commission.
2. Prophet’s Utterances. 3. Prophet’s Consolations.

Ezekiel: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Prophet’s Commission: (1-3):
Section 1. Its Allegoric Character: Whirlwinds; Four Living Creatures; Wheels; Firmaments; Throne & Human Appearance Seated Thereon, (1).
Section 2. Address: Roll; Abounding Lamentation, (2).
Section 3. Rebellion of People; Motion of Living Creatures; Charge as Watchman; Hand of Jehovah by River Chebar, (3).
2. Prophet’s Utterances: (4-32):
A. Against Jews: (4-24): Utterances Against Jews are Divisible into those Against Jerusalem: Mountain & Land of Israel; King; False Prophets; Elders of People, & Various Repetitions, & Different Images.
Section 1. Emblem of Siege upon Tile, (4:1-3): Lying on Right & Left Side, (4:4-8); Taking Food by Measure, (4:9-12); Explanation, (4:13-17).
Section 2. Emblem of Razor, (4:1-4); Explanation, (5:5-17).
Section 3. Against Mountains of Israel, (6:1-15).
Section 4. Against Land of Israel, (7:1-27).
Section 5. Vision of Image of Jealousy, (8:1-11); Chamber of Imagery, (8:12-16); Explanation, (8:17,18).
Section 6. Vision of Man with Slaughter Weapon, (9:1-11).
Section 7. Vision of Cherubim: Description & Motions, (10:1-22).
Section 8. Emblems of Caldron & Flesh: Application to Jerusalem, (11:1-25).
Section 9. Emblem of Prophet’s Removing his Goods, & its Interpretation, (12:1-16).
Section 10. Flattering Proverb of Israel rebuked, (12:1 7-28).
Section 11. Utterance Against False Prophets, Male & Female, (13:1-23).
Section 12. Against Elders of People, (14:1-23).
Section 13. Emblem of Vine used for Fuel, (15:1-8).
Section 14. Emblem of Israel as Outcast Infant Nurtured by Almighty, (16:1-14); Married, yet Committing Adultery, (16:15-34). This Wickedness Denounced & Punished, (16:35-59). Almighty’s Merciful Relenting, (16:60-63).
Section 15. Emblem of Eagle & Cedar, (17:1-10); Explanation, Referring to Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar, &
Pharaoh, (17:11-24).
Section 16. Vindication of Divine Justice, & Confutation of Israel’s Proverb, (18:1-32).
Section 17. Emblem of Lioness & her Whelps, (19:1-9).
Section 18. Emblem of Vine Plucked Up & Consumed, (19:10-14).
Section 19. Elders of Israel Rebuked for Their Sins, (20:1-32).
Section 20. Divine Promises of Restoration, (20:33-44).
Section 21. Word Dropped toward South, (20:45-49).
Section 22. Prophet’s Face Set toward Jerusalem, (21:1-7).
Section 23. Sharp Sword & Great Slaughter, (21:8-27).
Section 24. Sword Drawn Against Ammonites, (21:98-32).
Section 25. Sins of Jerusalem & God’s Vengeance, (22:1-22).
Section 26. Woes Uttered Against False Prophets, (22:23-31).
Section 27. Adulteries of People, (23:1-49).
Section 28. Parable of Boiling Pot, (24:1-14); Prophet’s Severe Affliction, (24:15-27).
B. Utterances Against Gentiles: (25-32):
Section 1. Against Ammonites, (25:1-7).
Section 2. Against Moabites, (25:8-11).
Section 3. Against the Edomites, (25:12-14).
Section 4. Against Philistines, (25:15-17).
Section 5. Against Tyre, through (26-28:19).
Section 6. Against Zidon, Ezekiel (28:20-26).
Section 7. Against Pharaoh, (29:1-7).
Section 8. Against Egypt, (29:8-21).
Section 9. Against Ethiopia, (30:1-5).
Section 10. Against Upholders of Egypt, (30:6-19).
Section 11. Against Pharaoh, Ezekiel (30:20-26).
Section 12. Assyria as Cedar of Lebanon, (31:1-9).
Section 13. Its Fall & Destruction, (31:10-18).
Section 14. Bitter Lamentation over Egypt, (32:1-21).
Section 15. Bitter Lamentation over Assyria. (32:22,23).
Section 16. Bitter Lamentation over Elam, (32:24,25).
Section 17. Bitter Lamentation over Meshech & Tubal, (32:26-28).
Section 18. Bitter Lamentation over Edom, (32:29-32).
(These Utterances are all most vividly and graphically portrayed. Allegories, Metaphors, &
Parables are most appropriately interspersed with fiery Denunciations & awful Threatenings in
consequence of gross iniquities.)
3. Prophet’s Consolations: (33-48): Series of Exhortations & Promises of Deliverance under Cyrus, Description of Temple, & View of Future Divisions of Land under Prosperous Reign of Messiah.
Section 1. Prophet’s Duty as Watchman, (33:1-16).
Section 2. Vindication of God’s Equity, (33:17-33).
Section 3. Reproof to Shepherds of People, (34:1-10).
Section 4. Almighty Good Shepherd, (34:11-31).
Section 5. Desolation of Mount Seir, (35:1-15).
Section 6. Destruction of Heathen, (36:1-7).
Section 7. Blessings on Israel, (36:8-38).
Section 8. Vision of Dry Bones, (37:1-14).
Section 9. Rods of Judea & Ephraim, (37:15-20).
Section 10. Future Reign of David King, (37:21-28).
Section 11. Prophecies Against Gog & Magog, (38:1-23).
Section 12. Judgments upon Gog, (39:1-16).
Section 13. Great Sacrifice on Mountains, (39:17-20).
Section 14. Israel Restored from Captivity, (39:21-29).
Section 15. Vision of Measuring the Temple, (40:1-49).
Section 16. Measures & Ornaments, (41:1-26).
Section 17. Priests’ Chambers & Outer Court, (42:1-20).
Section 18. Returning Glory of Jehovah, (43:1-9).
Section 19. Whole Fashion of House, (43:10-12).
Section 20. Measurement of Altar, (43:13-17).
Section 21. The Sacrifices on Altar, (43:8-27).
Section 22. Various Ordinances for Priests, (44:1-31).
Section 23. Apportionment of Land, (45:1-8).
Section 24. Duties of Priests, (45:9-25).
Section 25. Duties of Prince & of People, (46:1-25).
Section 26. Vision of Rising Waters, (47:1-12).
Section 27. Divisions & Limits of Land, (47:13-23).
Section 28. Portions for Tribes & Priests, (48:1-29).
Section 29. Various Gates of City, (48:30-35).
(These closing Visions & Consolations are singularly striking, and afford scope for copious illustration; but as our Commentator did not live to expound them, it would not become his Translator to obtrude on the reader his own research into these deep things of the Spirit of God. A minute description of the Temple Scenery has been attempted by a learned Jew, Soloman Bennett, R.A. of Berlin, (Edit. London, 1834.) His work contains a most elaborate account of every interesting particular. Ezekiel 40, Ezekiel 41, and Ezekiel 42 are explained verse by verse; and a ground-plan and bird’s-eye view are subjoined. These chapters are also explained by Fry on the Second Advent, volume 1. Section 13.)” }}

(2) Exposition of Prophet Ezekiel & Useful Observations. Delivered in Several Lectures in London, (1650-1654-1662). William Greenhill, Rector of Stepney, & Chaplain to Dukes of York & Gloucester, & Lady Henrietta Maria. Revised & Corrected, James Sherman, Minister of Surrey Chapel. (1839). gs.pdf

{{ “Advertisement: The Rev. William Greenhill, the learned and pious author of the following Exposition, was born in the year 1581, of humble parents residing in Oxfordshire. As early as the age of thirteen he entered a student of Magdalen College, Oxford, in the condition of Servitor, and when he had completed his twenty-first year, took his degree of Master of Arts. In 1643 he acted as one of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, and about the same time was made afternoon lecturer at Stepney church. Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs preached there in the morning at seven o’clock, and Mr. Greenhill in the afternoon at three, and were hence styled “the Morning Star” and “the Evening Star” of Stepney. He was chosen to be chaplain to the dukes of York and Gloucester, and the Lady Henrietta Maria, and in the year 1656 had the living of Stepney presented to him. Calamy says, “He was a worthy man, and much valued for his great learning and unwearied labours.” Howe styles him “that eminent servant of God, Mr. Greenhill, whose praise is still in the churches.” His Exposition of the Prophecy of Ezekiel was delivered in Lectures in the city of London, which were attended by many of the chief personages of his day, and have been long and deservedly valued. They were originally printed a volume at a time, as the lectures on a few chapters were concluded, till five small quarto volumes completed the Exposition. Happy that biblical student thought himself who could obtain a perfect copy, although it has been sold at the enormous price of from seven to ten pounds. The last volume is rarely to be obtained; and is supposed to have been destroyed in the calamitous fire of London. No pains or expense have been spared to render this edition complete. It could hardly be expected that in a work of this magnitude no errors should inadvertently have been overlooked, but, from the most careful examination, it is confidently expected they will scarcely be found. Believing that the reader of Greenhill would not thank any editor who might attempt to beautify his style, the reviser has been anxious that he might appear again in his own garb of 1650, and not in the more polite dress of 1837. His style is abrupt, not always chaste, often imperfect, and full of singularities; yet searching, bold, striking, and effective. An attempt to improve it would most likely enfeeble it, and shear it of its point and power……As a practical expositor of Ezekiel, whose prophecy contains many things “hard to be understood,” Greenhill will ever rank deservedly high. He fully explains the meaning of the prophet, and then applies the truth to the consciences of his auditory by many most pertinent and heart-searching observations. It is impossible that a prayerful mind can read this exposition, without growing “in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.” J. Sherman. ‘Surrey Chapel’,
‘January’ 26’th’, 1837.”}}

{{“Epistles Dedicatory: [Prefixed, Original Edition, Part Containing Chap. 1-5.]

“To the Excellent Princess, & Most Hopeful Lady, the Princess Elizabeth, Her Highness. May it Please Your Highness,…..Doubtless God’s eye is upon your Highness, for that good which is found in you in these your tender years, and is well pleased that your sweetness of nature and choiceness of wit are joined with desire to know him, with love to his worship, affection to the godly, and delight in such sentences as these are, viz.: “Chairete en Kuriö pavtote, palin erö, Chairete.” “Deus meus et omnia”. “La mia Grandezza dal Eccelso”.
All which, with these precious speeches of yours, “I had rather be a beggar here than not go to heaven,” and, “How shall I be sure to go to heaven?” are acceptable to the Highest, and make strong impressions upon us inferiors. Your desire to know the original tongues, that you may understand the Scripture the better; your resolution to write them out with your own princely hand, and to come to the perfect knowledge of them, breed in us hopes that you will exceed all of your sex, and be without equal in Europe; as Drusius said of his son, who at five years learned Hebrew, and at twelve wrote it ‘extempore’, both in prose and verse. Encouraging instances your own sex will afford. Eustochium profited so much in the Latin, Hebrew, and Greek, that in her time she was called the wonder of the world. Istrina, queen of the Scythians, so excelled in Greek, that she taught her sons the Greek tongue. Zenobia, queen of the Palmyrenians, was skilled in the Latin, Egyptian, and Greek tongues; she read the Roman story in Greek, abridged the Alexandrian and all the oriental histories. Politian hath an epistle to Cassandra, a Venetian maid, whom he calls the glory of Italy. Her delight was not in wool, but books; not in the spindle or needle, but in the pen; not in paint, but in ink: she wrote epistles and orations to admiration; she excelled in logic and philosophy, and had such perfections, as caused the learned to admire, if not adore her. Queen Elizabeth was so learned, that she read every author in the original, and answered ambassadors of most nations in their own language: she went twice to Oxford, and once to Cambridge, purposely to hear the learned academical disputations, where herself made Latin orations: she translated Sallust, and wrote a century of sentences: she set apart some hours daily to read, or hear others read to her : she so excelled in learning and wisdom, that her teachers rather learned of her than brought learning to her. Your Highness seems to aim at all the excellences in the prementioned; for your writing out the Lord’s Prayer in Greek, some texts of Scripture in Hebrew, your endeavour after the exact knowledge of those holy tongues, with other languages and learned accomplishments, your diligent hearing of the word, careful noting of sermons, understanding answers at the catechising, and frequent questioning about holy things, do promise great matters from you. If the harvest be answerable to the spring, your Highness will be the wonder of the learned, and glory of the godly. It is my unhappiness that I cannot be sufficiently adjuvant to such princely beginnings; yet because this following treatise is an exposition of Scripture, I take the boldness to present it to your Highness, and shall continue to pray to him who is All, and able to give all, that he would preserve your royal person, bless your hopeful endeavours, fill you with all divine perfections, make you a chief praise in Israel, and fit you for an eternal weight of glory. Your Highness’s most humble servant, William Greenhill.”}}

{{“To All Well-Willers of Truth; Especially to the Authors Fautors of the Expository Lectures in this City: …..”Robert Stephen mentions one, and that a Sarbonist, who had lived above fifty years, and knew not what the New Testament meant: and have not sundry persons among us lived their fifty years, and not known what Ezekiel meant P hath he not been a book clasped and sealed unto them? If this hieroglyphical prophet have been a wonder to all for his visions, yet he hath been known to few, by reason of the abstruseness of his visions, which have kept off great rabbies from employing their talents to open them. If weakness and error be found in these poor labours of mine, I entreat you to remember, I have been among prophetical deeps and difficulties, which may plead for him who, knowing his own insufficiencies, came invita Minerva to this task. If any light appear for the better understanding of these enigmatical things, I must say with Daniel, there is a God in heaven which revealeth mysteries, to him be all the glory, Dan. ii. 28. My prayers shall be to him who enlighteneth every man which cometh into the world, that he would anoint your eyes with eye-salve, whereby you may daily see more into the great and glorious truths of God, and those things which may strongly make for your eternal peace and comfort. So prayeth Your friend and servant in the Lord, W. G.}}

1:5: “What these living creatures are, is the great dispute among expositors. Some make them to be the four covenants of God: 1. That with Adam. 2. That with Noah. 3. That with Moses. 4. That with the apostles. Some make them to be all the creatures. Some, the four cardinal virtues, justice, wisdom, fortitude, temperance. Some, the four faculties in the soul; the rational, irascible, concupiscible, and conscience. Some, the four chief passions; joy, grief, hope, and fear. Some, the four monarchies; Assyrian, Persian, Grecian, and Roman. Some, the twelve tribes of Israel, in their stations, east, west, north, south, when in the wilderness. Some, the four elements, of which man’s body doth consist. Some, the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; and this being the opinion of Jerome and Gregory the great, prevailed much, but now is deserted. Others understand by these four creatures, those who are complete and more perfect in the church. Others expound them to be Christ; but Christ is brought in, in the latter end of the chapter, sitting upon the throne: these creatures are some distinct ones from Him, and inferior to Him. By them then we are to understand the angels, which have a great part under God in the government of the world. The word (chaiyoth) living creatures, doth not only signify a creature that is corporeal, living, and sensible; but it denotes any living being or substance, whether corporeal or spiritual: and so Tully calls ‘intelligentias animales’, living intelligences, in Quest. Acad. l. 4. The best interpreters go this way, and understand by the living creatures, ‘exercitus invisibiles’, principalities and powers, and we need not fetch light from men, where the Scripture gives interpretation itself. Ezek. 10, there you have frequent mention of cherubims, which were these living creatures; for ver. 8, it is said, “There appeared the form of a man’s hand under their wings.” They had the same faces, one excepted, and as many, ver. 14, and Ezekiel saith, ver. 15, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar.” And more plain yet in ver. 20, “This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar, and I knew that they were the cherubims.” Although he called it before the living creature, in the singular number, yet here he changeth the number, and saith, they were the cherubims. We may trust Ezekiel’s judgment, he was guided by the Spirit, and his cherubims do hold forth the same parties to us, that Isaiah’s seraphims did to him. The word cherub notes generally any figure of man or beast, say the Hebrews, but especially the figure of a young man or a child, with wings stretched out, Exod. 25. Such were the two cherubims before the ark. The Chaldeans call a little child, ‘rabi’; or ‘rabia’; whence some derive the word cherubim, ‘quasi cherabia’, as a little child; others fetch it from ‘caph’, which notes likeness, and ‘rob’ or ‘rab’, which words signify, as, in general, quality and quantity, so multitude and magnitude; so that cherubims etymologized are ‘tanquam multi et magni’, as it were many and great. The word cherub notes not only angels, but angels as they appeared and were figured with any external form of man or beast, and such figures were hieroglyphical, as here in this vision. The prophet saw not these cherubims, or angels, or living creatures, but the likeness of them. For the nature of spirits is invisible; no soul, no angel, neither God himself, can be seen. How then is their likeness presented to the prophet? (They are (aölos [a-holoi (incomplete) = asömatos (bodiless)], incorporeal, without flesh and bones, Luke 24:39. They are pure as God is, ‘actus purissimus’.) It is no bodily likeness, but a likeness in life, quality, and motion. But the text saith, “They had the likeness of a man,” that is, not in his nature and essence, but in some qualities; they had the face, hands, thighs, and legs of a man, all which set out some choice qualities in the angels. They had also something of the beast and bird. And if they were in nature like the living creatures, angels were strange monsters, and not spirits in compound. By their likeness unto man is laid before us the rationality, knowledge, and understanding of angels. They are not ignorant creatures, but ‘ipsae intelligentiae’, the most understanding creatures in heaven or earth. 2nd Sam. 15:20, the widow of Tekoah told David, he was wise according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth; that is, he was very wise, as the angels are, to search out, understand, and discover things. Therefore Jerome thinks they are called cherubims from their much knowledge. (A multitudine scientiae; Cherubim quasi cherabbim.) Cherubims, as it were, rabbies, doctors, teachers of others; and this office some angels have had. Dan. 8:16, “Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision;” and chap. 10:14, “I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days.” They have prophetical knowledge in them, and a treasury of things that are past and done long since. Rev. 4:6, 8, there is mention of four beasts or living creatures, (the same with these in Ezekiel,) full of eyes before and behind, because they see and know what is past, and what is before them; their natural knowledge is great, being such excellent spirits.” ……}}
(3) Commentary upon Larger & Lesser Prophets: being a Continuation Bishop Patrick, by William Lowth, B.D. Prebendary of Winchester. 4th Edition. (1739).

Dedication to the Right Honourable & Right Reverend Father in God, Jonathan, Lord Bishop of Winchester, & Prelate of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
{{ “My Lord, The chief Design of the following Work, which I humbly offer to Your Lordship, is to assert the Ancient and Catholick Sense of several Texts of the Prophet, whom I undertake to explain, and vindicate them from some Novel Expositions, which tend to deprive the Christian Religion of the Benefit of so considerable a Testimony: And I humbly beg Leave to present to Your Lordship this small Acknowledgment of my Duty and Observance, as a Member of Your ‘Cathedral’, and Minister of a ‘Parish Church’ of Your ‘Diocese’ and ‘Patronage’, and to which Your Lordship hath been pleased to be a ‘Benefactor’, when it lately suffered under a great Calamity. How mean soever the Performance may be, I hope the Design of it may in some Measure recommend it to Your Lordship’s Patronage, which is to illustrate this Evangelical Prophet, who, by the general Consent of former Ages, hath been placed at the Head of that Noble Order: A Person, whose Supernatural Gift of Prophecy added a new Lustre to the Greatness of his Birth, and whose liberal Education furnished him with a Noble Eloquence, and suitable to the Dignity of his Argument. The same Holy Spirit, who sometimes spake to the World by Shepherds and Fishermen, that the Excellency of the Truths delivered by them might appear to be of God, and not of themselves, at other Times made Choice of the Pen of a David, a Solomon, and an Isaiah, to instruct us, that the outward Accomplishments of Birth and Fortune may be sanctified to higher Purposes, and made instrumental in advancing the Glory of God, and the Interests of Religion. That Your Lordship may continue to employ the Advantages of Your great Station and Quality to God’s Honour, and the Service of His Church, is the hearty Prayer of, My Lord, Your Lordship’s most Dutiful and Obedient Servant, William Lowth.” }}
Preface: (Prophetical Books):
{{ “There is no Part of the Holy Scriptures that more deserves the thoughts of inquisitive Men, than the Writings of the Prophets. ‘God’ in His Word hath offered suitable Matter for the several Capacities of Men. The ‘Historical’ Books instruct us in the Methods of Providence, and afford an agreeable Entertainment to inquisitive Minds, as they contain the most ancient Records that are in the World, and relate the most remarkable Occurrences that ever happened in it. Persons of ordinary Understandings may find all necessary Truths plainly delivered, and often repeated in the New Testament Writings, and in the ‘Practical’ Books of the Old: Those of higher Endowments may find sufficient Employment in unfolding the Types and Figures of the ‘Jewish OEconomy’, and in searching into the Depths of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions. We may indeed find some Prophecies plainly delivered with great Exactness of Time, and Particularity in Circumstances (those especially which relate to the Coming of the ‘Messias’) that when the Events came to pass, they might appear to be the Effects of ‘God’s’ determinate Counsel and Foreknowledge. But the far greater Part of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions are couched in ‘Symbols’ and Sacred ‘Hieroglyphicks’ (a way of conveying the abstruser Parts of Knowledge, much used in the Eastern Countries:) As it were on purpose to excite the Curiosity of the Ingenious, and reward the Diligence of the industrious Searchers after Divine Truth. To which we may add, that the ‘Metaphorical’ Stile of the Prophets, is very proper to inspire the Minds of attentive Readers with noble Ideas of ‘God’s’ Wisdom and Providence, and to affect will the most lively Image of the Glorious Kingdom of ‘God’ and ‘Christ’, the Happiness of those that shall have a Share in the Triumphs of it, and the Terribleness of those Punishments which are denounced against such as will not have him to reign over them. And to encourage Men in the Searches of this Kind, they will find face an Harmony and Correspondence between the Figures and Emblems, whereby the Prophets point out Things to come, that the careful comparing of them with each other, will afford the best Clue to guide the attentive Reader through the most difficult Parts of their Writings, and is likewise a surprizing Proof that they all wrote by the Direction of one and the selfsame ‘Spirit’.
This hath been in some Measure attempted in the ensuing Work, where the Author hath used his utmost Diligence, to compare the Text with such parallel Places both of the Old and New Testament, which might any way conduce to the clearing up its Sense: And he is willing to believe that if be hath given any new Light to the obscure and difficult Passages of this Prophet, it is chiefly by comparing the Phrase and Idiom of the Text with other parallel Places more exactly than hath been hitherto done by any Commentator upon this Prophet that he hath seen: And be desires the Reader, that when he finds a more than ordinary Difficulty, he would carefully consider the parallel Text there referred to, which to have set down at Length, would have enlarged this Work beyond its due Bounds. The Writings of the Prophets unfold the Methods of Providence in many remarkable Instances: Such as are, ‘God’s’ Disposal of Kingdoms and Governments, and making use of wicked Princes and Nations to be the Instruments of his Justice in punishing others as bad or worse: The gradual Discovery of the Coming of the Messias, and the several Steps and Advancements by which ‘God’ introduced His Kingdom into the World,, and will carry it on till the Consummation of all Things. These Speculations must needs afford great Entertainment to Men of curious and inquisitive Tempers, and be Matter of Delight as well as instruction.
These Reasons, as they should encourage those to the Study of the Prophetical Writings, who have any
Talents for such an Employment, especially those whose Profession engages them to ‘search the Scriptures’; So they should recommend any Attempt that is made toward the further explaining of so considerable a Part of the Holy Scriptures. For after all the Pains that bath been taken in clearing up the Sense of these Sacred Books, by Persons excellently qualified for such an Undertaking, still there is Room left for further Endeavours in that Kind. For there is a Treasure of Heavenly Wisdom contained in them, that can never be exhausted: And as it is highly reasonable to believe, that some Parts of the ‘Old Testament’ Prophecies reach to the End of the World, so it is as reasonable to expect that in every Age Providence should open some new Scene, which wilt give further lnsight into the Meaning of those Sacred Writings. I confess, I can by no means approve of the Opinion of some learned Men, who are for cramping the Sense of the Prophets, and confining it within a narrow a Compass as they can, and will needs maintain that the Prophets scarce foresaw any Thing but what was to come to pass in or near their own Time. I must own my self-puzzled to assign a Reason why ‘God’ should appoint a Succession of Prophets to foretel what should come to pass within the Compass of about three hundred Years (for within that Time most of those Prophets lived, whose Writings make up that Part of the Scripture Canon which is called by that Name) and take no notice of any other Occurrences which should happen in succeeding Times; whereas to extend the Prophetick Views to the End of the World, seems much more agreeable to that Description of ‘God’s’ Prescience which the Holy Writers give us, That He declares the End from the Beginning, and His Wisdom reaches from one ‘End’ [of the World] to the other mightily, and sweetly does it order all Things: So that even when the whole ‘Mystery of God’s Dispensations’ shall be finished, it will appear that nothing is contained in them, but what God bath formerly declared to His Servants the Prophets, as it is expressly affirmed, Revel. 10:7.
For a further Proof of this Assertion, I desire it may be considered, that the Prophecies which foretel the Visibility and Universality of ‘Christ’s Church’, accompanied with perfect Peace, Prosperity and Holiness, cannot with any Probability be said to have as yet received their Accomplishment, as neither have those Predictions which foretel the flourishing State of the ‘Jewish’ Church and Nation in the latter Times. And to suppose those Prophecies to have already received their utmost Completion, is, in my Judgment, to give too great an Advantage to the Jews, and in Effect to acknowledge that they never were, nor will be fulfilled in their natural and obvious Sense. Whereas on the other Side, to assert that many Prophecies relating to the Messias, are already fulfilled in our ‘Lord Jesus Christ’, a Truth that can be made out beyond all Contradiction; and withal to maintain that several others concerning the same Subject, relate to His ‘Second Coming’, and their Accomplishment shall usher in or accompany that His Glorious Appearance: I say, the observing this Distinction between the different Times, wherein the several Prophecies relating to the Coming of Christ shall be fulfilled, effectually answers all the Arguments which the ‘Jews’ make use of to support themselves in their incredulity; it discovers a perfect Harmony and Correspondence between the Prophecies of the Old and New Testament, and it gives us an agreeable View of a more flourishing State of the Church, than the World hath yet been blessed with; and thereby engages us to use our best Endeavours to restore the Church to its primitive Purity, where-ever we find it defective.
These Considerations at first engaged me to attempt a Commentary upon the Prophet ‘Isaiah’; who as he is the first and principal of the Prophets in order; so he hath had the Honour of being stiled the ‘Evangelical Prophet’ by the Christian Church, because he foretold the Coming and Kingdom of the Messias with greater Clearness than any of the rest. But he will have but little Pretence to that Title, if we follow some Men’s Notions, which have been lately renewed, and zealously maintained by Mr. ‘Samuel White’, in his ‘Commentary’ upon this Prophet; where he all along supposes, that the far greatest Part of this Prophecy relates only to the Times in which the Prophet lived, and those that succeeded till the Return of the Jews from the Babylonish Captivity. Indeed he is willing to allow the ‘(53rd) Chapter’ of ‘Isaiah’, to have been fulfilled only in our Saviour; but according to his ‘Hypothesis’, that Prophecy must come in very abruptly, without any Connexion upon what went before, or what follows. To do him all the Justice I can, I must own, that in his Preface be asserts a double Meaning of many Prophecies: One more immediately relating to the present Circumstances of Things in or near the Prophet’s own Time; the others having more distant Views upon the State of the Gospel-Times. But his general Design in his ‘Arguments’ to the Chapters, and in his ‘Notes’, whenever an Occasion is offered, is to run down and ridicule the ‘Spiritual’ and ‘Mystical’ Sense of particular Texts or Prophecies, and to accuse the Commentators who have asserted it, as ‘making a Note of Wax’ of the Scriptures, and forcing the Words to an unnatural and improper Signification. Now these Assertions are a direct Contradiction to the Manner of interpreting the Old Testament Prophecies, made use of by ‘Christ’ and His ‘Apostles’ in the New; where we find our ‘Saviour’ applies several of the Ancient Prophecies to Himself; and the Apostles frequently assert, that ‘all Things happened to the’ Jews ‘in Figures’, that their Ordinances were ‘Parables’ or Allegories with respect to the Times of the Gospel; that the Christian Church is the ‘True Israel of God’, and all the Privileges appropriated to the ‘Jewish’ Nation in the Old Testament as ‘God’s Segullah’, or ‘peculiar People’, do in a more eminent Manner appertain to the Church of ‘Christ’, which is that true Kingdom of ‘God’, the ‘Jerusalem coming down from Heaven’, of which the earthly ‘Jerusalem’, and the Temple there, was only a Type and Figure.
These Rules for interpreting the ancient Prophecies laid down by the Apostles, ought to be a Standard for all Christians to square their Interpretations by, as being delivered by those who had the (Gnösis), or that especial ‘Gift of the Spirit’, which enabled them to explain the ‘Prophecies’ of the Old Testament, and apply them to the Times of the New. This is that ‘Publick’, or Authentick ‘Interpretation’ of the Scripture Prophecies, which St. ‘Peter’ opposes to a ‘Private Interpretation’, 2nd Pet. 1:19, that is, to such an Interpretation as is wholly owing to human Wit or Invention, or relates to private Persons and Translations. Whereas this publick Interpretation is taken from the ‘common Analogy of Faith’, Rom. 12;6, and arises from ‘comparing spiritual Things with spiritual’, 1st Cor. 2:13, i.e. the spiritual Sense of the Old Testament Writings with that of the New, and with one another. In which Particular I cannot but look upon Mr. ‘White’s Exposition’ as very deficient, in that he scarce ever compares the Phraseology of ‘Isaiah’ with that of the other Prophets, or with parallel Texts of the New Testament; which one would think every Christian Commentator should have a particular Regard to, in explaining the Sense of the ancient Prophecies. The ancient ‘Jews’ never contested this Point with the ‘Christians’, but always acknowledged that the chief Design of the Prophets was to foretel the Times of the ‘Messias’. And when Christ and His Apostles explained the Prophecies in a ‘Spiritual’ or ‘Mystical’ Sense, they interpreted them according to the received Notions of the Synagogue, and are never taxed, that we can find, for misapplying the particular Texts they alledged, as if they did not belong to the Times of the ‘Messias’. The Words of St. ‘Peter’ do in some Measure inform us, from whence the ‘Jews’ might receive these Notions, 1st Pet. 1:11,12, where he tells us, ‘That the Prophets who searched diligently what, and what manner of Time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, did signify, when it testified beforehand the Sufferings of Christ, and the Glory which should follow, had it revealed unto them, that not unto themselves, but to us they did minister the Things’ which the Apostles preached. No doubt, but they studied their own Prophecies, and the Spirit of God so far assisted them, and enlightened their Minds, as to enable them to leave this Key for the interpreting their own Writings, and letting succeeding Ages into the true Meaning of them. And thus a traditionary Explication of the Old Testament Prophecies was carried down from the very Time of the Prophets to After-Ages.
Several Arguments may be alledged to prove, that these Notions were generally received among the ‘Jews’ long before ‘Christ’s’ Time: In the first Place, we may argue from their admitting the ‘Song’ of ‘Solomon’ into their Canon, which could have no Pretence for being placed among the Sacred Writings, but only as it was supposed figuratively to set forth the ‘Spiritual Marriage of Christ and His Church’. The same Point may further be proved from their ancient ‘Targums’ and ‘Paraphrases’ upon the Scripture, from the ‘Misna’, and those Mystical Expositions of several Texts, which we read in the ‘Epistle’ of ‘Barnabas’, and which it is probable were taken out of some ‘Midrash’, or Authentick Exposition of the Scripture Texts, as hath been observed by Bishop ‘Fell’, and other Learned ‘Commentators’ upon that Epistle. And tho’ it should be granted, that some of those Writings are not so old as the Time of Christ and His Apostles; yet this doth not invalidate the Force of the Argument, because those Writings consist of traditionary Explications of Scripture, which the Compilers took from the Writings of former Ages, just as in After-times the ‘Greek Catenæ’ upon the Scriptures were compiled out of the Writings of the ancient Fathers by Authors of a later Date.
It does not appear, that this mystical Way of applying the Scripture-Prophecies to the Times of the ‘Messias’, was ever called in question, till the ‘Jews’ came to engage in Disputes with the Christians; and then to avoid the Force of their Arguments, they found it necessary to reject the Opinions of their Ancestors. It was this Consideration made Aquila and Theodotion, Apostates from Christianity to Judaism, to undertake a New Translation of the Old Testament into Greek, because they thought the Interpretation of the Septuagint too favourable to the Christians, having been framed according to the traditionary Explication of the Sense of the Prophets, which bad been received among the ‘Jews’ Time out of Mind. This Christian Interpretation about the Prophecies is called the ‘Mystical Sense’, because it helps to unfold the Mysteries of the Gospel, not as if it were always opposed to a literal Sense. For in many Cases what we call the Mystical Sense, more exactly answers the natural and genuine Import of the Words, than any other Interpretation that can be given of them. To instance in that famous Prophecy, Isa. 7:14. Behold a ‘Virgin’ shall conceive, &c. Supposing, but not granting, that this Prophecy can be applied in a lower Sense to ‘Isaiah’s’ Son, or any other Person but ‘Christ’; yet it is plain at first Sight, that the Historical Sense, which is commonly given of the Words, to denote ‘One that is now a Virgin, but should afterward marry and bear a Son’, comes infinitely short of the true Force and Meaning of them, and contains nothing in it that can deserve to be called a ‘Sign’ or ‘Wonder’. This seems to have been a Maxim in interpreting Prophecies, received among the Jews before Christ’s Time, That where-ever they observed an imperfect Completion of a Prophecy in the Historical Event, which no way answered the lofty Expressions, and extensive Promises, which the natural Sense of the Text imported, there they supposed the Times of the ‘Messias’ to be ultimately intended, ‘in whom all the Promises of God are Yea, and Amen’. To prevent any Misunderstanding, it may be proper likewise to take Notice, that this ‘Mystical Sense’ of the Prophecies, is now and then, but not so fitly, called a ‘Secondary Sense’; not as if it were lest principally intended by the Prophets, but rather with respect to the Time, because it is the last or ultimate Completion of their Predictions.
That many of the Prophecies are not limited to one single Event, but may have different Views, and be capable of being fulfilled by several Steps and Degrees, is what I have all along supposed in the following Commentary, and therefore here it will be proper to assign the Reasons of such a Supposition. This Subject hath been handled by several Learned Men, and of late by Dr. ‘Nich. Clagett’. [My Lord ‘Bacon’ has made an Observation upon this Subject, which deserves to be taken Notice of; in his Advancement of Learning, Book II. Chap. 11, “In the Interpretation of Prophecies, that Latitude must be allowed, which is proper and familiar to Divine Prophecies, that their Accomplishments may be both perpetual and punctual. For they resemble the Nature of their Author, ‘To whom one Day is as a thousand Years, and a thousand Years as one Day’. And though the Fulness and Height of their Complement be many Times assigned to some certain Age or Point of Time, yet they have nevertheless certain Stairs or Scales of Accomplishment throughout divers Ages of the World.”] l shall not repeat what hath been said already upon this Argument, but only lay down some General Reasons of this Assertion. I have already observed that this Opinion is agreeable to the Sentiments of the ‘Jews’: The only Point in which they differ from us, is, whether the Messias, to whom the Prophecies relate, be already come, or be yet to come. Therefore I shall not any longer insist upon that Argument, but proceed to observe, that under the Old Testament, all the most considerable Persons and Translations there mentioned, were ‘Typical’, and prefigured the State of Things under the ‘Messias’. Thus the New Testament informs us, that by ‘Sarah’ and ‘Hagar’ were allegorically represented the ‘Two Covenants’: By the preferring of ‘Jacob’ before ‘Esau’, the Rejection of the ‘Jews’, and the Calling of the ‘Gentiles’: By the Deliverance from the ‘Egyptian’ Bondage, the Redemption of Mankind by ‘Christ’, the ‘True Passover’ sacrificed for us: That the ‘Israelites’ passing through the Red-Sea, did typify the Sacrament of ‘Baptism’; and their Sojourning in the ‘Wilderness’, in their Way to the Promised Land, was designed to signify that we are but ‘Strangers and Pilgrims’ in this World, and must look upon Heaven as the only true Place of ‘Rest which remains for the People of ‘God’.’
“In the Characters the Scriptures give us of ‘Adam’ and ‘Melchisedeck’, of ‘Isaac’ and ‘Joseph’, of ‘Moses’ and ‘Joshua’, of ‘David’ and ‘Solomon’, of ‘Eliakim’ and ‘Jonah’, of ‘Cyrus’ and ‘Zerubbabel’, they plainly describe them as Figures of Christ: That several Circumstances of their Lives did foreshew the most remarkable Passages of his, and the Deliverances some of them wrought for God’s People, were Earnests of a greater Redemption to be accomplished by the Messias. Several of the Psalms, particularly the 18th, and the 118th, were writ upon particular Occasions, relating to some remarkable Circumstances of David’s Life, as appears both by their ‘Titles’ (which to be sure are as ancient as the Compiling the Old Testament Canon) and by the General Subject handled in them: And yet several Passages out of these ‘Psalms’ are applied in the New Testament to ‘Christ’ and the ‘Gospel’, as more eminently fulfilled in them. From these Principles we may conclude, that there is a Resemblance, or ‘Correspondence’ between many of the Transactions mentioned in the Old Testament, and those which should come to pass under the New: And consequently, that the Prophets, when they spake of some Events near their own Times, probably had more distant Views, which might reach even to the latter Ages of the World.
This Assertion, as it shews that ‘Fulness of Sense’ contained in the Scriptures, which ‘Tertullian’ faith, he did so much reverence and adore, so it introduces Christ into the World, with a great deal of Pomp and Solemnity; whilst it makes the whole Contrivance of the Jewish Dispensation, and all the Eminent Persons of former Times, as so many Harbingers to prepare the Way for His Coming, and thereby raises in our Mind, a just Veneration for the Gospel-State, as the Master-Piece of Divine Providence, that Point wherein all the Lines of ‘God’s manifold Wisdom’ do meet as in their Center; from whence it is evidently demonstrated, that ‘Christ was ordained by God, before the Foundation of the World’, though in His wise Disposal He did not appear till the latter Times of it. These ‘Providential Congruities’ between the Times of the Old and New Testament, do very much confirm the Authority of both Testaments; for they plainly shew, that they were written by the Direction of one and the same Spirit, who hath therein discovered to us one entire Scene of Providence, which reaches from one End of the World to the other.
The Apostles justify this Way of interpreting Scripture-Prophecies, by the Interpretations they give us both of the antient Prophecies, and of our Saviour’s own Predictions; of each of these shall give a remarkable Instance. That Prophecy of ‘Isaiah’, chap. 53:4. ‘He hath borne our Griefs, and carried our Sorrows’, without question is principally to be understood of Christ’s undergoing the Punishment due to our Sins; but yet St. ‘Matthew’ applies it to the Pains which He took in healing Men of their bodily Infirmities, and his rendering His own Life uneasy by the Care and Trouble He underwent to give Ease to others, ‘Matth’. 8:18. In like manner, that Expression of our Saviour, ‘John’ 17:12. ‘Those whom Thou gavest Me I have kept, and none of them is lost’, was chiefly meant of Christ’s Care to preserve His Disciples in a firm Belief of, and Adherence to, those Truths which He taught them; yet we find St. ‘John’ applies the Words to the Care that Christ took of their Safety, when he yielded Himself up to those that came to apprehend Him, chap. 18:9. From hence it appears, that the Holy Writers themselves suppose, that the Expressions of inspired Persons may have several Senses couched under the Words. The same may be affirmed of that Prophecy of Christ, concerning the ‘Destruction of Jerusalem, and the End of the World’, Matth. 24 in which it is hard to determine, where our Saviour makes a Transition from one Subject to the other; this makes it probable, that He had both these Events in His Eye together, and that several of His Expressions were partly verified at the Time of the Destruction of ‘Jerusalem’, but were more fully to be accomplished at the ‘General Judgment’, of which that particular judgment was an Earnest and Fore-runner.
The Prophet Isaiah is certainly one of the most difficult of all the Prophets, though perhaps few are sensible of it, but they that try to explain him: Besides the Want of antient Records to clear up some Historical Passages of his Prophecy, a Difficulty common to him with the rest of the Prophets; there are some Difficulties, which do in a particular Manner attend his Writings. The Profoundness of his Thoughts, the Loftiness of his Expressions, and the Extent of his Prophecy, have made the ‘Commentaries’ hitherto written upon him, fall short of a full Explication of his Book; and he that will undertake to fathom the Depths of this Prophecy, is in great Danger of going out of his own. This Prophet seems to have been favoured with an entire View of the Gospel-State, from the very ‘Birth’ of the ‘Messias’, to that glorious Period, when the ‘Kingdoms of the World shall become the Kingdoms of the LORD, and of His Christ’. Upon these Accounts, as he deservedly holds the first Rank in that Noble Order of Prophets; so it may be hoped, the Candid Reader will favourably receive any Attempt that is made, to give some farther Light to this Prophecy, how imperfect soever. And particularly, I would make one Request to him, with which I shall conclude this Preface, viz. That, in those Parts of this Exposition, where there is any Mention made of the ‘Jews’ being to be ‘restored to their own Land’ upon their Conversion, and some other Particulars relating to that glorious State of the Church, which we may from Prophetical Grounds of Scripture expect to come to pass in the ‘latter Times’ of the World, there he would not judge of what is said upon these obscure Subjects as so many positive Assertions, but only as probable Conjectures, and such as the Words of the Text may fairly be supposed to favour. For in these and such-like abstruse Matters, which at present lie hid in their Causes, and in the Abyss of Providence, a modest Man should not pretend to be ‘Wise’ above that which is plainly and expresly ‘written’.” }}

{{ Commentary on Ezekiel’s Prophecy: Chap. I: Argument: The first Chapter contains a Description of God’s Appearing in a glorious manner to ‘Ezekiel’, in order to the giving him a Commission to execute the Prophetical Office.
Ver. 1. ‘Now it came to pass’.] The ‘Hebrew’ Text reads, ‘And it came to pass’; but it is usual in that Language to begin a Discourse or Book with the Particle ‘Vau’, or ‘and’: See ‘Jonah’ 1:1 and the beginning of most of the Historical Books of the Old Testament; which Particle is very properly translated in those Places, Now it came to pass: So that there is no ground for the Fancy of ‘Spinoza’, who would conclude, from hence, that this Book of ‘Ezekiel’ is but a Fragment of a larger Book, and contained several Prophecies, now lost, which were in Order of Time before those set down in these and the following Chapters. Ibid. ‘In the ‘Thirtieth (30th) year’.] It is a great Question from whence this Computation of Time commences. The most probable Answers are; first, that of ‘Scaliger’, who supposes this Thirtieth (30th) Year to be meant of the Years of Nebupolassar’s Reign; who, as he tells us from ‘Berosus’ quoted by Josephus, (l. I. contr. App.) reigned twenty-nine (29) Years complete: So the Thirtieth (30th) Year, here mentioned, was the last Year of his Reign and Life: And is likewise the thirteenth (13th) Year current of his Son Nebuchadnezzar’s Reign, who reigned so many Years together with his Father: (See Scaliger’s Canon Isagog. p. 281, 294. his Prolegom. ad. Lib. de emend. Temporum; and his Notes on the Greek Fragments, at the end of those Books.) But there is one considerable Objection against this Opinion of Scaliger, that according to Berosus’s Account, as his Works are quoted in another Place of ‘Josephus’, (Antiq. l. x. c. ii.) Nebupolassar reigned only Twenty-one (21) Years, the Greek Text reading, by a little Variation, (‘eichosi hen’ for ‘eichosi ennea’ .) Which is the same Number of Years assigned to ‘Nebupolassar’ in the ‘Aera Nabonassari’, and agrees better with ‘Berosus’s’ own Story, ‘viz’. that when he had committed the Command of the Army to his Son, and sent him on an Expedition to Syria and Phaenicia, he died in a short Time after. ‘Villalpandus’ in like manner makes his Computation to commence from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign: See his Commentary upon Ezek. 40:1. He allows nineteen (19) Years for his Reign, distinct from that of his Son, and supposes ‘Nebuchadnezzar’ to reign two (2) Years with his Father; which indeed agrees with the Scripture Computation: See the Note on Jer. 25:1. But, according to that very Account, the fifth (5th) Year of ‘Jehoiachin’s’ Captivity will be coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For the nineteenth (19th) Year of the same Reign is assigned for the Destrućtion of ‘Jerusalem’, ‘Jer’. 52:12., which was about six (6) Years afterwards. So this Computation will make Jehoiachin’s Captivity to have happened not in the thirtieth (30th), but in the thirty-second (32nd) Year, reckoning from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign. A more probable Answer to this Difficulty is that which the Chaldee Paraphrast, Archbishop Usher, A. M. 3409. Dr. ‘Prideaux ad an. A. C.’ 594, and other learned Men follow, ‘viz’. that these thirty (30) Years are to be reckoned from the Time when ‘Josiah’ and all the People of ‘Judah’ entered into that solemn Covenant mentioned 2nd Kings 22:3. which was in the eighteenth (18th) Year of ‘Josiah, ibid’. from which Time the same Learned Writers compute the forty (40) Years of ‘Judah’s’ Transgression, mentioned chap. iv. 4:6. Ibid. ‘As I was among the Captives by the River Chebar’.] Those which were carried away with ‘Jehoiachin’, King of ‘Judah’: See the next Verse. These were placed in Towns or Villages that lay upon the River Chebar in Mesopotamia, called by ‘Ptolemy’ and ‘Strabo’, ‘Chaboras’ or ‘Aboras’, and by ‘Pliny’, Lib. 1. c. 26 ‘Cobaris’.
Ver. 2. ‘Which was in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity’.] This was coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For ‘Jehoiachin’ was carried Captive in the eighth (8th) Year of his Reign : See 2nd Kings 24:12. The ‘Hebrew’ Writers use several Computations of the Beginning of the ‘Babylonish’ Captivity : See the Note upon ‘Jer.’ 25:1. That under ‘Jehoiachin’, wherein ‘Ezekiel’ was made a Captive, is the Computation he always follows in the succeeding Parts of his Prophecy: See ‘chap’. 8:1; 20:1; 29:1, 17; 31:1; 33:1. 40:1. }}

(4) Ezekiel & Book of His Prophecy: Exposition. Patrick Fairbairn, DD. Principle of Free Church College, Glasgow; Author of “Typology of Scripture”. (1850,1855,1863)

Contents: Introduction: Chapters & Verses:
1: Time & Manner of Ezekiel’s Entering on the Prophetical Office.
2-3:1-11: CaIl to Prophetical Office.
3:12-27: Ezekiel’s Entrance on his Mission, & 1st Message imparted to Him.
4: Vision of Siege & Iniquity-Bearing.
5-6: Vision of Shorn Hair, & its Foreshadowing Desolations.
7: Lamentation over Guilt & Fall of Israel.
8: Vision of Image of Jealousy, & other Abomination at Jerusalem.
9: Vision of Sealing.
10: Vision of Coals of Fire.
11: Destruction of Corrupt Priesthood, & Promise of Grace & Blessing to Believing Remnant among Exiles.
12: Vision of Ezekiel’s Typical Removing as Exile, & accompanying Instructions.
13: False in Prophecy, its Character & Doom.
14: Hypocritical Inquirers after God —their wickedness Discovered and Rebuked.
15: Guilt & Condemnation of Israel Parabolically Represented.
16: Story of Israel’s Guilt and Punishment.
17: Parable of Two Great Eagles, & Cropping of Cedar of Lebanon.
18: Retributive Righteousness of God.
19: Lamentation Over Fall of Royal House.
20:1-44: Display of People‘s Long-continued Sinfulness, & Lord’s Long-Suffering-Mercy & Goodness.
20:45-49 & 21: Vision of Lord’s Fire & Sword.
22: Lord’s Judgment upon All-Pervading Sinfulness of Jerusalem.
23: Story of Israel’s Sin & Punishment Parabolically Exhibited under Names of Aholah & Aholibah.
24: Vision of Boiling Caldron, & of Death of Ezekiel’s Wife.
25: Judgment of Israel’s Immediate Neighbours & Rivals: Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines.
26: Judgment of Tyre.
27: Lamentation upon Tyre, & Account of Her Former Greatness & Prosperity.
28:1-19: Criminatory Address to King of Tyre, & Lamentation Over His Coming Downfall.
28:20-26. Judgment of Sidon, & Ultimate Peace of Israel.
29: Judgment of Egypt, its Desolation for 40 Years & Subsequent Degradation: 1st Instrument of Chastisement, Nebuchadnezzar.
30: Continuation of Egypt’s Judgment.
31: Certainty of Pharaoh’s Doom Confirmed: Parabolical Relation of Assyria’s Greatness & Destruction.
32: Songs of Lamentation Over Fall of Pharaoh & Kingdom, . . . . . . . .
33: Renewal of Ezekiel’s Commission, his Office as Watchman,
34: Promise of True Shepherd, after False Shepherds have been Punished & Removed.
35: Judgment of Edom.
36: Israel Revenged & Comforted: New Heart & Blissful Heritage.
37: Vision of Dry Bones Restored to Life again, as Symbolical of Israel’s Death & Resurrection.
38-39: Assault of Gog & His Destruction.
40-48: Preliminary Remarks on Vision in Chap. 40-48, with Respect to Principles on which it ought to be interpreted.
40:1-48. Position, Walls, Gates, & Courts of Temple,
40:48,49, -41: Temple Itself.
42: Chambers of Temple & its Boundary Walls.
43: Lord’s Return to Temple.
44: Ordinances for the Prince & Priesthood.
45: Sacred Allotments in Land & Gifts.
46: Additional Ordinances for Prince & People.
47:1-12. Vision of Temple-Waters .
47:13-23 -48: Boundaries & Re-Distribution of Land, Israel Parabolically Represented.

{{ Introduction: I: ….”Yet this must not be understood of his connection with the whole band of exiles, nor probably of the later period of his public ministry nearly so much as of the earlier. For, amid the prevailing iniquity, there are not wanting occasional indications of a better spirit among the captives (chap. 11:16, Jer. 24); and, at a period not very distant from the close of his ministrations, a very marked and general amendment had undoubtedly taken place among them. It could not greatly, if it did at all, exceed thirty (30) years from the cessation of his active labours, when the decree was issued for the return of the captives; and notwithstanding the corruptions which still lingered among them, and which soon began to appear in the infant colony, there was a general repudiation of idolatry, and an adherence to the law of Moses, very different from what had existed at the era of the captivity, or for a considerable time previous to it. Nor can there be any doubt, that among the agencies which contributed to effect this beneficial change, a prominent place must be ascribed to the ministry of Ezekiel. Thus by the results that appeared, decisive evidence was borne to the fact, that a prophet had been among them, who had not laboured in vain; and we can scarcely doubt, from the whole circumstances of the case, that the satisfaction was afforded our prophet —a satisfaction which was denied to his great contemporary Jeremiah— of witnessing the commencement of the spiritual renovation for which he so earnestly laboured.”…..IV. The order and classification of his prophecies next demands some notice. And here it ought, first of all, to be borne in mind, that whatever arrangement may be made respecting them as to their subjects, an order and progression belongs to them as a whole, as well as a homogeneousness of nature, which fits them for mutually throwing light on each other; and, in particular, one large portion of them (chap. 1-32), which is mainly conversant with sin and judgment, in a great degree supplies the key, by which the later announcements —more cheering in their tone, but more remote in their objects— are to be interpreted. There is in this respect a unity in the character of the book, which calls for an orderly and progressive perusal of its contents. And should anyone, heedless of this characteristic, overleap all the earlier portions of the prophecy, and proceed at once to grapple with some of the later and more peculiar visions, he would only take the course most likely to involve himself in perplexity or disappointment. A general classification of the contents of the book, as has just been noticed, may be made into those, which have respect predominantly to sin and judgment, and those which are more peculiarly appropriated to the revelation of grace and mercy. We can only, however, speak of prevailing, not by any means of exclusive, characteristics of this sort. For, in the one-part mercy is often found intermingling with the judgment, as in the other judgment occasionally alternates with the mercy. The more specific, and at the same time quite natural divisions, are commonly indicated by the prophet himself, in the several dates which he has, at certain intervals, placed as superscriptions to the messages he successively received. These are altogether eight.
1. The first is introductory, containing a description of the first vision, and in connection with it of the call of the prophet—(chap. 1-3:15). 2. The next portion, embracing the remaining verses in chap. 3, and reaching to the close of chap. 7, is occupied chiefly with a more explicit announcement of the prophet’s commission and charge, and his entrance on the work it devolved upon him, by setting forth the enormous guilt of the people, the certainty of the coming destruction of Jerusalem, with still subsequent calamities, and the prostrate condition of the whole affairs of the kingdom. 3. The next section embraces chap. 8-19, but falls into two parts. The first, including chap. 8-11, contains still farther revelations of the people’s sinfulness, especially as connected with the profanation of the temple, and the corruption of the priesthood —the determination of God, in consequence, to forsake His sanctuary, with severe executions of vengeance on the wicked, though not without gracious interpositions for the safety of the few who remained faithful— and then, the twofold work of destruction and preservation being (symbolically) done, His actual departure from the temple-mount, that He might go and reveal Himself in tenderness and power to an inquiring and afflicted people in exile. In the second part of this division, which includes chap. 12-19, the prophet prosecutes in detail his exposure of the sins, which were bringing down such inflictions of judgment, and shows how all classes, as well as the priests —prophets, princes, and the people generally, had corrupted their ways, and should severally share in the destruction that was impending. 4. In chap. 20-23, the same subject is continued, though, as the time of judgment had approached nearer, there is an increased keenness and severity in the prophet’s tone; he sits, as it were, in judgment upon the people, brings out in full form the Divine indictment against them, and with awful distinctness and frequent reiteration, announces both their consummate guilt and its appropriate judgment. 5. Then comes, in chap. 24, the actual announcement of the end, as regards Jerusalem and its guilty people, with a representation of the behaviour suitable for such as survived the calamity; the prophet himself being required to share in the confusion and silence, which were proper at such a time. 6. Chap. 25-32 form a group by themselves, containing the announcements respecting sin and judgment, which, during the interval of the prophet’s silence towards his own people, he was commanded to utter against the surrounding nations. The great object of them was to show, that if judgment had begun at the house of God, it would assuredly embrace, and visit with still more overwhelming calamities, the ungodly world. There are various headings in this section; and some of the revelations were given at periods considerably later than others; but they began to be uttered immediately after the doom of Jerusalem, and all manifestly relate to one great theme. 7. In chap. 32-39, we have a series of predictions given to the prophet in the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, after the appearance in Chaldea of the remnant that had escaped from Jerusalem (chap. 23:21); a series which points more particularly to the better times in prospect, and unfolds, with considerable fulness and variety, the revival of God’s cause among the covenant-people, the re-establishment of the Divine kingdom, and its sure and final victory over all the sources of evil, which had prevailed so much against it in the past. 8. Then, after an interval of thirteen (13) years, comes the closing vision, in chap. 40-48, disclosing, under the symbolical representation of a new temple, city, and commonwealth, the restored condition, with the perfect order and beauty, of the people and kingdom of God.
(In section 5 Fairbairn on Ezekiel Literature in his days: England has produced almost nothing exegetically of substantial value by 1850; the Puritan writers were anthologies of sayings & sermons. Archbishop Newcome of 1788 being exception, save filled with textual emendations as solutions & interpretations; but carried on still by textual critics as Ewald & Hitzig, seeking to correct the Hebrew text by the Septuagint. The elaborate work of 1596 by Rome’s Spanish Jesuits, Pradus & Villapandus is commended for patristic citations & Temple opinions. Rosenmuller’s & Maurer’s commentaries are useful, especially grammar; Ewald cautiously instructive; but Havernick of 1843 is by far the best; less so Hitzig of 1847. Rationalism is rash, superficial, & spiritually impoverished. Hengstenberg helpfull when he interprets the text.)

(5) Prophecies of the Prophet Ezekiel Elucidated; by E.W. Hengstenberg, D.D., Professor of Theology, Berlin. Translated by A.C. & J.G. Murphy. Edinburgh. 1869.gs

Contents: 1st Cycle (Chap, 1-7); 2nd Cycle (Chap, 8-19); 3rd Cycle (Chap. 20-23); 4th Cycle (Chap, 24)
Foreign Nations (Chap, 25-32): Ammonites, Moab, Edom, Philistines, Tyre & Sidon, Egypt.
Conclusion to Chap, 1-32, (Chap, 33:1-20); Words of Comfort (Chap, 33:21–39); Restoration (Chap, 40-48).

{{ “Retrospect: Ezekiel, carried into exile in the captivity of Jehoiachin, seven (7) years after the beginning of the Chaldean bondage, eleven (11) years before the destruction of the city, appeared there as prophet in the fifth (5th) year after his captivity, in the thirtieth (30th) year of his life (ch. 1:1). The latest date which we find in the superscriptions of his prophecies is the twenty-seventh (27th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (ch. 29:17), so that the historically ascertained period of the prophet’s activity embraced twenty-two (22) years. It was shown that the prophet had precisely in that period a definite occasion for the collection of his prophecies. The prophecies contained in the present collection, like those of the contemporary Daniel, are all provided with chronological superscriptions. These are in all twelve, of which six belong to native prophecies, and six to prophecies against foreign nations,—(26:1; 29:1; 29:17; 31:1; 32:1; 32:17). The collection falls into two main parts,—prophecies before and prophecies after the destruction of Jerusalem. That we may not, with some, make the prophecies against foreign nations in ch. 25-32 a special main part, that they are rather to be considered an appendix to the prophecies before the destruction, is manifest: 1. Because the beginning of these predictions in ch. 25 is connected with the last native prophecy before the destruction in one chronologically determined section; 2. Because the section ch. 33:1-20 forms the literary close to ch. 1-32; and with special reference to the main portion, ch. 1-24, gives some nota benes concerning the whole previous literary activity of Ezekiel. The essential character of the first part is threatening; that of the second, promise. The starting-point of the first main part is a great anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the danger connected with it of the people failing to discern the signs of the times. The first main part contains four groups of native prophecies —(ch. 1-7; 8-19; 20-23; & 24)— in regular chronological sequence. The first dates from the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin, a time when the formation of the coalition began to fill men’s minds with joyful hopes; the last from the tenth day of the tenth month in the ninth (9th) year of Jehoiachin, —the fatal day of the opening of the siege of Jerusalem, which put an end to the hopes founded on the coalition. The mission of the prophet in these four groups is to make clear to the people the import of the great Chaldean catastrophe, and to bring them to understand the day of their visitation, and escape the miserable fate of those who are severely afflicted, without gaining the peaceable fruit of righteousness. To the book of the works no less than to the book of the words of God we may apply the saying, “Understandest thou what thou readest?” It was the great privilege of the people of God, that such an interpretation always went along with the doings of God. The prophet leads the people to discover in the coming event a long reckoning of God, —the visitation of a guilt that goes back to the very origin of the people. He makes every effort to bring the people to acknowledge the depth of their corruption, which alone could account for their sufferings, and thus not send them far from their God, but connect them closely with Him. The destined event, thus recognised in its necessity, had to be represented as inevitable. The prophet is inexhaustible in the denunciation of the foolish hopes of the people, before whose eyes he portrays the future calamity as if it were already present, as indeed the roots of it in reality were; inexhaustible also in the destruction of the false views concerning the source of the approaching suffering, and the beating down of the craftiness of the natural man, who in the deep indwelling antipathy to repentance makes every effort to cast the blame on God. He deals annihilating blows to those who led the people away from the way of repentance, and flattered them with foolish hopes. The radiant point in these discourses is the grand survey of the whole past development of Israel in ch. 23, which places before our eyes the figure of a people such as they ought not to be, and the result of which is, that the judgment is inevitable. Few sections of Scripture call so powerfully as these for earnest self-examination.
At the close of ch. 24 the prophet announces that native predictions will now be silent, until with the execution of the judgment a new beginning for the prophetic activity be given. The servant is silent in the beginning of the practical discourse of the Master Himself, for the understanding of which sufficient provision has been made. But with the previous ending of native prophecy is connected the beginning of the prophet’s activity in regard to foreign nations. This connection is shown by this, that the beginning of this activity is included in the same section with the closing prophecy concerning Judah. The prophecies against foreign nations have the special aim to shed a fuller light on the judgment on Judah announced in the native prophecies, and already beginning its course. They give the answer to the natural question, Lord, but what of these? (John 21:21) They are all directed against the nations of the anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the executors of the judgments are in them all the Chaldean monarchy. Judah was first to drink the cup (ch. 21:18 f.). God sanctified Himself first on those who were near Him (Lev. 10:3) ; the judgment began at the house of God. It appeared as if the people of the covenant must alone suffer among all the members of the coalition. The scorn of these confederates themselves was poured out on the people of Jehovah (ch. 25:3, 6; 26:2); indeed, they made common cause in part with the Chaldeans, and sought to derive advantage from the misfortune of Judah (ch. 35:10). The prophet portrays before the eyes the judgment which in his time will fall upon them. He turns the heart of the people to their God when he points out that for the heathen the judgment has an annihilating character; whereas Israel rises from it to a more glorious state. Thus these predictions against foreign nations appear as the transition from the first part to the second —the comforting and promising part.
Of the foreign nations there are seven, divided into four and three —four neighbouring nations and three world-powers, the last Egypt, which had formed the centre of the coalition; so that there is thus a progress from the less to the greater. On this side and on that side of the prophecies against foreign nations the arrangement is strictly chronological. There occurs no prophecy which is not chronologically determined; and all prophecies so determined stand in regular order. In the external predictions also the chronological prevails. But a certain deviation must be allowed, otherwise things intimately connected must have been separated. The prophecies are here arranged according to the nations, so that, for ex., all those referring to Egypt come together. Among the prophecies referring to Egypt, that in ch. 29:17 goes before the one in ch. 31:1, which belongs to an earlier period, because it stands in a close relation with the foregoing (ch. 29:1), and resumes it at a time when its fulfilment was close at hand. Although the main body of the external prophecies belong to the time before the term, given in ch. 33:21, of the recommencement of the home prophecies, yet the date of some external prophecies precedes that in ch. 33:21 (ch. 32:1, 17), because the external prophecies forming a connected cycle should not be separated from one another, and because the following cycle of home prophecies also should meet with no interruption.
The first part contains in all a decade of prophecies —four native and six foreign. At the close of the first part in ch. 33:1-20 follows, in vers. 21, 22, the historical introduction to the discourses of the second period; in vers. 23-33, the warning and admonishing preparation for the new message, —the mediation, as it were, between it and the first part. With ch. 34 begins the communication of the comforting message. From this forward the prophet is as inexhaustible in comforting as he was before in threatening. The dangerous foe was now despair, as it was before false confidence. Common to the comforting and to the threatening discourses is the pictorial character; the viewing of that which is not as if it were, a result of dependence on God, in whose nature salvation as well as judgment is founded. The comfort is in this first group unfolded in seven paragraphs. In the first discourse (ch. 34) the prophet meets in a soothing manner the grief for the loss of civil government, and places before the eyes of his hearers and readers the bright form of the glorified David, in whom the civil government of the future will culminate. In the second (ch. 35) he portrays the desolation of Seir. The light of Israel is relieved by the shade of Edom, who here represents the nations, who, in their hatred of the kingdom of God, are not fit for it, but are ripe for destruction. The third discourse (ch. 36:1-15) relieves the pain occasioned by the desolation of the holy land. The fourth (ch. 36:16-38) lays down the name of God as the pledge of salvation. The fifth announces the restoration of Israel as a covenant people (ch. 37:1-14); the sixth, as a brotherly people (vers. 15-28). The seventh (ch. 38-39) represents the renovated people as victorious in every conflict.
The second principal part has only two dates (ch. 33:21 and ch. 40:1), and thus presents only two sections, which increase the ten of the first part to twelve. In the great closing picture in ch. 40-48 the prophet portrays in detail the recovery of all that was lost, in fulfilment of the words of the psalmist, “He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken;” and points in the midst of it, in ch. 47:1-12, to the great progress of the kingdom of God in the future.
In the picture of the future drawn by the prophet, the following are the principal traits. Vain is every attempt of the people to avert the threatening misfortune. They must drain to the bottom the cup of the divine wrath (ch. 21:26). Egypt, the power on which their hopes chiefly rest, proves a broken reed: the time of its political importance is for ever gone. But what earth denies, heaven will grant in its own time. After the people have attained to repentance, wrath is followed by grace; all that is lost —the temple, with its priests and worship, the city, the land— is restored. Yet not this alone: the future brings an enhancement of salvation. The people receive a rich treasure of forgiveness of sins (ch. 36:25; 37:23); the Lord takes away the heart of stone, and gives them a heart of flesh (41:19); He awakens them by His quickening breath from spiritual death (ch. 37). The centre of all graces is an exalted descendant of David, who will spring from His family when reduced and wholly deprived of the sovereignty, and connect the high-priestly with the kingly office (ch. 21:27; 34:11-31). The blessing is so potent that it extends also to the heathen, who will join themselves to Israel in the time of salvation. According to ch. 34:26, “the environs of his hill” will be partakers of it with Israel; according to ch. 17:22-24, the descendant of David, at first small and inconsiderable, is raised to the sovereignty of the world ; according to ch. 47:1-12, the waters of the Dead Sea of the world are healed by the stream from the sanctuary. This great revolution of things, however, will give the old covenant people no cause for self-exaltation; it will rather tend to their deep humiliation. They find salvation only through the redeeming mercy of God in common with the heathen world, sunk deep in sin, to whom they are become like, as in sin, so in punishment (ch. 16:53-63). And then in the future, along with grace, which is only for the willing, comes also judgment. The prophet announces in ch. 5:4 a second annihilating judgment, which after the Chaldean will come upon the people restored by the grace of God, —a fire which will devour the people as such, and leave only an election of them which participates in the blessings of salvation.
The name of the prophet denotes one in relation to whom God is strong (p. 5), who speaks not out of his own heart, but is moved and determined by a supernatural power. The verification of this name we have in the prophecies before us. That which the Lord said to Peter applies to him, “Flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but the Father in heaven.” None of His words have fallen to the ground. The whole course of history has verified His word in ch. 33:33 : “They shall know that a prophet was in the midst of them.”” }}

{{ “Appendix: Cherubim: What Christian should not feel a desire to know the nature of the cherubim? When we sing the Ambrosian anthem, we dwell with special emotion of heart on the words: “The cherubim and seraphim, and all angels, serve Him. “As long as the nature of the cherubim is concealed from us, a whole series of scriptural passages is inaccessible to us. The cherubim occur in the Old Testament no less than eighty-five times. They meet us in the very first pages of revelation: the cherubim and the flame of the blazing sword repel the parents of our race from the tree of life. In the tabernacle and in the temple of Solomon the cherubim receive an important place. The grand visions of Ezekiel in ch. 1 and 10, even on a superficial examination, awakening the anticipation of a glorious meaning, and presenting a fulness of earnest warning and comfort, are sealed to us, if we have not learned the nature of the cherubim. In the Psalms God appears enthroned on the cherubim, as the firm ground for the confidence of His people; and whosoever will be a partaker of this confidence, must before all know what the cherubim are to signify. Even in the New Testament the holy enigma of the cherubim meets us. John, in the Revelation, sees in the midst of the throne, and about the throne, four beasts full of eyes before and behind, that had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty. The right knowledge of the cherubim, however, has a special interest for our own times…. The merit of having first fully established this view belongs to Bahr in the ‘Symbolism of the Mosaic Worship’, and in the treatise on the temple of Solomon. “The beings of whom the cherub is composed,” says he, “belong to those creatures of the visible world that form the upmost and highest of its three kingdoms —the kingdom of organic life; and in this kingdom, again, they belong to the highest class, to that which has warm blood, and therefore the highest physical life; and in this class they are again the highest. The cherub is far from being a figure of God Himself; on the contrary, its essential character is to be a creature: it is a figure of the creature in its highest stage —an ideal creature. The living powers distributed in the visible creation to the highest creatures are combined and idealized in it.” “The whole creation is combined in it as in a point in one being; it represents in so far also the whole creation, and stands naturally of all the creatures nearest to God: only God is above it. The cherub, as creation individualized, is at the same time the being in which the glory of God manifests itself. Hence it appears as the throne of God itself, or in the closest connection with the throne: where Jehovah in His majesty and glory reveals Himself, there the cherub also appears.” This view in the main is alone correct; only it is to be remarked, that the cherubim represent first not the creature in general, but only the animated creation on the earth. Yet this is regarded as the apex of all created things on earth, so that the remainder is in some measure represented by it, and is appended to the animated creation as an accessory, and all the more because it has been created for its sake. But we must not include the heavenly creature: He that sits on the cherubim, and the God of hosts, are co-ordinate expressions; by the hosts are meant the heavenly creatures. The cherubim never occur alone —always in connection with God. The formation of the symbol has arisen not from the motive of the consideration of nature as such, but from the motive of piety. In the consideration of the multitude of visible creatures the mind may easily distract itself, and dwell on the individual —now on this, now on that. “Whilst they move and search among the works of God, they are caught by the sight, because that which is seen is beautiful,” says the author of the Wisdom of Solomon (ch. 13:7). The pious mind, therefore, protesting against such distraction and such service of the creature (Rom. 1:15), comprehends all visible multiplicity in an ideal unity, and places this unity absolutely under God, who by His creative Spirit is the foundation of this unity. This representation has for piety a profound significance. If we look to God, who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with adoring reverence for Him, who is so wonderful in His works, with the heartfelt desire to do the will of this God, whose is the earth and the fulness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein (Ps. 24:1), with the dread of calling down upon us the wrath of the God of the spirits of all flesh, with joyful courage in the face of the world, with an absolute refusal to make concessions to it, with a holy contempt for its foolish pursuits, with invincible strength under its persecutions, with the consciousness that it cannot move hand or foot without the influence of God; that in the last resort we have to do, not with it, but with God; that it concerns us to come to terms, not with it, but with God by true repentance; that He visits us through it ; and that an endless fulness of means are at His command to help us, when His visitation has attained its end.
If we consider attentively the God who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with deep contempt, holy wrath, and strong pity at the sight of the theory, now so wide-spread, of a degraded, half-brutalized generation. “No power without matter,” so runs the theory; “no matter without power. A power ruling over matter is a senseless thought. Power is the property of matter, and inseparable from it. The idea of an absolute creative power, which is distinct from matter, creates it, regulates it according to certain absolute laws, is a pure abstraction. “We know, on the contrary, that power is the original principle; that the Spirit, who proceeds from Him who sits above the cherubim, gives to everything its existence; that in Him it lives, and moves, and is Sabaoth and cherubim —that is our watchword in the face of such error. The original generation of men with its cherubim, however, not merely raises a protest against the false science of our day, but turns with friendly consent to that which is found in it of true science. There are here two important points of agreement. First, that the living creature, as it is represented by the cherubim, forms a distinct department of the terrestrial creation. And next, that exactly in this department the creative power of God displays itself most gloriously; that of it in a special manner the word of the apostle holds good, “The invisible things of God, His eternal power and Godhead, we see and know in His works.” Janet says in regard to this: “Let us hold by the chief facts, which hitherto have supported a distinction not to be effaced between dead or inorganic and living matter. The first and weightiest of these facts is the harmonious unity of the living and organic being; it is, to make use of an expression of Kant, the correlation of the parts to the whole.” “Organic bodies,” says the great physiologist Muller (Joh. Muller, ‘Physiol.’, v.1. p.17), “not only differ from inorganic in the mode in which their elements are combined; but the constant activity which works in the living organic matter, acts according to the laws of a rational plan in conformity with an end, because the parts are adapted to the end of the whole: and this it is exactly that marks the organism.” Kant says: “The reason of the kind of existence in each part of a living body is contained in the whole, whereas in the dead mass each part bears it in itself.” Joh. Muller, quoted by Janet, says further: “The harmony of the members necessary to the whole (in the organism) subsists not ‘without the influence of a power’ (‘the Spirit of the living’ in Ezek. 1:20, 21), ‘that works also through the whole, and depends not on the several members, and this power exists before His harmonious members of the whole are joined together’: they are first formed in the development of the embryo by the power of the germ [seed]. In a piece of mechanism constructed for a given end —for example, a clock— the whole thus adjusted may exhibit an action proceeding from the co-operation of the several parts, which are set in motion by a cause; but organic beings subsist not merely by an accidental combination of these elements, but produce the organs necessary for the whole by their own power out of the organic matter. This productive power, acting in conformity with reason, displays itself in each animal according to strict laws, as the nature of each animal requires: it is already present in the germ [seed], before the later parts of the whole are distinctly present; and it is that which actually produces the members that belong to the idea of the whole…..The remark of Theodoret, “The angels are living creatures no less than men —the latter mortal, the former immortal ;” and likewise that of Keil, “The cherubim, as living creatures, take the highest place in the realm of spirits,”— are contrary to the usage of speech, in which the living always denotes the animated earthly creation, in opposition to the lifeless. But we must not stop at this point. The fact that the designation of the cherubim as living creatures takes exactly the place of the proper name —as in Revelation the name cherubim does not occur, they are only designated as living creatures— shows that by this designation their nature must be fully expressed, that the genus does not exist beyond them, but is completely represented by them. All doubt, however, is removed by this, that the singular designation, “the living creature, alternates with that of the cherubim as living creatures” (Ezek. 1:20,21, “The spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels”; 10:15, “And the cherubim were lifted up;” 10:20, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar”). This singular designation shows that in the cherubim the whole genus of the living on earth, man and beast, is represented…….Only when the cherub represents the animal world can we explain also the grouping of it with palms and flowers. According to 1st Kings 6:29, all the walls in the temple of Solomon bore “round about in carved work, cherubim, and palms, and open flowers.” It is clear as light that the cherubim must be placed under the same point of view with the palms and flowers…. There is only one way of explaining the connection of the cherubs with the palms and flowers. The cherubs are first a representation of the living; but at the same time, as the living forms the crown of the whole earthly creation, this also is represented by it……The addition of the palms and flowers serves to indicate this more comprehensive meaning, and to show that the living forms no counterpart to the rest of nature, but rather represents this also. Next to the animal creation, the vegetable kingdom is the most glorious revelation of the creative power of God. In modern science it is connected with the animal kingdom, under the head of the organic creation. But the vegetable kingdom cannot be better represented than by the palms and flowers……That the cherubs represent the living creatures on earth, and in general the terrestrial creation, is borne out by the relation in which they stand in Ezekiel to the “vault.” It is said, Ezek. 1:22, “And there was a likeness over the heads of the living creature as a vault, as the look of the crystal the terrible (the awe-inspiring, imposing, glorious), stretched out over their heads above.” This vault is the place of the throne of God……If it is certain on these grounds that the vault means the heavens, the cherubim under the vault can only represent the terrestrial creation; for heaven and earth are usually joined together in the Old Testament as the two spheres of the glorification of God…..We will conclude with the discussion of the grand vision of the cherubim in Ezekiel. But first, we will take a glance at the passing mention of the cherub in Ezek. 28:14. The prophet, in the prediction against the king of Tyre, here says to him, “Thou art an anointed cherub, that covereth.” As the cherub comprehends the multiplicity of the creatures in a unity, so the king the multiplicity of his people. The nature of the kingly office can scarcely be more aptly designated than by the name cherub…… We now turn to the sublime vision of the cherubim, which opens the prophecies of Ezekiel. The historical starting-point of this vision lies in the false hopes which had at that time seized the minds of those who remained in Jerusalem with Zedekiah at their head. A spirit of infatuation had fallen on the people. They cast the prophecies of Jeremiah to the wind, which announced the approaching completion of the judgment by the Chaldeans. Confiding in the confederacy with the Egyptian power, which must at that time have taken a lofty flight, they hoped soon to be able to free themselves altogether from the Chaldean supremacy. These hopes also were spread among the exiles, as the letter addressed to them by Jeremiah (ch. 29) shows. He therein warns them, “Let not the prophets that are among you deceive you, and hearken not to your dreams, for they prophesy falsely to you in My Name.” Soon, it was thought, will a return to their country be opened up; and to this thought was joined the other—namely, to work together for it. These illusions and excitements, which prevented the people from entering with sincerity on the path of repentance pointed out by God, Ezekiel was to oppose. This opposition was made first by the vision of the cherubim, the real import of which Grotius thus briefly and well defines : “After the long-suffering of God, all tended towards vengeance.” }}…..
(6) Biblical Commentary on Old Testament: Prophecies Ezekiel: Carl Friedrich Keil, D.D., Doctor & Professor of Theology; Translated from the German, by Rev. James Martin, B.A. volumes 1 & 2.(1885)as

Exposition: (Chapters & Verses)
First Half: Prophecies of Judgment: (1-32)
Consecration & Calling of Ezekiel to Office of Prophet: (1-3:21)
Destiny of Jerusalem & its Inhabitants: (3:22-5:17)
Judgment upon Idolatrous Places, & on Idol-worshippers: (6)
Overthrow of Israel: (7)
Vision of Destruction of Jerusalem: (8-11)
Departure of King & People; & Bread of Tears: (12)
Against False Prophets & Prophetesses: (13)
Attitude of God towards Worshippers of Idols, & Certainty of Judgments: (14)
Jerusalem, Useless Wood of Wild Vine: (15)
Ingratitude & Unfaithfulness of Jerusalem. Its Punishment & Shame: (16)
Humiliation & Exaltation of Davidic Family: (17)
Retributive Justice of God: (18)
Lamentation for Princes of Israel: (19)
Past, Present, & Future of Israel: (20)
Prophecy of Burning Forest & Sword of the Lord: (20:45 to 21:32 (Heb. Chap. 21)
Sins of Jerusalem & Israel: (22)
Oholah & Oholibah, Harlots Samaria & Jerusalem: (23)
Prediction of Destruction of Jerusalem both in Parable & by Sign: (24)
Prediction of Judgment upon Heathen Nations: (25-32)
Against Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines: (25)
Against Tyre & Sidon: (26-28)
Fall of Tyre: (26)
Lamentation over Fall of Tyre: (27)
Against Prince of Tyre: (28:1-19)
Prophecy against Sidon, & Promise for Israel: (28:20-26)
Against Egypt: (29-32)
Judgment upon Pharaoh & his People & Land: (29:1-16)
Conquest & Plundering of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar: (29:17-21)
Day of Judgment upon Egypt: (21:1-19)
Destruction of Might of Pharaoh by Nebuchadnezzar: (30:20-26)
Glory & Fall of Asshur, Type of Egypt: (31)
Lamentations over Ruin of Pharaoh & his People: (32)
Second Half: Announcement of Salvation: (33-48)
Calling of Prophet, & his Future Attitude towards People: (33)
Calling of Prophet for Future: (33:1-20)
Preaching of Repentance after Fall of Jerusalem: (33:23-33)
Restoration of Israel, & Destruction of Gog & Magog: (34-39)
Deposition of Bad Shepherds; Collecting & Tending of Flock; & Appointment of One Good Shepherd: (34)
Devastation of Edom, & Restoration of Land of Israel: (35:1-36:15)
Salvation of Israel founded upon its Sanctification: (36:16-38)
Resurrection of Israel & Reunion as one Nation: (37)
Resurrection of Israel to new Life: (37:1-14)
Reunion of Israel as one Nation under future King David: (37:15-28)
Destruction of Gog with his great Army of Nations: (38-39)
New Kingdom of God: (40-48)
New Temple: (40-43:12)
Introduction: (40:1-4)
Outer Court, with Boundary Wall, Gate-Buildings, & Cells: (40:5-27)
Inner Court, with its Gates, Cells, and Slaughtering-Tables: (40:28-47)
Temple-house, with Porch, Side-storeys, & Backbuilding: (40:48-41:26)
Holy Cells in Court, & Extent of Holy Domain around Temple: (42)
Entrance of Glory of the Lord into New Temple: (43:1-12)
New Ordinances of Divine Worship: (43:13-46:24)
Description & Consecration of Altar of Burnt- Offering: (43:13-27)
Position of different Classes of People in relation to New Sanctuary: (44)
Holy Heave of Land & Heave-offerings of People: (45:1-17)
Instructions concerning Festal & Daily Sacrifices: (45:16-46:15)
Sacrifices for Sabbath & New Moon, Freewill-Offerings & Daily Sacrifices: (46:1-15-24)
Blessing of Land of Canaan, & Distribution of it among Tribes of Israel: (47 & 48)
River of Water of Life: (47:1-12)
Boundaries & Division of Holy Land. Description of City of God: (47:13-48:35)

{{ “Introduction: Person of Prophet: Ezekiel, (Yechzeq’el) (1:3; 24:24), ‘i.e.’. (yechazzeq ‘El), ‘God strengthens’, (Iezekiël, Yezekiël (LXX, and Book of Sirach, ch. 49:8), in the Vulgate ‘Ezechiel’, while Luther, after the example of the LXX, writes the name ‘Hesekiel’, was the son of Busi, of priestly descent, and was carried away captive into exile to Babylon in the year 599 B.C., —’i.e.’. in the eleventh (11th) year before the destruction of Jerusalem,— along with King Jehoiachin, the nobles of the kingdom, many priests, and the better class of the population of Jerusalem and of Judah (1:2; 40:1; cf. 2nd Kings 24:14 ff.; Jer. 29:1). He lived there in the northern part of Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Chaboras, married, and in his own house, amidst a colony of banished Jews, in a place called Tel-Abib (1:1; 3:15, 24; 8:1; xxiv. 24:18). In the fifth (5th) year of his banishment, ‘i.e.’. 595 B.C., he was called to be a prophet of the Lord, and laboured in this official position, as may be shown, twenty-two (22) years; for the latest of his prophecies is dated in the twenty-seventh (27th) year of his exile, ‘i.e.’. 572 B.C. (29:17)……Times of the Prophet: Ezekiel, like Daniel, is a prophet of the exile, but in a different fashion from the latter, who had been already carried away prisoner before him to Babylon on the first capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in the reign of Jehoiakim, and who lived there upwards of seventy (70 ) years at the Babylonian and Medo-Persian court, and who held from time to time very important offices of State. Daniel was placed by God in this high position, which afforded him a view of the formation and evolution of the world-kingdom, in order that from this standpoint he might be enabled to see the development of the world kingdoms in the struggle against the kingdom of God, and to predict the indestructible power and glory of the latter kingdom, which overcomes all the powers of the world. Ezekiel, on the other hand, was appointed a watcher over the exiled nation of Israel, and was in this capacity to continue the work of the earlier prophets, especially that of Jeremiah, with whom he in several ways associates himself in his prophecies; to preach to his contemporaries the judgment and salvation of God, in order to convert them to the Lord their God. —Rightly to understand his work as a prophet, the ripe fruit of which lies before us in his prophetic writings, we must not only keep in view the importance of the exile for the development of the kingdom of God, but also form a clear conception of the relations amidst which Ezekiel carried on his labours. What the Lord had caused to be announced by Moses to the tribes of Israel while they were yet standing on the borders of the Promised Land, and preparing to take possession of it, viz. that if they should persistently transgress His commands, He would not only chastise them with heavy punishments, but would finally drive them out of the land which they were about to occupy, and disperse them among all nations (Lev. 26:14-45; Deut. 28:15-68), —this threatening, repeated by all the prophets after Moses, had been already executed by the Assyrians upon the ten tribes, who had revolted from the house of David, and was now in process of fulfilment by the Chaldeans upon the kingdom of Judah also. In the reign of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, for the first time invaded Judah, captured Jerusalem, made Jehoiakim tributary, and carried away to Babylon a number of Israelitish youths of noble birth and of the blood-royal, amongst whom was Daniel, along with a portion of the vessels of the temple, in order that these youths might be trained up for the service of his court (Dan. 1:1-7). With this invasion of the Chaldeans begin the seventy (70) years of Chaldean servitude and exile in Babylon, predicted by Jeremiah. As Jehoiakim, so early as three (3) years afterwards, revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, the latter, after a lengthened siege, took Jerusalem a second time, in the third month of the reign of Jehoiachin, and carried away into captivity to Babylon, along with the captive monarch and the members of his court, the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem, a great number of priests, warriors, carpenters, and smiths, leaving behind in the land only the meaner portion of the people, over whom he appointed as his vassal King Mattaniah, the uncle of the banished monarch, whose name he changed to Zedekiah (2nd Kings 24:10-17; Jer. 29:2). By this removal of the heart and strength of the nation the power of the kingdom of Judah was broken; and although Nebuchadnezzar did not at that time ‘destroy’ it, but still allowed it to remain as a subject kingdom under his sway, yet its existence could not be of any long duration. Judah had fallen too deeply to recognise in the calamities which she had suffered the chastening hand of her God, and to bow herself repentantly under His mighty arm. Instead of listening to the voice of the prophet Jeremiah, and bearing the Chaldean yoke in patience (2nd Chron. 36:12), both monarch and people placed their trust in the assistance of Egypt, and Zedekiah broke the oath of fealty which he had sworn to the king of Babylon. To punish this perfidy, Nebuchadnezzar again marched against Jerusalem, and by the capture and burning of the city and temple in the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah’s reign put an end to the kingdom of Judah. Zedekiah, who had fled from the beleaguered city, was taken by the Chaldeans, and brought with his sons to Riblah into the presence of King Nebuchadnezzar, who first caused the sons of Zedekiah to be put to death before the eyes of their father; next, Zedekiah himself to be deprived of sight, and then commanded the blind monarch to be conducted in chains to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). Many military officers and priests of rank were also put to death at Riblah; while those who had been taken prisoners at Jerusalem, along with the deserters and a great portion of the rest of the people, were led away into exile to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). By this catastrophe the Old Testament theocracy lost its political existence; the covenant people were now driven out of their own land amongst the heathen, to bear the punishment of their obstinate apostasy from the Lord their God. Nevertheless this dispersion among the heathen was no entire rejection of Israel; it was merely a ‘suspension’, and not an ‘annihilation’, of the covenant of grace. Man’s unfaithfulness cannot destroy the faithfulness of God. “In spite of this terrible judgment, brought down upon them by the heaviest transgressions, Israel was, and remained,” —as Auberlen (The Prophet Daniel, p. 27, 2d ed.) well remarks,— “the chosen people, through whom God was still to carry out; His intentions towards humanity. His gifts and calling may not be repented of ” (Rom. 11:29). Even ‘after’ the Babylonian exile the theocracy was not again restored; the covenant people did not after their return again recover their independence, but remained, with the exception of the short period when under the Maccabees they won for themselves their freedom, in constant dependence upon the heathen world-rulers, until, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, they were completely dispersed among all the nations of the earth. The kingdom of God, however, was not ‘really’ to perish along with the external theocracy; it was only to pass into a new phase of development, which was intended to be the medium of transition towards its renewal and perfection in that kingdom of God which was to be founded by Christ. To pave the way to this end, and at the same time to serve as a witness to the exiles, that Israel, notwithstanding its dispersion among the heathen, still remained God’s people, the Lord raised up in Ezekiel, the son of a priest, a prophet of uncommon power and energy in the midst of the captives, “one who raised his voice aloud, like a trumpet, and showed to Israel its misdeeds, —whose whole manifestation furnished the most powerful testimony that the Lord was still amongst His people; who was himself a temple of the Lord, before whom the visible temple, which yet remained standing for a short time at Jerusalem, sank back into its nothingness; a spiritual Samson, who seized with mighty arm the pillars of the idol temple, and dashed it to the ground; a powerful, gigantic nature, which was fitted by that very qualification to effectually subdue the Babylonian spirit of the time, which delighted in powerful, gigantic, and grotesque forms; standing alone, but equal to a hundred of the sons of the prophets ” (Hengstenberg’s Christol. II. p. 531).”……
“Book of Ezekiel: The collection of the prophecies placed together in this book, as forming a complete unity, falls into two main divisions : —I. Announcements of judgment upon Israel and the heathen nations, ch. 1-32; II. Announcements of salvation for Israel, ch. 33-48. Each of these main divisions is subdivided into two sections. The first, namely, contains the prophecies of judgment (a) upon Jerusalem and Israel, ch. 3:22-24:3; (b) upon the heathen nations, ch. 25-32. The second main division contains (c) the predictions of the redemption and restoration of Israel, and the downfall of the heathen world-power, ch. 33-39; (d) the prophetic picture of the re-formation and exaltation of the kingdom of God, ch. 40-48; and the entire collection opens with the solemn dedication of Ezekiel to the prophetic office, ch. 1:1-3:21. The prophecies of the first, third, and fourth parts are throughout arranged in chronological order; those of the second part —the threatenings predicted against the heathen nations— are disposed according to their actual subject-matter. This is attested by the chronological data in the superscriptions, and confirmed by the contents of the whole of the groups of prophecies in the first three parts. The first part contains the following chronological notices: the fifth (5th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (1:2) as the time of Ezekiel’s call to the office of prophet, and of the first predictions regarding Jerusalem and Israel; then the sixth (6th) (8:1), seventh (7th) (20:1), and ninth (9th) years of the captivity of that monarch (24:1). The second part contains the predictions against seven foreign nations, of which those against Tyre fall in the eleventh (11th) (26:1), those against Egypt in the tenth (10th) (29:1), twenty-seventh (27th) (29:17), eleventh (11th) (30:20 and 31:1), and twelfth (12th) years of the exile. Of the two last parts, each contains only one chronological notice, namely, ch. 33:21, the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, ‘i.e.’. one (1)year after the destruction of Jerusalem; and ch. 40:1, the twenty-fifth (25th) year of the captivity, or the fourteenth (14th) after the destruction of Jerusalem. The remaining prophecies, which bear at their head no note of time, connect themselves closely as to their contents with those which are furnished with chronological data, so that they belong to the same period with those. From this it appears that the prophecies of the first part wholly, those of the second part to a great extent, date before the destruction of Jerusalem; those of the third and fourth parts proceed from the time after this catastrophe. This chronological relationship is in favour of the view that the prophecies against foreign nations, ch. 25-32, are not —as the majority of expositors suppose— to be assigned to the second, but rather to the first half of the book. This view is confirmed, on the one hand, by the contents of the prophecies, inasmuch as these, without an exception, announce only the downfall of the heathen nations and kingdoms, making no reference to the future forgiveness and conversion of the residue of these nations, and through this very peculiarity connect themselves closely with the prophecies of threatening against Israel in the first part; on the other hand, by the resemblance which exists between ch. 30:1-20 and ch. 3:16-21, compared with ch. 18:19-32, and which leaves no doubt upon the point that ch. 33:1-20 marks out to the prophet the task which was to occupy his attention after the destruction of Jerusalem, and consequently forms the introduction to the second half of his prophecies. —For further remarks upon the contents and subdivisions of the book, see the expositions in the introductory observations to the individual sections and chapters.” }}

 

 

 

Selections relevant to the Reflections on the Book of Ezekiel:
Ezekiel Selections (13): Calvin, Greenhill, Lowth, Fairbairn, Hengstenberg, Keil, Wordsworth, Lange, Redpath, Gaebelein, Bennett, Sulley, Smith, & Grant.
(1)
Commentary & Lectures on Book of Prophet Ezekiel, Chapters 1-20, Lectures 1-65. Volume 1 & 2. Jean (John) Calvin. 1st Translated from Original Latin, Collated with French Version, Thomas Myers, Vicar of Sheriff-Hutton, Yorkshire. (1560.1849.1850.2010). gs.as.ccel.org & bibletruthforum.com

{{“Translator’s Preface: “An Interest of no ordinary kind is excited in the mind of the Biblical Student by the mention of ”Calvin’s Lectures On Ezekiel.” The last Work which a great man leaves unfinished, because arrested by the hand of death, becomes at once an heirloom to posterity. After the lapse of nearly three hundred years, we read this affecting sentence with a tear and a sigh: (“After finishing this last Lecture (65th, Chapter 20), that most illustrious man, John Calvin, the Divine, who had previously been sick, then began to be so much weaker that he was compelled to recline on a couch, and could no longer proceed with the explanation of Ezekiel. This accounts for his stopping at the close of the Twentieth Chapter, and not finishing the work so auspiciously begun. Nothing remains, kind Reader, but that you receive most favorably and graciously what is now sent forth to the world.”) “….”As to the Genuineness Of Ezekiel’s Writings, it has never been seriously called in question by the learned, either Jew or Christian. Some self-sufficient Critics have impugned the last nine chapters: Their valueless arguments will be found, by those who wish to search for such unsatisfactory materials, in Rosenmuller, while their refutation is completed by Jahn, in his Introduction to the Sacred Books of the Old Testament, and is rendered accessible to the mere English reader by Hartwell Horne. So little weight, however, is attached to such opinions, that even Gesenius allows a “oneness of tone” to be so conspicuous throughout Ezekiel’s Prophecies, as to forbid the suspicion that any portions of them are not genuine. This Book formed part of the Canon in the Catalogues of Melito and Origen, of Jerome and of the Talmud. Josephus, indeed, refers to two Books of Ezekiel, probably dividing his ‘prophecies’ into two parts. His language has necessarily given rise to some discussion, which Eichhorn has set at rest as satisfactorily as the data will allow. The Arrangement Of The Various Predictions has been the subject of a variety of opinions. Some have supposed that Chronological Order has been interfered with, and that different collections of the separate Prophecies might be made with advantage. But Havernick, in his valuable Commentary, published as late as 1843, maintains that the present arrangement is correct. It proceeds, he asserts, in the order of time, and connects, as it ought to do, the Prophecies against foreign nations with those against Israel and Judah. Hence he divides the Book into the following nine Sections: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Call to Prophetic Office. (1-3:15).
2. Symbolical Representations Foretelling Destruction of Judah & Jerusalem. (4:16-7).
3. Series of Visions, Year & 2 Months Later than Former: Temple Polluted by Worship of Adonis, Consequent Vengeance on Priests & People, & Prospect of Happier Times & Purer Worship. (8-11).
4. Series of Reproofs & Warnings Against Prevailing Sins & Prejudices of his Day. (12-19).
5. Another Series of Warnings, One Year Later, still Announcing Coming Judgments. (20-23).
6. Predictions, 2 Years & 5 Months Later, Announcing Very Day of Siege of Jerusalem, & Assuring Captives of its Complete Overthrow. (24.)
7. Predictions Against Foreign Nations. (25-32.)
8. After Destruction of City, Future Triumph of Kingdom of God on Earth. (33-39).
9. Symbolic Representations of Times of Messiah, & Prosperity of Kingdom of God. (40-48).
There is a negative merit in Calvin’s Lectures, which has not been imitated by some later Commentators. He never makes those observations on Ezekiel’s Style & Diction which would reduce him to the level of a merely human writer. Grotius & Eichhorn, Lowth & Michaelis dwell on his erudition & genius, and assign him the same rank among the Hebrews which Aeschylus holds among the Greeks. They praise his knowledge of architecture, and his skill in oratory. They call him bold, vehement, tragical; “in his sentiments elevated, wars, bitter, indignant; in his images fertile, magnificent, harsh, and sometimes almost deformed; in his diction grand, weighty, austere, rough, and sometimes uncultivated; abounding in repetition, not for the sake of ornament & gracefulness, but through indignation & violence.” Such language as this clearly implies a very different view of the Prophet’s character & mission from that taken by Calvin. He looked upon him as a grand instrument in the hands of the Most High, and would have instinctively felt it to be profane thus to reduce him to the level of the Poets & Seers of heathenism. In this feeling we ought to concur. The modern method of criticizing the style & matter of the Hebrew Prophets deserves our warmest reprobation. They are too often treated as if their thoughts & their language were only of human origin. Their visions, their metaphors, & their parables, are submitted to the crucible of a worldly alchemy, in entire forgetfulness that these men were the special messengers of God.”…… “Comparing the Interpretations of Calvin with those of modern Continental Divines, we have no reason to conclude that the views of the great Reformer have been superseded. The progress of Biblical Criticism during the last 800 years has indeed been accompanied with some clearer views of the details, but the fundamental principles of these ‘Lectures on Ezekiel’ have never been successfully impugned. The Miracles of the Old Testament have been boldly assailed, both at home & abroad, and no slight outpouring of infidel wrath has fallen upon the Calvin interpretation of those of Ezekiel. Germany, the birthplace of the Reformation, has been also the seed-bed of spurious Rationalism. The novelty of any opinion on Biblical subjects has now become a sufficient atonement for its absurdity, and he receives the greatest applause from the many, who casts farthest from him whatsoever has commanded the veneration of ages. The direct interposition of Jehovah’s power in the affairs of men, as related in the writings of the Hebrews, has lately exercised the ingenuity of German skeptics to an almost incredible extent. The mysticism of the School of Schelling has rivaled the extravagancies of the theory of accommodation proposed by the celebrated Semler.”” ……}}

Lecture: Commentary:
{{Ezekiel 1:1-2: “We see that the Prophet was called to the office of a Teacher in the fifth (5th) year after Jehoiachin had voluntarily surrendered himself to the king of Babylon, (2nd Kings 24:15); and had been dragged into exile, together with his mother: for it was, says he, “in the thirtieth (30th) year.” The greater part of the Commentators follow the Chaldee Paraphrast, and understand him to date from the finding of the Book of the Law. It is quite clear, that this year was the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah; but in my computation, I do not subscribe to the opinion of those who adopt this date. For this phrase –“the thirtieth year (30th),” would then appear too obscure and forced. We nowhere read that succeeding writers adopted this date as a standard. Besides, there is no doubt that the usual method among the Jews was to begin to reckon from a Jubilee. For this was a point of starting for the future. I therefore do not doubt that this thirtieth (30th) year is reckoned from the Jubilee. Nor is my opinion a new one; for Jerome makes mention of it, although he altogether rejects it, through being deceived by an opposite opinion. But since it is certain that the Jews used this method of computation, and made a beginning from ‘Jobel’, that is, the Jubilee, this best explains the thirtieth (30th) year. If anyone should object, that we do not read that this eighteenth (18th) year of king Josiah was the usual year in which everyone returned to his own lands, (Leviticus 25) and liberty was given to the slaves, and the entire restoration of the whole people took place, yet the answer is easy, although we cannot ascertain in what year the ‘Jobel’ fell, it is sufficient for us to assign the Jubilee to this year, because the Jews followed the custom of numbering their years from this institution. As, then, the Greeks had their Olympiads, the Romans their Consuls, and thence their computation of annals; so also the Hebrews were accustomed to begin from the year ‘Jobel’, when they counted their years on to the next restoration, which I have just mentioned. It is therefore probable that this was a Jubilee year –it is probable, then, that this was the Jubilee. For it is said that Josiah celebrated the Passover with such magnificent pomp and splendor, that there had been nothing like it since the time of Samuel (2nd Chronicles 35:18). The conjecture which best explains this is, not that he celebrated the Passover even with such magnificence, but that he was induced to do so by the peculiar occasion, when the people were restored and returned to their possessions, and the slaves were set free. Since, then, this was the Jubilee, the pious king was induced to celebrate the Passover with far greater splendor than was usual –nay, even to surpass David and Solomon. Again, although he reigned thirteen (13) years afterwards, we do not read that he celebrated any Passover with remarkable splendor. We do not doubt as to his yearly celebration; for this was customary (2nd Kings 23:23). From this we conclude that the celebration before us was extraordinary, and that the year was ‘Jobel’. But though it is not expressed in Scripture, it is sufficient for us that the Prophet reckoned the years according to the accustomed manner of the people. For he says that this was “the fifth (5th) year of king Jehoiachin’s captivity:” who is called also Jehoiakim; for Jehoiakim succeeded Josiah, and reigned eleven years. The thirteen (13) years which remain of Josiah’s reign and these eleven (11), make twenty-four (24) (2nd Kings 23:36). Now, “his successor,” Jehoiachin, passed immediately into the hands of king Nebuchadnezzar, and was taken captive at the beginning of his reign, and reigned only three or four months (2nd Kings 24:8). After that, the last king, Zedekiah, was set up by the will of the king of Babylon. We see, therefore, that nine (9) years are made up: add the space of the reign of Jehoiachin: so it is no longer doubtful as to the reckoning of “the thirtieth (30th) year” from the eighteenth (18th) of king Josiah. It is true that the Law of God was found during this year, (2nd Chronicles 34:14,) but the Prophet here accommodates himself to the received rule and custom.”……”Before I proceed any farther, I will briefly touch on the subjects which Ezekiel treats. He has all things in common with Jeremiah, as I have said, with this peculiarity, that he denounces the last slaughter against the people, because they ceased not to heap iniquity upon iniquity, and thereby inflamed still more and more the vengeance of God. He threatens them, therefore, and that not once only, because such was the hard-heartedness of the people, that it was not enough to utter the threatenings of God three or four times, unless he should continually impress them. But, at the same time, he shows the causes why God determined to treat his people so severely; namely, because they were contaminated with many superstitions, because they were perfidious, avaricious, cruel, and full of rapine, given up to luxury and depraved by lust: all these things are united by our Prophet, that he may show that the vengeance of God is not too severe, since the people had arrived at the very last pitch of impiety and all wickedness. At the same time, he gives them, here and there, some taste of the mercy of God. For all threats are vain, unless some promise of favor is held out. Nay, the vengeance of God, as soon as it is displayed, drives men to despair, and despair casts them headlong into madness: for as soon as anyone apprehends the anger of God, he is necessarily agitated, and then, like a raging beast, he wages war with God Himself. For this reason, I said, that all threats are vain without a taste of the mercy of God. The Prophets always argue with men with no other intention than that of stirring them up to penitence, which they could never effect unless God could be reconciled to those who had been alienated from Him. This then is the reason why our Prophet, as well as Jeremiah, when they reprove the people, temper their asperity by the interposition of promises. He also prophesies against heathen nations, like Jeremiah, especially against the children of Ammon, the Moabites, the Tyrians, the Egyptians, and the Assyrians (Jeremiah 26-29). But from the fortieth (40th) chapter he treats more fully and copiously concerning the restoration of the Temple and the city. He there professedly announces, that a new state of the people would arise, in which both the royal dignity would flourish again, and the priesthood would recover its ancient excellence, and, to the end of the book, he unfolds the singular benefits of God, which were to be hoped for after the close of the seventy (70) years. Here it is useful to remember what we observed in the case of Jeremiah: (Jeremiah 28) while the false Prophets were promising the people a return after three or five years, the true Prophets were predicting what would really happen, that the people might submit themselves patiently to God, and that length of time might not interrupt their calm submission to his just corrections. As we now understand what our Prophet is treating, and the tendency as well as the substance of his teaching, I will proceed with the context.” ……}}

Notes & Comments by Editor: Promised Contribution: Complete Apparatus Criticus Arranged (See Translator’s Preface, Volume 1): Sections:
1-3: Indexes: End of Vol. 4-7: Follow One Another. Vol. 8: Is Preceded By Its Own “List of Contents.”
Complete Synopsis of Contents of Whole of Ezekiel’s Prophecies: 1. Prophet’s Commission.
2. Prophet’s Utterances. 3. Prophet’s Consolations.

Ezekiel: (Chapters & Verses):
1. Prophet’s Commission: (1-3):
Section 1. Its Allegoric Character: Whirlwinds; Four Living Creatures; Wheels; Firmaments; Throne & Human Appearance Seated Thereon, (1).
Section 2. Address: Roll; Abounding Lamentation, (2).
Section 3. Rebellion of People; Motion of Living Creatures; Charge as Watchman; Hand of Jehovah by River Chebar, (3).
2. Prophet’s Utterances: (4-32):
A. Against Jews: (4-24): Utterances Against Jews are Divisible into those Against Jerusalem: Mountain & Land of Israel; King; False Prophets; Elders of People, & Various Repetitions, & Different Images.
Section 1. Emblem of Siege upon Tile, (4:1-3): Lying on Right & Left Side, (4:4-8); Taking Food by Measure, (4:9-12); Explanation, (4:13-17).
Section 2. Emblem of Razor, (4:1-4); Explanation, (5:5-17).
Section 3. Against Mountains of Israel, (6:1-15).
Section 4. Against Land of Israel, (7:1-27).
Section 5. Vision of Image of Jealousy, (8:1-11); Chamber of Imagery, (8:12-16); Explanation, (8:17,18).
Section 6. Vision of Man with Slaughter Weapon, (9:1-11).
Section 7. Vision of Cherubim: Description & Motions, (10:1-22).
Section 8. Emblems of Caldron & Flesh: Application to Jerusalem, (11:1-25).
Section 9. Emblem of Prophet’s Removing his Goods, & its Interpretation, (12:1-16).
Section 10. Flattering Proverb of Israel rebuked, (12:1 7-28).
Section 11. Utterance Against False Prophets, Male & Female, (13:1-23).
Section 12. Against Elders of People, (14:1-23).
Section 13. Emblem of Vine used for Fuel, (15:1-8).
Section 14. Emblem of Israel as Outcast Infant Nurtured by Almighty, (16:1-14); Married, yet Committing Adultery, (16:15-34). This Wickedness Denounced & Punished, (16:35-59). Almighty’s Merciful Relenting, (16:60-63).
Section 15. Emblem of Eagle & Cedar, (17:1-10); Explanation, Referring to Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar, &
Pharaoh, (17:11-24).
Section 16. Vindication of Divine Justice, & Confutation of Israel’s Proverb, (18:1-32).
Section 17. Emblem of Lioness & her Whelps, (19:1-9).
Section 18. Emblem of Vine Plucked Up & Consumed, (19:10-14).
Section 19. Elders of Israel Rebuked for Their Sins, (20:1-32).
Section 20. Divine Promises of Restoration, (20:33-44).
Section 21. Word Dropped toward South, (20:45-49).
Section 22. Prophet’s Face Set toward Jerusalem, (21:1-7).
Section 23. Sharp Sword & Great Slaughter, (21:8-27).
Section 24. Sword Drawn Against Ammonites, (21:98-32).
Section 25. Sins of Jerusalem & God’s Vengeance, (22:1-22).
Section 26. Woes Uttered Against False Prophets, (22:23-31).
Section 27. Adulteries of People, (23:1-49).
Section 28. Parable of Boiling Pot, (24:1-14); Prophet’s Severe Affliction, (24:15-27).
B. Utterances Against Gentiles: (25-32):
Section 1. Against Ammonites, (25:1-7).
Section 2. Against Moabites, (25:8-11).
Section 3. Against the Edomites, (25:12-14).
Section 4. Against Philistines, (25:15-17).
Section 5. Against Tyre, through (26-28:19).
Section 6. Against Zidon, Ezekiel (28:20-26).
Section 7. Against Pharaoh, (29:1-7).
Section 8. Against Egypt, (29:8-21).
Section 9. Against Ethiopia, (30:1-5).
Section 10. Against Upholders of Egypt, (30:6-19).
Section 11. Against Pharaoh, Ezekiel (30:20-26).
Section 12. Assyria as Cedar of Lebanon, (31:1-9).
Section 13. Its Fall & Destruction, (31:10-18).
Section 14. Bitter Lamentation over Egypt, (32:1-21).
Section 15. Bitter Lamentation over Assyria. (32:22,23).
Section 16. Bitter Lamentation over Elam, (32:24,25).
Section 17. Bitter Lamentation over Meshech & Tubal, (32:26-28).
Section 18. Bitter Lamentation over Edom, (32:29-32).
(These Utterances are all most vividly and graphically portrayed. Allegories, Metaphors, &
Parables are most appropriately interspersed with fiery Denunciations & awful Threatenings in
consequence of gross iniquities.)
3. Prophet’s Consolations: (33-48): Series of Exhortations & Promises of Deliverance under Cyrus, Description of Temple, & View of Future Divisions of Land under Prosperous Reign of Messiah.
Section 1. Prophet’s Duty as Watchman, (33:1-16).
Section 2. Vindication of God’s Equity, (33:17-33).
Section 3. Reproof to Shepherds of People, (34:1-10).
Section 4. Almighty Good Shepherd, (34:11-31).
Section 5. Desolation of Mount Seir, (35:1-15).
Section 6. Destruction of Heathen, (36:1-7).
Section 7. Blessings on Israel, (36:8-38).
Section 8. Vision of Dry Bones, (37:1-14).
Section 9. Rods of Judea & Ephraim, (37:15-20).
Section 10. Future Reign of David King, (37:21-28).
Section 11. Prophecies Against Gog & Magog, (38:1-23).
Section 12. Judgments upon Gog, (39:1-16).
Section 13. Great Sacrifice on Mountains, (39:17-20).
Section 14. Israel Restored from Captivity, (39:21-29).
Section 15. Vision of Measuring the Temple, (40:1-49).
Section 16. Measures & Ornaments, (41:1-26).
Section 17. Priests’ Chambers & Outer Court, (42:1-20).
Section 18. Returning Glory of Jehovah, (43:1-9).
Section 19. Whole Fashion of House, (43:10-12).
Section 20. Measurement of Altar, (43:13-17).
Section 21. The Sacrifices on Altar, (43:8-27).
Section 22. Various Ordinances for Priests, (44:1-31).
Section 23. Apportionment of Land, (45:1-8).
Section 24. Duties of Priests, (45:9-25).
Section 25. Duties of Prince & of People, (46:1-25).
Section 26. Vision of Rising Waters, (47:1-12).
Section 27. Divisions & Limits of Land, (47:13-23).
Section 28. Portions for Tribes & Priests, (48:1-29).
Section 29. Various Gates of City, (48:30-35).
(These closing Visions & Consolations are singularly striking, and afford scope for copious illustration; but as our Commentator did not live to expound them, it would not become his Translator to obtrude on the reader his own research into these deep things of the Spirit of God. A minute description of the Temple Scenery has been attempted by a learned Jew, Soloman Bennett, R.A. of Berlin, (Edit. London, 1834.) His work contains a most elaborate account of every interesting particular. Ezekiel 40, Ezekiel 41, and Ezekiel 42 are explained verse by verse; and a ground-plan and bird’s-eye view are subjoined. These chapters are also explained by Fry on the Second Advent, volume 1. Section 13.)” }}

(2) Exposition of Prophet Ezekiel & Useful Observations. Delivered in Several Lectures in London, (1650-1654-1662). William Greenhill, Rector of Stepney, & Chaplain to Dukes of York & Gloucester, & Lady Henrietta Maria. Revised & Corrected, James Sherman, Minister of Surrey Chapel. (1839). gs.pdf

{{ “Advertisement: The Rev. William Greenhill, the learned and pious author of the following Exposition, was born in the year 1581, of humble parents residing in Oxfordshire. As early as the age of thirteen he entered a student of Magdalen College, Oxford, in the condition of Servitor, and when he had completed his twenty-first year, took his degree of Master of Arts. In 1643 he acted as one of the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, and about the same time was made afternoon lecturer at Stepney church. Mr. Jeremiah Burroughs preached there in the morning at seven o’clock, and Mr. Greenhill in the afternoon at three, and were hence styled “the Morning Star” and “the Evening Star” of Stepney. He was chosen to be chaplain to the dukes of York and Gloucester, and the Lady Henrietta Maria, and in the year 1656 had the living of Stepney presented to him. Calamy says, “He was a worthy man, and much valued for his great learning and unwearied labours.” Howe styles him “that eminent servant of God, Mr. Greenhill, whose praise is still in the churches.” His Exposition of the Prophecy of Ezekiel was delivered in Lectures in the city of London, which were attended by many of the chief personages of his day, and have been long and deservedly valued. They were originally printed a volume at a time, as the lectures on a few chapters were concluded, till five small quarto volumes completed the Exposition. Happy that biblical student thought himself who could obtain a perfect copy, although it has been sold at the enormous price of from seven to ten pounds. The last volume is rarely to be obtained; and is supposed to have been destroyed in the calamitous fire of London. No pains or expense have been spared to render this edition complete. It could hardly be expected that in a work of this magnitude no errors should inadvertently have been overlooked, but, from the most careful examination, it is confidently expected they will scarcely be found. Believing that the reader of Greenhill would not thank any editor who might attempt to beautify his style, the reviser has been anxious that he might appear again in his own garb of 1650, and not in the more polite dress of 1837. His style is abrupt, not always chaste, often imperfect, and full of singularities; yet searching, bold, striking, and effective. An attempt to improve it would most likely enfeeble it, and shear it of its point and power……As a practical expositor of Ezekiel, whose prophecy contains many things “hard to be understood,” Greenhill will ever rank deservedly high. He fully explains the meaning of the prophet, and then applies the truth to the consciences of his auditory by many most pertinent and heart-searching observations. It is impossible that a prayerful mind can read this exposition, without growing “in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.” J. Sherman. ‘Surrey Chapel’,
‘January’ 26’th’, 1837.”}}

{{“Epistles Dedicatory: [Prefixed, Original Edition, Part Containing Chap. 1-5.]

“To the Excellent Princess, & Most Hopeful Lady, the Princess Elizabeth, Her Highness. May it Please Your Highness,…..Doubtless God’s eye is upon your Highness, for that good which is found in you in these your tender years, and is well pleased that your sweetness of nature and choiceness of wit are joined with desire to know him, with love to his worship, affection to the godly, and delight in such sentences as these are, viz.: “Chairete en Kuriö pavtote, palin erö, Chairete.” “Deus meus et omnia”. “La mia Grandezza dal Eccelso”.
All which, with these precious speeches of yours, “I had rather be a beggar here than not go to heaven,” and, “How shall I be sure to go to heaven?” are acceptable to the Highest, and make strong impressions upon us inferiors. Your desire to know the original tongues, that you may understand the Scripture the better; your resolution to write them out with your own princely hand, and to come to the perfect knowledge of them, breed in us hopes that you will exceed all of your sex, and be without equal in Europe; as Drusius said of his son, who at five years learned Hebrew, and at twelve wrote it ‘extempore’, both in prose and verse. Encouraging instances your own sex will afford. Eustochium profited so much in the Latin, Hebrew, and Greek, that in her time she was called the wonder of the world. Istrina, queen of the Scythians, so excelled in Greek, that she taught her sons the Greek tongue. Zenobia, queen of the Palmyrenians, was skilled in the Latin, Egyptian, and Greek tongues; she read the Roman story in Greek, abridged the Alexandrian and all the oriental histories. Politian hath an epistle to Cassandra, a Venetian maid, whom he calls the glory of Italy. Her delight was not in wool, but books; not in the spindle or needle, but in the pen; not in paint, but in ink: she wrote epistles and orations to admiration; she excelled in logic and philosophy, and had such perfections, as caused the learned to admire, if not adore her. Queen Elizabeth was so learned, that she read every author in the original, and answered ambassadors of most nations in their own language: she went twice to Oxford, and once to Cambridge, purposely to hear the learned academical disputations, where herself made Latin orations: she translated Sallust, and wrote a century of sentences: she set apart some hours daily to read, or hear others read to her : she so excelled in learning and wisdom, that her teachers rather learned of her than brought learning to her. Your Highness seems to aim at all the excellences in the prementioned; for your writing out the Lord’s Prayer in Greek, some texts of Scripture in Hebrew, your endeavour after the exact knowledge of those holy tongues, with other languages and learned accomplishments, your diligent hearing of the word, careful noting of sermons, understanding answers at the catechising, and frequent questioning about holy things, do promise great matters from you. If the harvest be answerable to the spring, your Highness will be the wonder of the learned, and glory of the godly. It is my unhappiness that I cannot be sufficiently adjuvant to such princely beginnings; yet because this following treatise is an exposition of Scripture, I take the boldness to present it to your Highness, and shall continue to pray to him who is All, and able to give all, that he would preserve your royal person, bless your hopeful endeavours, fill you with all divine perfections, make you a chief praise in Israel, and fit you for an eternal weight of glory. Your Highness’s most humble servant, William Greenhill.”}}

{{“To All Well-Willers of Truth; Especially to the Authors Fautors of the Expository Lectures in this City: …..”Robert Stephen mentions one, and that a Sarbonist, who had lived above fifty years, and knew not what the New Testament meant: and have not sundry persons among us lived their fifty years, and not known what Ezekiel meant P hath he not been a book clasped and sealed unto them? If this hieroglyphical prophet have been a wonder to all for his visions, yet he hath been known to few, by reason of the abstruseness of his visions, which have kept off great rabbies from employing their talents to open them. If weakness and error be found in these poor labours of mine, I entreat you to remember, I have been among prophetical deeps and difficulties, which may plead for him who, knowing his own insufficiencies, came invita Minerva to this task. If any light appear for the better understanding of these enigmatical things, I must say with Daniel, there is a God in heaven which revealeth mysteries, to him be all the glory, Dan. ii. 28. My prayers shall be to him who enlighteneth every man which cometh into the world, that he would anoint your eyes with eye-salve, whereby you may daily see more into the great and glorious truths of God, and those things which may strongly make for your eternal peace and comfort. So prayeth Your friend and servant in the Lord, W. G.}}

1:5: “What these living creatures are, is the great dispute among expositors. Some make them to be the four covenants of God: 1. That with Adam. 2. That with Noah. 3. That with Moses. 4. That with the apostles. Some make them to be all the creatures. Some, the four cardinal virtues, justice, wisdom, fortitude, temperance. Some, the four faculties in the soul; the rational, irascible, concupiscible, and conscience. Some, the four chief passions; joy, grief, hope, and fear. Some, the four monarchies; Assyrian, Persian, Grecian, and Roman. Some, the twelve tribes of Israel, in their stations, east, west, north, south, when in the wilderness. Some, the four elements, of which man’s body doth consist. Some, the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; and this being the opinion of Jerome and Gregory the great, prevailed much, but now is deserted. Others understand by these four creatures, those who are complete and more perfect in the church. Others expound them to be Christ; but Christ is brought in, in the latter end of the chapter, sitting upon the throne: these creatures are some distinct ones from Him, and inferior to Him. By them then we are to understand the angels, which have a great part under God in the government of the world. The word (chaiyoth) living creatures, doth not only signify a creature that is corporeal, living, and sensible; but it denotes any living being or substance, whether corporeal or spiritual: and so Tully calls ‘intelligentias animales’, living intelligences, in Quest. Acad. l. 4. The best interpreters go this way, and understand by the living creatures, ‘exercitus invisibiles’, principalities and powers, and we need not fetch light from men, where the Scripture gives interpretation itself. Ezek. 10, there you have frequent mention of cherubims, which were these living creatures; for ver. 8, it is said, “There appeared the form of a man’s hand under their wings.” They had the same faces, one excepted, and as many, ver. 14, and Ezekiel saith, ver. 15, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar.” And more plain yet in ver. 20, “This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar, and I knew that they were the cherubims.” Although he called it before the living creature, in the singular number, yet here he changeth the number, and saith, they were the cherubims. We may trust Ezekiel’s judgment, he was guided by the Spirit, and his cherubims do hold forth the same parties to us, that Isaiah’s seraphims did to him. The word cherub notes generally any figure of man or beast, say the Hebrews, but especially the figure of a young man or a child, with wings stretched out, Exod. 25. Such were the two cherubims before the ark. The Chaldeans call a little child, ‘rabi’; or ‘rabia’; whence some derive the word cherubim, ‘quasi cherabia’, as a little child; others fetch it from ‘caph’, which notes likeness, and ‘rob’ or ‘rab’, which words signify, as, in general, quality and quantity, so multitude and magnitude; so that cherubims etymologized are ‘tanquam multi et magni’, as it were many and great. The word cherub notes not only angels, but angels as they appeared and were figured with any external form of man or beast, and such figures were hieroglyphical, as here in this vision. The prophet saw not these cherubims, or angels, or living creatures, but the likeness of them. For the nature of spirits is invisible; no soul, no angel, neither God himself, can be seen. How then is their likeness presented to the prophet? (They are (aölos [a-holoi (incomplete) = asömatos (bodiless)], incorporeal, without flesh and bones, Luke 24:39. They are pure as God is, ‘actus purissimus’.) It is no bodily likeness, but a likeness in life, quality, and motion. But the text saith, “They had the likeness of a man,” that is, not in his nature and essence, but in some qualities; they had the face, hands, thighs, and legs of a man, all which set out some choice qualities in the angels. They had also something of the beast and bird. And if they were in nature like the living creatures, angels were strange monsters, and not spirits in compound. By their likeness unto man is laid before us the rationality, knowledge, and understanding of angels. They are not ignorant creatures, but ‘ipsae intelligentiae’, the most understanding creatures in heaven or earth. 2nd Sam. 15:20, the widow of Tekoah told David, he was wise according to the wisdom of an angel of God, to know all things that are in the earth; that is, he was very wise, as the angels are, to search out, understand, and discover things. Therefore Jerome thinks they are called cherubims from their much knowledge. (A multitudine scientiae; Cherubim quasi cherabbim.) Cherubims, as it were, rabbies, doctors, teachers of others; and this office some angels have had. Dan. 8:16, “Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision;” and chap. 10:14, “I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days.” They have prophetical knowledge in them, and a treasury of things that are past and done long since. Rev. 4:6, 8, there is mention of four beasts or living creatures, (the same with these in Ezekiel,) full of eyes before and behind, because they see and know what is past, and what is before them; their natural knowledge is great, being such excellent spirits.” ……}}
(3) Commentary upon Larger & Lesser Prophets: being a Continuation Bishop Patrick, by William Lowth, B.D. Prebendary of Winchester. 4th Edition. (1739).

Dedication to the Right Honourable & Right Reverend Father in God, Jonathan, Lord Bishop of Winchester, & Prelate of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.
{{ “My Lord, The chief Design of the following Work, which I humbly offer to Your Lordship, is to assert the Ancient and Catholick Sense of several Texts of the Prophet, whom I undertake to explain, and vindicate them from some Novel Expositions, which tend to deprive the Christian Religion of the Benefit of so considerable a Testimony: And I humbly beg Leave to present to Your Lordship this small Acknowledgment of my Duty and Observance, as a Member of Your ‘Cathedral’, and Minister of a ‘Parish Church’ of Your ‘Diocese’ and ‘Patronage’, and to which Your Lordship hath been pleased to be a ‘Benefactor’, when it lately suffered under a great Calamity. How mean soever the Performance may be, I hope the Design of it may in some Measure recommend it to Your Lordship’s Patronage, which is to illustrate this Evangelical Prophet, who, by the general Consent of former Ages, hath been placed at the Head of that Noble Order: A Person, whose Supernatural Gift of Prophecy added a new Lustre to the Greatness of his Birth, and whose liberal Education furnished him with a Noble Eloquence, and suitable to the Dignity of his Argument. The same Holy Spirit, who sometimes spake to the World by Shepherds and Fishermen, that the Excellency of the Truths delivered by them might appear to be of God, and not of themselves, at other Times made Choice of the Pen of a David, a Solomon, and an Isaiah, to instruct us, that the outward Accomplishments of Birth and Fortune may be sanctified to higher Purposes, and made instrumental in advancing the Glory of God, and the Interests of Religion. That Your Lordship may continue to employ the Advantages of Your great Station and Quality to God’s Honour, and the Service of His Church, is the hearty Prayer of, My Lord, Your Lordship’s most Dutiful and Obedient Servant, William Lowth.” }}
Preface: (Prophetical Books):
{{ “There is no Part of the Holy Scriptures that more deserves the thoughts of inquisitive Men, than the Writings of the Prophets. ‘God’ in His Word hath offered suitable Matter for the several Capacities of Men. The ‘Historical’ Books instruct us in the Methods of Providence, and afford an agreeable Entertainment to inquisitive Minds, as they contain the most ancient Records that are in the World, and relate the most remarkable Occurrences that ever happened in it. Persons of ordinary Understandings may find all necessary Truths plainly delivered, and often repeated in the New Testament Writings, and in the ‘Practical’ Books of the Old: Those of higher Endowments may find sufficient Employment in unfolding the Types and Figures of the ‘Jewish OEconomy’, and in searching into the Depths of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions. We may indeed find some Prophecies plainly delivered with great Exactness of Time, and Particularity in Circumstances (those especially which relate to the Coming of the ‘Messias’) that when the Events came to pass, they might appear to be the Effects of ‘God’s’ determinate Counsel and Foreknowledge. But the far greater Part of the ‘Prophetical’ Predictions are couched in ‘Symbols’ and Sacred ‘Hieroglyphicks’ (a way of conveying the abstruser Parts of Knowledge, much used in the Eastern Countries:) As it were on purpose to excite the Curiosity of the Ingenious, and reward the Diligence of the industrious Searchers after Divine Truth. To which we may add, that the ‘Metaphorical’ Stile of the Prophets, is very proper to inspire the Minds of attentive Readers with noble Ideas of ‘God’s’ Wisdom and Providence, and to affect will the most lively Image of the Glorious Kingdom of ‘God’ and ‘Christ’, the Happiness of those that shall have a Share in the Triumphs of it, and the Terribleness of those Punishments which are denounced against such as will not have him to reign over them. And to encourage Men in the Searches of this Kind, they will find face an Harmony and Correspondence between the Figures and Emblems, whereby the Prophets point out Things to come, that the careful comparing of them with each other, will afford the best Clue to guide the attentive Reader through the most difficult Parts of their Writings, and is likewise a surprizing Proof that they all wrote by the Direction of one and the selfsame ‘Spirit’.
This hath been in some Measure attempted in the ensuing Work, where the Author hath used his utmost Diligence, to compare the Text with such parallel Places both of the Old and New Testament, which might any way conduce to the clearing up its Sense: And he is willing to believe that if be hath given any new Light to the obscure and difficult Passages of this Prophet, it is chiefly by comparing the Phrase and Idiom of the Text with other parallel Places more exactly than hath been hitherto done by any Commentator upon this Prophet that he hath seen: And be desires the Reader, that when he finds a more than ordinary Difficulty, he would carefully consider the parallel Text there referred to, which to have set down at Length, would have enlarged this Work beyond its due Bounds. The Writings of the Prophets unfold the Methods of Providence in many remarkable Instances: Such as are, ‘God’s’ Disposal of Kingdoms and Governments, and making use of wicked Princes and Nations to be the Instruments of his Justice in punishing others as bad or worse: The gradual Discovery of the Coming of the Messias, and the several Steps and Advancements by which ‘God’ introduced His Kingdom into the World,, and will carry it on till the Consummation of all Things. These Speculations must needs afford great Entertainment to Men of curious and inquisitive Tempers, and be Matter of Delight as well as instruction.
These Reasons, as they should encourage those to the Study of the Prophetical Writings, who have any
Talents for such an Employment, especially those whose Profession engages them to ‘search the Scriptures’; So they should recommend any Attempt that is made toward the further explaining of so considerable a Part of the Holy Scriptures. For after all the Pains that bath been taken in clearing up the Sense of these Sacred Books, by Persons excellently qualified for such an Undertaking, still there is Room left for further Endeavours in that Kind. For there is a Treasure of Heavenly Wisdom contained in them, that can never be exhausted: And as it is highly reasonable to believe, that some Parts of the ‘Old Testament’ Prophecies reach to the End of the World, so it is as reasonable to expect that in every Age Providence should open some new Scene, which wilt give further lnsight into the Meaning of those Sacred Writings. I confess, I can by no means approve of the Opinion of some learned Men, who are for cramping the Sense of the Prophets, and confining it within a narrow a Compass as they can, and will needs maintain that the Prophets scarce foresaw any Thing but what was to come to pass in or near their own Time. I must own my self-puzzled to assign a Reason why ‘God’ should appoint a Succession of Prophets to foretel what should come to pass within the Compass of about three hundred Years (for within that Time most of those Prophets lived, whose Writings make up that Part of the Scripture Canon which is called by that Name) and take no notice of any other Occurrences which should happen in succeeding Times; whereas to extend the Prophetick Views to the End of the World, seems much more agreeable to that Description of ‘God’s’ Prescience which the Holy Writers give us, That He declares the End from the Beginning, and His Wisdom reaches from one ‘End’ [of the World] to the other mightily, and sweetly does it order all Things: So that even when the whole ‘Mystery of God’s Dispensations’ shall be finished, it will appear that nothing is contained in them, but what God bath formerly declared to His Servants the Prophets, as it is expressly affirmed, Revel. 10:7.
For a further Proof of this Assertion, I desire it may be considered, that the Prophecies which foretel the Visibility and Universality of ‘Christ’s Church’, accompanied with perfect Peace, Prosperity and Holiness, cannot with any Probability be said to have as yet received their Accomplishment, as neither have those Predictions which foretel the flourishing State of the ‘Jewish’ Church and Nation in the latter Times. And to suppose those Prophecies to have already received their utmost Completion, is, in my Judgment, to give too great an Advantage to the Jews, and in Effect to acknowledge that they never were, nor will be fulfilled in their natural and obvious Sense. Whereas on the other Side, to assert that many Prophecies relating to the Messias, are already fulfilled in our ‘Lord Jesus Christ’, a Truth that can be made out beyond all Contradiction; and withal to maintain that several others concerning the same Subject, relate to His ‘Second Coming’, and their Accomplishment shall usher in or accompany that His Glorious Appearance: I say, the observing this Distinction between the different Times, wherein the several Prophecies relating to the Coming of Christ shall be fulfilled, effectually answers all the Arguments which the ‘Jews’ make use of to support themselves in their incredulity; it discovers a perfect Harmony and Correspondence between the Prophecies of the Old and New Testament, and it gives us an agreeable View of a more flourishing State of the Church, than the World hath yet been blessed with; and thereby engages us to use our best Endeavours to restore the Church to its primitive Purity, where-ever we find it defective.
These Considerations at first engaged me to attempt a Commentary upon the Prophet ‘Isaiah’; who as he is the first and principal of the Prophets in order; so he hath had the Honour of being stiled the ‘Evangelical Prophet’ by the Christian Church, because he foretold the Coming and Kingdom of the Messias with greater Clearness than any of the rest. But he will have but little Pretence to that Title, if we follow some Men’s Notions, which have been lately renewed, and zealously maintained by Mr. ‘Samuel White’, in his ‘Commentary’ upon this Prophet; where he all along supposes, that the far greatest Part of this Prophecy relates only to the Times in which the Prophet lived, and those that succeeded till the Return of the Jews from the Babylonish Captivity. Indeed he is willing to allow the ‘(53rd) Chapter’ of ‘Isaiah’, to have been fulfilled only in our Saviour; but according to his ‘Hypothesis’, that Prophecy must come in very abruptly, without any Connexion upon what went before, or what follows. To do him all the Justice I can, I must own, that in his Preface be asserts a double Meaning of many Prophecies: One more immediately relating to the present Circumstances of Things in or near the Prophet’s own Time; the others having more distant Views upon the State of the Gospel-Times. But his general Design in his ‘Arguments’ to the Chapters, and in his ‘Notes’, whenever an Occasion is offered, is to run down and ridicule the ‘Spiritual’ and ‘Mystical’ Sense of particular Texts or Prophecies, and to accuse the Commentators who have asserted it, as ‘making a Note of Wax’ of the Scriptures, and forcing the Words to an unnatural and improper Signification. Now these Assertions are a direct Contradiction to the Manner of interpreting the Old Testament Prophecies, made use of by ‘Christ’ and His ‘Apostles’ in the New; where we find our ‘Saviour’ applies several of the Ancient Prophecies to Himself; and the Apostles frequently assert, that ‘all Things happened to the’ Jews ‘in Figures’, that their Ordinances were ‘Parables’ or Allegories with respect to the Times of the Gospel; that the Christian Church is the ‘True Israel of God’, and all the Privileges appropriated to the ‘Jewish’ Nation in the Old Testament as ‘God’s Segullah’, or ‘peculiar People’, do in a more eminent Manner appertain to the Church of ‘Christ’, which is that true Kingdom of ‘God’, the ‘Jerusalem coming down from Heaven’, of which the earthly ‘Jerusalem’, and the Temple there, was only a Type and Figure.
These Rules for interpreting the ancient Prophecies laid down by the Apostles, ought to be a Standard for all Christians to square their Interpretations by, as being delivered by those who had the (Gnösis), or that especial ‘Gift of the Spirit’, which enabled them to explain the ‘Prophecies’ of the Old Testament, and apply them to the Times of the New. This is that ‘Publick’, or Authentick ‘Interpretation’ of the Scripture Prophecies, which St. ‘Peter’ opposes to a ‘Private Interpretation’, 2nd Pet. 1:19, that is, to such an Interpretation as is wholly owing to human Wit or Invention, or relates to private Persons and Translations. Whereas this publick Interpretation is taken from the ‘common Analogy of Faith’, Rom. 12;6, and arises from ‘comparing spiritual Things with spiritual’, 1st Cor. 2:13, i.e. the spiritual Sense of the Old Testament Writings with that of the New, and with one another. In which Particular I cannot but look upon Mr. ‘White’s Exposition’ as very deficient, in that he scarce ever compares the Phraseology of ‘Isaiah’ with that of the other Prophets, or with parallel Texts of the New Testament; which one would think every Christian Commentator should have a particular Regard to, in explaining the Sense of the ancient Prophecies. The ancient ‘Jews’ never contested this Point with the ‘Christians’, but always acknowledged that the chief Design of the Prophets was to foretel the Times of the ‘Messias’. And when Christ and His Apostles explained the Prophecies in a ‘Spiritual’ or ‘Mystical’ Sense, they interpreted them according to the received Notions of the Synagogue, and are never taxed, that we can find, for misapplying the particular Texts they alledged, as if they did not belong to the Times of the ‘Messias’. The Words of St. ‘Peter’ do in some Measure inform us, from whence the ‘Jews’ might receive these Notions, 1st Pet. 1:11,12, where he tells us, ‘That the Prophets who searched diligently what, and what manner of Time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, did signify, when it testified beforehand the Sufferings of Christ, and the Glory which should follow, had it revealed unto them, that not unto themselves, but to us they did minister the Things’ which the Apostles preached. No doubt, but they studied their own Prophecies, and the Spirit of God so far assisted them, and enlightened their Minds, as to enable them to leave this Key for the interpreting their own Writings, and letting succeeding Ages into the true Meaning of them. And thus a traditionary Explication of the Old Testament Prophecies was carried down from the very Time of the Prophets to After-Ages.
Several Arguments may be alledged to prove, that these Notions were generally received among the ‘Jews’ long before ‘Christ’s’ Time: In the first Place, we may argue from their admitting the ‘Song’ of ‘Solomon’ into their Canon, which could have no Pretence for being placed among the Sacred Writings, but only as it was supposed figuratively to set forth the ‘Spiritual Marriage of Christ and His Church’. The same Point may further be proved from their ancient ‘Targums’ and ‘Paraphrases’ upon the Scripture, from the ‘Misna’, and those Mystical Expositions of several Texts, which we read in the ‘Epistle’ of ‘Barnabas’, and which it is probable were taken out of some ‘Midrash’, or Authentick Exposition of the Scripture Texts, as hath been observed by Bishop ‘Fell’, and other Learned ‘Commentators’ upon that Epistle. And tho’ it should be granted, that some of those Writings are not so old as the Time of Christ and His Apostles; yet this doth not invalidate the Force of the Argument, because those Writings consist of traditionary Explications of Scripture, which the Compilers took from the Writings of former Ages, just as in After-times the ‘Greek Catenæ’ upon the Scriptures were compiled out of the Writings of the ancient Fathers by Authors of a later Date.
It does not appear, that this mystical Way of applying the Scripture-Prophecies to the Times of the ‘Messias’, was ever called in question, till the ‘Jews’ came to engage in Disputes with the Christians; and then to avoid the Force of their Arguments, they found it necessary to reject the Opinions of their Ancestors. It was this Consideration made Aquila and Theodotion, Apostates from Christianity to Judaism, to undertake a New Translation of the Old Testament into Greek, because they thought the Interpretation of the Septuagint too favourable to the Christians, having been framed according to the traditionary Explication of the Sense of the Prophets, which bad been received among the ‘Jews’ Time out of Mind. This Christian Interpretation about the Prophecies is called the ‘Mystical Sense’, because it helps to unfold the Mysteries of the Gospel, not as if it were always opposed to a literal Sense. For in many Cases what we call the Mystical Sense, more exactly answers the natural and genuine Import of the Words, than any other Interpretation that can be given of them. To instance in that famous Prophecy, Isa. 7:14. Behold a ‘Virgin’ shall conceive, &c. Supposing, but not granting, that this Prophecy can be applied in a lower Sense to ‘Isaiah’s’ Son, or any other Person but ‘Christ’; yet it is plain at first Sight, that the Historical Sense, which is commonly given of the Words, to denote ‘One that is now a Virgin, but should afterward marry and bear a Son’, comes infinitely short of the true Force and Meaning of them, and contains nothing in it that can deserve to be called a ‘Sign’ or ‘Wonder’. This seems to have been a Maxim in interpreting Prophecies, received among the Jews before Christ’s Time, That where-ever they observed an imperfect Completion of a Prophecy in the Historical Event, which no way answered the lofty Expressions, and extensive Promises, which the natural Sense of the Text imported, there they supposed the Times of the ‘Messias’ to be ultimately intended, ‘in whom all the Promises of God are Yea, and Amen’. To prevent any Misunderstanding, it may be proper likewise to take Notice, that this ‘Mystical Sense’ of the Prophecies, is now and then, but not so fitly, called a ‘Secondary Sense’; not as if it were lest principally intended by the Prophets, but rather with respect to the Time, because it is the last or ultimate Completion of their Predictions.
That many of the Prophecies are not limited to one single Event, but may have different Views, and be capable of being fulfilled by several Steps and Degrees, is what I have all along supposed in the following Commentary, and therefore here it will be proper to assign the Reasons of such a Supposition. This Subject hath been handled by several Learned Men, and of late by Dr. ‘Nich. Clagett’. [My Lord ‘Bacon’ has made an Observation upon this Subject, which deserves to be taken Notice of; in his Advancement of Learning, Book II. Chap. 11, “In the Interpretation of Prophecies, that Latitude must be allowed, which is proper and familiar to Divine Prophecies, that their Accomplishments may be both perpetual and punctual. For they resemble the Nature of their Author, ‘To whom one Day is as a thousand Years, and a thousand Years as one Day’. And though the Fulness and Height of their Complement be many Times assigned to some certain Age or Point of Time, yet they have nevertheless certain Stairs or Scales of Accomplishment throughout divers Ages of the World.”] l shall not repeat what hath been said already upon this Argument, but only lay down some General Reasons of this Assertion. I have already observed that this Opinion is agreeable to the Sentiments of the ‘Jews’: The only Point in which they differ from us, is, whether the Messias, to whom the Prophecies relate, be already come, or be yet to come. Therefore I shall not any longer insist upon that Argument, but proceed to observe, that under the Old Testament, all the most considerable Persons and Translations there mentioned, were ‘Typical’, and prefigured the State of Things under the ‘Messias’. Thus the New Testament informs us, that by ‘Sarah’ and ‘Hagar’ were allegorically represented the ‘Two Covenants’: By the preferring of ‘Jacob’ before ‘Esau’, the Rejection of the ‘Jews’, and the Calling of the ‘Gentiles’: By the Deliverance from the ‘Egyptian’ Bondage, the Redemption of Mankind by ‘Christ’, the ‘True Passover’ sacrificed for us: That the ‘Israelites’ passing through the Red-Sea, did typify the Sacrament of ‘Baptism’; and their Sojourning in the ‘Wilderness’, in their Way to the Promised Land, was designed to signify that we are but ‘Strangers and Pilgrims’ in this World, and must look upon Heaven as the only true Place of ‘Rest which remains for the People of ‘God’.’
“In the Characters the Scriptures give us of ‘Adam’ and ‘Melchisedeck’, of ‘Isaac’ and ‘Joseph’, of ‘Moses’ and ‘Joshua’, of ‘David’ and ‘Solomon’, of ‘Eliakim’ and ‘Jonah’, of ‘Cyrus’ and ‘Zerubbabel’, they plainly describe them as Figures of Christ: That several Circumstances of their Lives did foreshew the most remarkable Passages of his, and the Deliverances some of them wrought for God’s People, were Earnests of a greater Redemption to be accomplished by the Messias. Several of the Psalms, particularly the 18th, and the 118th, were writ upon particular Occasions, relating to some remarkable Circumstances of David’s Life, as appears both by their ‘Titles’ (which to be sure are as ancient as the Compiling the Old Testament Canon) and by the General Subject handled in them: And yet several Passages out of these ‘Psalms’ are applied in the New Testament to ‘Christ’ and the ‘Gospel’, as more eminently fulfilled in them. From these Principles we may conclude, that there is a Resemblance, or ‘Correspondence’ between many of the Transactions mentioned in the Old Testament, and those which should come to pass under the New: And consequently, that the Prophets, when they spake of some Events near their own Times, probably had more distant Views, which might reach even to the latter Ages of the World.
This Assertion, as it shews that ‘Fulness of Sense’ contained in the Scriptures, which ‘Tertullian’ faith, he did so much reverence and adore, so it introduces Christ into the World, with a great deal of Pomp and Solemnity; whilst it makes the whole Contrivance of the Jewish Dispensation, and all the Eminent Persons of former Times, as so many Harbingers to prepare the Way for His Coming, and thereby raises in our Mind, a just Veneration for the Gospel-State, as the Master-Piece of Divine Providence, that Point wherein all the Lines of ‘God’s manifold Wisdom’ do meet as in their Center; from whence it is evidently demonstrated, that ‘Christ was ordained by God, before the Foundation of the World’, though in His wise Disposal He did not appear till the latter Times of it. These ‘Providential Congruities’ between the Times of the Old and New Testament, do very much confirm the Authority of both Testaments; for they plainly shew, that they were written by the Direction of one and the same Spirit, who hath therein discovered to us one entire Scene of Providence, which reaches from one End of the World to the other.
The Apostles justify this Way of interpreting Scripture-Prophecies, by the Interpretations they give us both of the antient Prophecies, and of our Saviour’s own Predictions; of each of these shall give a remarkable Instance. That Prophecy of ‘Isaiah’, chap. 53:4. ‘He hath borne our Griefs, and carried our Sorrows’, without question is principally to be understood of Christ’s undergoing the Punishment due to our Sins; but yet St. ‘Matthew’ applies it to the Pains which He took in healing Men of their bodily Infirmities, and his rendering His own Life uneasy by the Care and Trouble He underwent to give Ease to others, ‘Matth’. 8:18. In like manner, that Expression of our Saviour, ‘John’ 17:12. ‘Those whom Thou gavest Me I have kept, and none of them is lost’, was chiefly meant of Christ’s Care to preserve His Disciples in a firm Belief of, and Adherence to, those Truths which He taught them; yet we find St. ‘John’ applies the Words to the Care that Christ took of their Safety, when he yielded Himself up to those that came to apprehend Him, chap. 18:9. From hence it appears, that the Holy Writers themselves suppose, that the Expressions of inspired Persons may have several Senses couched under the Words. The same may be affirmed of that Prophecy of Christ, concerning the ‘Destruction of Jerusalem, and the End of the World’, Matth. 24 in which it is hard to determine, where our Saviour makes a Transition from one Subject to the other; this makes it probable, that He had both these Events in His Eye together, and that several of His Expressions were partly verified at the Time of the Destruction of ‘Jerusalem’, but were more fully to be accomplished at the ‘General Judgment’, of which that particular judgment was an Earnest and Fore-runner.
The Prophet Isaiah is certainly one of the most difficult of all the Prophets, though perhaps few are sensible of it, but they that try to explain him: Besides the Want of antient Records to clear up some Historical Passages of his Prophecy, a Difficulty common to him with the rest of the Prophets; there are some Difficulties, which do in a particular Manner attend his Writings. The Profoundness of his Thoughts, the Loftiness of his Expressions, and the Extent of his Prophecy, have made the ‘Commentaries’ hitherto written upon him, fall short of a full Explication of his Book; and he that will undertake to fathom the Depths of this Prophecy, is in great Danger of going out of his own. This Prophet seems to have been favoured with an entire View of the Gospel-State, from the very ‘Birth’ of the ‘Messias’, to that glorious Period, when the ‘Kingdoms of the World shall become the Kingdoms of the LORD, and of His Christ’. Upon these Accounts, as he deservedly holds the first Rank in that Noble Order of Prophets; so it may be hoped, the Candid Reader will favourably receive any Attempt that is made, to give some farther Light to this Prophecy, how imperfect soever. And particularly, I would make one Request to him, with which I shall conclude this Preface, viz. That, in those Parts of this Exposition, where there is any Mention made of the ‘Jews’ being to be ‘restored to their own Land’ upon their Conversion, and some other Particulars relating to that glorious State of the Church, which we may from Prophetical Grounds of Scripture expect to come to pass in the ‘latter Times’ of the World, there he would not judge of what is said upon these obscure Subjects as so many positive Assertions, but only as probable Conjectures, and such as the Words of the Text may fairly be supposed to favour. For in these and such-like abstruse Matters, which at present lie hid in their Causes, and in the Abyss of Providence, a modest Man should not pretend to be ‘Wise’ above that which is plainly and expresly ‘written’.” }}

{{ Commentary on Ezekiel’s Prophecy: Chap. I: Argument: The first Chapter contains a Description of God’s Appearing in a glorious manner to ‘Ezekiel’, in order to the giving him a Commission to execute the Prophetical Office.
Ver. 1. ‘Now it came to pass’.] The ‘Hebrew’ Text reads, ‘And it came to pass’; but it is usual in that Language to begin a Discourse or Book with the Particle ‘Vau’, or ‘and’: See ‘Jonah’ 1:1 and the beginning of most of the Historical Books of the Old Testament; which Particle is very properly translated in those Places, Now it came to pass: So that there is no ground for the Fancy of ‘Spinoza’, who would conclude, from hence, that this Book of ‘Ezekiel’ is but a Fragment of a larger Book, and contained several Prophecies, now lost, which were in Order of Time before those set down in these and the following Chapters. Ibid. ‘In the ‘Thirtieth (30th) year’.] It is a great Question from whence this Computation of Time commences. The most probable Answers are; first, that of ‘Scaliger’, who supposes this Thirtieth (30th) Year to be meant of the Years of Nebupolassar’s Reign; who, as he tells us from ‘Berosus’ quoted by Josephus, (l. I. contr. App.) reigned twenty-nine (29) Years complete: So the Thirtieth (30th) Year, here mentioned, was the last Year of his Reign and Life: And is likewise the thirteenth (13th) Year current of his Son Nebuchadnezzar’s Reign, who reigned so many Years together with his Father: (See Scaliger’s Canon Isagog. p. 281, 294. his Prolegom. ad. Lib. de emend. Temporum; and his Notes on the Greek Fragments, at the end of those Books.) But there is one considerable Objection against this Opinion of Scaliger, that according to Berosus’s Account, as his Works are quoted in another Place of ‘Josephus’, (Antiq. l. x. c. ii.) Nebupolassar reigned only Twenty-one (21) Years, the Greek Text reading, by a little Variation, (‘eichosi hen’ for ‘eichosi ennea’ .) Which is the same Number of Years assigned to ‘Nebupolassar’ in the ‘Aera Nabonassari’, and agrees better with ‘Berosus’s’ own Story, ‘viz’. that when he had committed the Command of the Army to his Son, and sent him on an Expedition to Syria and Phaenicia, he died in a short Time after. ‘Villalpandus’ in like manner makes his Computation to commence from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign: See his Commentary upon Ezek. 40:1. He allows nineteen (19) Years for his Reign, distinct from that of his Son, and supposes ‘Nebuchadnezzar’ to reign two (2) Years with his Father; which indeed agrees with the Scripture Computation: See the Note on Jer. 25:1. But, according to that very Account, the fifth (5th) Year of ‘Jehoiachin’s’ Captivity will be coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For the nineteenth (19th) Year of the same Reign is assigned for the Destrućtion of ‘Jerusalem’, ‘Jer’. 52:12., which was about six (6) Years afterwards. So this Computation will make Jehoiachin’s Captivity to have happened not in the thirtieth (30th), but in the thirty-second (32nd) Year, reckoning from the beginning of ‘Nabupolassar’s’ Reign. A more probable Answer to this Difficulty is that which the Chaldee Paraphrast, Archbishop Usher, A. M. 3409. Dr. ‘Prideaux ad an. A. C.’ 594, and other learned Men follow, ‘viz’. that these thirty (30) Years are to be reckoned from the Time when ‘Josiah’ and all the People of ‘Judah’ entered into that solemn Covenant mentioned 2nd Kings 22:3. which was in the eighteenth (18th) Year of ‘Josiah, ibid’. from which Time the same Learned Writers compute the forty (40) Years of ‘Judah’s’ Transgression, mentioned chap. iv. 4:6. Ibid. ‘As I was among the Captives by the River Chebar’.] Those which were carried away with ‘Jehoiachin’, King of ‘Judah’: See the next Verse. These were placed in Towns or Villages that lay upon the River Chebar in Mesopotamia, called by ‘Ptolemy’ and ‘Strabo’, ‘Chaboras’ or ‘Aboras’, and by ‘Pliny’, Lib. 1. c. 26 ‘Cobaris’.
Ver. 2. ‘Which was in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity’.] This was coincident with the thirteenth (13th) Year of ‘Nebuchadnezzar’s’ Reign: For ‘Jehoiachin’ was carried Captive in the eighth (8th) Year of his Reign : See 2nd Kings 24:12. The ‘Hebrew’ Writers use several Computations of the Beginning of the ‘Babylonish’ Captivity : See the Note upon ‘Jer.’ 25:1. That under ‘Jehoiachin’, wherein ‘Ezekiel’ was made a Captive, is the Computation he always follows in the succeeding Parts of his Prophecy: See ‘chap’. 8:1; 20:1; 29:1, 17; 31:1; 33:1. 40:1. }}

(4) Ezekiel & Book of His Prophecy: Exposition. Patrick Fairbairn, DD. Principle of Free Church College, Glasgow; Author of “Typology of Scripture”. (1850,1855,1863)

Contents: Introduction: Chapters & Verses:
1: Time & Manner of Ezekiel’s Entering on the Prophetical Office.
2-3:1-11: CaIl to Prophetical Office.
3:12-27: Ezekiel’s Entrance on his Mission, & 1st Message imparted to Him.
4: Vision of Siege & Iniquity-Bearing.
5-6: Vision of Shorn Hair, & its Foreshadowing Desolations.
7: Lamentation over Guilt & Fall of Israel.
8: Vision of Image of Jealousy, & other Abomination at Jerusalem.
9: Vision of Sealing.
10: Vision of Coals of Fire.
11: Destruction of Corrupt Priesthood, & Promise of Grace & Blessing to Believing Remnant among Exiles.
12: Vision of Ezekiel’s Typical Removing as Exile, & accompanying Instructions.
13: False in Prophecy, its Character & Doom.
14: Hypocritical Inquirers after God —their wickedness Discovered and Rebuked.
15: Guilt & Condemnation of Israel Parabolically Represented.
16: Story of Israel’s Guilt and Punishment.
17: Parable of Two Great Eagles, & Cropping of Cedar of Lebanon.
18: Retributive Righteousness of God.
19: Lamentation Over Fall of Royal House.
20:1-44: Display of People‘s Long-continued Sinfulness, & Lord’s Long-Suffering-Mercy & Goodness.
20:45-49 & 21: Vision of Lord’s Fire & Sword.
22: Lord’s Judgment upon All-Pervading Sinfulness of Jerusalem.
23: Story of Israel’s Sin & Punishment Parabolically Exhibited under Names of Aholah & Aholibah.
24: Vision of Boiling Caldron, & of Death of Ezekiel’s Wife.
25: Judgment of Israel’s Immediate Neighbours & Rivals: Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines.
26: Judgment of Tyre.
27: Lamentation upon Tyre, & Account of Her Former Greatness & Prosperity.
28:1-19: Criminatory Address to King of Tyre, & Lamentation Over His Coming Downfall.
28:20-26. Judgment of Sidon, & Ultimate Peace of Israel.
29: Judgment of Egypt, its Desolation for 40 Years & Subsequent Degradation: 1st Instrument of Chastisement, Nebuchadnezzar.
30: Continuation of Egypt’s Judgment.
31: Certainty of Pharaoh’s Doom Confirmed: Parabolical Relation of Assyria’s Greatness & Destruction.
32: Songs of Lamentation Over Fall of Pharaoh & Kingdom, . . . . . . . .
33: Renewal of Ezekiel’s Commission, his Office as Watchman,
34: Promise of True Shepherd, after False Shepherds have been Punished & Removed.
35: Judgment of Edom.
36: Israel Revenged & Comforted: New Heart & Blissful Heritage.
37: Vision of Dry Bones Restored to Life again, as Symbolical of Israel’s Death & Resurrection.
38-39: Assault of Gog & His Destruction.
40-48: Preliminary Remarks on Vision in Chap. 40-48, with Respect to Principles on which it ought to be interpreted.
40:1-48. Position, Walls, Gates, & Courts of Temple,
40:48,49, -41: Temple Itself.
42: Chambers of Temple & its Boundary Walls.
43: Lord’s Return to Temple.
44: Ordinances for the Prince & Priesthood.
45: Sacred Allotments in Land & Gifts.
46: Additional Ordinances for Prince & People.
47:1-12. Vision of Temple-Waters .
47:13-23 -48: Boundaries & Re-Distribution of Land, Israel Parabolically Represented.

{{ Introduction: I: ….”Yet this must not be understood of his connection with the whole band of exiles, nor probably of the later period of his public ministry nearly so much as of the earlier. For, amid the prevailing iniquity, there are not wanting occasional indications of a better spirit among the captives (chap. 11:16, Jer. 24); and, at a period not very distant from the close of his ministrations, a very marked and general amendment had undoubtedly taken place among them. It could not greatly, if it did at all, exceed thirty (30) years from the cessation of his active labours, when the decree was issued for the return of the captives; and notwithstanding the corruptions which still lingered among them, and which soon began to appear in the infant colony, there was a general repudiation of idolatry, and an adherence to the law of Moses, very different from what had existed at the era of the captivity, or for a considerable time previous to it. Nor can there be any doubt, that among the agencies which contributed to effect this beneficial change, a prominent place must be ascribed to the ministry of Ezekiel. Thus by the results that appeared, decisive evidence was borne to the fact, that a prophet had been among them, who had not laboured in vain; and we can scarcely doubt, from the whole circumstances of the case, that the satisfaction was afforded our prophet —a satisfaction which was denied to his great contemporary Jeremiah— of witnessing the commencement of the spiritual renovation for which he so earnestly laboured.”…..IV. The order and classification of his prophecies next demands some notice. And here it ought, first of all, to be borne in mind, that whatever arrangement may be made respecting them as to their subjects, an order and progression belongs to them as a whole, as well as a homogeneousness of nature, which fits them for mutually throwing light on each other; and, in particular, one large portion of them (chap. 1-32), which is mainly conversant with sin and judgment, in a great degree supplies the key, by which the later announcements —more cheering in their tone, but more remote in their objects— are to be interpreted. There is in this respect a unity in the character of the book, which calls for an orderly and progressive perusal of its contents. And should anyone, heedless of this characteristic, overleap all the earlier portions of the prophecy, and proceed at once to grapple with some of the later and more peculiar visions, he would only take the course most likely to involve himself in perplexity or disappointment. A general classification of the contents of the book, as has just been noticed, may be made into those, which have respect predominantly to sin and judgment, and those which are more peculiarly appropriated to the revelation of grace and mercy. We can only, however, speak of prevailing, not by any means of exclusive, characteristics of this sort. For, in the one-part mercy is often found intermingling with the judgment, as in the other judgment occasionally alternates with the mercy. The more specific, and at the same time quite natural divisions, are commonly indicated by the prophet himself, in the several dates which he has, at certain intervals, placed as superscriptions to the messages he successively received. These are altogether eight.
1. The first is introductory, containing a description of the first vision, and in connection with it of the call of the prophet—(chap. 1-3:15). 2. The next portion, embracing the remaining verses in chap. 3, and reaching to the close of chap. 7, is occupied chiefly with a more explicit announcement of the prophet’s commission and charge, and his entrance on the work it devolved upon him, by setting forth the enormous guilt of the people, the certainty of the coming destruction of Jerusalem, with still subsequent calamities, and the prostrate condition of the whole affairs of the kingdom. 3. The next section embraces chap. 8-19, but falls into two parts. The first, including chap. 8-11, contains still farther revelations of the people’s sinfulness, especially as connected with the profanation of the temple, and the corruption of the priesthood —the determination of God, in consequence, to forsake His sanctuary, with severe executions of vengeance on the wicked, though not without gracious interpositions for the safety of the few who remained faithful— and then, the twofold work of destruction and preservation being (symbolically) done, His actual departure from the temple-mount, that He might go and reveal Himself in tenderness and power to an inquiring and afflicted people in exile. In the second part of this division, which includes chap. 12-19, the prophet prosecutes in detail his exposure of the sins, which were bringing down such inflictions of judgment, and shows how all classes, as well as the priests —prophets, princes, and the people generally, had corrupted their ways, and should severally share in the destruction that was impending. 4. In chap. 20-23, the same subject is continued, though, as the time of judgment had approached nearer, there is an increased keenness and severity in the prophet’s tone; he sits, as it were, in judgment upon the people, brings out in full form the Divine indictment against them, and with awful distinctness and frequent reiteration, announces both their consummate guilt and its appropriate judgment. 5. Then comes, in chap. 24, the actual announcement of the end, as regards Jerusalem and its guilty people, with a representation of the behaviour suitable for such as survived the calamity; the prophet himself being required to share in the confusion and silence, which were proper at such a time. 6. Chap. 25-32 form a group by themselves, containing the announcements respecting sin and judgment, which, during the interval of the prophet’s silence towards his own people, he was commanded to utter against the surrounding nations. The great object of them was to show, that if judgment had begun at the house of God, it would assuredly embrace, and visit with still more overwhelming calamities, the ungodly world. There are various headings in this section; and some of the revelations were given at periods considerably later than others; but they began to be uttered immediately after the doom of Jerusalem, and all manifestly relate to one great theme. 7. In chap. 32-39, we have a series of predictions given to the prophet in the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, after the appearance in Chaldea of the remnant that had escaped from Jerusalem (chap. 23:21); a series which points more particularly to the better times in prospect, and unfolds, with considerable fulness and variety, the revival of God’s cause among the covenant-people, the re-establishment of the Divine kingdom, and its sure and final victory over all the sources of evil, which had prevailed so much against it in the past. 8. Then, after an interval of thirteen (13) years, comes the closing vision, in chap. 40-48, disclosing, under the symbolical representation of a new temple, city, and commonwealth, the restored condition, with the perfect order and beauty, of the people and kingdom of God.
(In section 5 Fairbairn on Ezekiel Literature in his days: England has produced almost nothing exegetically of substantial value by 1850; the Puritan writers were anthologies of sayings & sermons. Archbishop Newcome of 1788 being exception, save filled with textual emendations as solutions & interpretations; but carried on still by textual critics as Ewald & Hitzig, seeking to correct the Hebrew text by the Septuagint. The elaborate work of 1596 by Rome’s Spanish Jesuits, Pradus & Villapandus is commended for patristic citations & Temple opinions. Rosenmuller’s & Maurer’s commentaries are useful, especially grammar; Ewald cautiously instructive; but Havernick of 1843 is by far the best; less so Hitzig of 1847. Rationalism is rash, superficial, & spiritually impoverished. Hengstenberg helpfull when he interprets the text.)

(5) Prophecies of the Prophet Ezekiel Elucidated; by E.W. Hengstenberg, D.D., Professor of Theology, Berlin. Translated by A.C. & J.G. Murphy. Edinburgh. 1869.gs

Contents: 1st Cycle (Chap, 1-7); 2nd Cycle (Chap, 8-19); 3rd Cycle (Chap. 20-23); 4th Cycle (Chap, 24)
Foreign Nations (Chap, 25-32): Ammonites, Moab, Edom, Philistines, Tyre & Sidon, Egypt.
Conclusion to Chap, 1-32, (Chap, 33:1-20); Words of Comfort (Chap, 33:21–39); Restoration (Chap, 40-48).

{{ “Retrospect: Ezekiel, carried into exile in the captivity of Jehoiachin, seven (7) years after the beginning of the Chaldean bondage, eleven (11) years before the destruction of the city, appeared there as prophet in the fifth (5th) year after his captivity, in the thirtieth (30th) year of his life (ch. 1:1). The latest date which we find in the superscriptions of his prophecies is the twenty-seventh (27th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (ch. 29:17), so that the historically ascertained period of the prophet’s activity embraced twenty-two (22) years. It was shown that the prophet had precisely in that period a definite occasion for the collection of his prophecies. The prophecies contained in the present collection, like those of the contemporary Daniel, are all provided with chronological superscriptions. These are in all twelve, of which six belong to native prophecies, and six to prophecies against foreign nations,—(26:1; 29:1; 29:17; 31:1; 32:1; 32:17). The collection falls into two main parts,—prophecies before and prophecies after the destruction of Jerusalem. That we may not, with some, make the prophecies against foreign nations in ch. 25-32 a special main part, that they are rather to be considered an appendix to the prophecies before the destruction, is manifest: 1. Because the beginning of these predictions in ch. 25 is connected with the last native prophecy before the destruction in one chronologically determined section; 2. Because the section ch. 33:1-20 forms the literary close to ch. 1-32; and with special reference to the main portion, ch. 1-24, gives some nota benes concerning the whole previous literary activity of Ezekiel. The essential character of the first part is threatening; that of the second, promise. The starting-point of the first main part is a great anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the danger connected with it of the people failing to discern the signs of the times. The first main part contains four groups of native prophecies —(ch. 1-7; 8-19; 20-23; & 24)— in regular chronological sequence. The first dates from the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiachin, a time when the formation of the coalition began to fill men’s minds with joyful hopes; the last from the tenth day of the tenth month in the ninth (9th) year of Jehoiachin, —the fatal day of the opening of the siege of Jerusalem, which put an end to the hopes founded on the coalition. The mission of the prophet in these four groups is to make clear to the people the import of the great Chaldean catastrophe, and to bring them to understand the day of their visitation, and escape the miserable fate of those who are severely afflicted, without gaining the peaceable fruit of righteousness. To the book of the works no less than to the book of the words of God we may apply the saying, “Understandest thou what thou readest?” It was the great privilege of the people of God, that such an interpretation always went along with the doings of God. The prophet leads the people to discover in the coming event a long reckoning of God, —the visitation of a guilt that goes back to the very origin of the people. He makes every effort to bring the people to acknowledge the depth of their corruption, which alone could account for their sufferings, and thus not send them far from their God, but connect them closely with Him. The destined event, thus recognised in its necessity, had to be represented as inevitable. The prophet is inexhaustible in the denunciation of the foolish hopes of the people, before whose eyes he portrays the future calamity as if it were already present, as indeed the roots of it in reality were; inexhaustible also in the destruction of the false views concerning the source of the approaching suffering, and the beating down of the craftiness of the natural man, who in the deep indwelling antipathy to repentance makes every effort to cast the blame on God. He deals annihilating blows to those who led the people away from the way of repentance, and flattered them with foolish hopes. The radiant point in these discourses is the grand survey of the whole past development of Israel in ch. 23, which places before our eyes the figure of a people such as they ought not to be, and the result of which is, that the judgment is inevitable. Few sections of Scripture call so powerfully as these for earnest self-examination.
At the close of ch. 24 the prophet announces that native predictions will now be silent, until with the execution of the judgment a new beginning for the prophetic activity be given. The servant is silent in the beginning of the practical discourse of the Master Himself, for the understanding of which sufficient provision has been made. But with the previous ending of native prophecy is connected the beginning of the prophet’s activity in regard to foreign nations. This connection is shown by this, that the beginning of this activity is included in the same section with the closing prophecy concerning Judah. The prophecies against foreign nations have the special aim to shed a fuller light on the judgment on Judah announced in the native prophecies, and already beginning its course. They give the answer to the natural question, Lord, but what of these? (John 21:21) They are all directed against the nations of the anti-Chaldaic coalition, and the executors of the judgments are in them all the Chaldean monarchy. Judah was first to drink the cup (ch. 21:18 f.). God sanctified Himself first on those who were near Him (Lev. 10:3) ; the judgment began at the house of God. It appeared as if the people of the covenant must alone suffer among all the members of the coalition. The scorn of these confederates themselves was poured out on the people of Jehovah (ch. 25:3, 6; 26:2); indeed, they made common cause in part with the Chaldeans, and sought to derive advantage from the misfortune of Judah (ch. 35:10). The prophet portrays before the eyes the judgment which in his time will fall upon them. He turns the heart of the people to their God when he points out that for the heathen the judgment has an annihilating character; whereas Israel rises from it to a more glorious state. Thus these predictions against foreign nations appear as the transition from the first part to the second —the comforting and promising part.
Of the foreign nations there are seven, divided into four and three —four neighbouring nations and three world-powers, the last Egypt, which had formed the centre of the coalition; so that there is thus a progress from the less to the greater. On this side and on that side of the prophecies against foreign nations the arrangement is strictly chronological. There occurs no prophecy which is not chronologically determined; and all prophecies so determined stand in regular order. In the external predictions also the chronological prevails. But a certain deviation must be allowed, otherwise things intimately connected must have been separated. The prophecies are here arranged according to the nations, so that, for ex., all those referring to Egypt come together. Among the prophecies referring to Egypt, that in ch. 29:17 goes before the one in ch. 31:1, which belongs to an earlier period, because it stands in a close relation with the foregoing (ch. 29:1), and resumes it at a time when its fulfilment was close at hand. Although the main body of the external prophecies belong to the time before the term, given in ch. 33:21, of the recommencement of the home prophecies, yet the date of some external prophecies precedes that in ch. 33:21 (ch. 32:1, 17), because the external prophecies forming a connected cycle should not be separated from one another, and because the following cycle of home prophecies also should meet with no interruption.
The first part contains in all a decade of prophecies —four native and six foreign. At the close of the first part in ch. 33:1-20 follows, in vers. 21, 22, the historical introduction to the discourses of the second period; in vers. 23-33, the warning and admonishing preparation for the new message, —the mediation, as it were, between it and the first part. With ch. 34 begins the communication of the comforting message. From this forward the prophet is as inexhaustible in comforting as he was before in threatening. The dangerous foe was now despair, as it was before false confidence. Common to the comforting and to the threatening discourses is the pictorial character; the viewing of that which is not as if it were, a result of dependence on God, in whose nature salvation as well as judgment is founded. The comfort is in this first group unfolded in seven paragraphs. In the first discourse (ch. 34) the prophet meets in a soothing manner the grief for the loss of civil government, and places before the eyes of his hearers and readers the bright form of the glorified David, in whom the civil government of the future will culminate. In the second (ch. 35) he portrays the desolation of Seir. The light of Israel is relieved by the shade of Edom, who here represents the nations, who, in their hatred of the kingdom of God, are not fit for it, but are ripe for destruction. The third discourse (ch. 36:1-15) relieves the pain occasioned by the desolation of the holy land. The fourth (ch. 36:16-38) lays down the name of God as the pledge of salvation. The fifth announces the restoration of Israel as a covenant people (ch. 37:1-14); the sixth, as a brotherly people (vers. 15-28). The seventh (ch. 38-39) represents the renovated people as victorious in every conflict.
The second principal part has only two dates (ch. 33:21 and ch. 40:1), and thus presents only two sections, which increase the ten of the first part to twelve. In the great closing picture in ch. 40-48 the prophet portrays in detail the recovery of all that was lost, in fulfilment of the words of the psalmist, “He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken;” and points in the midst of it, in ch. 47:1-12, to the great progress of the kingdom of God in the future.
In the picture of the future drawn by the prophet, the following are the principal traits. Vain is every attempt of the people to avert the threatening misfortune. They must drain to the bottom the cup of the divine wrath (ch. 21:26). Egypt, the power on which their hopes chiefly rest, proves a broken reed: the time of its political importance is for ever gone. But what earth denies, heaven will grant in its own time. After the people have attained to repentance, wrath is followed by grace; all that is lost —the temple, with its priests and worship, the city, the land— is restored. Yet not this alone: the future brings an enhancement of salvation. The people receive a rich treasure of forgiveness of sins (ch. 36:25; 37:23); the Lord takes away the heart of stone, and gives them a heart of flesh (41:19); He awakens them by His quickening breath from spiritual death (ch. 37). The centre of all graces is an exalted descendant of David, who will spring from His family when reduced and wholly deprived of the sovereignty, and connect the high-priestly with the kingly office (ch. 21:27; 34:11-31). The blessing is so potent that it extends also to the heathen, who will join themselves to Israel in the time of salvation. According to ch. 34:26, “the environs of his hill” will be partakers of it with Israel; according to ch. 17:22-24, the descendant of David, at first small and inconsiderable, is raised to the sovereignty of the world ; according to ch. 47:1-12, the waters of the Dead Sea of the world are healed by the stream from the sanctuary. This great revolution of things, however, will give the old covenant people no cause for self-exaltation; it will rather tend to their deep humiliation. They find salvation only through the redeeming mercy of God in common with the heathen world, sunk deep in sin, to whom they are become like, as in sin, so in punishment (ch. 16:53-63). And then in the future, along with grace, which is only for the willing, comes also judgment. The prophet announces in ch. 5:4 a second annihilating judgment, which after the Chaldean will come upon the people restored by the grace of God, —a fire which will devour the people as such, and leave only an election of them which participates in the blessings of salvation.
The name of the prophet denotes one in relation to whom God is strong (p. 5), who speaks not out of his own heart, but is moved and determined by a supernatural power. The verification of this name we have in the prophecies before us. That which the Lord said to Peter applies to him, “Flesh and blood hath not revealed it to thee, but the Father in heaven.” None of His words have fallen to the ground. The whole course of history has verified His word in ch. 33:33 : “They shall know that a prophet was in the midst of them.”” }}

{{ “Appendix: Cherubim: What Christian should not feel a desire to know the nature of the cherubim? When we sing the Ambrosian anthem, we dwell with special emotion of heart on the words: “The cherubim and seraphim, and all angels, serve Him. “As long as the nature of the cherubim is concealed from us, a whole series of scriptural passages is inaccessible to us. The cherubim occur in the Old Testament no less than eighty-five times. They meet us in the very first pages of revelation: the cherubim and the flame of the blazing sword repel the parents of our race from the tree of life. In the tabernacle and in the temple of Solomon the cherubim receive an important place. The grand visions of Ezekiel in ch. 1 and 10, even on a superficial examination, awakening the anticipation of a glorious meaning, and presenting a fulness of earnest warning and comfort, are sealed to us, if we have not learned the nature of the cherubim. In the Psalms God appears enthroned on the cherubim, as the firm ground for the confidence of His people; and whosoever will be a partaker of this confidence, must before all know what the cherubim are to signify. Even in the New Testament the holy enigma of the cherubim meets us. John, in the Revelation, sees in the midst of the throne, and about the throne, four beasts full of eyes before and behind, that had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty. The right knowledge of the cherubim, however, has a special interest for our own times…. The merit of having first fully established this view belongs to Bahr in the ‘Symbolism of the Mosaic Worship’, and in the treatise on the temple of Solomon. “The beings of whom the cherub is composed,” says he, “belong to those creatures of the visible world that form the upmost and highest of its three kingdoms —the kingdom of organic life; and in this kingdom, again, they belong to the highest class, to that which has warm blood, and therefore the highest physical life; and in this class they are again the highest. The cherub is far from being a figure of God Himself; on the contrary, its essential character is to be a creature: it is a figure of the creature in its highest stage —an ideal creature. The living powers distributed in the visible creation to the highest creatures are combined and idealized in it.” “The whole creation is combined in it as in a point in one being; it represents in so far also the whole creation, and stands naturally of all the creatures nearest to God: only God is above it. The cherub, as creation individualized, is at the same time the being in which the glory of God manifests itself. Hence it appears as the throne of God itself, or in the closest connection with the throne: where Jehovah in His majesty and glory reveals Himself, there the cherub also appears.” This view in the main is alone correct; only it is to be remarked, that the cherubim represent first not the creature in general, but only the animated creation on the earth. Yet this is regarded as the apex of all created things on earth, so that the remainder is in some measure represented by it, and is appended to the animated creation as an accessory, and all the more because it has been created for its sake. But we must not include the heavenly creature: He that sits on the cherubim, and the God of hosts, are co-ordinate expressions; by the hosts are meant the heavenly creatures. The cherubim never occur alone —always in connection with God. The formation of the symbol has arisen not from the motive of the consideration of nature as such, but from the motive of piety. In the consideration of the multitude of visible creatures the mind may easily distract itself, and dwell on the individual —now on this, now on that. “Whilst they move and search among the works of God, they are caught by the sight, because that which is seen is beautiful,” says the author of the Wisdom of Solomon (ch. 13:7). The pious mind, therefore, protesting against such distraction and such service of the creature (Rom. 1:15), comprehends all visible multiplicity in an ideal unity, and places this unity absolutely under God, who by His creative Spirit is the foundation of this unity. This representation has for piety a profound significance. If we look to God, who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with adoring reverence for Him, who is so wonderful in His works, with the heartfelt desire to do the will of this God, whose is the earth and the fulness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein (Ps. 24:1), with the dread of calling down upon us the wrath of the God of the spirits of all flesh, with joyful courage in the face of the world, with an absolute refusal to make concessions to it, with a holy contempt for its foolish pursuits, with invincible strength under its persecutions, with the consciousness that it cannot move hand or foot without the influence of God; that in the last resort we have to do, not with it, but with God; that it concerns us to come to terms, not with it, but with God by true repentance; that He visits us through it ; and that an endless fulness of means are at His command to help us, when His visitation has attained its end.
If we consider attentively the God who sits above the cherubim, we are filled with deep contempt, holy wrath, and strong pity at the sight of the theory, now so wide-spread, of a degraded, half-brutalized generation. “No power without matter,” so runs the theory; “no matter without power. A power ruling over matter is a senseless thought. Power is the property of matter, and inseparable from it. The idea of an absolute creative power, which is distinct from matter, creates it, regulates it according to certain absolute laws, is a pure abstraction. “We know, on the contrary, that power is the original principle; that the Spirit, who proceeds from Him who sits above the cherubim, gives to everything its existence; that in Him it lives, and moves, and is Sabaoth and cherubim —that is our watchword in the face of such error. The original generation of men with its cherubim, however, not merely raises a protest against the false science of our day, but turns with friendly consent to that which is found in it of true science. There are here two important points of agreement. First, that the living creature, as it is represented by the cherubim, forms a distinct department of the terrestrial creation. And next, that exactly in this department the creative power of God displays itself most gloriously; that of it in a special manner the word of the apostle holds good, “The invisible things of God, His eternal power and Godhead, we see and know in His works.” Janet says in regard to this: “Let us hold by the chief facts, which hitherto have supported a distinction not to be effaced between dead or inorganic and living matter. The first and weightiest of these facts is the harmonious unity of the living and organic being; it is, to make use of an expression of Kant, the correlation of the parts to the whole.” “Organic bodies,” says the great physiologist Muller (Joh. Muller, ‘Physiol.’, v.1. p.17), “not only differ from inorganic in the mode in which their elements are combined; but the constant activity which works in the living organic matter, acts according to the laws of a rational plan in conformity with an end, because the parts are adapted to the end of the whole: and this it is exactly that marks the organism.” Kant says: “The reason of the kind of existence in each part of a living body is contained in the whole, whereas in the dead mass each part bears it in itself.” Joh. Muller, quoted by Janet, says further: “The harmony of the members necessary to the whole (in the organism) subsists not ‘without the influence of a power’ (‘the Spirit of the living’ in Ezek. 1:20, 21), ‘that works also through the whole, and depends not on the several members, and this power exists before His harmonious members of the whole are joined together’: they are first formed in the development of the embryo by the power of the germ [seed]. In a piece of mechanism constructed for a given end —for example, a clock— the whole thus adjusted may exhibit an action proceeding from the co-operation of the several parts, which are set in motion by a cause; but organic beings subsist not merely by an accidental combination of these elements, but produce the organs necessary for the whole by their own power out of the organic matter. This productive power, acting in conformity with reason, displays itself in each animal according to strict laws, as the nature of each animal requires: it is already present in the germ [seed], before the later parts of the whole are distinctly present; and it is that which actually produces the members that belong to the idea of the whole…..The remark of Theodoret, “The angels are living creatures no less than men —the latter mortal, the former immortal ;” and likewise that of Keil, “The cherubim, as living creatures, take the highest place in the realm of spirits,”— are contrary to the usage of speech, in which the living always denotes the animated earthly creation, in opposition to the lifeless. But we must not stop at this point. The fact that the designation of the cherubim as living creatures takes exactly the place of the proper name —as in Revelation the name cherubim does not occur, they are only designated as living creatures— shows that by this designation their nature must be fully expressed, that the genus does not exist beyond them, but is completely represented by them. All doubt, however, is removed by this, that the singular designation, “the living creature, alternates with that of the cherubim as living creatures” (Ezek. 1:20,21, “The spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels”; 10:15, “And the cherubim were lifted up;” 10:20, “This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar”). This singular designation shows that in the cherubim the whole genus of the living on earth, man and beast, is represented…….Only when the cherub represents the animal world can we explain also the grouping of it with palms and flowers. According to 1st Kings 6:29, all the walls in the temple of Solomon bore “round about in carved work, cherubim, and palms, and open flowers.” It is clear as light that the cherubim must be placed under the same point of view with the palms and flowers…. There is only one way of explaining the connection of the cherubs with the palms and flowers. The cherubs are first a representation of the living; but at the same time, as the living forms the crown of the whole earthly creation, this also is represented by it……The addition of the palms and flowers serves to indicate this more comprehensive meaning, and to show that the living forms no counterpart to the rest of nature, but rather represents this also. Next to the animal creation, the vegetable kingdom is the most glorious revelation of the creative power of God. In modern science it is connected with the animal kingdom, under the head of the organic creation. But the vegetable kingdom cannot be better represented than by the palms and flowers……That the cherubs represent the living creatures on earth, and in general the terrestrial creation, is borne out by the relation in which they stand in Ezekiel to the “vault.” It is said, Ezek. 1:22, “And there was a likeness over the heads of the living creature as a vault, as the look of the crystal the terrible (the awe-inspiring, imposing, glorious), stretched out over their heads above.” This vault is the place of the throne of God……If it is certain on these grounds that the vault means the heavens, the cherubim under the vault can only represent the terrestrial creation; for heaven and earth are usually joined together in the Old Testament as the two spheres of the glorification of God…..We will conclude with the discussion of the grand vision of the cherubim in Ezekiel. But first, we will take a glance at the passing mention of the cherub in Ezek. 28:14. The prophet, in the prediction against the king of Tyre, here says to him, “Thou art an anointed cherub, that covereth.” As the cherub comprehends the multiplicity of the creatures in a unity, so the king the multiplicity of his people. The nature of the kingly office can scarcely be more aptly designated than by the name cherub…… We now turn to the sublime vision of the cherubim, which opens the prophecies of Ezekiel. The historical starting-point of this vision lies in the false hopes which had at that time seized the minds of those who remained in Jerusalem with Zedekiah at their head. A spirit of infatuation had fallen on the people. They cast the prophecies of Jeremiah to the wind, which announced the approaching completion of the judgment by the Chaldeans. Confiding in the confederacy with the Egyptian power, which must at that time have taken a lofty flight, they hoped soon to be able to free themselves altogether from the Chaldean supremacy. These hopes also were spread among the exiles, as the letter addressed to them by Jeremiah (ch. 29) shows. He therein warns them, “Let not the prophets that are among you deceive you, and hearken not to your dreams, for they prophesy falsely to you in My Name.” Soon, it was thought, will a return to their country be opened up; and to this thought was joined the other—namely, to work together for it. These illusions and excitements, which prevented the people from entering with sincerity on the path of repentance pointed out by God, Ezekiel was to oppose. This opposition was made first by the vision of the cherubim, the real import of which Grotius thus briefly and well defines : “After the long-suffering of God, all tended towards vengeance.” }}…..
(6) Biblical Commentary on Old Testament: Prophecies Ezekiel: Carl Friedrich Keil, D.D., Doctor & Professor of Theology; Translated from the German, by Rev. James Martin, B.A. volumes 1 & 2.(1885)as

Exposition: (Chapters & Verses)
First Half: Prophecies of Judgment: (1-32)
Consecration & Calling of Ezekiel to Office of Prophet: (1-3:21)
Destiny of Jerusalem & its Inhabitants: (3:22-5:17)
Judgment upon Idolatrous Places, & on Idol-worshippers: (6)
Overthrow of Israel: (7)
Vision of Destruction of Jerusalem: (8-11)
Departure of King & People; & Bread of Tears: (12)
Against False Prophets & Prophetesses: (13)
Attitude of God towards Worshippers of Idols, & Certainty of Judgments: (14)
Jerusalem, Useless Wood of Wild Vine: (15)
Ingratitude & Unfaithfulness of Jerusalem. Its Punishment & Shame: (16)
Humiliation & Exaltation of Davidic Family: (17)
Retributive Justice of God: (18)
Lamentation for Princes of Israel: (19)
Past, Present, & Future of Israel: (20)
Prophecy of Burning Forest & Sword of the Lord: (20:45 to 21:32 (Heb. Chap. 21)
Sins of Jerusalem & Israel: (22)
Oholah & Oholibah, Harlots Samaria & Jerusalem: (23)
Prediction of Destruction of Jerusalem both in Parable & by Sign: (24)
Prediction of Judgment upon Heathen Nations: (25-32)
Against Ammon, Moab, Edom, & Philistines: (25)
Against Tyre & Sidon: (26-28)
Fall of Tyre: (26)
Lamentation over Fall of Tyre: (27)
Against Prince of Tyre: (28:1-19)
Prophecy against Sidon, & Promise for Israel: (28:20-26)
Against Egypt: (29-32)
Judgment upon Pharaoh & his People & Land: (29:1-16)
Conquest & Plundering of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar: (29:17-21)
Day of Judgment upon Egypt: (21:1-19)
Destruction of Might of Pharaoh by Nebuchadnezzar: (30:20-26)
Glory & Fall of Asshur, Type of Egypt: (31)
Lamentations over Ruin of Pharaoh & his People: (32)
Second Half: Announcement of Salvation: (33-48)
Calling of Prophet, & his Future Attitude towards People: (33)
Calling of Prophet for Future: (33:1-20)
Preaching of Repentance after Fall of Jerusalem: (33:23-33)
Restoration of Israel, & Destruction of Gog & Magog: (34-39)
Deposition of Bad Shepherds; Collecting & Tending of Flock; & Appointment of One Good Shepherd: (34)
Devastation of Edom, & Restoration of Land of Israel: (35:1-36:15)
Salvation of Israel founded upon its Sanctification: (36:16-38)
Resurrection of Israel & Reunion as one Nation: (37)
Resurrection of Israel to new Life: (37:1-14)
Reunion of Israel as one Nation under future King David: (37:15-28)
Destruction of Gog with his great Army of Nations: (38-39)
New Kingdom of God: (40-48)
New Temple: (40-43:12)
Introduction: (40:1-4)
Outer Court, with Boundary Wall, Gate-Buildings, & Cells: (40:5-27)
Inner Court, with its Gates, Cells, and Slaughtering-Tables: (40:28-47)
Temple-house, with Porch, Side-storeys, & Backbuilding: (40:48-41:26)
Holy Cells in Court, & Extent of Holy Domain around Temple: (42)
Entrance of Glory of the Lord into New Temple: (43:1-12)
New Ordinances of Divine Worship: (43:13-46:24)
Description & Consecration of Altar of Burnt- Offering: (43:13-27)
Position of different Classes of People in relation to New Sanctuary: (44)
Holy Heave of Land & Heave-offerings of People: (45:1-17)
Instructions concerning Festal & Daily Sacrifices: (45:16-46:15)
Sacrifices for Sabbath & New Moon, Freewill-Offerings & Daily Sacrifices: (46:1-15-24)
Blessing of Land of Canaan, & Distribution of it among Tribes of Israel: (47 & 48)
River of Water of Life: (47:1-12)
Boundaries & Division of Holy Land. Description of City of God: (47:13-48:35)

{{ “Introduction: Person of Prophet: Ezekiel, (Yechzeq’el) (1:3; 24:24), ‘i.e.’. (yechazzeq ‘El), ‘God strengthens’, (Iezekiël, Yezekiël (LXX, and Book of Sirach, ch. 49:8), in the Vulgate ‘Ezechiel’, while Luther, after the example of the LXX, writes the name ‘Hesekiel’, was the son of Busi, of priestly descent, and was carried away captive into exile to Babylon in the year 599 B.C., —’i.e.’. in the eleventh (11th) year before the destruction of Jerusalem,— along with King Jehoiachin, the nobles of the kingdom, many priests, and the better class of the population of Jerusalem and of Judah (1:2; 40:1; cf. 2nd Kings 24:14 ff.; Jer. 29:1). He lived there in the northern part of Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Chaboras, married, and in his own house, amidst a colony of banished Jews, in a place called Tel-Abib (1:1; 3:15, 24; 8:1; xxiv. 24:18). In the fifth (5th) year of his banishment, ‘i.e.’. 595 B.C., he was called to be a prophet of the Lord, and laboured in this official position, as may be shown, twenty-two (22) years; for the latest of his prophecies is dated in the twenty-seventh (27th) year of his exile, ‘i.e.’. 572 B.C. (29:17)……Times of the Prophet: Ezekiel, like Daniel, is a prophet of the exile, but in a different fashion from the latter, who had been already carried away prisoner before him to Babylon on the first capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in the reign of Jehoiakim, and who lived there upwards of seventy (70 ) years at the Babylonian and Medo-Persian court, and who held from time to time very important offices of State. Daniel was placed by God in this high position, which afforded him a view of the formation and evolution of the world-kingdom, in order that from this standpoint he might be enabled to see the development of the world kingdoms in the struggle against the kingdom of God, and to predict the indestructible power and glory of the latter kingdom, which overcomes all the powers of the world. Ezekiel, on the other hand, was appointed a watcher over the exiled nation of Israel, and was in this capacity to continue the work of the earlier prophets, especially that of Jeremiah, with whom he in several ways associates himself in his prophecies; to preach to his contemporaries the judgment and salvation of God, in order to convert them to the Lord their God. —Rightly to understand his work as a prophet, the ripe fruit of which lies before us in his prophetic writings, we must not only keep in view the importance of the exile for the development of the kingdom of God, but also form a clear conception of the relations amidst which Ezekiel carried on his labours. What the Lord had caused to be announced by Moses to the tribes of Israel while they were yet standing on the borders of the Promised Land, and preparing to take possession of it, viz. that if they should persistently transgress His commands, He would not only chastise them with heavy punishments, but would finally drive them out of the land which they were about to occupy, and disperse them among all nations (Lev. 26:14-45; Deut. 28:15-68), —this threatening, repeated by all the prophets after Moses, had been already executed by the Assyrians upon the ten tribes, who had revolted from the house of David, and was now in process of fulfilment by the Chaldeans upon the kingdom of Judah also. In the reign of Jehoiakim, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, for the first time invaded Judah, captured Jerusalem, made Jehoiakim tributary, and carried away to Babylon a number of Israelitish youths of noble birth and of the blood-royal, amongst whom was Daniel, along with a portion of the vessels of the temple, in order that these youths might be trained up for the service of his court (Dan. 1:1-7). With this invasion of the Chaldeans begin the seventy (70) years of Chaldean servitude and exile in Babylon, predicted by Jeremiah. As Jehoiakim, so early as three (3) years afterwards, revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, the latter, after a lengthened siege, took Jerusalem a second time, in the third month of the reign of Jehoiachin, and carried away into captivity to Babylon, along with the captive monarch and the members of his court, the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem, a great number of priests, warriors, carpenters, and smiths, leaving behind in the land only the meaner portion of the people, over whom he appointed as his vassal King Mattaniah, the uncle of the banished monarch, whose name he changed to Zedekiah (2nd Kings 24:10-17; Jer. 29:2). By this removal of the heart and strength of the nation the power of the kingdom of Judah was broken; and although Nebuchadnezzar did not at that time ‘destroy’ it, but still allowed it to remain as a subject kingdom under his sway, yet its existence could not be of any long duration. Judah had fallen too deeply to recognise in the calamities which she had suffered the chastening hand of her God, and to bow herself repentantly under His mighty arm. Instead of listening to the voice of the prophet Jeremiah, and bearing the Chaldean yoke in patience (2nd Chron. 36:12), both monarch and people placed their trust in the assistance of Egypt, and Zedekiah broke the oath of fealty which he had sworn to the king of Babylon. To punish this perfidy, Nebuchadnezzar again marched against Jerusalem, and by the capture and burning of the city and temple in the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah’s reign put an end to the kingdom of Judah. Zedekiah, who had fled from the beleaguered city, was taken by the Chaldeans, and brought with his sons to Riblah into the presence of King Nebuchadnezzar, who first caused the sons of Zedekiah to be put to death before the eyes of their father; next, Zedekiah himself to be deprived of sight, and then commanded the blind monarch to be conducted in chains to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). Many military officers and priests of rank were also put to death at Riblah; while those who had been taken prisoners at Jerusalem, along with the deserters and a great portion of the rest of the people, were led away into exile to Babylon (2nd Kings 25:1-21; Jer. 52:1-30). By this catastrophe the Old Testament theocracy lost its political existence; the covenant people were now driven out of their own land amongst the heathen, to bear the punishment of their obstinate apostasy from the Lord their God. Nevertheless this dispersion among the heathen was no entire rejection of Israel; it was merely a ‘suspension’, and not an ‘annihilation’, of the covenant of grace. Man’s unfaithfulness cannot destroy the faithfulness of God. “In spite of this terrible judgment, brought down upon them by the heaviest transgressions, Israel was, and remained,” —as Auberlen (The Prophet Daniel, p. 27, 2d ed.) well remarks,— “the chosen people, through whom God was still to carry out; His intentions towards humanity. His gifts and calling may not be repented of ” (Rom. 11:29). Even ‘after’ the Babylonian exile the theocracy was not again restored; the covenant people did not after their return again recover their independence, but remained, with the exception of the short period when under the Maccabees they won for themselves their freedom, in constant dependence upon the heathen world-rulers, until, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, they were completely dispersed among all the nations of the earth. The kingdom of God, however, was not ‘really’ to perish along with the external theocracy; it was only to pass into a new phase of development, which was intended to be the medium of transition towards its renewal and perfection in that kingdom of God which was to be founded by Christ. To pave the way to this end, and at the same time to serve as a witness to the exiles, that Israel, notwithstanding its dispersion among the heathen, still remained God’s people, the Lord raised up in Ezekiel, the son of a priest, a prophet of uncommon power and energy in the midst of the captives, “one who raised his voice aloud, like a trumpet, and showed to Israel its misdeeds, —whose whole manifestation furnished the most powerful testimony that the Lord was still amongst His people; who was himself a temple of the Lord, before whom the visible temple, which yet remained standing for a short time at Jerusalem, sank back into its nothingness; a spiritual Samson, who seized with mighty arm the pillars of the idol temple, and dashed it to the ground; a powerful, gigantic nature, which was fitted by that very qualification to effectually subdue the Babylonian spirit of the time, which delighted in powerful, gigantic, and grotesque forms; standing alone, but equal to a hundred of the sons of the prophets ” (Hengstenberg’s Christol. II. p. 531).”……
“Book of Ezekiel: The collection of the prophecies placed together in this book, as forming a complete unity, falls into two main divisions : —I. Announcements of judgment upon Israel and the heathen nations, ch. 1-32; II. Announcements of salvation for Israel, ch. 33-48. Each of these main divisions is subdivided into two sections. The first, namely, contains the prophecies of judgment (a) upon Jerusalem and Israel, ch. 3:22-24:3; (b) upon the heathen nations, ch. 25-32. The second main division contains (c) the predictions of the redemption and restoration of Israel, and the downfall of the heathen world-power, ch. 33-39; (d) the prophetic picture of the re-formation and exaltation of the kingdom of God, ch. 40-48; and the entire collection opens with the solemn dedication of Ezekiel to the prophetic office, ch. 1:1-3:21. The prophecies of the first, third, and fourth parts are throughout arranged in chronological order; those of the second part —the threatenings predicted against the heathen nations— are disposed according to their actual subject-matter. This is attested by the chronological data in the superscriptions, and confirmed by the contents of the whole of the groups of prophecies in the first three parts. The first part contains the following chronological notices: the fifth (5th) year of the captivity of Jehoiachin (1:2) as the time of Ezekiel’s call to the office of prophet, and of the first predictions regarding Jerusalem and Israel; then the sixth (6th) (8:1), seventh (7th) (20:1), and ninth (9th) years of the captivity of that monarch (24:1). The second part contains the predictions against seven foreign nations, of which those against Tyre fall in the eleventh (11th) (26:1), those against Egypt in the tenth (10th) (29:1), twenty-seventh (27th) (29:17), eleventh (11th) (30:20 and 31:1), and twelfth (12th) years of the exile. Of the two last parts, each contains only one chronological notice, namely, ch. 33:21, the twelfth (12th) year of the captivity, ‘i.e.’. one (1)year after the destruction of Jerusalem; and ch. 40:1, the twenty-fifth (25th) year of the captivity, or the fourteenth (14th) after the destruction of Jerusalem. The remaining prophecies, which bear at their head no note of time, connect themselves closely as to their contents with those which are furnished with chronological data, so that they belong to the same period with those. From this it appears that the prophecies of the first part wholly, those of the second part to a great extent, date before the destruction of Jerusalem; those of the third and fourth parts proceed from the time after this catastrophe. This chronological relationship is in favour of the view that the prophecies against foreign nations, ch. 25-32, are not —as the majority of expositors suppose— to be assigned to the second, but rather to the first half of the book. This view is confirmed, on the one hand, by the contents of the prophecies, inasmuch as these, without an exception, announce only the downfall of the heathen nations and kingdoms, making no reference to the future forgiveness and conversion of the residue of these nations, and through this very peculiarity connect themselves closely with the prophecies of threatening against Israel in the first part; on the other hand, by the resemblance which exists between ch. 30:1-20 and ch. 3:16-21, compared with ch. 18:19-32, and which leaves no doubt upon the point that ch. 33:1-20 marks out to the prophet the task which was to occupy his attention after the destruction of Jerusalem, and consequently forms the introduction to the second half of his prophecies. —For further remarks upon the contents and subdivisions of the book, see the expositions in the introductory observations to the individual sections and chapters.” }}

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Christian Biblical Reflections.28

(Christian Biblical Reflections.28. Here is submission or part 28 of CBR, pages 236 (232)-271 , of the Book of Ezekiel. mjmselim.Dec.2019.)
Here is the Link in my OneDrive to the Adobe, Word 635, & WordPad files of the completed Major Prophets Chapter IV. These files will show the original format of the work, which is not able to be replicated in WordPress. I have also put the two files, pdf & word of volume 1 in the folder. In Ezekiel of have used the colored texts more frequent than in Isaiah or Jeremiah, as very helpful to follow the prophetic word of the Son of Man. I have again gone through the chapter to correct errors. I had circulated a few weeks ago a Chronological Chart of 100 years to answer I question sent to me; that chart I fond later had many errors, and some of a serious kind; they are corrected in this completed work. I encourage those who I sent the chart to replace it with what is in this work.
I tried to complete the work by December 7th, my 50th year in Christ. I expect to finish Daniel & the 12 Minor Prophets (Chapter V, the last chapter of the Old Testament Books) within 3 months. If my health permits in the will & grace of God I would like to finish the entire New Testament within 6 months after chapter 5. I have again altered my style in Ezekiel as a necessity. I have tried to limit any speculative comments or views from this Book.

CBR files in PDF & Word:
https://1drv.ms/u/s!AgcwUEJ0moRUg_Ua3IHBwOxi9NWARA?e=2b3BsD

Here is the link to my Internet Archive.org library page for those interested:
https://archive.org/details/@mikemjm

 

 

CHAPTER IV
Part IV: ISAIAH, JEREMIAH & LAMENTATIONS, & EZEKIEL.
Part IV: ISAIAH – EZEKIEL: Prophetical Books: Three: Major-Greater-Longer Prophets.

BOOK OF EZEKIEL: Prophet-Priest.

In the 30th year, 4th month, 5th day, Ezekiel was among the captives by the Chebar River: the heavens were opened, He saw Visions of God. In the 5th of the month of the 5th year of King Jehoiachin’s Captivity: The Lord’s Word came to the Priest Ezekiel benBuzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the Chebar River; the Lord’s Hand was on him. (Before we continue with the Visions of God, let us first determine, or explore, the 30th year of Ezekiel. It is one of three possibilities. Ezekiel’s age as a Priest according to the Law. The year of the Captivity of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. The year of the 70 Years of Captivity, or another regal or Captivity like that of Jerusalem, etc. In order to solve this, let us make a Century Timeline, 100 years, without assigning a chronological date to the years; we list only Biblical References as determined by their connection to the known regal years. An example of this method is furnished in the Text: the 30th Year is 5th Year of Jehoiachin’s Captivity; being careful not to confuse Jehoiachin with Jehoiakim, or the Regal Years with the Captivity Years. I’ve had to revise this Table to correct errors in Ezekiel’s timeline; which is conflicting among the different dates & conjectures as to the Text. I have chosen to add the chapters & verses of Ezekiel’s recorded dates in in relations to King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. Unfortunately the those who assign the dates of persons or events that is not given in the Text create added discrepancy & confusion. We should remember all dates are approximate, and that often an event occurs as part of two dates, as a birth in a part of a year, as we have seen in the chronicles of the Kings of Judah & Israel; or even a reign of 3 months counted as a regal year, so 2 kings may each share a regal year which be only 6 months. )

Captivity Years & Regal Years:

001: 12th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Book of Zephaniah)
002: 13th yr: King Josiah’s reign. Jeremiah begins to prophesy (for 40 yrs). (Jeremiah @ 20; 80 years after Isaiah’s death or ministry ceased.)
003: 14th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
004: 15th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
005: 16th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Ezekiel born.)
006: 17th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
007: 18th yr: King Josiah’s reign. Josiah @ 26. Josiah’s reforms in Jerusalem & Judah; Temple repaired; Book of the Law & Covenant found in the Temple; Great Passover observed.
008: 19th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
009: 20th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
010: 21st yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Ezekiel’s @ 5.)
011: 22nd yr: King Josiah’s reign.
012: 23rd yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Jeremiah @ 30)
013: 24th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
014: 25th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
015: 26th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Ezekiel @ 10.)
016: 27th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Babylonians & Medes conquer Assyria.)
017: 28th yr: King Josiah’s reign. (Nineveh fell to Nabopolassar & Cyaxares, Nahum 2.)
018: 29th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
019: 30th yr: King Josiah’s reign.
020: 31st yr: King Josiah’s reign. Josiah dies @ 40 in battle against Pharaoh Necho at Megiddo. Jeremiah laments Josiah. King Shallum’s reign 3 mnths. Pharaoh Necho enthrones Jehoiakim. (Ezekiel @ 15.)
021: 1st yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. (Jeremiah’s Word from the Lord.)
022: 2nd yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. Jeremiah’s 20th yr of ministry. (Jerusalem assaulted.) (Jeremiah @ 40)
023: 3rd yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. He rebels against King of Babylon. Pharaoh Neco defeated (battle at Carchemish). King Nabopolassar dies. King Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem.
024: 4th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 1st yr: King Nebuchad(n,r)ezzar’s reign. 1st yr: 70 Years Captivity Begins. Jeremiah’s Prophecies recorded in a Book. (Jeremiah’s 23rd yr of ministry) (Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah (in their late teens or early twenties) & other Jews taken captive to Babylon) (Daniel @ 20)
025: 5th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 2nd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign.) 2nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (King Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream of Great Image of an Imperial Man; Daniel interprets the Dream of Empires or Kingdoms: Babylon, Medes-Persians, Greeks, & Romans. Daniel made Ruler of Babylon’s Province.) (Ezekiel @ 20.)
026: 6th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 3rd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 3rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
027: 7th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 4th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 4th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
028: 8th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 5th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 5th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Baruch reads Jeremiah’s Words from the Book or Scroll.)
029: 9th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 6th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 6th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
030: 10th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. 7th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 7th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (3,023 Jews deported)
031: 11th yr: King Jehoiakim’s reign. King Jehoiachin reigns 3 mnths; he is deported. 8th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 8th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. Exile, Deportation, & Captivity. (10,000 captive Jews deported) (7,000 Jewish warriors & 1,000 craftsmen deported) Mattaniah, Jehoiachin’s uncle, enthroned; renamed Zedekiah. (Ezekiel taken captive to Babylon @ age 25.)
032: 1st yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 1st yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 9th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 9th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Nebuchadnezzar’s army besieged Jerusalem) (Jeremiah’s Wooden Neck Yokes; The Lord’s Word to the Remnant of 70 Years Captivity must be fulfilled till Israel’s Restoration to Jerusalem.) (Jeremiah @ 50)
033: 2nd yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 2nd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 10th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 10th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Jerusalem smitten.)
034: 3rd yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 3rd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 11th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 11th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Daniel @ 30)
035: 4th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 12th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 12th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. 4th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity.
036: 5th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 5th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 13th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 13th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s Visions of God at the River Chebar (by the Euphrates River). Ezekiel’s ministry begins @ 30 yrs of age as Priest for 20 yrs. Ezek. Ch. 1-7 )
037: 6th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 6th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 14th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 14th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 2nd-3rd year:) (Ezek. Ch. 8-19)
038: 7th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 7th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 15th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 15th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Babylonians destroy Jerusalem & Temple, demolish walls, burn the gates, 9th of Av.) (Ezekiel’s 4th year @ 33-34) (Ezek. Ch. 20-23)
039: 8th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 8th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 16th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 16th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 5th year @ 34-35.)
040: 9th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 9th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 17th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 17th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Jerusalem besieged) (Ezekiel’s 6th year @ 35-36: Judah’s Elders sit with Ezekiel. Ezekiel’s Visions of God in Jerusalem of a Man Clothed in Linen.) (Ezek. Ch. 24-25 ?.)
041: 10th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 10th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 18th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 18th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Jeremiah’s Word while imprisoned) (832 Jews deported) (Jeremiah buys by Redemption the Field.) (Zedekiah & the Jewish nobles free the Jewish slaves & servants; shortly after reenslaved them.) (Ezekiel’s 7th year @ 36: Israel’s Elders inquire to Ezekiel) (3,023 persons from Jerusalem to Babylon.) (Ezek. Ch. 29:1-16; 30:1, 19 ?)
042: 11th yr: King Zedekiah’s reign. 11th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 19th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign.19th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. Jerusalem besieged & captured by King of Babylon. Zedekiah’s sons & court killed, his eyes put out, he is led captive to Babylon; Zephaniah the 2nd Priest put to death. Jerusalem ‘s Temple, Palace, & great houses pillaged & torched. Nebuzaradan, Guard Captain in Jerusalem. Poorest of common folks as a remnant to tend to the land. Things of gold & silver transported to Babylon; 832 Jewish Captives deported to Babylon. Gedaliah appointed Governor of Judah & Jerusalem; & he is murdered. Jews flee to Egypt in fear, with Jeremiah & Baruch. (Jeremiah’s ministry ends at the Captivity of Jerusalem in the 19th yr of King Nebuchadnezzar & the 19th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.) (Ezekiel’s 8th yr: Ch. 33 (ch. 34-39 ?) (Ezekiel: Ch. 32:1-16) (Jeremiah @ 60)
043: 20th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 12th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 20th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 9th year: The Lord’s Word of King of Babylon in Jerusalem & Parable of the Caldron.) (Jeremiah imprisoned.) (Ezekiel’s wife died; he was about 39.) (Ezekiel: Ch. 33 (ch. 34-39 ?) (Ezekiel: Ch. 32:1-16) (Ezekiel: Ch. 32:17-32)
044: 21st yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 13th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 21st yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 10th year: The Lord’s Word against King Pharaoh & Egypt) (Daniel @ 40)
045: 22nd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 14th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 22nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 11th year: The Lord’s Word against King Pharaoh of Egypt. The Lord’s Word to King Pharaoh of Egypt. The Lord’s Word against Tyre & the King of Babylon.)
046: 23rd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 15th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 23rd yr of 70 Years Captivity. (Nebuzaradan, Guard Captain, deports 745 Jews; total now at 4,600) (Ezekiel’s 12th year @ 40: the Lord’s Word of Lamentation of King Pharaoh of Egypt. The Lord’s Word of Tears for the Egyptians. Jerusalem Jew escapes & tells Ezekiel Jerusalem is attacked & the Lord’s Word to Ezekiel.)
047: 24th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 16th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 24th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 13th year.)
048: 25th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 17th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 25th yr: 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s last dated prophecy.) (Ezekiel’s 14th yr @ 44: Visions of God in Israel, (14th yr after Jerusalem’s assaulted).
049: 26th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 18th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. (King Nebuchadnezzar 26th yr; he is driven insane & put out as a wild beast, acting like a wolf or wild dog, for 7 years.) 26th yr: 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 15th year @ 45:)
050: 27th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 19th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 27th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 15th-16th yr @ 45-46: The Lord’s Word of Egypt conquered by the King of Babylon.) (Ezekiel’s dated ministry ends.)
051: 28th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 20th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 28th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 17th yr @ 47)
052: 29th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 21st yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 29th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 18th yr @ 48)
053: 30th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 22nd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 30th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel’s 18th-19th yr @ 48-49.)
054: 31st yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 23rd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 31st yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
055: 32nd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 24th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 32nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (King Nebuchadnezzar recovers from his madness & is restored to the throne.) (Daniel @ 50)
056: 25th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 33rd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 33rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (20th yr of King Astyages (Artaxerxes); Commandment to Rebuild Jerusalem.) . (Ezekiel @ 50: Ch. 40-48)
057: 26th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 34th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 34th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
058: 27th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 35th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 35th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Ezekiel @ 52: Ch. 29:17-21)
059: 28th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 36th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 36th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
060: 29th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 37th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 37th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. ((Ezekiel @ 55 if he lived.))
061: 30th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 38th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 38th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
062: 31st yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 39th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 39th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
063: 32nd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 40th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 40th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
064: 33rd yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 41st yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 41st yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
065: 34th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 42nd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 42nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Daniel @ 60)
066: 35th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 43rd yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 43rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
067: 36th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 44th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 44th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
068: 37th yr: King Jehoiachin’s Captivity. 45th yr: King Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. 45th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. King Jehoiachin released from prison by new King Evil-merodach of Babylon. King Nebuchadnezzar dies.
069: 46th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
070: 47th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
071: 48th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
072: 49th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
073: 50th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
074: 51st yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Nabonidus)
075: 52nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Daniel @ 70)
076: 53rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
077: 54th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
078: 55th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
079: 56th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
080: 57th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
081: 58th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
082: 58th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
083: 60th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
084: 61st yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
085: 62nd yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Daniel @ 80)
086: 63rd yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
087: 64th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
088: 65th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Fall of Babylon. Persian Kingdom in Babylon. King Cyrus, decrees Jews to return to Jerusalem to Rebuild City & Temple) (Dan. 9.) (Daniel @ 83)
089: 66th yr of the 70 Years Captivity.
090: 67th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Belshazzar) (Daniel @ 85)
091: 68th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. 3rd yr: King Cyrus of Persia.
092: 69th yr of the 70 Years Captivity. (Nehemiah rebuilds Wall in Jerusalem)
093: 70th yr of the 70 Years Captivity Ends. (Belshazzar killed. Darius the Median (Astyages) takes the Throne. (Astyages (Ahasuerus, Artaxerxes) marries Esther.). Cyrus, Astyages son, Decree rebuilding of Temple. Daniel’s Vision of the 70 Sevens. Temple Foundation laid. Nehemiah in Jerusalem.) (Zerubbabel & Remnant Returns to Jerusalem. Feast of Tabernacles observed.) (1st yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.) (Daniel dies @ 88.)
094: (1st yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
095: (2nd yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
096: (3rd yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
097: (4th yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
098: (5th yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.)
099: (6th yr of Persian rule: Cyrus, etc.) (King Cyrus dies.) (Cambyses makes Nehemiah Governor in Jerusalem.)
100: (Persian rule.) (City & Temple being Rebuilt. Ezra & Nehemiah.) [After this date Darius Hystaspis enthroned & reigns for some 30 years (Herodotus). Temple is Rebuilt & Dedicated. Haggai, Zechariah, & Malachi closes the Old Testament about 400 B.C.] [7th yr of Astyages (Ahasuerus, Artaxerxes) reign.]
The Table shows that Ezekiel’s 30th Year cannot be assigned to any known Regal Years except that of Jehoiachin which was his Captivity Years & coincides with Nebuchadnezzar’s 9th Regal Years, and the 9th Year of the 70 Years Captivity (the two always matching). If we attempt to place Ezekiel’s 30th Year to the Captivity or to Nebuchadnezzar it becomes impossible. Now the Reign of King Jehoiachin in Jerusalem was only 3 months, that year his uncle Mattaniah was enthroned by the King of Babylon, and renamed Zedekiah, whose Regal Years were 11, which is the same as the Captivity Years of King Jehoiachin. As long as King Jehoiachin lived in his Captivity his Regal Years were valid as the rightful King of Jerusalem and must be accounted for or recorded or chronicled. Ezekiel would date his Visions relative to any of these Years. In addition to the Years of the Kings, of the Captivity, his own Ministry Years would be a valid dating reference. Only the verse & context can clarify which of these is meant. In 1:1 30th year may be his age, but in 8:1 the 6th year cannot; understanding the date becomes important in the interpretation of the Text. We return to the Visions.

Ezekiel saw a Stormy Wind from the North, a Great Cloud, with Fire enfolding itself with Brightness above & around, in it Glowing Metal out of the Fire; out of it came the Likeness of 4 Living-Ones (Creatures, Chaioth, Zöön, Animals, Tiere, Terrestrial); they appeared in likeness of Man (Human Form); each had 4 Faces (16 total), & 4 Wings (16 total); & Straight Feet; the Sole of their Feet like the Sole of a Calf’s Foot; & they Sparkled like Burnished (Polished) Brass; Human Hands under their Wings on their 4 Sides; all 4 with Faces & Wings; their Wings joined together; they turned not in movement, only straight forward. The likeness of their Faces that each one had: Human Face, Lion Face on the right side, Ox Face on the left side, & Eagle Face. Their Faces & Wings were separate above; 2 of each were joined to each other, & 2 covered their Bodies. Each Creature moved straight forward: wherever the Spirit went they went without turning. The likeness of the Living Creatures: their appearance like Burning Coals of Fire, like Torches (Flames): going up & down among the Living Creatures, Bright Fire, from the Fire came a Flash of Lightning. The Living Creatures ran or darted & returned as the appearance of a Flash of Lightning. Ezekiel watched the Living Creatures: One Wheel on earth beside the Living Creatures for each of the 4 Faces (4 wheels in all). The appearance of the Wheels & their work was like Beryl: all 4 had one likeness; their appearance & work was if a Wheel within a Wheel. When they moved in their 4 directions they never turn. Their Rims were high & dreadful; all 4 had Rims full of Eyes all around; when the Living Creatures moved, the Wheels moved beside them; when the Living Creatures rose from the earth, the Wheels rose. Wherever the Spirit moved, they moved, following the Spirit: The Wheels rose with them, for the Spirit of the Living Creature was in the Wheels. Above the Living Creature was the likeness of a Firmament (Expanse, Heaven), like the terrible Crystal to look on, stretched over above their heads. Below the Firmament their Wings were straight, toward each other: each had 2 Wings covering this side & the other side of their Bodies. In movement Ezekiel heard the noise of their Wings like the sound of Great Waters, like the Voice of Shaddai (the Almighty), a sound of tumult, like the noise of an army (host): when the Living Creatures stood still, they let down their Wings. Above the Firmament that was above their Heads was the likeness of a Throne, as the appearance of a Sapphire Stone; on the likeness of the Throne was a likeness in appearance of a Man on it above; Ezekiel saw as if it were Glowing Metal, as the appearance of Fire within it all around, from the appearance of His Loins & upward (to His Chest), & from His Loins downward (to His Feet), he saw as it were the appearance of Fire, and there was Brightness all around Him; as the appearance of the Bow in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the Brightness all around. This was the appearance of the likeness of the Glory of Jehovah. When Ezekiel saw it, he fell on his face, and he heard a Voice of One Who spoke.
The Voice said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, stand up, I will speak to yu’. The Spirit entered into him when He spoke, and set him on his feet, and he heard the One speaking to him, saying: ‘Son of Man, go to BeniIsrael, to rebellious nations, rebelling against Me: they & their fathers have transgressed Me even to this day. Impudent & stiff hearted Children (Sons): Go & say to them, the Lord says: perhaps they will listen, maybe reject, (they are a Rebellious House), yet they will know that there is a Prophet among them. Son of Man, fear not them or their words, though briers & thorns are with yu, and you live with scorpions; fear not their words, nor be dismayed at their looks; that Rebellious House’! ‘Son of Man, listen, be not like that Rebellious House: open yur mouth, and eat what I give yu’. Ezekiel saw a Hand extended to him with a Book Scroll; He spread the Scroll before him: it was written on both sides, with the writings of lamentations & mourning & woe. (The Book Scroll was the prophetic word & message from the Lord.)
He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, eat what yu find; eat this Scroll, then go speak to the House of Israel’. Ezekiel opened his mouth to eat the Scroll. He said to him: ‘Son of Man, let yur belly eat, fill yur stomach with the Scroll’. He ate; it was sweet as honey in his mouth. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, go to the House of Israel, and speak My Words to them. Yu are not sent to a people of a strange speech & difficult language, hard to understand; if I sent yu to them they would listen. The House of Israel will not listen to yu; because they will not listen to Me: The House of Israel has a hard forehead & stiff heart. I have made yur face hard against their faces, yur forehead hard against their foreheads; an adamant harder than flint is yur forehead, be not afraid or dismayed at the Rebellious House. Son of Man, receive My Words in yur heart, hear with yur ears. Go to them of the Captivity, to yur people’s children, speak & tell them, the Lord says; maybe they’ll listen, maybe not’. The Spirit lifted Ezekiel, and took him away; in bitterness, in the heat of his spirit; the Lord’s Hand was strong on him. Ezekiel came to them of the Captivity at Tel-abib, near the River Chebar, where they dwelt; he sat there overwhelmed among them 7 days; afterwards the Lord’s Word came to him: ‘Son of Man, yu are a Watchman to Israel’s House: Listen to My Words, and warn them. When I say to the wicked, yu will die; and yu don’t warn him against his wicked way to save his life; he will die in his iniquity; but his blood I will require at yur hand. But if yu warn the wicked, and he refuses to turn, he will die in his iniquity; but yur soul is delivered. When a righteous man turns from his righteousness to iniquity to stumble; he’ll die because yu did not warn him, he’ll die in his sin, his righteous deeds done is forgotten; but his blood his required from yu. But if yu warn him not to sin, and he obeys, he will live & yu are delivered’. The Lord’s Hand was on Ezekiel, saying: ‘Go to the Plain, I will talk to yu there’. He went; the Lord’s Glory stood there, which he saw by the River Chebar; and he fell on his face. The Spirit entered into him, and stood him up, and spoke to him: ‘Go, shut yurself in yur house. But, Son of Man, they will put bands on yu to bind yu, that yu no longer freely move among them: yur tongue will cling to the roof of yur mouth that yu cannot speak or reprove them; that Rebellious House! When I speak with yu, yur mouth will open to say to them: The Lord Jehovah says: Let the hearer hear; let the he who refuses, let him refuse; that Rebellious House!’
‘Son of Man, take a Tile & lay it down, draw (inscribe) on it a City, Jerusalem: lay siege against it, build forts, cast mounds, set camps, & place battering rams all around it. Take an Iron Pan, set a Wall of Iron between yu & the City: yur face against it with siege; as a Sign to Israel’s House. Lay on yur left side with the Iniquity of Israel’s House on it: the number of days yu lay yu bear their Iniquity. The Years of their Iniquity are the number Days, 390 Days (thus 390 Years from the Divided Kingdom to the Captivity) to bear the Iniquity of Israel’s House. After these days, lay on yur right side to bear the Iniquity of Judah’s House: 40 Days (thus 40 Years till the Captivity ends), each Day for a Year. Lay siege against Jerusalem, yur arm uncovered & prophesy against it; lay bands on, don’t turn from side to side, till the days of siege are accomplished. Take wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, and spelt, mix them in a bowl to make bread to eat for the 390 Days on yur side. The food yu eat by weight at 20 shekels a day, to eat from time to time. Drink yur water by measure, 1/6th of a hin (about a quart), from time to time. Eat it as barley cakes, baked over human dung, in their sight. The Lord said: Israel’s children will eat their bread unclean, among the Gentiles where I drove them’. Ezekiel objected to the Lord that he has never eaten meat of unslaughtered animals or torn by beasts; never any abominable flesh. The Lord told him to substitute human dung to cow’s dung in baking his bread. ‘The Lord said to Ezekiel: Son of Man, I will break the staff of bread in Jerusalem: they’ll eat bread by weight in fear, they’ll drink water by measure in dismay: that they want bread & water, and be dismayed at each other as they pine away in their iniquity’.
‘Son of Man, take a Sharp Sword, a Barber’s Razor, to shave yur head & beard; weigh the hair in scales, and divide the hair. 1/3rd burn in fire in the City, when the days of siege are fulfilled; another 1/3rd smite with the sword around it; 1/3rd scatter in the wind, I will draw out the sword after them. Some of it tie to yur skirts. Take some of these to throw in the fire to burn; from there a fire will go into Israel’s House. The Lord says: This is Jerusalem; I’ve set her amid the Gentiles & countries all around her; for they have rejected My Ordinances and have not walk in My Statutes. The Lord Jehovah says: I am against yu; I will execute judgments amid yu in the sight of the Gentiles. I will do in yu what I’ve never done, or ever do again, because of yur abominations. The fathers will eat yur sons, sons will eat their fathers; I’ll execute judgments on yu; yur Remnant I’ll scatter to the winds. As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, because yu defiled My Sanctuary with yur detestable things with yur abominations, I’ll reduce yu; I will not spare, or pity. 1/3rd will die by pestilence, consumed with fire; 1/3rd by the sword; and 1/3rd I’ll scatter to the winds, pursued by the sword. My Anger accomplished, My Wrath toward them at rest, I’ll be comforted; they’ll know that Jehovah has spoken in My Zeal, that I’ve spent My Wrath on them. I’ll make yu a desolation & reproach to the Gentiles, in the sight of travelers. It will be a reproach & taunt, instruction & astonishment, to the Gentiles nearby, to execute judgments in anger & wrath, & wrathful rebukes: (I the Lord have spoken;) I’ll send evil arrows of famine for destruction, to destroy you: I’ll increase famine & break your supply of bread; I’ll send famine & wild animals to bereave; pestilence & blood: I’ll bring the sword on yu: Jehovah has spoken!’
The Lord’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, set yur face toward the Israel’s Mountains, and prophesy to them: Mountains of Israel, hear the Lord Jehovah’s Word: He says to mountains, hills, watercourses, and valleys: I will bring a sword on you to destroy your High Places. Your altars demolished; your sun-images shattered; I’ll cast down your slain before your idols; the dead of Israel’s children spread before their idols; your bones scattered around your altars. The cities of your habitations laid waste; high places desolate; altars waste & desolate; idols broken & destroyed; sun-images hewn down, and your works abolished; your slain fallen: you’ll know I am Jehovah. A Remnant will survive, some will escape the Gentiles’ sword, being scattered throughout the countries. The escaped Remnant will remember Me among the Gentiles in their Captivity, that I’ve been broken by the lewd heart in departing from Me with their harlot eyes for idols; ashamed of themselves for their abominations. They’ll know I am Jehovah; I have not spoken of this evil in vain. The Lord Jehovah says: Strike with yur hand, stamp yur foot, saying, Because of the evil abominations of Israel’s House: they’ll fall by the sword, by famine, and by pestilence. Far away by pestilence, at home by the sword; the Remnant besieged die famished: My Wrath accomplished. You’ll know I am Jehovah: their slain with their idols around their altars, on high hills, mountain tops, green trees, and thick oaks, the places where they offered sweet savor to their idols. I will extend My Hand on them to desolate & waste the land, from the Wilderness toward Diblah, throughout all their habitations: they’ll know I am Jehovah.’
The Lord’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, the Lord Jehovah says to the Land of Israel: The end on the four corners of the Land is come. The end has come with My Anger to judge according to yur ways & abominations. I’ll not spare or pity because yur ways & abominations: Know I am Jehovah’. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘Calamity & termination is coming; doom on the inhabitants of the Land; time & day is near for tumult & sorrow on the mountains. I’ll soon pour out My wrath, and accomplish My Anger against yu, judge yur ways with yur abominations without pity till yu know I Jehovah do smite. The day comes with doom, the rod blooms, pride buds; violence on the rod of wickedness; nothing! no multitude, no wealth, and no eminency. The time & day comes: no joy to buyers nor seller mourn for the wrath on all. The seller will not return purchase while he lives; the Vision touches everyone; none returns, none to strengthen himself in his iniquity of life. The trumpet is blown, they are ready, but none goes to battle because of My Wrath. Sword outside, pestilence & famine inside to devour. A Remnant will escape to the mountains like doves of the valleys moaning in iniquity. Feeble hands, weak knees like water; girded with sackcloth, covered with horror, shamed faces, and heads bald. They toss their silver in the streets, their gold as unclean, useless for deliverance in the Day of Jehovah’s Wrath: souls unsatisfied, empty stomachs, the stumbling blocks of their iniquity. The beauty of his ornament set in majesty, made into abominations & detestable things: it is all unclean. It is prey for strangers, spoil for the wicked to profane. Make chains for the bloody crimes of the Land, and the City full of violence. The worst of the Gentiles to possess their houses, pride of the strong will cease, holy places profaned. Destruction comes, they seek peace, there is none. Mischief on mischief, rumor on rumor; they’ll seek vision from the prophet, the Law will perish from the priest, counsel from elders. The King mourns, the prince clothed with desolation, the people’s hands of the Land troubled: I’ll judge their ways & desires; they’ll know I am Jehovah’.

In the 6th year, in the 6th, on the 5th of the month, Ezekiel was at home, Judah’s Elders were with him, the Lord’s Hand fell on him: He saw a Form in appearance of Fire; from His Loins downward (to His Feet), Fire; from His Loins upward (to His Chest) brightness as Glowing Metal. He extended the form of a Hand, took him by the hair of his head; the Spirit raised him between earth & heaven, brought him in the Visions of God to Jerusalem, to the door of the gate of the Inner Court facing north; to the Seat of the Image of Provoking Jealousy. The Glory of the God of Israel was there like the appearance he saw in the plain. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, look toward the north and see at the entrance of the gate of the Altar this Image of Jealousy. Again, Son of Man, see their deeds; the great abominations Israel’s House do, that I should desert My Sanctuary? Again, there is more abominations.’ He brought him to the door of the Court to see a hole in the wall; and told him to go in, and see the wicked abominations they practice. He went in and observed reptiles & insects, abominable beasts, and the idols of Israel’s House portrayed on the wall all around. 70 Elders of Israel’s House stood before them; among them was Jaazaniah benShaphan, each with a censer in his hand; the odor of the cloud of incense ascended. He said to him: ‘Son of Man, watch what the Elders Israel’s House do in the dark, each in his chambers of imagery; saying, Jehovah sees not, He has forsaken the Land’. He told him: ‘Again, see other great abominations’: He brought him to the door of the gate of Jehovah’s House northward to see the women sitting weeping for Tammuz. He told him: ‘Look, Son of Man, again greater abominations than these’. He brought him into Inner Court of Jehovah’s House, to the door of Jehovah’s Temple, between the porch & the Altar, 25 men, backs to Jehovah’s Temple, at the door of Jehovah’s Temple, their faces towards the east, worshipping the sun eastward. He told him: ‘Son of Man do yu see this? Is it nothing to Israel’s House to commit these abominations? to fill the Land with violence, to turn again to insult Me, and put the branch to their nose. I will dish out wrath; sparing none, without pity, though they cry aloud; I will not listen’.
He shouted in his ears: ‘Bring near the City managers, each with his destructive weapon’: 6 men came from the upper gate northward to slaughter; a Man among them was clothed in linen, with a writer’s inkhorn by his side. They went in and stood beside the brazen Altar. Israel’s God’s Glory was raised from the Cherub, where it was, to the threshold of the House: He called to the Man clothed in linen with the writer’s inkhorn at his side. Jehovah said to him, ‘Go through the City of Jerusalem. Mark the foreheads of the men who sigh & cry for the abominations going on’. He heard Him tell the others: ‘Follow him through the City and strike: spare not, pity not, slay the old man, young man, the virgin, children, & women; do not go near those with the mark: begin at My Sanctuary’. They began with the old men near the House. He said to them: ‘Defile the House, fill the Courts with the slain: go; they went and struck the City’. While striking, I fell to the ground, crying out: Lord Jehovah! are Yu going to destroy the Remnant of Israel in the outpouring of Yur Wrath on Jerusalem? He told him: ‘The iniquity of the House of Israel & Judah is very great, the Land is full of blood, the City full violence: they say, Jehovah has forsaken the Land, He sees nothing. I will not spare or pity, I’ll bring their way on their head’. The linen clothed Man with the inkhorn at his side, reported that he did as commanded.
Ezekiel saw in the firmament above the head of the Cherubim (Cherubs), above them, as a sapphire stone, as the likeness of a Throne. He told the linen clothed Man ‘to go in between the whirling (wheels), below the Cherub, to fill both hands with Coals of from between the Cherubim and sprinkle them over the City’. He went as Ezekiel watched. The Cherubim stood to the right of the House, while the Man entered; the cloud filled the inner Court. Jehovah’s Glory moved up from the Cherub to above the threshold of the House; the House was filled with the cloud; the Court was full of the brightness of Jehovah’s Glory. The sound of the Wings of the Cherubim was heard in the outer Court, as the Voice of God Almighty (El Shaddai) when He speaks. After He commanded the linen clothed Man to take the Fire from between the whirling wheels, the Cherub extended his hand from between the Cherubim to the Fire between the Cherubim, and took it, and put it in the Hands of the linen clothed Man, Who took it and went out. There appeared in the Cherubim the form of a man’s (human) hand under their wings. Ezekiel saw 4 wheels beside the Cherubim, one wheel beside one Cherub for each; the wheels where like beryl stone. The 4 looked alike, as if a wheel in a wheel. They moved in their 4 directions without turning, only moving in the direction of where the head looked, without turning. Their whole body, backs, hands, wings, and wheels were full of eyes all over; including the wheels the 4 had (shared). He heard the wheels were called the whirling (spiral, revolving, spinning, rotating) wheels. Each had 4 faces: 1st was of Cherub (ox-shaped, calf-like, bull-form), 2nd a human face, 3rd a lion face, and 4th an eagle face. The Cherubim ascended: this is the Living Creature (Creatures, Chaioth, Zöön, Animals, Tiere, Terrestrial) he saw by Chebar River. When the Cherubim moved, the wheels moved beside them; when they raised their wings to ascend from the earth, the wheels moved without turning. When they stopped, the wheels stopped; if they ascend, the wheels ascend: for the Spirit of the Living Creature was in the wheels. Jehovah’s Glory moved above the House’s threshold and stood above the Cherubim. The Cherubim raised their wings and ascended from the earth and moved in Ezekiel’s sight, the wheels beside them: they stood at the door of the East Gate of Jehovah’s House; the God of Israel’s Glory was above them. This is the same Living Creature he saw under the God of Israel by the Chebar River; he knew they were Cherubim. Each had 4 faces, each 4 wings, with a form of human hands under their wings. The faces & bodies were the same he saw earlier by Chebar River; each moved only straight.
The Spirit raised Ezekiel and took him to the East Gate of Jehovah’s House eastward: at the door of the gate 25 men; he saw among them Jaazaniah benAzzur, Pelatiah benBenaiah, princes of the people. He said to him: ‘Son of Man (BenAdam, AdamSon), these men devise iniquity, they give wicked counsel in this City; saying, let us not build houses yet: this is the caldron, and we are the meat. Prophesy against them Son of Man’. Jehovah’s Spirit fell on him, He told him to speak: ‘Jehovah says: you have spoken House of Israel; I know the things you think. You multiplied the slain in this City, filled the streets with the slaughtered. The Lord Jehovah says: the slain are the meat, the City is the caldron; yet a Remnant will survive. You feared the sword; I bring the sword on you, says the Lord Jehovah. I will lead you out into the hands of foreigners and execute judgments among you. You shall fall by the sword; I will judge you by the border of Israel; you will know I am Jehovah’. ‘It is the caldron, you are not the meat in it; I will judge you at the border of Israel; you will know I am Jehovah: you have not walked in My Statutes, neither executed My Ordinances, you followed the ordinances of the Gentiles nearby’. Ezekiel prophesied, Pelatiah benBenaiah died; Ezekiel lay prostrate crying aloud, ‘Lord Jehovah! will Yu make a full end of Israel’s Remnant’? The Lord’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, yur brethren, yur relatives, and Israel’s House, to whom the citizens of Jerusalem said: ‘Get away from Jehovah; this Land is our possession’. Tell them, the Lord Jehovah says: I exiled them to the Gentiles, I dispersed them to the countries, I will give you the Land of Israel. They’ll return, they’ll remove the detestable & abominable things. I’ll give them one heart, put a new spirit in them, exchange their stony heart with a heart of flesh to walk in My Statutes, keep My Ordinances to be My People, and I their God. Those who follow detestable & abominable things, I’ll repay, says the Lord Jehovah. The Cherubim raised their wings, the wheels beside them; and God’s Glory was above them. Jehovah’s Glory moved out of the City and stood on the mountain east of the City’. The Spirit raised him, transported him in the Vision by God’s Spirit to the Captivity Remnant in Chaldea. The Vision vanished. Ezekiel related to the Captivity Remnant Jehovah’s Visions’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, yu live with a Rebellious House, they have eyes to see, but see not, ears to hear, but don’t listen; they are a Rebellious House. Son of Man, prepare yur stuff to leave, leave by day in their sight; move from one place to another in their sight: perhaps they’ll consider, though they are a Rebellious House. Take yur stuff for leaving in their sight in the day, as exiles leave. Dig through the wall to leave in daylight in their sight. In their sight carry yur stuff on yur shoulder at nighttime; cover yur eyes to not see the ground: yu are a Sign to the House of Israel’. Ezekiel did as commanded: leaving by day digging through the wall; by night carrying it on the shoulder for them to see. In the morning Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, has the Rebellious House of Israel asked, ‘what are yu doing’? Tell them: The Lord Jehovah says: This Burden is of the Prince in Jerusalem, and Israel’s House there. The Prince shall leave with stuff on his shoulder in the dark, digging through the wall, with covered face, unable to see the ground. I’ll spread My Net to snare him; I’ll take him to Babylon of the Chaldeans; but he will be unable to see it, and he will die there. I’ll scatter to the winds those helper bands nearby; I’ll draw My Sword after them. They’ll know I am Jehovah in My dispersing & exiling them among the Gentiles & countries. I’ll spare a Remnant from the sword, from famine, and pestilence; to declare their abominations to the Gentiles; they’ll know I am Jehovah’ Jehovah’s Word again to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, eat yur bread with quaking, drink water with trembling & fright; tell the People of the Land: The Lord Jehovah says concerning Jerusalem’s citizens & Israel’s Land: They’ll eat their bread with quaking, their water in dismay; her Land is to be desolate of everything, because of its violence. The populated cities laid waste; the Land desolate: know I am Jehovah’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, what is this proverb in the Land of Israel: ‘The days are prolonged, every vision fails’. Tell them: The Lord Jehovah says: This proverb will cease, they’ll no longer use it; tell them, the days are at hand for the fulfilment of every vision; no more false vision nor flattering divination in the House of Israel. I am Jehovah; I’ll speak, and My Word will be performed’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, Israel’s House say: ‘His vision & prophecy is in the distant future’. Tell them: The Lord Jehovah says: None of My Words will be deferred any longer, they will be performed’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, prophesy against the prophesying prophets of Israel, who prophesy from their own heart: ‘Listen to Jehovah’s Word’. The Lord Jehovah says: Woe to the foolish prophets, who follow their own spirit, but saw nothing! Israel, yur prophets are like foxes in the waste places. You’ve not fixed the gaps, not built the wall for Israel’s House, to stand in the battle in Jehovah’s day. They saw falsehood & lying divination, saying: Jehovah says; but Jehovah did not send them: making men to hope the Word be confirmed. You saw false vision, you spoke lying divination, saying, ‘Jehovah says’, but I did not. The Lord Jehovah says: Because you spoke falsehood, seen lies, I’m against you, says the Lord Jehovah. My Hand is against the prophets that see false visions & divine lies: they’ll not be in the council of My People, they’ll not be recorded in Israel’s House, they’ll not return to Israel’s Land; know I am Jehovah. They seduce My People, saying, ‘Peace’; but there is no peace; they build a wall with untempered mortar: tell them it will collapse by an overflowing shower with great hailstones & stormy wind wrecking it. When the wall falls, they’ll ask about the daubing. The Lord Jehovah says: I’ll wreck it with a stormy wind in My Wrath, an overflowing shower in My Anger, great hailstones in wrath to consume it. I’ll break down your untempered daubed wall to the foundation, destroying it; you will know I am Jehovah. I’ll accomplish My Wrath on your wall & its daubers: The wall & daubers are gone Israel’s prophets prophesying concerning Jerusalem, & see visions of her peace, but there is no peace, says Jehovah. Son of Man set yur face against the Daughters of yur People prophesying out of their own heart; tell them, the Lord Jehovah says: Woe to the women that sew pillows on elbows, make head coverings of all sizes to hunt souls. Will you hunt the souls of My People, but save souls for yourselves? You have profaned Me among My People for handfuls of barley, and pieces of bread to kill the innocent, to spare the guilty, by lying to My People who listen to your lies. The Lord Jehovah says: I’m against your pillows where you hunt souls to fly, I’ll tear then from your arms; I’ll free the hunted souls to fly’ Your kerchiefs I’ll tear to deliver My People out of your hand, never again to be hunted; know I am Jehovah. With lies you grieved the heart of the righteous without Me; you strengthened the hands of the wicked to continue in wickedness instead of turning to be saved. You will never again see false visions, nor divine divinations: I’ll deliver My People, you’ll know I am Jehovah’.
Israel’s Elders sat before Ezekiel: Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, these men have their idols in their heart, they put the offence of their iniquity before their face: I’ll not be inquired of them. Tell them , the Lord Jehovah says: Any man of Israel’s House with idols in his heart, with the offence of iniquity before his face, then comes to the Prophet; I Jehovah answer him according to his idols; so I may take Israel’s House in their heart, who are estranged from Me with their idols. Tell Israel’s House, the Lord Jehovah says: Return, turn away from your idols & abominations. Anyone of Israel’s House, or strangers sojourning in Israel, separates himself from Me with his heart idols, and the offence of his iniquity before his face, and comes to the Prophet to inquire of Me; Jehovah will answer him Himself; I’ll set My Face against him, make him an astonishment, a sign & a proverb, I’ll cut him off from My People; you’ll know I’m Jehovah. If the deceived Prophet speaks a word: I’ve deceived him, I’ll stretch out My Hand against him, I’ll destroy him from among My People Israel. They’ll share their iniquity, both Prophet & his seekers; Israel’s House will no longer stray from Me or defile themselves with their transgressions; to be My People, and I their God, says the Lord Jehovah’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, if a land sins against Me committing a trespass, if I extend My Hand on it, to break the staff of bread, to send famine, to cut off man & beast; though these 3 men, Noah, Daniel, & Job, were in it, their souls they’d deliver by their righteousness, says the Lord Jehovah. If evil beasts ravage & desolate the land, that nobody stays; these 3 men would deliver none but themselves. If I tell the sword to eradicate man & animals; these 3 men would only deliver themselves. If I send pestilence to pour out My Wrath to eradicate man & animals; Noah, Daniel, & Job they would only deliver their souls. The Lord Jehovah says: Though I send My 4 Severe Judgments on Jerusalem, the sword, famine, evil beasts, & pestilence, to exterminate man & animals: Yet a Remnant will survive of the Exile & Captivity to return; you’ll see their way & deeds; you’ll be comforted of the calamity I’ve brought on Jerusalem. They’ll comfort you when you see their ways & deeds; you’ll realize why I’ve done it, says the Lord Jehovah’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, is the vine-tree better than other trees, or the vine-branch special among the forest trees? Is wood from it used to make anything? or will a peg from it be used to hang a vessel? It is thrown in the fire to be entirely consumed as worthless wood. Before it was firewood it was useless, it is less than useless after the fire’. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘As the vine-tree among the forest trees, used for fuel, so will I give Jerusalem’s citizens. I’ll set My Face against them; they’ll go out of the fire, but it will still consume them; you’ll know I’m Jehovah, My Face is against you. I’ll desolate the Land for their trespass, says Jehovah’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, cause Jerusalem to know her abominations; tell Jerusalem for Me: Yur birth & nativity is of the land of the Canaanite; the Amorite yur father, yur mother a Hittite. Yur nativity, on yur birthday, yur navel-cord was cut, yu were not bathed, or salted, nor swaddled. No one pitied yu or cared to do these things for yu; yu were abandoned in the open field as a despised child. I passed by yu in yur weltering blood, I said to yu: Live, Live. I caused yu to multiply as grass in the field, yu increased in greatness, becoming an excellent ornament; yur breasts developed, yur hair grew; still yu were naked. Again, I passed by yu & looked, it was yur time of love (yu matured); I spread My Skirt over yu, I covered yur nakedness: I proposed & promised yu with a covenant & vow to become Mine, says the Lord Jehovah. I bathed yu to remove yur blood stains, I anointed yu with oil; I clothed yu with broidered work, with shoes of sealskin, I girded yu with fine linen, I covered yu with silk; I adorned yu with ornaments & jewelry, I put bracelets on yur hands, chains around yur neck; I put a nose-ring, ear-rings, and a crown on yur head. Yu were decked with gold & silver; yur clothes were of fine linen, silk, and embroidered work; yu ate fine flour, honey, & oil; yu were astonishingly beautiful, and prospered to royal estate & nobility. Yur fame & beauty spread among the Gentiles; perfect by My Majesty I lavished on yu, says the Lord Jehovah. Yu trusted in yur beauty, played the harlot in yur fame, pour out yur sexuality on every visitor to have. Yur dresses yu made for the high places decked with various colors to play the harlot with them: nothing like this ever was or will be. Yur fair jewels of My Gold & My Silver I gave yu, yu made into images of men to be a whore with them; yu took the embroidered clothes to cover them and set My Oil & My Incense before them. My Bread & fine flour, oil, & honey I gave yu, yu set it before them for a sweet savor, says the Lord Jehovah. Yu took yur sons & daughters, My babies, yu sacrificed them to be devoured. Yur prostitution was not enough, yu murdered My babies, giving them up to destruction. In yur abominations & harlotry yu forgot yur younger days, when yu were naked & bare, wallowing in yur blood. After all yur wickedness, (woe, woe to yu! says the Lord Jehovah,) yu built a vaulted place; and a lofty place in every street at the head of every way; yu made yur beauty an abomination, and opened yur legs to every passerby to multiply yur whoredom. Yu committed fornication with yur huge Egyptian neighbors, multiplying yur prostitution to provoke Me to anger. I have extended My Hand over yu to diminish yur supply, to deliver yu to yur haters, the daughters of the Philistines, who are ashamed of yur lewdness. Yu were an unsatisfied insatiable harlot also with the Assyrians. Yu extended yur prostitution to Chaldea, the land of great commerce, yet still unsatisfied. Yur heart fails, says the Lord Jehovah, that yu work as a shameless harlot; establishing yur brothels at the prominent locations, on every street, and not as an ordinary prostitute, yu refuse to be paid. An Adulteress Wife! takes strangers instead of her husband! Harlots are given gifts, but you reward yur lovers, yu bribe & solicit them to yu all around with yur sexuality. Yu are a unique harlot woman; other harlots don’t follow yur example to play without pay. Harlot listen to Jehovah’s Word: The Lord Jehovah says, yur filthiness was free-flowing, yur naked-body was uncovered in prostitution with yur lovers; because the idols of yur abominations, for yur children’s blood, that yu gave them. I’ll gather all yur lovers of lust & pleasure & those disliked turning against yu on all sides, to uncover yur naked-body & see yur nakedness. I’ll judge yu as those women of adultery & baby-murder, to bring on yu the blood of wrath & jealousy. I’ll give yu to them to destroy yur brothels, private places, to strip yu of clothes & jewels; to make yu completely naked. They’ll bring a company against yu to stone yu, slash yu with swords; torch yur houses, condemn yu before other women, to end yur prostitution, paying yur lovers. But I will stop My Wrath on yu, My jealousy to leave, I’ll be still, no longer angry. Yu forgot yur younger days, raging against Me by yur conduct; I’ll repay yu says the Lord Jehovah, to end sexual immorality & abominations. The proverb users will say: ‘Like Mother so Daughter’! Yu are yur mother’s daughter who despises husband & children; yu are yur sisters’ sister who despises husband & children: your mother was Hittite, yur father Amorite. Yur older sister is Samaria, who lives at yur left hand, she & her daughters; yur younger sister, to yur right, is Sodom with her daughters. Yu have not followed their example in abominations, but in comparison yu were worse than both in corruption. As I live, says the Lord Jehovah, yur sister Sodom with her daughters, are nothing compared to yu with yur daughters. Yur sister Sodom’s iniquity: pride, plenty of bread, leisure for her & her daughters; neglecting the poor & needy. They were haughty in abomination before me, so I got rid of them. Samaria has not committed half yur sins; yu multiplied yur abominations more than they; yu’ve justified yur sisters by yur conduct. Yur shame has given judgment for yur sisters: by yur abominable sins they are righteous in comparison; be confounded in shame for this. I’ll reverse their Captivity, Sodom & her daughters, with the Captivity of Samaria & her daughters, even the Captivity of the captives; to shame yu for yur conduct & bad example. Yur sisters Sodom & Samaria with all their daughters shall be restored to their former estate. Yur sister Sodom is not mentioned in yur day of pride, before yur vice was exposed, like the time of the reproach of the daughters of Syria, with her neighbors, the daughters of the Philistines, that assault yu. Yu have borne yur immorality & abominations, says Jehovah. The Lord Jehovah says: I’ll requite yu for despising My Oath in breaking My Covenant. I’ll remember My Covenant made in yur younger days, to establish an everlasting Covenant. Yu’ll remember yur ways in shame with both yur sisters; I’ll restore them to yu, but not with yur covenant. I’ll re-establish My Covenant with yu; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah; that yu remember in shame to never again say anything shameful, after I’ve forgiven yur conduct, says the Lord Jehovah’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, relate a riddle & parable to Israel’s House, saying, the Lord Jehovah says: A great Eagle with great Wings and long flight Feathers with various colors, came to Lebanon, and landed at the top of cedar trees: he cropped off the topmost young Twigs, carried it to the land of commerce; he set it in a city of merchants. He took seed from the land, planted it in a fruitful soil; he placed it beside many waters; he set it as a willow tree. It grew, a spreading Vine of small size, the branches leaned towards the Eagle, the roots were below him: it became a Vine with branches & sprigs. A second great Eagle with great Wings and many Feathers: the Vine leaned its root toward him, from the beds of its plantation to be watered; planted in good soil by many waters, to bring forth branches, to bear fruit, to be a valued Vine. The Lord Jehovah says: Shall it prosper? he’ll uproot it, cut off its fruit to wither it, even the fresh leaves; that not a strong man or many people will raise its roots. If re-planted, will it prosper? it will utterly wither when the east wind touches it, it will wither in the beds it grew in’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Tell that Rebellious House: Don’t you know what this means? Tell them: the King of Babylon came to Jerusalem, took its King & princes, and brought them with him to Babylon: he took of the Royal Seed, covenanted with him in oath, also he removed the mighty of the Land; to debase the Kingdom, that it never to rise up, but in keeping his Covenant it should stand. But he rebelled against him in sending ambassadors to Egypt to get horses & people. Will he prosper, or escape? to break the Covenant and escape? The Lord Jehovah says: in the place of the King who made King, whose Oath he despised, Covenant he broke, he’ll die with him in Babylon. Pharaoh with his great army & company will not help in war, when they cast up mounds & build forts, to cut off many. He despised the Oath & broke the Covenant in handshake, then betrayed, he’ll never escape. The Lord Jehovah says: My Oath he despised, My Covenant he broke; I’ll requite on his head. I’ll spread My Net on him to catch him in My Snare, I’ll bring him to Babylon, I’ll judge his trespasses against Me. His fugitives from his bands will fall by sword, the Remnant scattered by the winds: you’ll know Jehovah spoke. The Lord Jehovah says: I’ll take of the lofty cedar top, set it; crop its topmost young tender twigs, I’ll re-plant it on a high lofty mountain: in the highest mountain of Israel: it will grow boughs, fruit, as a fine cedar: under it will dwell every winged bird in the shade of its branches. The trees of the field will know Jehovah cut down the tall tree, exalted the low tree, dried the green tree, and made the dry tree flourish: Jehovah spoke & did it’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘What is this proverb of the Land of Israel: ‘The fathers ate sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge’? The Lord Jehovah says: never again will you use this proverb in Israel. All souls are Mine of the father & the son: the soul who sins shall alone die. If a just man is lawful & does right, not eaten sacrifices on the mountain, not lifted his eyes to the idols of Israel’s House, not defiled his neighbor’s wife, not come near sexually to a woman in menstruation, not wronged anyone, but restored to the debtor his pledge, not robbed others, shared his bread with the hungry, and clothed the naked with clothes; not lent on interest, not taken increase from loans, has withdrawn from iniquity, has executed justice between men, has walked in My Statutes, kept My Ordinances, dealing truly; he is just & will live, says Jehovah. If his son is a robber, murderer, or the such like; who instead eats on the mountains, defiles his neighbors wife, wronged the poor & needy, robbed, keeps the pledge, lifted his eyes to idols, commits abomination, lent on interest, collected usury; he will not live: he did abomination, lent on interest, and taken increase; he shall not live because of his abominations; he will die with his own blood guilt. If he too has a son, who sees his father’s actual sins, and fears to do such like; he ate not on the mountains, not raised eyes to the idols of Israel’s, not defiled neighbor’s wife, not wronged others, not kept the pledge, not robbed, but shared his bread with the hungry, and clothed the naked; has not refused help to the poor, not taken interest or gain, has executed My Ordinances, walked in My Statutes; he must not die for his father’s iniquity, he must live. But his father who cruelly oppressed, robbed, did crimes, he must die for his iniquity. But you say, ‘Why must not the son share his father’s crime’? the son who is law-abiding & right, kept indeed My Statutes, he must live. The soul who sins must die: the son must not share his father’s guilt, the father must not share the son’s guilt; the righteousness of the righteous is his own, and the wickedness of the wicked is his own. If the wicked turns from his sins to keep My Statutes, to be lawful & right, he must live, he must not die. His former transgressions must not be remembered against him: in his present righteousness he must live. Do I enjoy the death of the wicked? says the Lord Jehovah; no, only that he returns from his way to live. If the righteous man turns from his righteousness, commits crimes, acts like a criminal, should he live? None of his former good deeds will be remembered: in his trespass & sins he must die. If a wicked man turns from his crimes, is lawful abiding & right, his soul must live; because he considers, and turned away from his transgressions, he must live. But Israel’s House says, ‘The Lord’s Way is unfair’. House of Israel are not My Ways fair, and your ways unfair? I’ll judge everyone’s ways of Israel’s House, says the Lord Jehovah. Return to Me from your transgressions, that iniquity does not ruin you. Abandon your continual transgressions; make a new heart and a new spirit: why must you die House of Israel? I don’t enjoy your death for transgressions, says the Lord Jehovah: return & live’.
Again, take a Lamentation for the Princes of Israel: ‘Yur mother is a Lioness; she couched among lions; among young lions she nourished her cubs. She raised one of her cubs, he became a Young Lion, he learned to catch the prey, he devoured men. The Gentiles heard about him; he was caught in their pit; they took him by hooks to the land of Egypt. They saw her wait till hope was lost, then she took another cub to become a Young Lion. He moved among the young lions; he hunted the prey & devoured men. He knew their palaces, wasted their cities; the land was desolate with its fulness, because of his roars. The Gentiles set against him from the provinces; they spread their net over him, he was trapped in their pit. They put him in a cage with hooks, took him to Babylon; they imprisoned him never again his voice to be heard on Israel’s mountains. Yur mother was like a Vine, in yur blood, planted by rivers: fruitful & full of branches, well-watered; with strong rods for the scepters of rulers, their stature was exalted among the thick boughs, seen tall with many branches. But it was uprooted, thrown to the ground, the east wind dried its fruit: its strong rods were broken off & withered; the fire consumed them. It is re-planted in the dry & thirsty wilderness. The fire is on the rods of its branches, its fruit devoured, no longer a rod for a ruler’s sceptre. This is a Lamentation of Lamentations’.

In the 7th year, 5th month, 10th day, some of the Elders of Israel sat before Ezekiel and inquired of Jehovah: Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, tell the Elders of Israel, the Lord Jehovah says: Why are yu inquiring of Me? I will not be inquired by you. Judge them, Son of Man; cause them to know their fathers’ abominations; tell them, when I chose Israel, and made-oath to the seed of Jacob’s House, made Myself known to them in Egypt, and promised to rescue them, and bring them to a Land I found for them, flowing with milk & honey, the glory of all lands. I told them to discard their abominations of their eyes, to not defile themselves with idols of Egypt. They rebelled, refused to listen, did not discard their abominations, did not forsake Egypt’s idols. I threatened to exhaust My Wrath & Anger against them in Egypt. I preserved My Name to not be profaned to the Gentiles, to whom I revealed Myself in the Exodus from Egypt. After the Exodus I led them to the Wilderness; gave them My statutes, revealed My Ordinances, to do & live. I gave them My Sabbaths as a Sign to know Me as their Sanctifier. They rebelled against in the Desert, walked not in My Statutes, rejected My Ordinances, to keep & live; they profaned My Sabbaths. I threatened to consume them in My Wrath in the Wilderness. I preserved My Name with the Gentiles who saw Me save them. I promised them in the Desert the good Land flowing with milk & honey, a glorious Land; they rejected My Ordinances, walked not in My Statutes, profaned My Sabbaths: their hearts followed their idols. I spared them, not destroying them, nor eradicating them in the Desert. I told their children in the Wilderness, Walk not in your fathers’ statutes, nor observe their ordinances, nor defile yourselves with their idols. I am Jehovah your God: walk in My Statutes, keep My Ordinances, sanctify My Sabbaths which are Sign between Me & you, that you know Jehovah your God. The children rebelled against Me; walked not in My Statutes, kept not My Ordinances, to do & live; they profaned My Sabbaths. I threatened to exterminate them in My anger in the Desert. I restrained My Hand, acted for My Name’s sake, to not be profaned among the Gentiles who saw Me deliver them in the Exodus. I warned them in the Wilderness that I’d scatter them among the Gentiles, disperse in the countries, for not executing My Ordinances, but rejected My Statutes & profaned My Sabbaths, lusting their fathers’ idols. I gave them useless & impossible statutes & ordinances; I polluted them in their gifts, for sacrificing the babies, to their desolation; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’. ‘Son of Man tell the House of Israel, the Lord Jehovah says: Your fathers blasphemed Me & violated Me. When I led them to the promised Land, on the high hills & thick trees they offered their sacrifices, their provocation offerings of sweet savor and poured their libations. I asked them: Why do you go the high place? (Named & still called Bamah (High-Place)). Tell them: Why pollute yourselves like your fathers, whoring with their abominations? you offer gifts with your kids sacrificed in fires to pollute yourselves with idols to this date. Should I be inquired by you? I’ll never be inquired by you; you think & say, ‘We’ll be as the Gentiles, as the families of the countries nearby, to serve wood & stone’. I will extend My Hand & Arm & be relentless, wrath be to your King; to regather you from the Gentiles & countries nearby in your diaspora; to bring you into the wilderness of peoples, to enter into judgment Face to face. As I entered judgment with your fathers in the desert of Egypt, I’ll judge you. I’ll cause you to pass under the rod, I’ll bring you into Bond of the Covenant; I’ll purge out the rebels, My violators; I’ll force them from the land where they sojourn, but they will never enter the Land of Israel. As for you, House of Israel, says the Lord Jehovah: Go serve your idols, since you refuse to listen to Me; My Holy Name will never again be profaned with your gifts & idols. In My Holy Mountain, the Mount of the Height of Israel, says the Lord Jehovah, all the House of Israel will serve Me in the Land: there I’ll accept them, and require your offerings, and the first-fruits of your oblations, with all your holy things. As a sweet savor I’ll accept you, I’ll regather you, I’ll sanctify you in the sight of the Gentiles. Then you’ll know Me Who led you into the Land of Israel, the country I promised your fathers. You’ll remember your ways, deeds, your pollutions; you’ll be ashamed of all your evils. You’ll know Me, when I’ve dealt with you for My Name’s sake, against your vices & corruptions’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, set yur face southward, drop-words & prophesy against the Forest of the field in the South; tell the Forest of the South, Hear Jehovah’s Word: The Lord Jehovah says: I’ll kindle a fire in yu, it will devour every green, every dry tree: the flaming flame will not be extinguished, all faces south to north will be torched. All will know that I did it’. Then Ezekiel complained to the Lord that they say, ‘Is he not a speaker of parables?’
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face Jerusalem, proclaim toward the Sanctuaries, prophesy against the Land of Israel: I’m against yu, I’ll unsheathe My Sword, will cut off the righteous & the wicked; My sword will go against all flesh from south to north: it will not return. Sigh, Son of Man, with shaking loins, with bitterness. If they ask you why, tell them, news will come to melt every heart, to weaken the hands, every spirit faint, all knees like water: it will happen’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, prophesy: A sword is sharpened & polished, for slaughter, as lightning: why celebrate? my son’s rod despises every tree. The sword is polished & sharpened for use by the slayer. Son of Man, cry & wail, it is on My People, on all princes of Israel: they are delivered to the sword with My People; smite on yur thigh. This is a trial, even if the despising rod is gone. Son of Man, prophesy, strike yur hands together; double the sword a third time, the sword of the deadly wounded, for the great one deadly wounded hiding in their chambers. The threatening sword is against the gates, hearts melt, their stumbling multiplied, as lightening, for slaughter. Gather to the right in array, to the left where yur face is set. I’ll strike My Hands together; I’ll cause My Wrath to rest’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, appoint two ways for the King of Babylon to come, both ways from the same land: mark it at the head entrance to the City. Choose a way for the sword to come to Rabbah of the Ammonites, and to Judah’s fortified Jerusalem. Babylon’s King stood at the crossroads, using divination, shaking arrows to this or that, he consulted the Teraphim, he looked in the liver. In the right-hand divination for Jerusalem, to set battering rams, to open the mouth in slaughter, with sounds of loud shouting, battering the gates, to cast up mounds, to build forts. To them it is like false divination, with sworn oaths, to remember iniquity, to be caught. Yur remembered crimes, yur naked violations, in all visible sins; yu are remembered & will be captured. Yu, the fatally wounded wicked one, Prince of Israel, it’s the time of the end of iniquity: Remove the mitre, off with the crown; never again the same; exalt the low, abase the high. I’ll overturn, overturn, overturn it: never again the same, till He comes Whose right it is; & I’ll give it to Him. Son of Man, prophesy: Concerning the Ammonites, of their reproach, A polished sword is drawn for slaughter to devour as lightning; while they see for yu false visions, divine lies, to lay yu on the necks of the fatally wounded wicked, in the time of iniquity’s end. Return it to its sheath; in the place of yur creation, in the land of yur nativity, I’ll judge yu. I’ll pour out My Indignation on yu; I’ll blow on yu with the fire of My Wrath; I’ll deliver yu to brutish men, skilful to destroy. Yu’ll be fuel to the fire; yur blood in the midst of the land; yu’ll be forgotten’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, judge the bloody city; expose all her abominations; a murderous City, her time is come, who defiles herself with idols. Yu are blood guilty in killing, defiled with handmade idols; yur days & years are near: I’ve made yu a reproach to the nations, a mocking to all countries. Those near & far will mock, infamous one full of tumult. The princes of Israel in yu, each one murders; each dishonor father & mother; each oppresses sojourners; each mistreats the orphan & widow. Yu despised My Holy Things, profaned My Sabbaths; in yu slanderers murder, eating on top of the mountains; they committed immorality; they shamed their father’s nakedness; they shamed the unclean on her periods. One commits abomination with his neighbor’s wife; another sexually defiled his daughter-in-law; another rapes his sister, his father’s daughter; some take bribes for murder; one takes interest & usury, profiting from fellow citizens by oppression; yu have forgotten Me. I struck My Hands at yur dishonest gain yu made, and the murders in yu. Will yur heart or hands endure in the days I deal with yu. I said it, I’ll do it. I’ll scatter yu among the Gentiles, disperse to countries nearby; I’ll consume away yur filthiness; to be profaned before the Gentiles; yu’ll know I am Jehovah’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, Israel’s House is Dross to Me: they are brass, tin, iron, lead, in the furnace; they are dross of silver. I’ll gather you in the midst of Jerusalem; as the 4 metals melt in the furnace with blowing fire to melt it; you are in My Anger & Wrath to melt you. I’ll gather you, blow on you with the fire of My Wrath and melt you; as silver is melted in the furnace, so you will melt in My outpoured Wrath. Son of Man say to her: Yu are an uncleansed Land, without rain in the day of indignation. A conspiracy of her prophets, like a roaring lion devouring prey, they devour souls; they confiscate treasures & valuables; they make many widows. Her priests assaulted My Law, polluted My Holy Things; the holy & the common are treated the same, unclean & clean as the same, they ignored My Sabbaths; I’m profaned among them. Her princes are like wolves tearing the prey, to murder, to destroy, to swindle. Her prophets plaster with cheap mortar, see false visions, divine lies for them, telling them the Lord Jehovah says, which I did not. The people oppress in the Land, practice robbery, vexed the poor & needy, and wrongly oppressed the sojourner. I sought a man among them to build the wall, stand in the gap before Me for the Land, that I do not destroy it, but found none. I poured out My Indignation on them, I consumed them with the fire of My Wrath: I repaid them with their own way’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, there were Two Women, the Daughters of one Mother: they were young harlots in Egypt; their breasts were fondled in their virginity. The oldest was named Oholah, the younger sister was Oholibah: they became Mine; they gave birth to sons & daughters. Samaria is Oholah, Jerusalem is Oholibah. Oholah was a harlot wife, she flirted with her lovers, on the Assyrians neighbors, clothed in blue, governors & rulers, desirable young men, horse riders. She prostituted with the best of the Assyrians, she solicited, with their idols she defiled herself. She has never abandoned her prostitution from Egypt to this moment; in her youth she fornicated, they fondled her virgin breasts; they spent their fornication on her. I deserted her to her Assyrian lovers she solicited. They uncovered her nakedness; they enslaved her children; they slew her with the sword: she became a byword among women; they executed judgments on her. Hers sister Oholibah saw this but was more corrupt in her solicitation & prostitution than her older sister. She solicited the Assyrians, the governors & rulers, neighbors, excellently clothed, horse riders, desirable youths. I watched their impurity: they both did the same thing. She increased her prostitution; she saw men portrayed on the wall, images of Chaldeans painted with vermilion-red, loins girdled, full head-turbans, like princes, like the Babylonians in Chaldea, the land of their nativity. As soon as she saw them, she solicited; sent messengers to them in Chaldea. The Babylonians came to her in the bed of love, they defiled her with sex, she was polluted with them, her soul was alienated from them. She stripped as a whore: My Soul was alienated from her, as My Soul was alienated from her sister. She multiplied her harlotry as when she was a young prostitute in Egypt, she solicited their adultery, with their flesh like donkeys, their offspring like horses. Yu recalled the immorality of yur youth, yur young breasts fondled by the Egyptians. Oholibah: I’ll raise yur lovers against yu, alienated from yu, I’ll bring them against yu on all sides: the Babylonians & Chaldeans, Pekod, Shoa & Koa, with the Assyrians; desirable young men, governors & rulers, princes & nobles, horse riders. They’ll assault yu with weapons, chariots, wagons, company of peoples; with buckler & shield & helmet; I’ll give them judgment to judge yu. My Jealousy will be against yu, they’ll deal with yu in fury; they’ll slice off yur nose & ears; yur Remnant will fall by the sword: they’ll take yur kids; yur Remnant will be devoured by fire. They’ll strip yu of clothes, remove yur nice jewels. I’ll remove yur vice, yur Egyptian prostitution, to shame yu to them, to make yu forget Egypt. I’ll deliver yu over to yur enemies & pimps; they’ll hate yu, steal yur pay, leave yu naked; the nakedness of yur whoredoms will be uncovered by yur fornication & prostitution. These things will happen to yu for yur prostitution with the Gentiles, yu were polluted with their idols. Yu followed the steps of yur sister, yu must drink of her cup. Drink her cup, deep & large; yu’ll be laughed to scorn, be in derision; a full cup. Yu’ll be filled with drunkenness & sorrow, with astonishment & desolation, with yur sister Samaria’s cup; drink & empty it, gnaw its sherds, tear yur breasts; I’ve spoken. Yu forgot Me, turn yur back to Me; keep yur fornication & prostitution’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, judge Oholah & Oholibah; declare their abominations. They’ve committed adultery, blood is on their hands; they committed adultery with their idols; they sacrificed their children, my babies, to pass through the fire to be devoured. They defiled My Sanctuary on the same day, they profaned My Sabbaths. The same day they murdered their kids, they came to My Sanctuary to profane it; they did it in My House! Yu invited men far away by yur messengers; yu washed yurself, painted yur eyes, decked yurself with jewelry, yu sat on a stately bed, with a prepared table, and put My Incense & Oil. The voice of a multitude at ease: common men with desert drunkards; they put bracelets on their hands, crowns on their heads. They went to her as to a harlot; they went to Oholah & Oholibah, lewd women (sluts). Righteous men must judge them with the judgment of adulteresses, with judgment murderous women; they are murderous adulteresses. I’ll bring a band against them, to toss them about, and robbed. The band will stone them, dispatch them with swords, slay their kids, and torch their houses. I’ll remove vice from the Land, that women may never practice immorality. They’ll recompence yur immorality, yu’ll bear the sins of yur idols; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah’.

Again, in the 9th year, the 10th month, the 10th of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, write down today’s date: Babylon’s King advanced to Jerusalem on this date: Utter a Parable to the Rebellious House, tell them for Me: Set on the Caldron, fill it with water: throw in the best of butchered-pieces, the thigh, shoulder, and choice bones to boil. Woe to the Bloody City! the rusty old Caldron; remove the butchered pieces; no lot is fallen on it. Within her is blood, in the open, it is poured on the ground, covered with dirt. Woe to the bloody City! I’ll make the pile big: pile on wood, increase the flames, boil the meat, thicken the broth, the bones burned. Set the empty pot on the coals, make it very hot, burn its brass, and its filthiness be molten in it, that the rust be consumed. She is wearied with toil; her rust remains after the fire. In yur dirtiness is immorality; I cleansed yu, but yu are still unclean; yu’ll remain unclean, till My Wrath on yu find rest. I’ve spoken, it will happen, I’ll do it: I’ll not restrain or spare or repent; according to yur ways & doings they’ll judge yu’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, I’ll take away the desire of yur eyes in one stroke: yu must not mourn nor weep, no tears must run down. Sigh silently, do not mourn for the dead; secure yur head-band, put on yur sandals, cover not yur lips, eat no bread of men’. He told the people in the morning; at evening his wife died; next morning he did as he was told. The people asked: ‘Tell us why yu do this’? He told them that Jehovah’s Word came to him to tell Israel’s House: ‘I’ll profane My Sanctuary, the pride of your power, the desire of your eyes, what your pities; the rest of your kids will fall by the sword. You’ll do like him; your lips uncovered, without men’s bread to eat. Your gears on your heads, sandals on your feet; you will not mourn nor weep; you’ll pine away in your iniquities, to moan for one another. Ezekiel is a Sign to you; as he did so will you; when it happens, you’ll know it is Me. Son of Man, in the day I remove their strength, the joy of their glory, the desire of their eyes, what they set their hearts on, their children; the escapee will bring news to yur ears. In that day yur mouth will be open to the escapee to break silence & speak so yu may be a Sign to the Jews’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face toward the Ammonites and prophesy against them: Yu laughed at My Sanctuary, when it was profaned; and against Israel’s Land when desolate; against Judah’s House going into Captivity: I’ll deliver yu to the Children of the East (Beni-Qedem, Easterners, Sons of the East) for a possession, they’ll encamp against yu, reside in yu; they’ll eat yur fruit & drink yur milk. I’ll make Rabbah a stable for camels, the Ammonites places for flocks: you’ll know I’m Jehovah. Yu clapped yur hands, stamped yur feet, rejoiced with yur soul’s despite against Israel’s Land; I’ve extended My Hand on yu, I’ll deliver yu as spoil to the nations; I’ll cut yu off from the peoples, I’ll get rid of yu from the countries: I’ll destroy yu; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah’. To Moab & Seir say: ‘Judah’s House is like that of the Gentiles; I’ll open Moab’s borders by the cities of its frontiers, the glory of the country, Beth-jeshimoth, Baal-meon, & Kiriathaim, for the Children of the East (Beni-Qedem) against the Ammonites; I’ll give them for a possession, that the Ammonites will be forgotten among the nations; I’ll execute judgments on Moab; they’ll know I’m Jehovah. Edom dealt against Judah’s House in vengeance, greatly offended, and revenged himself on them; I’ll extend My Hand on Edom, I’ll cutoff man & beast; I’ll desolate it from Teman to Dedan by the sword. I’ll spend My Vengeance on Edom by the hand of My People Israel; to do in Edom according to My Anger & Wrath; to know My Vengeance’. Jehovah’s Word:. ‘The Philistines executed vengeance with soul’s despite to destroy with perpetual enmity; I’ll extend My Hand on the Philistines, I’ll cut off the Cherethites, and destroy the remnant of the seacoast. I’ll execute vengeance on them with wrathful rebukes; they’ll know Me when My Vengeance is on them’.

In the 11th year, the 1st of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, Tyre spoke against Jerusalem: ‘The Gate of the peoples is broken; she turned to me; I’ll be replenished in her ruin’: I’m against yu Tyre, I’ll cause many nations to come against yu, as sea waves. They’ll destroy the walls of Tyre, demolish her towers; I’ll scrape her dust, make her a bare rock. She’ll be a place for spreading nets in the sea; I’ve spoken, she’ll become a spoil of the nations. Her daughters will be slain with the sword; they’ll know I’m Jehovah. I’ll bring on Tyre King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon, King of Kings, from the north, with horses, chariots, horsemen, troops, & many people. He’ll slay yur daughters in the field; he’ll make forts against yu, fortify against yu, & raise buckler against yu; his battering rams against yur walls; his axes break down yur towers. The dust from his many horses will cover yu; yur walls will shake at his horsemen, wagons, & chariots, on entering yur gates, as invaders enter a breached city. His horses’ hoofs will tread yur streets; his sword will slay yur people; yur strong pillars will collapse. Yur wealth is spoiled, yur merchandise his prey; yur walls they’ll demolish, destroy yur pleasant houses; yur stones, timber, & dirt in the sea. Yur songs will cease; yur harps silent forever; I’ll make yu a bare rock, and a place for spreading of nets; yu’ll never be rebuilt, I’ve spoken. The Lord Jehovah says to Tyre: the isles will shake at yur fall, when the wounded groan, and the slaughtered in yu. The princes of the sea will leave their thrones, lay aside their robes, remove their embroidered clothes; they’ll cloth themselves with trembling; they’ll tremble on the ground continuously astonished. They’ll take up a lamentation for yu, saying, are yu destroyed who was inhabited by seafaring men, the renowned city, sea strong, she & her population, a terror to all her residents! The islands tremble in the day yu fall; the isles of the sea dismayed at yur departure. I’ll make yu a desolate city, like the uninhabited cities; I’ll bring the deep waters to flood yu; I’ll drag yu down with them to those who descend to the pit, to the ancient people, I’ll relocate yu to the lowest depths of the earth, places desolate of old, with those who go down to the pit, to make yu uninhabited; I’ll set glory in the land of the living. I’ll make yu a terror, but never again to be found’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, give a Lamentation concerning Tyre: Yu dwell by the entrance of the sea, the sea merchant of the peoples to many islands; yu’ve said, ‘I’m perfect in beauty’. Yur borders are in the heart of the seas; yur builders perfected yur beauty. They’ve made yur planks from Senir’s fir-trees; yur cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for yu. Yur oars from the oaks of Bashan; yur benches of ivory inlaid in boxwood, from the isles of Kittim. Yur sail of fine linen embroidered from Egypt, to be an ensign; yur awning of blue & purple from the isles of Elishah. Yur rowers were Sidonians & Arvadites: Tyre, yur pilots’ wise men. Yur caulkers were the old & wise of Gebal: the sea ships & sailors were merchants. Persia, Lud, & Put were warriors in yur army: they hanged the shield & helmet in yu to display yur beauty. The Arvadites were on yur walls with yur army, brave men in yur towers; they hanged their shields on all yur walls; they perfected yur beauty. Tarshish was yur merchant with the abundance of their wealth, silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded for yur wares. Yur trading partners were Javan, Tubal, & Meshech; trading workers & brass vessels for yur merchandise. The House of Togarmah traded yur wares for their horses & mules. The Dedanites were yur trade partners; many islands were marketplace: trading yur wares for their emeralds, purple, embroidered work, fine linen, coral, and rubies. Judah & the Land of Israel were your traders for yur products their wheat of Minnith, pannag, honey, oil, and balm. Damascus was yur merchant for yur many handcrafts for their many riches, with the wine of Helbon, and white wool. Vedan & Javan traded yur wares for their bright iron, cassia, & calamus merchandise. Dedan supplied yur riding clothes. Arabia, and the princes of Kedar were yur traders for lambs & goats. The merchants of Sheba & Raamah traded for yur products with their best spices, rare stones, & gold. Yu traded with Haran, Canneh, Eden, Sheba, Asshur, & Chilmad: trading choice wares, wrappings of blue & embroidered work, chests of rich apparel, bound with chords, made of cedar-wood; these were yur commerce. Tarshish’s ships were caravans of supplies for yur merchandise: yu were replenished, famous in the seas. Yur rowers took yu to great distant waters: the east wind broke yu in the heart of the seas. Yur riches, wares, merchandise, mariners, pilots, caulkers, dealers of yur goods, warriors & troops, will fall in the seas in the day of yur ruin. Suburbs will shake at the sound of yur sea pilots abandoning their ships to reach land; their voices will be heard louder than yurs, with bitter cries, throwing dirt on their heads, and wallow in the ashes: they’ll make themselves bald for yu, gird with sackcloth, weep in bitterness of soul & mourning. In their wailing they’ll sing a lamentation for yu, to lament yu: ‘Who is like Tyre, brought to silence in the sea’? Yur wares from the seas supplied many peoples; yu enriched kings of the earth with great wealth of products & goods. Yu were broken at sea in the depths of waters, yur goods & troops fell within yu. The islanders were astonished, their kings terrified, their face troubled. The merchants of the peoples hiss at yu; yu were a terror, but never to be again’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, tell the Prince of Tyre: Yur heart is proud, yu said, ‘I’m God, I sit in God’s Seat, in the midst of the seas’; yu’re man and not God, though yu set yur heart as God’s Heart: yu are wiser than Daniel; no secret is hidden from yu; by yur wisdom & understanding yu got riches, gold & silver treasures; with great wisdom in trade yu increased yur wealth, yur heart is exalted for yur wealth. Yu set yur heart as God’s Heart; I’ll bring strangers on yu, terror of the nations, they’ll draw their swords against yur onerous wisdom, they’ll defile yur brightness. They’ll drag yu down to the pit to die the death of the slain in the heart of the seas. Will yu still say to Him Who slays yu: ‘I am God’? yu are man not God in the Hand of Him Who wounds yu. Yu’ll die the death of the uncircumcised by the hand of strangers: I’ve spoken’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, give a Lamentation concerning the King of Tyre: Tell him: Yu seal totality, full of wisdom, perfect in beauty. Yu were in Eden, God’s Garden; every precious stone was yur covering: the sardius, topaz, diamond, onyx, jasper, sapphire, emerald, carbuncle, & gold: the workmanship of yur tabrets & pipes were in yu; in the day yu were created they were prepared. Yu were the Anointed Cherub that covers, I stationed yu, yu were on God’s Holy Mountain; yu walked up & down in the stones of fire. Yu were perfect in yur ways from yur creation till unrighteousness was found in yu. By the abundance of your commerce they filled the midst of yu with violence, yu sinned: I discarded yu as profane out of God’s Mountain; I destroyed yu, covering Cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. Yur heart was inflated for yur beauty; yur wisdom was corrupted because of yur brightness: I’ve thrown yu to the ground; I’ve laid yu before kings to stare at yu. By yur great iniquities, in yur unrighteous commerce, yu profaned My Sanctuaries; I brought from yu a fire to devour yu, to turn yu to ashes on the ground before all who stare at yu. All who know yu among the peoples will be astonished at yu: yu were a terror, but never again to be’. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face toward Sidon: prophesy against it: Sidon I’m against yu; I’ll be glorified in yur midst; they’ll know I’m Jehovah, when I’ve executed judgments in her, and be sanctified in her. I’ll send pestilence on her, blood in her streets; her wounded will fall, the sword all around; they’ll know Me. Never again pricking of brier to the House of Israel, nor the hurting thorn to do despite; they’ll know Me. When I’ve gathered Israel’s House from the peoples of their dispersion, and be sanctified in the sight of the Gentiles, they’ll dwell in their own Land that I gave to My Servant Jacob. They’ll dwell securely; they’ll build houses, plant vineyards, and live safely, after I’ve executed judgments on their despisers; they’ll know I’m Jehovah their God’.

In the 10th year, on the 10th, in the 12th of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face against King Pharaoh of Egypt, prophesy against him & Egypt: I’m against yu, King Pharaoh of Egypt, the Great Monster who lurks in the rivers, boasting, ‘My river is mine alone, I’ve made for myself’. I’ll put hooks in yur jaws, the fish of yur rivers will stick to yur scales; I’ll drag yu out of the rivers, with fish sticking to yur scales. I’ll drive yu into the desert, with the fishes of yur river: yu’ll fall in the open field; yu’ll unite or be gathered; I’ve given yu to the beasts of the earth & birds of the heavens for food. The Egyptians will know I’m Jehovah, because they were a staff of reed to Israel’s House. Their hand grabbed yu, yu broke, yu ripped their shoulders; they leaned on yu, yu broke, yu made their loins paralyzed. I’ll bring a sword against yu, I’ll sever from yu man & beast. The land of Egypt will be desolation & waste; they’ll know Me for their boast: ‘The river is mine, I made it’. I’m against yu, against yur rivers, I’ll make the land of Egypt waste & desolation, from the Tower of Seveneh to the border of Ethiopia. No human foot will pass through it, it will be uninhabited 40 years. I’ll make the land of Egypt desolation among the desolate countries; her cites waste among waste cities for 40 years; I’ll scatter the Egyptians among the nations, disperse them among the countries; I’ll reverse the captivity of Egypt, they’ll return to the land of Pathros, to the land of their birth, to be a base kingdom. It will be the lowest of the kingdoms; never again to be exalted above the nations: I’ll diminish them, they’ll never rule over the nations. It will never again be the confidence of Israel’s House, recalling iniquity, turning to look after them; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.

In the 27th year, in the 1st, on the 1st of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon’s army campaigned against Tyre: every head was bald, shoulders worn; no wages for his army against Tyre for his invaders. I’ll give the land of Egypt to King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon; he’ll deport her population, take her spoil, take her prey to be the wages for his army. I’ve given him the land of Egypt as recompence for service rendered to Me, Jehovah’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, prophesy: Wail! Jehovah’s Day is near, with cloudy days, a time of the Gentiles. A sword comes on Egypt, anguish in Ethiopia, the slain fall in Egypt; her population is exiled, her foundations broken down. Ethiopia, Put, Lud, mixed people, Cub, and children of the land in league, they will fall by the sword. Egypt’s allies fall; her proud power I abased: they’ll fall from the Tower of Seveneh by sword; they’ll be desolate among the desolate of the countries; her cities wasted among the wasted. They’ll know I’m Jehovah, when I’ve torched Egypt, and destroyed her helpers. I’ll send messengers to make the careless Ethiopians afraid in anguish as in the day of Egypt; it is coming. I’ll end the population of Egypt by King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon; he & his people, the terror of the nations, will destroy the land; they’ll draw their swords against Egypt, and fill the land with slain. I’ll dry up the rivers, sell the land to evil men; I’ll desolate the land, and all in it, by strangers. I’ll destroy the idols, I’ll abolish the images from Memphis; no more a prince in Egypt, I’ll put fear in the land of Egypt. I’ll desolate Pathros, I’ll torch Zoan, execute judgments on No; I’ll pour My Wrath on Sin, Egypt’s stronghold; I’ll cut off the population of No. I’ll torch Egypt: Sin in Anguish, No broken up; and Memphis adversaries are in daytime. The youths of Aven & Pibeseth fall by sword; they’ll go into captivity. The day withdraws at Tehaphnehes when I break Egypt’s yokes, her pride of power to cease, clouds will cover her, her daughters go into captivity. I’ll execute judgments on Egypt; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.

In the 11th year, in the 1st, on the 7th of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, I broke the arm of King Pharaoh of Egypt; it wasn’t wrapped with medicines, not bandaged to hold the sword. I’m against King Pharaoh of Egypt, I’ll rebreak his strong arms; his hand drops the sword. I’ll scatter the Egyptians among the nations, disperse them through the countries. I’ll strengthen the arms of the King of Babylon, put My Sword in his hand to break the arms of Pharaoh, he’ll groan as a fatally wounded man. I’ll hold up the arms of the King of Babylon; the arms of Pharaoh will drop; they’ll know I’m Jehovah, when I give My Sword to the King of Babylon to extend it to the land of Egypt. I’ll exile the Egyptians among the nations, disperse them through the countries; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.

In the 11th year, in the 3rd, on the 1st of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, tell King Pharaoh of Egypt & his populace: Who compares to yu in greatness? The Assyrian was a Cedar-Tree in Lebanon with nice branches, with forest-like shade, of high stature; its top was among the thick boughs. The waters nourished it; the depths made it grow: the rivers circulated its plantation; it sent out channels to the trees in the field. Its stature was exalted above the other trees of the field; its boughs were many, its branches was long because of the rivers, when it spread. The birds of the heavens made nests in its boughs; under its branches beasts of the field birthed their young; under its shadow great nations dwelt. It was lovely in greatness, in its long branches; its roots reached many waters. The cedars in God’s Garden could not hide it; the fir-trees were not like its boughs, the plane-trees were not as its branches; no tree in God’s Garden was as beautiful. I made it fair by its many branches, that all the trees of Eden in God’s Garden, envied it. Because yu (Egyptians) are exalted in stature, he (King Pharaoh of Egypt) has set his top (throne) among the thick boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his height; I’ll deliver him to the mighty one of the nations (King of Babylon); he’ll deal with him; I’ve driven him out for his wickedness. Strangers, the terror of the nations, have cut him off & deserted him; the peoples of the earth left his shadow & deserted him. The birds of sky will dwell on his ruin, the beasts of the field on his branches; never again will the well-watered trees exalt themselves in stature, neither set their top among thick boughs, nor the well-watered mighty ones stand up on their height: they’re destined for death, to the lowest parts of the earth, with the children of men who descend to the pit. In the day he (the Cedar-Tree, King Pharaoh of Egypt) descended to Sheol (Hell, Grave, Death) I caused mourning: I covered the deep for him, I restrained the rivers, the great rivers stayed; I caused Lebanon to mourn for him, the field-trees fainted for him. I made nations shake at the sound of his fall, when I hurled him down to Sheol with those descending to the pit; the trees of Eden, the choice & best trees of Lebanon, all well-watered, were comforted together in the lower parts of the earth. Together they descended to Sheol with him those slain with the sword; those who were his arm, who dwelt under his shadow in the nations. Who compares to yu in glory & greatness among the trees of Eden? Yu’ll be dragged with Eden’s trees to earth’s lowest parts: yu’ll lie among the uncircumcised, with those slain by sword. This is Pharaoh & his populace, says the Lord Jehovah’.

In the 12th year, in the 12th month, on the 1st of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, give a Lamentation concerning King Pharaoh of Egypt: Yu were likened to a Young Lion of the nations: yu are a Monster of the seas; yur rivers overflowed, yur feet troubled the waters & dirtied their rivers. I’ll spread My Net on yu with a band of many peoples; they’ll drag yu up in My Net. I’ll desert yu on the land, I’ll toss yu on the open field; the birds of the sky to settle on yu, the beasts of the earth to feast on yu. I’ll lay yur flesh on mountains, fill valleys with yur height; I’ll fill yur swimming water with yur blood to the mountains; the watercourses will be full of yu. I’ll extinguish yu, I’ll cover the skies, make the stars dark; I’ll hide the sun with a cloud, the moon will give no light; the stars of heaven will be dark, darkness on yur land. I’ll vex the hearts of many peoples with yur destruction among the nations in unknown countries. I’ll amaze many peoples with yu, their kings will horribly be afraid for yu, when I brandish My Sword before them; they’ll tremble continuously, each for his own life, in the day of yur fall. The sword of the King of Babylon will come on yu; I’ll cause the swords of the mighty to slay yur populace; they’re the terror of the nations: they’ll vanquish Egypt’s pride, the population destroyed. I’ll destroy the wild animals near the waters; human feet nor animal hoofs will never again trouble it. Their waters will be clear, rivers will run like oil. I’ll desolate & waste the land of Egypt, destitute of its abundance, its residents smitten; then they’ll know Me. This is the lamentation they’ll lament, together with the daughters of the nations, over Egypt & her populace’.

In the 12th year, on the 15th of the month, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, wail for Egypt’s populace, toss her down with the famous nation’s daughters, to earth’s lowest parts, with those descending to the pit. Whom do yu surpass in beauty? go down, be laid with the uncircumcised. They’ll fall among the slain by sword; drag her & her multitude away. The strong among the mighty will speak to him from Sheol with those who help him: they descend, they’re still, the uncircumcised, slain by sword. Asshur & her bands are there in her cemetery of those slain by sword, who were terror in the land of the living. Elam & her multitude are in the cemetery of the sword slain who descend uncircumcised to earth’s lowest depths, who were terror in the land of the living, sharing the shame with those who descend to the pit. Meshech, Tubal, & her populace are in the cemetery of the uncircumcised sword slain, who were terror in the land of the living. They’ll not lie (honorably) with the mighty fallen of the uncircumcised; that descend to Sheol with their war weapons, with their swords under their heads, their iniquities on their bones, as the terror of the mighty in the land of the living. Yu’ll be broken with the uncircumcised, yu’ll lie with the sword slain. Edom & her kings & her princes, in their power are laid with the sword slain with the uncircumcised, with those descending to the pit. The princes of the north & the Sidonians, are with the sword slain, sharing their shame with those descending to the pit. Pharaoh will see them, be comforted for his populace, Pharaoh & his army, sword slain; says the Lord Jehovah. I’ve put terror in the land of the living; he’ll be laid with the uncircumcised, with the sword slain, Pharaoh & his multitude’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, tell the children of yur people: If I bring a sword on a land and the people appoint their Watchman: if he sees the approaching sword in the land, if he blow the trumpet, and warn the people; if some one hears the sound but takes no warning, if the sword takes him away, his blood is on his own head. He heard but did not heed, it’s his blood to save his soul. If the Watchman sees the approaching sword, didn’t blow the trumpet, the people weren’t warned, if anyone is taken away by sword in his iniquity, I’ll require his blood from the Watchman. Son of Man, I’ve appointed yu a Watchman to Israel’s House; hear the Word from My Mouth, warn them from Me. If I say to the wicked: wicked man, yu will die, if yu don’t warn him of his way, if he dies in his iniquity, I’ll require his blood from yu. If you warn the wicked to turn from his way, if he refuses; he’ll die in his iniquity, yu’ve delivered yur soul. Son of Man, tell Israel’s House: ‘Our transgressions & our sins are on us, we pine away in them; how can we live’? Tell them for Me: I have no pleasure in the wicked’ s death; only for the wicked to turn from his way to live: turn from your evil ways; why die, House of Israel? Son of Man tell the children of yur people: the righteousness of the righteous will not deliver him in the day of his transgression; the wickedness of the wicked will not fail in the day of his turning from his wickedness; the righteous will not live in the day he sins. If I say to the righteous, he’ll live; if he trust to his righteousness, and transgress, none of his righteous deeds will be remembered; in his iniquity he’ll die. If I say to the wicked, yu must die; if he repents from his sin, do what is lawful & right, restore the pledge, return the stolen things, walk in the statutes of life, practicing no crime; he must live, he must not die. His former sins must not be remembered against him: he did what is lawful & right; he must live. The children of yur people say: ‘the Lord’s Way is unequal’: but their way is unequal. If the righteous turns from his righteousness, commits crime, he must die for it; if the wicked turns from his wickedness, practice what is lawful & right, he must live for it. You say: ‘the Lord’s Way is unfair’; House of Israel, I’ll judge each of you for his ways’.

In the 12th year of our Captivity, in the 10th, on the 10th of the month, that a Jerusalem refugee reported to Ezekiel: The City is smitten. The Hand of Jehovah was on Ezekiel in evening, before the refugee arrived; his mouth He hadn’t opened till morning when he (refugee) arrived, he (Ezekiel) was no longer dumb. Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, Israel’s inhabitants of the wastelands say: ‘Abraham was one, and he inherited the Land: we are many; the Land is our inheritance’. Tell them for Me: You eat with blood, you lift your eyes to idols, you shed blood: will you possess the Land? You stand with yur sword, you work abomination, you defile another’s wife: will you possess the Land? Tell them for Me: Those in the wastelands will fall by sword; I’ll give the one in the open field to the wild animals to be devoured; those in strongholds & caves will die by pestilence. I’ll make the Land desolation & astonishment; her proud power will cease; Israel’s mountains be desolate; none will pass through. They’ll know I’m Jehovah when I’ve made the Land desolation & astonishment for their abominations practiced. Son of Man, the children of thy people talk about yu at the walls & doors of the houses, talking one brother to another to ‘please listen to what Jehovah says’. They come to yu as a seeking people, they sit with yu as My People, they hear yur words, but refuse to obey; with their mouth they show much love, but their heart goes after gain. Yu are to them a lovely song of a pleasing singer, who plays an instrument well; they her yur words but do nothing. When these things come about, they’ll know a Prophet was among them’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, prophesy against the Shepherds of Israel: Woe to the Shepherds of Israel who feed themselves! Should not the Shepherds feed the sheep? You eat the fat, you clothe you with wool, you kill fatlings; but you don’t feed the sheep. You haven’t strengthened the diseased, you haven’t healed the sick, you haven’t bound up the broken, you haven’t brought back those driven away, you haven’t sought the lost; with force & rigor you ruled over them. They were scattered because there was no shepherd; they became food for wild animals, they scattered. My Sheep wandered through the mountains, on high hills: My Sheep were scattered over the earth; none to search or seek. You Shepherds listen to Jehovah’s Word: As I live, as My Sheep became prey, became food for the wild animals, because there was no shepherd, neither did My Shepherds search for My Sheep, but they fed themselves, and fed not My Sheep; you Shepherds, hear Jehovah’s Word: I’m against the Shepherds; I’ll require My Sheep from them, and prevent them from feeding My Sheep; neither will they ever feed themselves; I’ll deliver my sheep from their mouth, that they be not their food. I Myself, will search for My Sheep & seek them; as a shepherd seeks his scattered flock in the day while among them, I’ll seek My Sheep; I’ll deliver them from the peoples, gather them from countries, I’ll bring them to their own Land; I’ll feed them on Israel’s mountains, by watercourses, in all the inhabited places of the earth. I’ll feed them with good pasture; on the mountains of Israel’s heights will their fold be: they’ll rest in a good fold; on fat pasture they’ll feed on Israel’s mountains. I Myself will be the Shepherd of My Sheep, I’ll cause them to rest. I’ll seek the lost, I’ll bring back those driven away, I’ll bind the broken, I’ll strengthen the sick: the fat & strong I’ll destroy; I’ll feed them with justice. You, My Flock, I judge between sheep & sheep, the rams & he-goats. Is it a small thing to you to feed on good pasture, but you tread down the rest of the pasture with yur feet? to drink the clear waters, but you must foul the rest with your feet? My Sheep they eat what you trod; they drink what you fouled. I’ll judge between the fat sheep & the lean sheep. You thrust with side & shoulder, you push the diseased with your horns, till you’ve scattered far; I’ll save My Flock, they’ll never again be prey; I’ll judge between each sheep. I’ll appoint One Shepherd over them, he’ll (He’ll) feed them, My Servant David (the Beloved); he’ll (He’ll) feed them, he’ll (He’ll) be their Shepherd. I, Jehovah, will be their God, My Servant David (the Beloved) Prince among them. I’ll make a Peace Covenant with them, I’ll rid the Land of dangerous wild animals; they’ll live safely in the wilderness & sleep in the forests. I’ll make them & the places surrounding My Hill a blessing; I’ll cause the shower to fall in season; there will be showers of blessing. The field-trees will yield fruit, earth yield its increase, they’ll be secure in their Land; they’ll know Me, when I’ve broken the bars of their yoke, delivered them from those who enslaved them. They’ll no longer be prey to the Gentiles; the wild animals will not devour them; they’ll dwell safe without fear. I’ll raise up a Renowned Plantation, they’ll no longer be consumed with famine in the Land, never again to bear the shame of the Gentiles. They’ll know I, Jehovah, their God am with them, and Israel’s House are My People. You are My Sheep, the Sheep of My Pasture, I’m your God’.
Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face against Mount Seir & prophesy against it: I’m against yu, Mount Seir, I’ll extend My Hand against yu, I’ll make yu a desolation & astonishment. I’ll lay waste yur cities, yu’ll be desolate; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah. Yu’ve had a perpetual enmity, gave over the sons of Israel to the power of the sword in the time of their calamity, in the time of the iniquity of the end; as I live, I’ll prepare yu for blood, blood will pursue yu: since yu didn’t hate blood, blood will pursue yu. I’ll make Mount Seir an astonishment & desolation; I’ll cut off any traveling to or from. I’ll fill its mountains with slain: in yur valleys & watercourses they’ll fall, slain with sword. I’ll make yu a perpetual desolation, yur cities will be uninhabited; yu’ll know I’m Jehovah. Yu said: ‘These two nations & two countries will be mine, I’ll possess it’; but Jehovah was there: as I live, I’ll respond to yur anger & yur envy which yu showed in hatred against them; I’ll make Myself known among them, when I shall judge yu. Yu’ll know that I, Jehovah, heard yur reviling spoken against Israel’s mountains, saying, ‘They’re laid desolate, they’re given us to devour’. You magnified yourselves against Me with your mouth, you’ve multiplied your words against Me: I heard it. When the whole earth rejoices, I’ll make yu desolate. As yu rejoiced over the inheritance of Israel’s House, being desolate, so I’ll do to yu: yu’ll be desolate, Mount Seir & Edom, all of it; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.
‘Son of Man, prophesy to Israel’s Mountains: The enemy has said against you: ‘The ancient places are our possessions’; prophesy, because they’ve made you desolate, and swallowed you up on all sides, that you be a possession to the rest of the Gentiles, and you are on the lips of talkers, the evil report of the people; you mountains of Israel, listen to My Word: The Lord Jehovah says to the mountains, hills, watercourses, valleys, desolate wasteland, & to forsaken cities, which are a prey & derision to the rest of the Gentiles nearby: in the fire of My Jealousy I’ve spoken against the rest of the Gentiles, and against Edom, who appointed My Land to themselves for a possession with joyous hearts, with despiteful souls, to toss it out as prey. Prophesy concerning the Land of Israel, say to the mountains, hills, watercourses, valleys: I’ve spoken in My Jealousy & My Wrath, because you’ve borne the shame of the Gentiles: I’ve sworn, the Gentiles nearby will bear their own shame. But you, Israel’s mountains, you shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to My People Israel; for they’re soon to happen. I’m for you, I’ll turn to you, and you will be tilled & sown; I’ll multiply men on you, Israel’s House, all of it; the cities inhabited, the wastelands built; I’ll multiply man & beast on you; they’ll increase & be fruitful; I’ll cause you to be inhabited after your former estate, it will be better than at your beginnings: you will know I’m Jehovah. I’ll cause men to walk on you, My People Israel; they’ll possess yu, yu’ll be their inheritance, never again bereave of children. Because they say to you: ‘Yu are a devourer of men, a bereaver of yur nation’; never again will yu devour men, or bereave yur nation; I’ll never again let yu hear the shame of the Gentiles, or the reproach of the peoples, or cause yur nation to stumble’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, when Israel’s House dwelt in their own Land, they defiled it by their way & deeds: their way to Me was as the uncleanness of a woman in her impurity. I poured out My Wrath on them for the blood which they poured out on the Land, and because they had defiled it with their idols; I scattered them among the Gentiles, they were dispersed through the countries: I judged them for their way & deeds. When they came to the Gentiles, they profaned My Holy Name; men said of them: ‘These are Jehovah’s People exiled from His Land’. I regarded My Holy Name, which Israel’s House profaned among the Gentiles in exile. Tell Israel’s House for Me: Not for your sake House of Israel I do this, but for My Holy Name, which you profaned in your exile among the Gentiles. I’ll sanctify My Great Name profaned among the Gentiles by you; the Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah, when I’m sanctified in you before their eyes. I’ll take you from among the Gentiles, gather you out of the countries, I’ll bring you into your own Land. I’ll sprinkle clean water on you, you’ll be clean, from your filthiness & idols, I’ll cleanse you. I’ll give you a new heart, I’ll put in you a new spirit; I’ll take away the stony heart out of your flesh, I’ll give a new heart of flesh. I’ll put My Spirit in you, you’ll walk in My Statutes, you’ll keep My Ordinances, and practice them; you’ll dwell in the Land that I gave to your fathers; I’ll call for grain, I’ll multiply it; and no famine be on you; I’ll multiply the fruit of the tree, and the increase of the field, that you’ll never again have the reproach of famine among the Gentiles. You’ll remember your evil ways, your no-good deeds; you’ll loathe yourselves in your own sight for your crimes & abominations. Know, Israel’s House, I don’t act for you, be ashamed & confounded for your ways. In the day I cleanse you from your crimes, I’ll cause the cities to be inhabited, the wastelands builded. The desolate Land will be tilled, though it was a desolation in the sight of travelers. They’ll say: This desolate Land is become like the Garden of Eden; the waste, desolate, ruined cities are fortified & inhabited. The Gentiles nearby will know that I, Jehovah, built the ruined places, planted the desolate: I, Jehovah, spoke it & will do it. Again, I will be inquired by Israel’s House, to accomplish it for them: I’ll increase them with men like a flock. As the flock for sacrifice, as Jerusalem’s flock in her appointed feasts, the waste cities be filled with flocks of men; they’ll know that I’m Jehovah’.
Jehovah’s Hand was on Ezekiel: He brought him out in Jehovah’s Spirit, set him down in the valley, full of dry bones. He led him by them all around, there were many in the open valley; they were very dry. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, can these Bones live? He answered Him, ‘Lord Jehovah, Yu know’. Again He said to him: Prophesy over these Bones: You dry Bones, listen to Jehovah: I’ll cause breath to enter into you, and you’ll live. I’ll lay sinews on you, grow flesh on you, cover you with skin, put breath into you, you’ll live; you’ll know I’m Jehovah’. Ezekiel prophesied as commanded: as he prophesied there was a noise & an earthquake; the Bones came together, bone to bone; with sinews, flesh, skin; but no breath in them. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Prophesy to the Wind, Son of Man: Come from the four Winds, Breath, and breathe on these slain to live’. He prophesied as commanded, the breath came, they lived, stood on their feet, a great army. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, these Bones are the House of Israel: they say, ‘Our bones are dried up, our hope lost; we’re cut off’. Prophesy: I’ll open your graves, cause you to come out of your graves, My People, I’ll lead you to Israel’s Land. You’ll know I’m Jehovah after I’ve opened your graves, caused you to come out of your graves, My People. I’ll put My Spirit in you, you’ll live, I’ll place you in your own Land: you’ll know I, Jehovah, spoke it & performed it’. Again, Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, take one Stick, write on it for Judah & for his Companions the Children of Israel; take another Stick, write on it for Joseph, the Stick of Ephraim, & for his Companions the House of Israel: join the Two Sticks as One to be One in your hands. When the children of yur People ask, ‘Tell us what this means’? tell them for Me: I’ll take the Stick of Joseph, in the hand of Ephraim, & his Companions, the Tribes of Israel; I’ll join it to the Stick of Judah to make One Stick, to be One in My Hand. The Sticks yu wrote on, will be in yur hand in their sight. Tell them for Me: I’ll take Israel’s Children from among the Gentiles, in their diaspora, regather them, and return them to their own Land: I’ll make them One Nation in the Land, on Israel’s mountains; One King will be King over them; never again be Two Nations, never again be divided into Two Kingdoms; never again to defile themselves with their idols & detestable things & their crimes; I’ll save them from their dwelling-places, where they sinned, and will cleanse them: they’ll be My People, and I’ll be their God. My Servant David (the Beloved) will be King over them; they’ll have One Shepherd: they’ll walk in My Ordinances, observe My Statutes, to practice them. They’ll dwell in the Land I’ve given to My Servant Jacob, in which their fathers dwelt; there they’ll dwell forever with their children, and grandchildren: My Servant David (the Beloved) will forever be their Prince. Also, I’ll make a Covenant of Peace with them; it will be an Eternal Covenant with them; I’ll resettle them & multiply them, I’ll set My Sanctuary forever in their midst. My Tabernacle will be with them; I’ll be their God; they’ll be My People. The Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah Who sanctifies Israel, My Sanctuary will be always be in their midst’.
Jehovah’s Word to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, face toward Gog (uncertain), of the Land of Magog (Japhetic, Scythians), the Prince of Rosh (chief, first, head), Meshech (Japhetic), & Tubal (Japhetic), prophesy against him: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll surround yu, put hooks in yur jaws, I’ll drag yu out, with yur army, horses & horsemen, clothed in full armor, a great company with buckler & shield, handling swords; with them Persia, Cush (Hamitic), & Put (Hamitic), with shield & helmet; Gomer (Japhetic) with his hordes; the House of Togarmah (Japhetic) in outskirts of the north & his hordes; many peoples with yu. Be prepared with yur companies gathered to yu, be guard to them. After many days yu’ll be visited: in the later days yu’ll invade the Land that is restored from the Sword, gathered out of many peoples, on the mountains of Israel, which has been a continual waste; but delivered from the peoples, they’ll dwell safely. Yu’ll ascend, yu’ll come like a storm, like a cloud to cover the Land, yu, & yur hordes, with many peoples. On that day, things will come to yur mind, yu’ll devise an evil device: yu’ll say, I’ll ascend to the Land of unwalled villages; I’ll go to them at rest, dwelling securely, without walls, neither bars or gates; to take spoil & prey; to turn yur hand against the wastelands reinhabited, against the people regathered from the Gentiles, having cattle & goods, dwelling in the Land (eretz, dry-land, ground, earth). Sheba & Dedan (Shemitic, Semitic, Arabia), & Tarshish’s (Spain or Cilicia) merchants, with their young lions, & ask yu: ‘Have yu come to take spoil’? Son of Man, prophesy, tell Gog for Me: In the day that My People dwell securely, will yu know it? Yu’ll invade from yur place in the furthest North, yu, and many peoples with yu, riding on horses, a great company & mighty army; yu’ll come against My People Israel, as a cloud to cover the Land: in the later days I’ll lead yu against My Land, that the Gentiles know Me, when I’ll be sanctified in yu, Gog, in their sight. Are yu the one I spoke of in earlier time by My Servants the Prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for years that I would lead yu against them? In that day, when Gog will come against the Land of Israel, My Wrath will come up into his nose. In My Jealousy & the fire of My Wrath I spoke, In that day there be a great shaking in the Land of Israel; the fishes of the sea, the birds of the skies, the wild-animals of the field, creeping things on the earth, and men on the earth, will shake at My Presence, the mountains will be thrown down, steep places will fall, every wall will fall to the ground. I’ll call a sword against him to the mountains: each man’s sword against his brother. I’ll enter judgment with him with pestilence & blood; I’ll rain on him, on his horses, on the many peoples who are with, an overflowing shower, and great hailstones, fire, & brimstone. I’ll magnify Myself, & sanctify Myself, I’ll make Myself known in the eyes of many Gentiles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah’.
‘Son of Man, prophesy against Gog: I’m against yu, Gog, Prince of Rosh, Meshech, & Tubal: I’ll turn yu around, I’ll lead yu on, I’ll cause yu to ascend from the furthest North; I’ll lead yu on Israel’s mountains; I’ll strike yur bow out of yur left hand, I’ll cause yur arrows to fall out of yur right hand. Yu’ll fall on Israel’s mountains, yu, & yur hordes, & yur peoples: I’ll give yu to the ravenous birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field to be devoured. Yu’ll fall on the open field; I’ve spoken it. I’ll send a fire on Magog, on those dwelling securely in the isles; they’ll know I’m Jehovah. My Holy Name I’ll make known in My People Israel; I’ll never again permit My Holy Name to be profaned: the Gentiles will know I’m Jehovah, the Holy One in Israel. It’s coming, it will be done; this is the day of which I’ve spoken. The dwellers in the cities of Israel will go forth, they’ll make fires of the weapons & burn them, both shields & bucklers, bows & arrows, hand slaves, spears, they’ll make fires of them 7 years; so that they’ll take no wood from the field, neither out of the forests; they’ll burn weapons; they’ll plunder those that plundered them, rob those who robbed them. In that day, I’ll give Gog a burial place in Israel, the valley of travelers on the east of the sea; it will prevent travelers: there they’ll bury Gog & his multitude; they’ll call it the Valley of Hamon-Gog. 7 months Israel’s House will be burying them to cleanse the Land. The people of the Land will bury them; it’ll be to them renown in the day I’ll be glorified. They’ll employ workers full time to search for those to bury who remain unburied on the Land to cleanse it: after 7 months they’ll search. The travelers will travel; when anyone sees a man’s bone, he’ll set up a sign by it, till the buriers have buried it in the Valley of Hamon-Gog. Hamonah will be the City’s Name. The name of the city is Hamonah. They’ll cleanse the Land. Son of Man speak to the Birds of every sort, to the wild animals of the field: Assemble yourselves, come gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice on Israel’s mountains to eat flesh & drink blood. You’ll eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink blood of the princes of the earth, of rams, lambs, goats, bullocks, of fatlings of Bashan. You’ll eat the fat till you are full, and drink the blood till you are drunk, of My Sacrifice which I’ve sacrificed for you. You’ll be filled at My Table with horses & chariots, mighty men & men of war. I’ll set My Glory among the Gentiles; the Gentiles will see My Judgment I’ve executed, and My Hand I’ve laid on them. Israel’s House will know I’m Jehovah their God, from that day & forward. The Gentiles will know that Israel’s House went into Captivity for their iniquity; they trespassed against Me, I hid My Face from them: I gave them into the hand of their adversaries, they fell by the sword. According to their uncleanness & transgressions I treated them; I hid My Face from them. I’ll reverse Jacob’s Captivity, have mercy on the whole House of Israel; I’ll be jealous for My Holy Name. They’ll bear their shame & trespasses they did against Me; they’ll dwell safely in their Land unafraid; when I’ve restored them from the peoples, and regathered them from their enemies’ lands, and I’m sanctified in them in the Gentiles’ sight. They’ll know I’m Jehovah their God, Who caused them to go into Captivity among the Gentiles, and regathered them to their own Land; I’ll never again abandon them there; never again will I hide My Face from them; for I’ve poured out My Spirit on the House of Israel’.

In the 25th year of our Captivity, in the beginning (first, 1st) of the year, on the 10th of the month, in the 14th year after the City was smitten, the very day, Jehovah’s Hand was on Ezekiel, and He transported him to there. In the Visions of God, He transported him to the Land of Israel, and set him down on a high mountain, on which was as if the frame (form, structure) of a city on the south. He transported him there; there was a Man, Whose Appearance was like the appearance of brass, with a line of flax in His Hand, and a measuring read; He stood at the gate. The Man said: ‘Son of Man, see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears, set yur heart on all that I’ll show yu; for this reason yu were brought here, that I may show to yu: declare all that yu see to Israel’s House’. A Wall was outside of the House all around it; in the Man’s Hand a measuring reed 6 cubits long, equal to 1 cubit & 1 handbreadth each cubit (cubit= 18″ or 1 1/2 feet; handbreadth= 4” wide; total reed-cubit= 22″ or 21″ plus or minus; measuring-reed= 6×22″= 132″ or 12 feet; if we make the sacred or great or angelic cubit 24″ then conversion to feet is simple: 2×12″= 24″= 2′; if we make the sacred or great or angelic handbreadth 6″ then it equals 1/2 foot; we then have the sacred reed= 6×24’= 144″ or 12 feet):
He measured the Building’s thickness, 1 reed (12′); its height, 1 reed (12′). He came to the eastward Gate, ascended its steps:
He measured the Gate’s threshold (entrance-step, doorway-base, sill), 1 reed long (12′), 1 reed wide (12′), the other threshold was the same. Each lodge (chamber, room) was 1 reed long & wide; between the lodges (chambers, rooms), 5 cubits (10′); the entrance of the gate house ward, 1 reed (12′).
He measured the Gate’s porch, 8 cubits (16′); its posts, 2 cubits (4′); the Gate’s porch was house ward. The Gate’s lodges eastward was 3 on each side; the 3 measured the same: the posts on each side measured the same.
He measured the width of the Gate’s entrance, 10 cubits (20′); the Gate’s length, 13 cubits (26′); a border before the lodges, 1 cubit (2′), both borders the same; the lodges, 6 cubits (12′), both alike.
He measured the Gate from the roof of 1 lodge to the other, a width of 25 cubits (50′); both doors. The posts also, 60 cubits (120′); the court to the posts, around the Gate. The forefront of the Gate’s entrance to the forefront of the inner porch were 50 cubits (100′). The lodges had closed windows, with their posts within the Gate around, & likewise to the arches; windows were round about inward; on each post were palm-trees.
He led Ezekiel into the Outer Court; there were chambers & pavement, for the Court around: 30 chambers were on the pavement. The pavement was by the side of the Gates, corresponding to the length of the Gates, to the lower pavement.
He measured the width from the forefront of the lower Gate to the forefront of the Inner Court outside, 100 cubits (200′), on the east & the north.
The Gate of the Outer Court facing northward, He measured its length & width. Its lodges were 3 on both sides; its posts & arches were after the measure of the 1st Gate: its length 50 cubits (100′), the width 25 cubits (50′). Its windows & arches & palm-trees, matched the measurement of the Gate facing eastward; ascending by 7 steps; its arches were before them. There was a Gate to the Inner Court opposite another Gate, on the north & east; He measured from each Gate both 100 cubits each.
He led him southward to a Gate southward; He measured its posts & arches according to these measures. It had windows, and in the arches around, with like windows: length was 50 cubits (100′), width = 25 cubits (50′). 7 steps ascended it, with its arches; with palm-trees, one on both sides, on its posts.
A Gate was at the Inner Court southward: He measured from gate to gate southward 100 cubits (200′). He led him to the Inner Court by the South Gate:
He measured the South Gate according to these measurements; its lodges, posts, & arches, with these measurements: with windows & its arches around; it was 50 cubits (100′) long, 25 cubits (50′) wide. Arches were around toward the Outer Court; palm-trees were on its posts: its ascent was by 8 steps.
He led him to the Inner Court eastward: He measured the Gate according to these measures; its lodges, posts, & arches with these measurements: with its windows & arches around; 50 cubits (100′) long, & 25 cubits (50′) wide. Its arches were toward the Outer Court; palm-trees were on its posts, on both sides: its ascent was by 8 steps.
He led him to the North Gate: He measured it with these measurements; its lodges, posts, & arches, with its windows around; the length = 50 cubits (100′), the width = 25 cubits (50′). Its posts were toward the Outer Court; palm-trees were on its posts, on both sides: the ascent was by 8 steps. A chamber with its door was by the posts at the Gates; there they washed the burnt-offering.
The Gate’s porch had two tables on both sides each, for slaughtering burnt-offering, sin-offering, & trespass-offering. 2 tables were on the outside, ascending to the Gate’s entrance northward. 4 tables each on both sides of the Gate; 8 tables for slaughtering. 4 tables for the burnt-offering, of hewn stone, 1 1/2 cubit (3′) both long & wide; for instruments for the slaughtering of burnt-offering & the sacrifice. The flesh-hooks = handbreadth (1/2′) long, fastened inside around: on the tables was the flesh (meat) of the oblation.
Outside the Inner Gate were chambers for singers in the Inner Court, at the side of the North Gate, facing southward; same at side of the East Gate facing northward. He told Ezekiel: ‘This chamber, facing southward, is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the House; the chamber facing northward is for the Priests, the keepers in charge of the Altar: these are the sons of Zadok (BeniZadok), who are from the sons of Levi (BeniLevi) who approach Jehovah to minister to (serving) Him’.
He measured the Court, 100 cubits (200′) both long & wide, foursquare; the Altar was before the House. He led him to the House’s porch, & measured each post of the porch, 5 cubits (10′) on both sides: the width of the Gate was 3 cubits (6′) each on both sides. The porch’s length was 20 cubits (40′), the width = 11 cubits (22′); they ascended to it by steps; with pillars by the posts on both sides.
He led Ezekiel to the Temple, measured the posts, 6 cubits (12′) wide on both sides, being the width of the Tabernacle. The width of the entrance was 10 cubits (20′); the sides of the entrance were 5 cubits (10′) each on both sides: He measured its length at 40 cubits, the width = 20 cubits (40′).
He went inside & measured each post of the entrance, 2 cubits (4′); & the entrance, 6 cubits (12′); the width of the entrance, 7 cubits (14′).
He measured its length & width, 20 cubits (40′) each, before the Temple: He said to him: This is the Most Holy Place.
He measured the Wall of the House, 6 cubits (12′); the width of every side-chamber, 4 cubits (8′), around the House on every side. The side-chambers were in 3 stories, one above another, 30 in all; they entered the wall which belonged to the House for the side-chambers around to secure, not to take hold in the wall of the House. The side-chambers wider where they enclosed it higher & higher; the House’s enclosure went higher & higher around the House: the width of the House upward; it ascended from the lowest to the middle to the highest. Ezekiel saw the House had a raised basement around: the foundations of the side-chambers were a ‘full reed of 6 great cubits’ (12′). The Wall’s thickness for the side-chambers on the outside was 5 cubits (10′): the remaining space was of the side-chambers belonging to the House. Between the chambers was a width of 20 cubits (40′) enclosing the House. The doors of the side-chambers were toward the remaining open space, one door northward, another southward: the width of the place remaining was 5 cubits (10′) around. The Building in front of the separate place at the side westward was 70 cubits (140′) wide; the Wall of the Building was 5 cubits (10′) thick around, its length 90 cubits (180′). He measured the House, 100 cubits (200′) long; the separate place eastward, 100 cubits (200′) long; the width of the House’s face, and of the separate place eastward, 100 cubits (200′).
He measured the Building’s length before the separate place which was at its back, its galleries on both sides, 100 cubits (200′); with the Inner Temple, & the porches of the Court; the doorways, the closed windows, & galleries around on their 3 stories, opposite the doorway, sealed & wound around, the ground ascending to the windows, (the windows were covered), to & above the door, to the Inner House, & outside, & by the Wall around inside & outside, by measurement. It was made with Cherubim (Cherubs) & palm-trees; palm-tree was between both Cherubs , the Cherubs had 2 faces; there was a human face toward the palm-tree on one side, a young-lion’s face was toward the palm-tree on the other side made through the House around: from the ground to above the door were Cherubim & palm-trees: thus was the Wall of the Temple. The Temple’s door-posts were squared; the Sanctuary’s face appearance was as its appearance. The Altar was of wood, 3 cubits (6′) high, its length 2 cubits (4′); its corners, length, & walls were of wood: He told Ezekiel, This is the Table that is before Jehovah. The Temple & the Sanctuary had 2 doors. The doors had 2 leaves each, 2 turning leves: two for the one door, 2 leaves for the other. There were carved on these Temple doors, Cherubs & palm-trees, like those carved on the Walls; there was a doorway of wood on the face of the porch outside. There was closed windows & palm-trees on both sides of the porch: thus, was the side-chambers of the House, & the doorways.
He led Ezekiel out to the Outer Court, the way northward:
He led him into the chamber opposite the separate place, opposite the Building northward. The north door was before the length of 100 cubits (200′), the width was 50 cubits (100′). Opposite those 20 belonging to the Inner Court, opposite the pavement belonging to the Outer Court, was opposite galleries in the 3rd story. Before the chambers was a walk of 10 cubits (20′) wide inward, a way of 1 cubit (2′); their doors were northward. The upper chambers were shorter; the galleries shorted them, more than the lowest or the middle, in the Building. They were in 3 stories, having no pillars as the pillars of the Courts: it was shorter than the lowest & middle from the ground. The Wall outside by the side of the chambers, toward the Outer Court before the chambers, was in length 50 cubits (100′). The length of the chambers in the Outer Court was 50 cubits (100′): & before the Temple were 100 cubits (200′). From under these entry on the east side, going into them from the Outer Court. In the thickness of the Wall of the Court eastward, before the separate place, before the Building, were chambers. The way before them was like the appearance of the chambers northward; as their length so was their width: their entrance or exit were both to their fashions & doors. The doors of the chambers southward had a door at the head of the way, the way directly before the Wall eastward, on entering them. He said told Ezekiel: ‘The north & south chambers, before the separate place, are the Holy Chambers, where the Priests near to Jehovah eat the Most Holy Things: they’ll lay the Most Holy Things, the meal-offering, sin-offering, & trespass-offering; for its a Holy Place. When the Priests enter, they must not leave the Holy Place to enter the Outer Court, they must lay there their ministering clothes, for they are holy: they must change to other clothes, to approach to what pertains to the People’.
When He finished measuring the Inner House, He led Ezekiel out by way of the Gate facing eastward & measured it around.
He measured on the east side with the measuring reed 500 reeds (500×12′ = 6,000′), with the measuring reed around.
He measured on the north side 500 reeds (6,000′) with the measuring reed around. He measured on the south side 500 reeds (6,000′) with the measuring reed.
He turned around to the west side, & He measured 500 reeds (6,000′) with the measuring reed.
He measured it on the 4 sides: it had a Wall around it, the length 500, width 500, to separate between what was holy or what was common. (Note: 1 mile = 5,280′, the 4 sides were each over 1 mile, or 4 – 4 1/2 square miles.)
He led Ezekiel to the Gate facing eastward. The Glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east: His Voice was like the sound of many waters; and the earth (Land) shined with His Glory. It was like the appearance of the vision which he saw, according to the vision he saw when he (He) came to destroy (the destruction of) the city; the visions were like the vision he saw by the River Chebar; & Ezekiel fell prostrate. Jehovah’s Glory came into the House by the way of the Gate facing eastward. The Spirit lifted Ezekiel, transporting him into the Inner Court; & Jehovah’s Glory filled the House. Ezekiel heard One speaking to him from the House; a Man stood near him: He told him: ‘Son of Man, the Place of My Throne, & the Place of the Soles of My Feet, where I’ll dwell amidst the Children of Israel forever. The House of Israel will never again defile My Holy Name, neither they, nor their kings, by their whoredom, and by the corpses of their kings (in, and) their High Places; in their placing their doorway next to My Doorway, their door-posts next to My Door-posts, with only a wall between Me & them; they defiled My Holy Name with their abominations they practiced: so I’ve consumed them in My Anger. Let them put far away from Me their whoredom, the corpses of their kings; and I’ll dwell amidst them forever. Son of Man show the House to Israel’s House, that they be ashamed of their iniquities; let them measure the pattern. If they be ashamed of all they’ve done, reveal to them the form of the House, & its fashion, its egresses, its entrances, its structures, its ordinances, its forms, and its laws; write it in their sight; that they may keep all its form, and all its ordinances, to do them.
This is the Law of the House: on the top of the mountain the its whole area enclosed will be holy: this is the Law of the House. These are the measurements of the Altar by cubits (the cubit = cubit + handbreadth or 20″ + 4″ = 24″ = 2′, the sacred cubit): the bottom shall be a cubit (2′), width a cubit (2′): its border around its edge was a span (8″-10″, common = 8″-9″, sacred = 10″); this must be the base of the Altar. From the bottom on the ground to the lower ledge must be 2 cubits (4′), the width 1 cubit (2′); from the lesser ledge to the greater ledge must be four cubits (8′), width 1 cubit (2′). The Upper Altar must be 4 cubits (8′); from the Altar hearth & upward must be 4 horns. The Altar hearth must be 12 (24′) long by 12 (24′) wide, square in its 4 sides (48 cubits or 96′). The ledge must be 14 long by 14 wide (28′ by 28′, 4 sides = 56′); its border around it must be 1/2 cubit (1′); its bottom must be 1 cubit (2′) around; its steps facing eastward’. He told Ezekiel, ‘Son of Man, Jehovah says: These are the ordinances of the Altar in the day they offer burnt-offerings on it, to sprinkle blood on it. You must give to the Priests the Levites from the seed of Zadok, who approach Me, to minister to Me, a young bullock for a sin-offering. Yu must take of its blood, put it on its 4 horns, on the 4 corners of the ledge, & on the border around it: thus, yu’ll cleanse & atone for it. Yu must take the bullock of the sin-offering, and it shall be burnt in the appointed place of the house, outside the Sanctuary. The 2nd day yu must offer a male-goat without blemish for a sin-offering; they’ll cleanse the Altar, as they cleansed it with the bullock. After yu’ve cleansed it, yu must offer a young bullock without blemish, and a ram from the flock without blemish. Yu must bring them near before Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them up for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. Yu must bring them near to Jehovah, and the Priests must throw salt on them, and they must offer them for a burnt-offering to Jehovah. 7 days yu must prepare daily a goat for a sin-offering: they must prepare a young bullock, and a ram from the flock, without blemish. 7 days yu must atone for the Altar & purify it; so, must they consecrate it. When they’ve accomplished the days, on the 8th day, & forward, the Priests must make your burnt-offerings on the Altar, and your peace-offerings; and I’ll accept you’.
He led Ezekiel by the way of the Outer Gate of the Sanctuary, facing eastward; it was shut. Jehovah said to him: ‘This Gate must be shut; it must not be opened, neither must any man enter it; for Jehovah, the God of Israel, entered in by it; it must be shut. The Prince must sit in it as Prince to eat bread before Jehovah; he must enter by way of the porch of the Gate and exit by the same way’. Jehovah told Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, mark & see with yur eyes, hear with yur ears what I tell yu concerning the ordinances of Jehovah’s House and its Laws; make note of the House’s entrance, and the Sanctuary’s egress. Tell the Rebellious House of Israel for Me: House of Israel, be content with yur abominations, in bringing in foreigners, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, to be in My Sanctuary, to profane it, My House, offering to yur abominations My Bread, the fat & blood, breaking My Covenant. You haven’t kept the charge of My Holy Things; you’ve set keepers of My Charge in My Sanctuary for yourselves. No foreigner, uncircumcised in heart & flesh, must ever enter My Sanctuary, of any foreigners among the Children of Israel. The Levites who deserted Me, when Israel went astray from Me after their idols, they must pay for their crime. Yet they must be ministers in My Sanctuary, having oversight at the Gates of the House, and ministering in the House: they must slaughter the burnt-offering & sacrifice for the People, they must stand before them to minister to them. Because they ministered to them before their idols, becoming a stumbling block of iniquity to Israel’s House; I lifted My Hand against them, they’ll pay for their crime. They must not approach Me, to execute the office of priest to Me, nor approach My Holy Things, to the Most Holy Things, they must bear their shame, their abominations they’ve committed. But I’ll make them keepers of the charge of the House, for its service, for what is done in it. The Levitical Priests, Zadok’s Sons, who kept the charge of My Sanctuary when the Children of Israel deserted Me, they must approach Me to minister to Me; they must stand before Me to offer to Me the fat & blood. They’ll enter My Sanctuary, they’ll approach My Table, to minister to Me, they’ll keep My Charge. When they enter in at the Gates of the Inner Court, they’ll be clothed with linen garments; no wool must be on them, while they minister in the Gates of the Inner Court, and inside. They must wear linen turbans on their heads, they must have linen breeches on their loins; they must not gird themselves with anything causing sweat. When they go out into the Outer Court of the People, they must remove their clothes in which they minister, lay them in the Holy Chambers; they must put on other clothes, that they don’t sanctify the People with their clothes. They must not shave their heads, nor let their locks to grow long; they must only have hair-cuts. The Priests must drink no wine when they enter the Inner Court. They must not marry a widow for wives or divorcee; they must marry virgins of the seed of Israel’s House, or a Priest’s widow. They’ll teach My People the difference between the holy & the common and help them to discern between the unclean & the clean. In a controversy they’ll stand to judge; according to My Ordinances they must judge, they must keep My Laws & Statutes in all My appointed Feasts; they must sanctify My Sabbaths. They must not go near a dead person to defile themselves; they may defile themselves for father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or an unmarried sister. After he is cleansed, they’ll reckon to him 7 days. The day he enters the Sanctuary, into the Inner Court, to minister in the Sanctuary, he must offer his sin-offering. They’ll have no inheritance: I’m their inheritance; you’ll give him no possession in Israel; I’m their possession. They’ll eat the meal-offering, the sin-offering, & the trespass-offering; and every devoted in Israel will be theirs. The first of the first-fruits of everything, and every oblation of everything, of all your oblations, will be the Priest’s: you’ll also give to the Priests the first of your dough, to cause a blessing to rest on your house. The Priests must not eat anything that dies of itself, or is torn, whether of bird or beast’.
‘When you divide the Land by lot for inheritance, you shall offer an oblation to Jehovah, a Holy Portion of the Land; the length must be 25,000 (perhaps reed, then x 12′ = 3000,000′ = c.60 miles) long, the width 10,000 (if reed, x 12′ = 120,000′ = 24 miles): it’ll be holy in all its border around. From this must be the Holy Place 500 by 500, square around; 50 cubits (100′) for its suburbs around. From this measure yu must measure a length of 25,000 by 10,000 wide: in it shall be the Sanctuary, which is Most Holy. It is a Holy Portion of the Land: it must be for the Priests, the Sanctuary’s ministers, that approach to minister to Jehovah; it must be a place for their houses, a Holy Place for the Sanctuary. 25,000 long by 10,000 wide, for the Levites, the House’s ministers, for a possession to themselves: 20 chambers. You must allot the City’s possession 5,000 wide by 25,000 long, side by side with the oblation of the Holy Portion: it’ll be for all the House of Israel. For the Prince: on both sides of the holy oblation and of the possession of the City, in front of the holy oblation & in front of the possession of the City, on both westside westward & eastside eastward; in length corresponding to the portions, from west border to east border. In the Land it will be to him for a possession in Israel: My Princes will never again oppress My People; but they’ll give the Land to the House of Israel according to their tribes. Thus says the Lord Jehovah: Let it be enough for you, Princes of Israel: remove violence & spoil, execute justice & righteousness; take away your exactions from My People. You must have just balances, just ephah (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer), & just bath (quarts or gallons, 1/10th homer). The ephah & the bath (quarts & gallons) shall be one measure, the bath contains 1/10th a homer, the ephah 1/10th a homer: its measure is after the homer (10 times the ephah & bath). The shekel equals 20 gerahs (ounces or pounds); 20, 25, & 15 shekels will be your maneh (50 shekels). This is the oblation you must offer: 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of wheat; you must give 1/6th of an ephah from a homer of barley; the set portion of oil, of the bath of oil, 1/10th of a bath out of a cor (equals homer, 10 times the ephah or bath): 10 baths or ephah (10 baths equals an homer); 1 lamb from every 200 of the flock, from the well-watered pastures of Israel: for a meal-offering, burnt-offering, peace-offerings, to atone for them. The People of the Land must contribute to this oblation for the Prince in Israel. It will be the Prince’s part to give the burnt-offerings, meal-offerings, & drink-offerings, in the feasts, on the new moons, & on the sabbaths, in all the appointed feasts of Israel’s House’. The Lord Jehovah says: ‘In the 1st, on the 1st of the month, you must take a young bullock without defect to cleanse the Sanctuary. The Priest must take the blood of the sin-offering, put it on the door-posts of the House, and on the 4 corners of the ledge of the Altar, and on the posts of the Gate of the Inner Court. Thus you must do on the 7th of the month for those who err, and for the simple: so you’ll atone for the House. In the 1st, on the 14th day of the month, you’ll have the Passover, 7 days feast; unleavened bread must be eaten; on that day the Prince must prepare for himself & for the People of the Land a bullock for a sin-offering. The 7 days of the feast he must prepare a burnt-offering to Jehovah, 7 bullocks & 7 rams without defect daily 7 days; a male-goat daily for a sin-offering. He must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, and a hin (2 gallon or 8 quarts) of oil to an ephah. In the 7th , on the 15th day of the month, in the feast, he must do like in the 7 days; according to the sin-offering, burnt-offering, meal-offering, according to the oil’.
The Lord Jehovah says: ‘The Gate of the Inner Court facing eastward must be shut the 6 working days; on the sabbath day it must be opened, on the day of the new moon it must be opened. The Prince must enter by the way of the porch of the Gate outside, and must stand by the post of the Gate; the Priests must prepare his burnt-offering & his peace-offerings, & he’ll worship at the entrance of the Gate: he shall exit; but the Gate must remain open till evening. The People of the Land must worship at the door of that Gate before Jehovah on the sabbaths & new moons. The burnt-offering that the Prince must offer to Jehovah must be on the sabbath day: 6 lambs & 1 ram without defect; the meal-offering must be an ephah for the ram, and the meal-offering for the lambs as he is able to give, and a hin of oil to an ephah. On the day of the new moon it must be an ephah for the bullock without defect, 6 lambs & 1 ram, without defect: he must prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for the bullock, an ephah for the ram, and for the lambs as he’s able, an hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince enters, he must go by way of the porch of the Gate, and go out by its way. When the People of the Land approach Jehovah in the appointed feasts, he who enters by the way of the North Gate to worship must exit by way of the South Gate; he must not return by the Gate he entered, but he must continue straight ahead. The Prince, when they enter, must enter in their midst, when they exit, they exit. In the feasts and solemnities the meal-offering must be an ephah for a bullock, an ephah for a ram, for lambs as he is able, & a hin of oil to an ephah. When the Prince prepares a freewill-offering, a burnt-offering or peace offerings as a freewill-offering to Jehovah, someone must open for him the Gate facing eastward; he must prepare his burnt-offering & peace offerings, as he does on the sabbath day: then he must exit; and after his exit someone must shut the gate. Yu must prepare a lamb a year old without defect for a burnt-offering to Jehovah daily: every morning yu must prepare it. Yu must prepare a meal-offering with it every morning, 1/6th of an ephah, 1/3rd of a hin oil, to moisten the fine flour; a meal-offering to Jehovah continually by a perpetual ordinance. They must prepare the lamb, the meal-offering, & the oil, every morning, for a continual burnt-offering. If the Prince give a gift to his sons, it is his inheritance, it belongs to his sons; it is their possession by inheritance. If he give of his inheritance a gift to his servants, it is his inheritance to the year of jubilee; then it returns to the Prince; but his inheritance must be for his sons. The Prince must not confiscate the People’s inheritance, to force them from their possession; he must give inheritance to his sons from his own possession, that My People are not scattered from his own possession’. He led Ezekiel through the entrance at the side of the Gate, into the Holy Chambers for the Priests, facing northward: there was a place in the back westward. He said to Ezekiel: ‘This is the place where the Priests must boil the trespass-offering & the sin-offering, where they must bake the meal-offering; that they don’t bring them out into the Outer Court, to sanctify the People. He led him out to the Outer Court, causing him to pass by the 4 corners of the Court, at every corner of the Court was a Court. In the 4 corners of the Court were enclosed Courts, 40 long by 30 wide: these 4 in the corners were of one measure. There was a Wall around in them, around the 4, and boiling-places were made under the Walls around’. He said to him: ‘These are the boiling-houses, where the ministers of the House must boil the sacrifice of the People’.
He led Ezekiel back to the door of the House; waters issued out from under the doorway of the House eastward; (the forefront of the House was eastward;) the waters flowed down from under, from the right side of the House, on the south of the Altar. He led him out by way of the Gate northward.
He led him round by the way outside the Outer Gate, by the way facing eastward; there flowed waters on the right side.
When the Man went forth eastward with a line in His Hand, He measured 1,000 cubits (2,000′ or 1/3 mile), He caused Ezekiel to pass through the waters, waters to the ankles.
He measured another 1,000 (2,000′), causing him to pass through the waters knee high.
He measured another 1,000 (2,000′), passing through to waters high.
He measured another 1,000 (2,000′): a river impassable; the waters rose , waters to swim in, an impassable river. He said to Ezekiel: ‘Son of Man, have yu seen this’? He caused him to return to the river’s bank, where on the river’s bank were many trees on both sides. He told him: ‘These waters flow toward the eastern region, flowing into the Arabah (desert, wilderness, south of the Dead Sea); flowing toward the sea which issued forth from it; healing waters. Every living creature which swarms, wherever the rivers flow, will live; there will be a great multitude of fish; for these waters flow there to heal, everything will live wherever the river flows. The fishers will stand near: from En-gedi (near the Dead Sea) to En-eglaim (perhaps continuing south in the Arabah towards the Gulf of Aqabah; if northward, then perhaps to the Sea of Galilee) will be a place for the spreading of nets; their catch will be fishes of every kind, as the fish of the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), so many. But its wetlands & marshes will not be healed; they’ll be given to salt. By its riverbank, on both sides, will grow every tree for food, whose leaf will not whither, neither its fruit fail: it will produce new fruit every month, because its waters flow from the Sanctuary; its fruit will be for food, its leaf for healing.
The border to divide the Land for inheritance according to the 12 Tribes of Israel: Joseph’s portions: You will inherit it, one each; for I swore to give it to your fathers: this Land will fall to you for inheritance. The border of the Land: On the North side, from the Great Sea, by the way of Hethlon, to the entrance of Zedad; Hamoth, Berothah, Sibraim, between the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauran’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazer-enon at the border of Damascus & Hamath; Hazer-hatticon, by Hauron’s border. The border from the Sea, will be Hazar-enon at Damascus’ border; on the north northward is Hamoth’s border. This the North side.
The East side, between Hauran & Gilead, and the Land of Israel, will be the Jordan; from the border to the East Sea (Dead Sea) you’ll measure. This is the East side.
The South side southward be for Tamar to the waters of Meriboth-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the South side southward.
The West side will be the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea), from the border to the entrance of Hamath. This the West side. So you’ll divide this Land to you according to the Tribes of Israel. You must divide it by lot for an inheritance to you & to the strangers who reside among you, who birth children among you; they must be the same as the native Children of Israel; they must have inheritance with you among the Tribes of Israel. In wherever Tribe the stranger resides, there you must give him his inheritance, says the Lord Jehovah’.
These are the names of the Tribes: From the North end, by the way of Hethlon to the entrance of Hamath, Hazar-enan at the border of Damascus, northward beside Hamath, (having both sides of east & west), Dan: 1.
Bordering Dan: east side to west side, Asher: 1.
Bordering Asher: east side to west side, Naphtali: 1
Bordering Naphtali: east side to west side, Manasseh: 1.
Bordering Manasseh: east side to west side, Ephraim: 1.
Bordering Ephraim: east side to west side, Reuben: 1.
Bordering Reuben: east side to west side, Judah: 1
Bordering Judah: east side to west side, will be the oblation which you must offer, 25,000 wide, and in length as one of the portions, from east side to west side: the Sanctuary will be in its center.
The oblation you’ll offer to Jehovah must be 20,000 in length, 10,000 in width. These for the Priests will be the Holy Oblation: northward: 25,000 in length; westward: 10,000 in width; eastward: 10,000 wide; southward: 25,000 long: the Sanctuary is in the middle. It’s for the sanctified Priests of Zadok’s sons, who kept My Charge not straying when the Children of Israel strayed, as the Levites went astray. It’s their oblation from the oblation of the Land, a thing Most Holy, by the border of the Levites. Corresponding to the Priests’ border, the Levites must have 25,000 in length, and 10,000 in width. They must not sell a part of it, nor exchange it, nor must the first-fruits of the Land be alienated; for its Holy to Jehovah. The 5,000 remaining of the width, in front of the 25,000, must be for common use, for the city, for welling & for suburbs; the City is centered in it. These are its measurements: the North side, the South side, the East side, & the West side must be 4,500 each. The City must have suburbs: northward, southward, eastward, & westward must be 250 each. The remnant in the length, matching to the Holy Oblation, must be 10,000 eastward& 10,000 westward; it must be matching to the Holy Oblation; and the surplus must be for food for the City workers. The City laborers from the Israel’s Tribes must till it. The oblation must be 25,000 by 25,000: you must offer the Holy Oblation four-square (25,000 x 4 = 100,000), with the City’s possession. The remnant must be for the Prince, on both sides of the Holy Oblation & the City’s possession; in front of the 25,000 of the oblation toward the East border, and westward in front of the 25,000 toward the West border, matching to the portions, it must be for the Prince: and the Holy Oblation & the Sanctuary of the House must be in its center.
Also, from the possession of the Levites, and from the City’s possession, being in the center of what belongs to the Prince, between the border of Judah & the border of Benjamin, it must be for the Prince. As for the rest of the Tribes: east side to west side, Benjamin: 1.
Bordering Benjamin: east side to west side, Simeon: 1.
Bordering Issachar: east side to west side, Zebulon: 1.
Bordering Zebulon: east side to west side, Gad: 1.
Bordering Gad: at the south side southward, the border must be from Tamar to the waters of Meribah-kadesh, to the brook, to the Great Sea. This is the Land which you must divide by lot to the Tribes of Israel for inheritance, these are their individual portions, says the Lord Jehovah. These are the egresses of the City: On the north side: 4,500 by measurement; the Gates of the City must be after the names of the Tribes of Israel:
3 Gates northward: Reuben’s Gate: 1; Judah’s Gate: 1; Levi’s Gate: 1.
East side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Joseph’s Gate: 1; Benjamin’s Gate: 1; Dan’s Gate: 1.
South side: 4,500 by measure: 3 Gates: Simeon’s Gate: 1; Issachar’s Gate: 1; Zebulun’s Gate: 1.
West side: 4,500: 3 Gates: Gad’s Gate: 1; Asher’s Gate: 1; Naphtali’s Gate: 1. It must be 18,000 around: the Name of the City from that day will be: Jehovah Shammah (The Lord is There)’.

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Christian Biblical Reflections.27

     (Here is submission or part 27 of CBR, pages 171-232, of Jeremiah & Lamentations. mjmselim.Oct.2019.)

      Here are the Selections that I found very useful to explore the Book of Jeremiah and his Lamentations. I have not tried to insert objections to those things in these writings that I reject or object to, but both the good and the bad to present a fuller picture in the hermeneutics of the Prophet and his Prophecies.

Jeremiah’s Selections (10): Jeremiah’s & Lamentations Selections: Blayney, Henderson, Naegelsbach (Lange’s-Schaff), Keil-Delitzsch, Streane (CBS), Wordsworth, Smith (Scot), Driver, Brown, & Binns.

(1)
Literal Translation of Prophets, Isaiah-Malachi, v2. Jeremiah & Lamentations, by Benjamin Blayney, D.D., Prof. of Hebrew Oxford; Notes, Critical, Philological, & Explanatory, etc. New Ed. (1836). gs

{{ Preliminary Discourse: “When it was first proposed to me to revise the text of Jeremiah, and to attempt a new translation of it, with notes and illustrations, after the manner of the Bishop [Lowth] of London’s Isaiah, it appeared to me a matter of so much difficulty and importance, as justly to merit the most mature deliberation. Though sincerely disposed to pay all due deference to the authority of my friends, and earnestly desirous, at a time when I had no immediate call in the line of my profession, to find myself engaged in some worthy occupation, whereby I might have a chance of promoting the glory of God, and the spiritual good of mankind; it could not but occur to me, that, in following the plan of an author of such distinguished eminence, from a disparity of talents a most mortifying disparity might reasonably be apprehended in the execution. On the other hand, it seemed much to be regretted, that a design of such singular utility, and for which such ample materials had been lately provided, should at once be relinquished and laid aside. The learned and venerable Prelate, with whom it began, it was but too well known, had neither leisure nor health to prosecute it farther. And were it necessary to wait till another of equal qualifications should take it up, it were possible that many generations might elapse before the world might enjoy the wished-for satisfaction. But from inferior abilities some, at least, though not equal, benefit might arise; and this in particular, that, whilst the thoughts and attention of mankind were turned upon the subject, the discussion of such errors and mistakes as would be committed might gradually tend to an elucidation and discovery of the truth. And, therefore, upon these principles, when I found no other person likely to stand forth, I determined, at length, to comply with what had been recommended to me; trusting to the candour of the public, which I had heretofore experienced; and claiming no other indulgence, than, out of regard to my good intentions, to have my faults animadverted on with that gentleness and benignity which every liberal-minded person will be inclined to exercise towards others, because he must naturally wish to be so treated himself……I should still think myself guilty of a most unpardonable omission, were I not at this time to seize the opportunity of testifying my respect for the memory of another lately deceased friend; the learned Dr. Kennicott I mean, whose name the Hebrew critic ought ever to hold in the highest veneration. I account it a singular honour and happiness to myself to have conversed familiarly with him, and to have derived much solid information and improvement from that fund of knowledge which his laborious researches enabled him to lay in, and which the friendliness of his mind disposed him freely to communicate. Of such a nature were my personal obligations to him. His public merit was more conspicuous; being attested by his astonishing collation of seven hundred Hebrew and Samaritan MSS. and printed editions of the most early date, anxiously sought out through all the different quarters of the and examined with the nicest care: A work of which he was the first that had the penetration to discern the important utility; and which he was at length fortunate enough, after a course of twenty years of indefatigable application and industry, to bring to a happy conclusion, under the patronage of the greatest names in Europe. From this ample magazine what invaluable stores may be extracted, every day’s experience tends to furnish more convincing indubitable proofs. The various readings that are produced and applied in the notes which follow, though not all of equal importance, will, many of them, I trust, be deemed far from immaterial. But let me indulge a hope, that the time is not very far distant when the task of bringing forward these materials to their proper use will not be left, as hitherto it hath been, altogether in the hands of a few well-intentioned individuals, but will be undertaken on a more extensive plan, by a select assembly of the most learned and judicious divines, commissioned by public authority to examine into the state of the Hebrew text, to restore it, as nearly as possible, to its primitive purity, and to prepare from it a new translation of the Scriptures in our own language, for the public service……Are we not taught to believe, that “all” and every part of “Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is,” according to the intention of the Donor, “profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness?” But can any Scripture be profitable, except it be understood? And if not rightly understood, may not the perversion of it be proportionably dangerous? Or is it nothing, to deprive the people of that edification which they might have received, had a fair and just exposition been submitted instead of a false one? Do we not know the advantage that is commonly taken by the enemies of revelation, of triumphing in objections plausibly raised against the Divine word upon the basis of an unsound text or wrong translation? And though these objections have been refuted over and over again by the most solid argumentation of private religionists, do they not still continue to ring them in the ears of the vulgar and unlettered Christian, as if they were owned and admitted to be unanswerable So that it requisite for the honour of God and His true religion, that these stumbling-blocks should be removed out of the way as soon as possible by an act of solemn and public disavowal. Influenced by these and such like considerations, His Swedish Majesty hath already set the example, by commanding a new revisal and more perfect translation of the Scriptures to be immediately begun in his dominions. And, which may more excite our wonder, we are credibly informed, that a similar work is set on foot in our own language, at the sole expense of a single nobleman of princely spirit, for the use of the English Roman Catholics. And shall the British nation, so deservedly famous throughout the world for its magnificence and public-spirited exertions, be less active and forward than others upon so glorious an occasion? Shall the church of England, ever accustomed to rank with the foremost in learning and piety, be the last to hold forth to her members those sacred writings in their utmost perfection and purity, the free use of which she has ever taught them to consider as the most invaluable of their privileges? Or will our governors, after having in their private capacities contributed so largely above all others to the means of reformation, stop short on a sudden, and refuse to give a public sanction to the application of them?…..” }}

{{ Historical Sketch: “…..The idolatrous apostasy and other criminal enormities of the people of Judah, and the severe judgments which God was prepared to inflict upon them, but not without a distant prospect of future restoration and deliverance, are the principal subject-matters of the following prophecies; excepting only chapter 45, which relates personally to Baruch; and the six succeeding chapters, which respect the fortunes of some particular heathen nations. It is observable, however, that, though many of these prophecies have their particular dates annexed to them, and others may be tolerably well guessed at from certain internal marks and circumstances, there appears a strange disorder in the arrangement, not easy to be accounted for on any principle of regular design. There is, indeed, a variation between the Hebrew copies and those of the LXX version, in the arrangement of those particular prophecies concerning the heathen nations; which in the Hebrew are disposed all together, and, as I conceive, in their proper order of time with respect to each other, at the end of the book; intentionally, as it should seem, not to interrupt the course of Jewish history; whilst the authors of the LXX, have inserted them, with some difference of order among themselves, though, perhaps, no very material one, after verse 13 of chapter 25. But the disorder complained of lies not here; it is common to both the Hebrew and Greek arrangements; and consists in the preposterous jumbling together of the prophecies of the reigns of Jehoiakim and Zedekiah, in the seventeen (17) chapters which follow the twentieth (20th) according to the Hebrew copies; so that without any apparent reason many of the latter reign precede those of the former; and in the same reign the last delivered are put first, and the first last. As such an unnatural disposition could not have been the result of judgment, nor scarcely of inattention, in the compiler of these prophecies; it follows that the original order has most probably, by some accident or other, been disturbed. To restore which, as it may be of some use to the reader, I shall venture to transpose the chapters, where it appears needful, without altering the numerals, and shall assign the motives of every such transposition in the particular place where it is made. The following historical sketch of the times in which Jeremiah lived is given with a view to throw light upon his prophecies in general, and may help to explain sundry circumstances and allusions that are found therein. In the reign of Manasseh every species of impiety and moral corruption had been carried to the highest pitch under the encouragement of royal example. And so thoroughly tainted were the minds of men by this corrupt influence, as to baffle all the endeavours of the good Josiah to bring about a reformation. This well-disposed prince, having, in the eighteenth (18th) year of his reign, accidentally met with the book of the law, was stricken with horror at the danger to which he found himself and his kingdom exposed by the violations of it. He therefore immediately set about removing all the abominations that were in the land, and engaged his subjects to join with him in a solemn covenant to be more dutifully observant of the Divine commands for the time to come. But though the king’s heart was right, and his zeal fervent and sincere, it was all hypocrisy and dissimulation on the part of the people; their hearts were incorrigibly turned the wrong way; and God, who saw clearly the real bent of their dispositions, was not to be diverted from His designs of vengeance. He began with depriving them by a sudden stroke of their excellent prince, under whose government they had enjoyed much happiness and tranquillity, of which they were altogether unworthy. He was slain in a battle with Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, whom Josiah had gone out to oppose on his march against the Babylonian dominions, being himself in alliance with the king of Babylon; and his death, however fatal to his kingdom, was, as to his own particular, a merciful disposition of providence, that his eyes might not see all the evil that was coming upon his land. The twelve (12) first chapters of this book seem to contain all the prophecies delivered in this reign. Josiah being dead, his sons who succeeded him were not of a character to impede or delay the execution of God’s judgments. It is said in general of them all, that they did that which was evil in the sight of Jehovah. The first that mounted the throne was Shallum, or Jehoahaz, the second son, by designation of the people. But his elevation was not of a long continuance. Pharaoh Necho, having defeated the Babylonian forces, and taken Carchemish, on his return deposed Jehoahaz, after a reign of three months, and, putting him in chains, carried him to Egypt, from whence he never returned. In this short reign Jeremiah does not appear to have had any revelation. Pharaoh Necho made use of his victory to reduce all Syria under his subjection; and having imposed a fine upon the kingdom of Judah of one hundred talents of silver and one talent of gold, he received the money from Jehoiakim, the eldest son of Josiah, whom he appointed king in his brother’s stead. Jehoiakim was one of the worst and wickedest of all the kings of Judah; a man totally destitute of all regard for religion, and unjust, rapacious, cruel, and tyrannical in his government. In the beginning of his reign he put Urijah, a prophet of God, to death, for having prophesied, as was his duty to do, of the impending calamities of Judah and Jerusalem. And having either built for himself a new palace, or enlarged the old one that belonged to the kings of Judah, by a strain of authority not less mean than wicked he withheld from the workmen the wages they had earned in building it. In short, he set no bounds to his evil inclinations and passions; and his people, freed from the wholesome discipline which had restrained them in his father’s time, were not behindhand with him in giving way to every sort of licentious extravagance. Three years he reigned without molestation or disturbance from abroad. But towards the latter end of his third (3rd) year, Nebuchadnezzar being associated in the government by his father, Nabopollassar, king of Babylon, was sent into Syria to recover the dismembered provinces of the Babylonish empire. In the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim he beat the Egyptian army at the river Euphrates, retook Carchemish, and, having subdued all the intermediate country, he appeared before Jerusalem, of which he soon made himself master. Jehoiakim was at first loaded with chains, with an intention of sending him to Babylon (* In our author’s note on chapter 22:19, this assertion, and a subsequent one at the close of the next paragraph, are modified and corrected,–J. N.). He was, however, released upon his submission, and again suffered to reign on taking an oath to be a true servant of the king of Babylon. But numbers of his people were sent captives to Babylon, together with several children of the blood royal, and of the first families of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar proposed to breed up in his own court, in order to employ them afterwards in the affairs of his empire. At the same time many of the sacred vessels were taken away, and deposited in the temple of Belus at Babylon; so that from this date the desolation of Judah may fairly be reckoned to have had its beginning. After the king of Babylon’s departure, Jehoiakim continued to pay him homage and tribute for three years. In the mean time both he and his people persisted in their evil courses, undismayed by the mischiefs which had already befallen them, and making light of the threatenings, which God by the ministry of his prophets repeatedly denounced against them. At length Jehoiakim refused to pay any longer the tribute assigned him, and broke out into open revolt. To chastise him, the king of Babylon, not being at leisure to come in person, directed his vassals of the neighbouring provinces, the Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, to join with the Chaldean troops that were on the frontiers, and to ravage the land of Judah. They did so for three years together, and carried off abundance of people from the open country, who were sent to Babylon. Jehoiakim, in some attempt, as it should seem, made by him to check these depredations, was himself slain without the gates of Jerusalem; and his dead body having been dragged along the ground with the greatest ignominy, was suffered to remain without burial in the open fields. The prophecies of this reign are continued on from chapters 13 to 20, inclusively, to which we must add chapters 22,23, 25,26, 35, & 36, together with 45,46,47, & most probably 48, and as far as to verse 34 of chapter 49. Jeconiah, the son of Jehoiakim, a youth of eighteen (18) years old, succeeded his father in the throne, and followed his evil example, as far as the shortness of his reign would admit. From the beginning of it, Jerusalem was closely blocked up by the Babylonian generals. At the end of three months Nebuchadnezzar joined his army in person, and upon his arrival Jeconiah surrendered himself, and his city, at discretion. He was transported directly to Babylon, with his mother, his family, and friends, and with them all the inhabitants of the land of any note or account. The treasures also of the temple, and of the king’s house, and all the golden vessels which Solomon had provided for the temple-service, were at this time carried away. We read of no prophecy that Jeremiah actually delivered in this king’s reign; but the fate of Jeconiah, his being carried into captivity, and continuing an exile till the time of his death, was early foretold in his father’s reign, as may be particularly seen in chapter 22. The last king of Judah was Zedekiah, the youngest son of Josiah, whom Nebuchadnezzar made king, and exacted from him a solemn oath of allegiance and fidelity. He was not perhaps quite so bad a man as his brother Jehoiakim; but his reign was a wicked one, and completed the misfortunes of his country. His subjects seem to have but little respected him, whilst they considered him in no other light than as the lieutenant or viceroy of the king of Babylon, whose sovereignty they detested, and were continually urging him to throw off the yoke. Nor had he been long in possession of the kingdom, before he received ambassadors from the kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyrus, and Sidon, soliciting him to join in a confederacy against the Babylonish power. But he was wise enough at this time to hearken to the prophet Jeremiah’s advice, and to reject their propositions; and for some years continued to send regularly his presents and ambassadors to Babylon, in token of his obedience. But the iniquities of his people were now ripe for punishment, and their idolatries, as the prophet Ezekiel describes them, (chap 8,) were become so enormously profligate, that the stroke of vengeance could no longer be suspended. Zedekiah, therefore, was last prevailed on by evil counsel, and the promise of assistance from Egypt, to break his oath, and renounce his allegiance; by which he drew upon himself the arms of the king of Babylon, who invaded Judah, took most of its cities, and invested Jerusalem. The Egyptians made a show of coming to his relief; and the Chaldean army, informed of their approach, broke off the siege, and advanced to meet them; having first sent off the captives that were in their camp. This produced a signal instance of the double-dealing of the Jews. For in the first moments of terror they had affected to return to God, and in compliance with His law had proclaimed the year of release to their Hebrew bondservants, and let them go free. But on the retreat of the Chaldeans, when they believed the danger was over, and not likely to return, they repented of their good deed, and compelled those whom they had discharged to return to their former servitude. The Egyptians, however, durst not abide the encounter of the enemy, but faced about, and returned to their own land, leaving the people of Judah exposed to the implacable resentment of the king of Babylon. The siege was immediately renewed with vigour, and the city taken according to the circumstantial account which is given of it in chapter 52. The prophecies, which were delivered in the reign of Zedekiah, are contained in chapters 21 & 24, 27 to 34, & 37 to 39, inclusively, together with the six last verses of chapter 49, & chapters 50, & 51, concerning the fall of Babylon. The subsequent transactions of the murder of Gedaliah, of the retreat of the Jews that remained into Egypt, and of their ill-behaviour there, are so particularly related in chapters 40-44, that it were needless here to repeat them. But it may be of use to observe, that, in the second year after the taking of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Tyre; and, in the course of that siege, which lasted thirteen (13) years, he sent part of his forces against the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Philistines, and other neighbouring nations, to desolate and lay waste the country, as the prophets of God had foretold. At the same time Nebuzaradan, the Babylonish general, again entered the land of Judah, and carried off a few miserable gleanings of inhabitants that were found there. In the next year after the taking of Tyre, the king of Babylon invaded Egypt, which he plundered and ravaged from one end to the other; and, on this occasion, all the Jews that had fled into that kingdom for refuge were almost entirely cut off, or made prisoners. Such was the state of affairs in general, till, in the course of time, and precisely at the period which had been foretold, the Babylonian monarchy was itself overturned by the prevailing power of the Medes and Persians; and the Jewish nation once more returned to their own land. It may be expected, that something should be said concerning the discriminating style and genius of this prophet’s writing. But, instead of offering an opinion of my own, which in point of judgment may be questionable, the public in general will perhaps be better gratified, if I present them with the translation of a character already drawn by a very superior hand, to which I doubt not every reader of discernment will heartily subscribe. “Jeremiah,” says this admirable critic [Lowth], “is by no means wanting either in elegance or sublimity; although, generally speaking, inferior to Isaiah in both. Jerome has objected to him a certain rusticity in his diction, of which I must confess I do not discover the smallest trace. His thoughts indeed are somewhat less elevated, and he is commonly more large and diffuse in his sentences; but the reason of this may be, that he is mostly taken up with the gentler passions of grief and pity, for the expression of which he has a peculiar talent. This is most evident in the Lamentations, where those passions altogether predominate; but it is often visible also in his Prophecies, in the former part of the book more especially, which is principally poetical; the middle are for the most part historical; but the last part, consisting of six chapters, is entirely poetical; and contains several oracles distinctly marked, in which this prophet falls very little short of the lofty style of Isaiah. But of the whole book of Jeremiah it is hardly the one half which I look upon as poetical.” (‘Lowth’ ‘De Sacrá Poesi Hebraeorum, Praelec. xxi.)” }}

{{ Jeremiah’s Lamentations: Introduction: “The Lamentations of Jeremiah are very properly distributed into five chapters, each of them containing a distinct elegy, consisting of twenty-two periods, according to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet; although it is in the four first chapters only that the several periods begin, acrostic-wise, with the different letters following each other in alphabetical order. By this contrivance the metre is more precisely marked and ascertained, particularly in the third chapter, where each period contains three verses, which have all the same initial letter. The two first chapters in like manner consist of triplets, excepting only the seventh period of the first, and the nineteenth of the second, which have each a supernumerary line. The fourth chapter resembles the three former in metre, but the periods are only couplets. In the fifth chapter the periods are couplets, but of a considerably shorter measure. It has been surmised by some men of eminence in literature, both among the ancients and moderns, (*Josephus, Jerome, Archbishop Usher, &c.) that these were the funeral lamentations composed by Jeremiah on the death of the good king Josiah, which are mentioned, 2nd Chron. 35:25, and there said to have been perpetuated by an ordinance in Israel. But whatever is become of those lamentations, these cannot possibly be the same; for their whole tenor from beginning to end plainly shows them not to have been composed till after the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, and the depopulation of the country by the transmigration of all its inhabitants; which events are described not at all in the style of prophetic prediction, but alluded to and bewailed as what had been already fully accomplished and brought to pass. And that this was the most ancient opinion held concerning them, appears from the introductory title prefixed to the Greek version of the LXX, and from thence probably transmitted to the Latin Vulgate; but which, not being found in any of the Hebrew copies, I have inserted at the head of the first chapter between crotchets, ([And it came to pass after that Israel had been carried captive and Jerusalem was become desolate, that Jeremiah sat weeping, and lamented with this Lamentation over Jerusalem, and said:]) as being somewhat doubtful of its original authority. The internal evidence is, however, sufficient to ascertain both the date and the occasion of these compositions; nor can we admire too much the full and graceful flow of that pathetic eloquence, in which the author pours forth the effusions of a patriotic heart, and piously weeps over the ruins of his venerable country. “Never,” says an unquestionable judge of these matters, (*’Lowth’ ‘De Sacrá Poesi Hebraeorum’ , Praelect. xxii.) “was there a more rich and elegant variety of beautiful images and adjuncts arranged together within so small a compass, nor more happily chosen and applied.” But it was before observed, that the prophet’s peculiar talent lay in working up and expressing the passions of grief and pity; and unhappily for him, as a man and a citizen, he met with a subject but too well calculated to give his genius its full display.” }}

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Book of Prophet Jeremiah & Lamentations, Translated from Orignal Hebrew, with Commentary, Critical, Philological, & Exegetical. by E. Henderson, D.D. (1851).gs

{{ Introductory Dissertation: “…..It was the fate of Jeremiah after the death of Josiah, to live in the reigns of a succession of kings whose conduct and policy were directly the reverse of that prescribed by the theocracy; and, urged by Divine authority strenuously to oppose their wicked projects, he found himself almost incessantly in collision with them and their counsellors, and exposed to their displeasure. By Zedekiah, who appears to have shown him personal respect, and to have consulted him with reference to the national affairs, he would in all probability have been better treated, had it not been for the influence which the courtiers had over that monarch, in consequence of which our prophet was committed to prison, where he remained till Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar. This monarch ordered him to be liberated, and gave him his option whether to go with him to Babylon or to remain in his native country. Preferring the latter, he strongly protested against the emigration to Egypt of those of his countrymen who had been left in the land, and who were afraid of the vengeance of the king of Babylon on account of the murder of Gedaliah, whom that monarch had appointed governor. Determined to carry their purpose into effect, they compelled Jeremiah and Baruch to accompany them. We now find the prophet delivering predictions at Tahpanhes, a strong boundary-city on the Tanitic or Pelusian branch of the Nile; but with as little success, as it respects any real reformation, as that which had attended his labours previous to the captivity. How long he lived in Egypt we know not, but according to tradition he died in that country, and was buried at Tahpanhes. After the exile the Jews attached the highest importance to his memory, and such was their veneration for him, that they cherished the belief he would rise again from the dead, and make his appearance as a forerunner of the Messiah. See Matt. 16:14. What rendered the half century during which Jeremiah flourished, a period of peculiarly eventful and disastrous character, was the prevalence of internal disorders resulting from the obstinate refusal of the princes to listen to the admonitions of Jehovah, and the alienation of their confidence from him to their Egyptian ally. The Chaldeans, having succeeded to the rule in Asia, threatened Egypt with invasion; in consequence of which the Jews who were situated between the two powers were exposed alternately to the inroads of the one or the other of their hostile armies. The first calamity which befell them was the defeat and death of Josiah, when giving battle to Pharaoh Necho; and when they afterwards sided with the Egyptians against the Chaldeans, they became involved in all the miseries of a war with that power. Though solemnly warned by the prophet of the destructive consequences that would result from their alliance with Egypt, and repeatedly advised to submit to the Chaldean conqueror, they persisted in rejecting the Divine messages to that effect, and brought upon themselves the calamities attendant upon the capture of their city, and their subjugation by a barbarian foe. How these circumstances affected the mind of the prophet is obvious from the whole strain of his predictions. He appears to have been naturally of a mild and timid disposition, easily susceptible of sorrow and melancholy, but intrepid and unintimidated in the public discharge of the duties of his office, denouncing in unsparing language the wicked conduct of persons of all ranks, from the meanest of the subjects up to the monarch on his throne. This combination of characteristic features Havernick justly considers as furnishing a strong proof of the Divine origin of his mission; –the Spirit of prophecy acting powerfully upon his mind, controlling his natural temper, and qualifying him for his hazardous undertaking, without doing violence to his peculiar individuality. The length of time during which he prophesied in Judea was exactly forty years and a half (40 & 1/2), as appears from the following estimate: Years & Months Under: Josiah: (18 yrs); Jehoahaz: (3 mnths); Jehoiakim: (11 yrs); Jechoniah: (3 mnths); Zedekiah: (11 yrs). Total Years = 40 & 6 Months”……

Section III: Arrangement of Prophecies: “The slightest glance at the economy of the book must convince the reader, that it could not have come from the prophet in the condition in which we now find it. Even supposing that he did not pay any particular attention to chronological arrangement, but that his object was simply to furnish a collection of his different prophecies, and some of the principal historical events both of a public character and relating to his own personal circumstances, yet we can scarcely conceive it possible, that there could originally have been such instances of the (husteron proteron, hysteron proteron, [“later earlier”, i.e. the most important messages placed first though given later]) as we now meet with in his composition. According to the history of the Jewish monarchs, furnished by the Books of Kings and Chronicles, the following is the order of time in which the five last kings reigned: Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jechoniah, and Zedekiah. Under all these monarchs Jeremiah flourished; but, as the second and fourth reigned only three months each, no date is taken from the period of their occupancy of the throne. The only reigns which are thus recognised are those of Josiah, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah. Instead, however, of the prophetic discourses being arranged in this order, we find, contrary to expectation, those which were delivered in the reign of Josiah, and which are contained collectively in chapters 1-20, immediately followed by a portion belonging to the time of Zedekiah, chap. 21. Again, instead of continuing what relates to Jehoiakim, and his brothers Jehoahaz and Jechoniah, in chap. 22 & 23, by inserting the section contained in 25, which is specially referred to the fourth (4th) of Jehoiakim, we find in chap. 24:8-10, a prediction belonging to the time of Zedekiah. We have likewise chaps. 27-29, 33 & 34 referred to the reign of Zedekiah, whereas chaps. 35 & 36 relate to transactions which occurred in that of Jehoiakim. There is also the introduction of a passage, chap. 45, dated from the fourth (4th) of Jehoiakim, after the predictions relating to the Jews who had fled to Egypt subsequent to the destruction of Jerusalem. With these exceptions, however, there is a general consecutiveness in the arrangement of the contents of the book. The main part, consisting of chaps. 1-45, is occupied with home affairs, –that portion which takes a brief glance at the fate of foreign nations, chap. 25:12-28, being introduced merely in consequence of what had just been mentioned respecting their treatment of the Jews. The remaining part, chaps. 46-51, is occupied with special predictions relative to the punishment of those foreign nations which had been hostile to the Jewish state, especially Babylon, the most formidable and destructive of all. Chap. 52 was written as an appendix by a later hand, to complete what had been narrated respecting the fate of the city, and of the Jewish exiles.

Section IV: Greek LXX Version: “…..The different arrangement in the order of the chapters, as exhibited in the Hebrew Bible and the copies of the LXX, will be seen on comparing the following columns, which begin where the discrepancy first takes place: Table: Hebrew Massoretic Text & Greek LXX Text:
Hebrew: Chapters: Order: 25:15-38; 26; 27:1-18, 19-22; 28-32; 33:1-14, 14-25; 34-38; 39:1-3, 15-18, 4-14; 40-47; 48:1-45, 46-&c; 49:1-5, 7-22, 23-27, 28-34, 35-39; 50-51.
LXX: Chapters: Order: 32-34; [27:19-22]; 35-40; [33:14-25]; 41-46: [39:4-14]; 47-50; 51:1-31, 31-35; 26; 29:1-7; 31; [48:46-&c.]; 30:1-5; 29:7-22; 30:11-16, 5-11; 25:15-21; 27-28.
On comparing the above Table it will be seen, that not only is there a transposition of the chapters, especially as it respects the prophecies against the foreign nations –these having been removed by the LXX from their position at the end of the book, and placed after chap. 25:13,– but that there is likewise a change in the order in which these prophecies are arranged. This the following Table will show:
Hebrew Text: Egypt. Philistines. Moab. Ammon. Edom. Damascus. Kedar. Elam. Babylon.
LXX Text: Elam. Egypt. Babylon. Philistines. Edom. Ammon. Kedar. Damascus. Moab.” }}

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Book Prophet Jeremiah, Theologically & Homilectically Expounded, by Dr., C. W. Eduard Naegelsbach, Pastor in Bayreuth, Bavaria. Translated, Enlarged, & Edited by Samuel R. Asbury. (1870). Jeremiah’s Lamentations by Naegelsbach Translated, Enlarged, & Edited by Wm. H. Hornblower, D.D.(1870). vol. 12. Com. Holy Script. CDH, etc. J.P. Lange & P. Schaff. CHS. (1870. 1878). gs.

{{ Preface by General Editor (Lange’s-Schaff’s Commentary): “Jeremiah was the most prominent personage in a period of deepest distress and humiliation of the Jewish theocracy. He witnessed one by one the departure of all prospects of a reformation and deliverance from impending national ruin. Profoundly sympathizing with the calamities of his people and country, he is emphatically the prophet of sorrow and affliction. The first quotation from him in the New Testament is “a voice of lamentation and weeping and great mourning” (Mat. 2:17,18). In his holy grief over Jerusalem and his bitter persecutions he resembles the life of Christ. Should he, instead of David, be the author of the 22nd Psalm, as ‘Hitzig’ plausibly conjectures, the resemblance would even be more striking; but the superscription is against it. Standing alone in a hostile world, fearless and immovable, he delivered for forty years his mournful warnings and searching rebukes, dashed the false hopes of his deluded people to the ground, counselled submission instead of resistance, denounced the unfaithful priests and false prophets, and thus brought upon himself the charge of treachery and desertion; yet in the midst of gloom and darkness be held fast to trust in Jehovah, and in the stormy sunset of prophecy he beheld the dawn of a brighter day of a new covenant of the gospel written on the heart (31:31). He is therefore the prophet of the dispensation of the Spirit (Heb. 8:13; 10:16,17). The character and temper of Jeremiah is reflected in his strongly subjective, tender, affecting, elegiac style, which combines the truth of history with the deepest pathos of poetry. It is the language of holy grief and sorrow. Even his prose is “more poetical than poetry, because of its own exceeding tragical simplicity.” Jeremiah has proved a sympathizing companion and comforter in seasons of individual suffering and national calamity from the first destruction of Jerusalem down to the siege of Paris in our own day.”……
Section 1. Historical Background: Jeremiah’s Prophet Labors: …..”If now we survey at a glance the whole character of the historical position in which Jeremiah was placed, we see in him the herald of the first precursory catastrophe of the external theocracy. At the same time he had also a mission to Babylon, the power which was appointed, after Egypt and Assyria, to engulf the theocracy, and thus in a certain sense to be the first universal monarchy. He was first to prepare the way for the divine mission of this power as the instrument of judgment on the theocracy, and then to announce its appointed judgment, after a brief respite of seventy years, and the redemption of the theocracy. This he could do only in the form of that perspective fore-shortening, which is peculiar to prophetic pictures of the future, and which has to be rectified by the fulfilment. Thus we may say that Jeremiah stands at that epoch in universal history, at which the first precursory judgment is inflicted by worldly power on the kingdom of God, and here he has to announce to both judgment and redemption; to the kingdom of God first judgment and afterwards redemption, to the world first victory and glory, but afterwards judgment (chaps. 50, 51).”…..
Section 3. Literary Character: …..”The transitions are frequently abrupt, but there is still a logical progression, and the repetitions are a necessary feature of the tableauesque style. There is, however, another kind of repetition very frequent in Jeremiah: –he not only quotes himself very often (there is a table of these self-quotations in my work, S. 128, ‘etc’.), but he likes also to introduce the sayings of others. Jeremiah is especially at home in the Pentateuch, [& Job,] and most of all in Deuteronomy. It is on account of this reproduction of the thoughts of others that he has been reproached with a want of originality. But this is as true as that he was deficient in poetry. In power he is certainly not equal to Isaiah. But he is not wanting in originality, for who could say that he has himself produced nothing or only an insignificant amount? To lose himself in his predecessors is necessary even for the most original author. As to a deficiency in poetry I point to ‘Umbreit’, who says: “The most spiritual and therefore the greatest poet of the desert and of suffering is certainly Jeremiah. But we have maintained yet more than this, having boldly asserted that of all the prophets his genius is the most poetical.” I fully subscribe to this judgment. For assuredly universal sympathy and deep and pure emotion are the qualities of a poet, and we undoubtedly find these elements of poetic inspiration, in the highest degree, in the finely-strung nature of Jeremiah. The circumstances of his life caused his emo¬tions to be predominantly sad, hence in the whole range of human composition there is scarcely a poetical expression of sorrow so thrilling as that of this prophet (viii. 23, ‘Eng. Bib’. ix. 1): “O that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people.” ‘Umbreit’ remarks that these words form the portrait of the prophet, and ‘Bendemann’, in painting his celebrated picture, seems really to have had this passage especially in view.”…..
Section 4. Book of Prophet: …..”Thus it is evident, as it seems to me, that the present form and arrangement are not those of Jeremiah, for he would certainly have given the whole a title corresponding to its contents. Some other circumstances, to be mentioned hereafter, also favor this view.
2. As to the arrangement or plan of the book, as we have it, it has been accused of endless confusion, (*Even ‘Luther’ (‘Preface’ to the prophet Jeremiah) says: “We often find some of the first part in the followlng chapter, which happened before that in the previous chapter, which looks as though Jeremiah did not arrange these books himself, but that they were composed piecemeal from his discourses , and compiled in a book. We must not trouble ourselves about the order, or allow the want or order to hinder us.”) and the most various theories have been broached to account for this confusion. Compare, to name only the most eminent, (‘Eichhorn, Bertholdt, Movers, Hitzig, Ewald, Umbreit, Haevernick, Keil, Schmeider, Staehelin, & Neumann’). In my opinion, the case is not so bad as represented, but a reasonable arrangement will at once present itself, if we only take the following points into consideration. I. In general, the principle of chronological order is followed, but admitting, in some cases, a certain order of subjects, which is sometimes suggested by external occasions (comp. ch. 21:1-7). 2. With respect to the chronological order in particular, we have a safe guide in the fact that before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, viz., before the battle of Carchemish and Nebuchadnezzar’s accession to the throne, Jeremiah never mentions the latter or the Chaldeans, while after this time he presents them constantly in all his discourses as appointed by God to be the instrument of His judgments on Israel and the nations. Until shortly before the battle of Carchemish, Assyria was at war with the Medes and Babylonians, and it was undecided which of the three would obtain the supremacy. After the fall of Nineveh and the defeat of Pharaoh Necho, the star of Nebuchadnezzar rose above the horizon like an all-prevailing sun. Jeremiah now knew definitely that the people coming from the North (1:13, ‘etc’.) were the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar, and he could no longer speak to the people without counselling submission as the only means of safety. I think, then, that I may lay down this canon distinctly, that all parts of the book in which the threatening enemies are spoken of generally, without mention of Nebuchadnezzar or the Chaldeans, belong to the period before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, viz., before the time represented in ch. 25 as that of Jeremiah’s first acquaintance with them; while all the portions in which Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldeans are named belong to the subsequent period; so that a passage which mentions the Chaldeans and is yet dated in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim (ch. 27), may be safely regarded as bearing a false superscription, as likewise one that is dated in the reign of Zedekiah, and does not mention the Chaldeans (49:34 sqq.). In the first place, it is quite clear that our Hebrew recension, omitting chapters 1 and 52 as introduction and conclusion, falls into two principal divisions: I. The portions relating to the theocracy (ch. 2-45). 2. The prophecies against the nations (ch. 46-51). Chapter 14, the promise given to the writer of the book, the faithful Baruch, is to be regarded (as it is by ‘Keil’) as an appendix to the first division. To attach this chapter to the second division, as ‘Haevernick’ does, is entirely unsuitable. The first division may evidently be divided again into two subdivisions, the collection of discourses, with appendices, ch. 2-35, and the historical portions, ch. 36-44. In speaking of a collection of discourses, it should be remarked that, according to the intention of the arranger of the book, we must not always understand by a discourse one which forms a rhetorical unit, but also a complexus of rhetorical and historical passages, if in its fundamental thought, its form or its chronology, it presents a connected whole. In this sense our collection contains eleven (11) (or ten (10)) discourses, the beginning of each of which is designated by a superscription (comp. 3:6; 7:1; 11:1, ‘etc’.). The first two pertain to the reign of Josiah (ch. 2 & 3-6:3). It is natural that in the earliest period the proportionally smallest amount of matter should be committed to writing, so that in the passages mentioned, especially in ch. 2, only the quintessence of the discourses of the earliest period is given. The discourse pertains to the reign of Jehoiakim (ch. 7-10). These two, ch. 3-6 & ch. 7-10, are distinguished from the rest by their length, and may therefore, with ch. 25, which is inferior in length, but far superior in importance, be designated as the principal discourses. Ch. 11-13, which also pertain to the reign of Jehoiakim, have a common title, but only ch. 11 & 12 form a rhetorical whole. For ch. 13 (4th) is entirely independent, though of the same date with the preceding, and on account of its brevity, added as an appendix. The fifth (5th) discourse, though somewhat inferior to the second and third, is still one of the most important. It belongs to the period before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim. The passage 17:19-27 is related to the fifth discourse as ch. 13 to the fourth (4th). I regret that by an oversight I have not designated them in the same way in the text. The seventh (7th) discourse is an account of two symbolical occurrences, to which is appended that of a personal experience and the outburst of feeling thus occasioned. Although these occurrences belong to different periods, before and after the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, they are brought together because both symbols are derived from pottery and on account of the unity of the subjects. All is here brought into connection which the prophet spoke at different times against the false shepherds of the people (kings and prophets). The opening passage (21:1-7) though in general, as ‘oratio contra regem’, not altogether unsuitable for this place, is doubtless placed here chiefly on account of the name Pashur, which it has in common with the preceding. The transitional words (21:11-14) seem also to be a fragment which is subjoined here not altogether appropriately. But in what follows we have a well-ordered series of denunciations against the evil kings of Judah. The first, in which no name is mentioned, seems to stand first as a colleotive admonition, though the king addressed in ver. 2 can be no other than Jeboiakim (22:1-9). The second is a prophecy relating to the person of Jehoahaz. It is of earlier date than that which precedes it, and is evidently an interpolation (22:10-12). The third is directed against Jeboiakim by name (22:13-23). The fourth relates to Jeboiachin (22:24-30). As a foil to these dark pictures of the kings of the present, the prophet, by an antithes reminding us of ch. 3, gives us a bright picture of the King of the Messianic future (23:1-8). The second part of the main discourse (23:9-40) is an earnest rebuke of the false prophets. The conclusion is formed by ch. 24, a vision which the prophet had in the reign of Zedekiah, and which is added here evidently in order that the fourth bad king Jeremiah had lived to see might not fail to receive his appropriate denunciation. The ninth discourse is that highly important one which Jeremiah pronounced in the fourth year of Jeboiakim after the great catastrophe which made an epoch in the prophet’s ministry, the battle of Carchemish and the succession of Nebuchadnezzar. To this are attached a series of three historical appendices, of which the first falls before the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, the second in the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah, the third somewhat earlier than the preceding. All three appendices, however, relate to the conflict of the ‘true’ prophet (it should be noted, however, that Jeremiah is called (hanNabia’) for the first time in 25:2) with the false prophets. Here also is a pre-arranged antithesis. Ch. 26 standing before ch.27 & 28 has a clear chronological basis, while ch. 29, which in time is somewhat earlier than ch. 27 & 28 coming after them, has a topical basis, since thus the prophet’s conflict with the false prophets at home is first shown, and then his conflict with those at a distance. The tenth passage occupies an independent (sepher), ‘viz.’ the book of consolation, which consists of two discourses, with a double appendix. Ch. 30 & 31, originally written specially, and not as a part of the first writing, ch. 36:2-10, form a rhetorical unit, certainly contemporary with ch. 3-6, and therefore pertaining to the reign of Josiah. The second consolatory discourse consists of two separate passages, which, however, are most closely connected. The first relates to the purchase of a field which, at the command of the Lord, Jeremiah made while confined in the court of the prison, at the time of his greatest affliction. The second is connected with the demolition of many houses in Jerusalem for defensive purposes. On this double, gloomy background the prophet presents the most glorious Messianic salvation. It is not, as I have already said, a connected discourse; in ch. 32 we have first the account of the purchase of land, then the prayer expressing the prophet’s astonishment, then the Lord’s consolatory promises. Ch. 33 is, however, from beginning to end, a connected prophetic discourse.
This book of consolation is followed in chaps. 34 & 35 by a double appendix, the second half of which (34:8-35:19) itself consists of two independent parts. The short passage 34:1-7 is only a more exact account of the occurrence narrated in 32:1-5, in consequence of which Jeremiah was confined in the court of the prison, and therefore refers only to the contents of chaps. 32 & 33. The two facts however which are related in 34:8-22, & 35:1-19, are to be regarded as an appendix to the whole collection. For they show by a striking example, the accomplished but immediately revoked emancipation of the Hebrew slaves, how entirely indisposed the people of Israel were to obey the commands of their God, while a contrast to this shameful disobedience is given in the example of affecting obedience forded by the Rechabites to the commend of their earthly progenitor. We thus see that the arrangement is by no means without plan, and may in general have been made by the prophet himself. Only the mere juxtaposition of 21:1-7 for the sake of the name Pashur, and the inser¬tion of the heterogeneous passage 21:11-14 in this place, seem to betray a different hand. With chap 36 begins the second subdivision of the first main division. Historical passages follow each other in chronological order, which have for their subject partly personal experiences of the prophet, and partly the history of the fatal catastrophe of the theocracy in general. There is no difficulty here. Chap. 14, as already remarked, is an appendix to the first main division. The second part contains the prophecies against foreign nations in an order to which there is nothing to object (46-51). Chap. 52 finally forms the conclusion, which is not from the prophet himself.” }}

{ The following Table may serve to facilitate a review: (Chapters & Verses):
I: Introduction: (1). Items: 2.
II. 1st Division: (2-44): Passages Relating to Theocracy & Appendix Chap. 45.

A. 1st SubDivision: Collection of Discourses, chaps. 2-33. & Appendices, Chaps, 34 & 35.
1. 1st Discourse, (2). Items: 5.
2. 2nd Discourse, (3-6). 1st Division (3-4): Items: 4. 2nd Division (5-6): I: Items: 4. II: Items: 6.
3. 3rd Discourse, (7-10). I: 1st Charge: (7-8:8). Items: 6. II: 2nd Charge: (8:4-28). Items: 3. III: 3rd Charge (9:1-21): Items: 3. IV: Conclusion: (9:22-25; 10:17-25). Items: 3. 4. 4th Discourse, (11-12 & Appendix, 13). Items: 7. Chapter 13: Items:
5. 5th Discourse, (14-17:18). 1st Main Division (14:1-15:9). Items: 5. 2nd Main Divison (15:10-16:9). Items: 3. 3rd Main Division (16:10-17:4). Items: Conclusion (17:5-18). Items: 2.
6. 6th Discourse, (17:19-27).
7. 7th Discourse, (18-20). Symbols: Pottery: 1st Symbol: Clay & Potter (18). Items: 3. 2nd Symbol: Broken Vessel (19-20). Items: 3.
8. 8th Discourse, (21-24). Against Wicked Shepherds. I: Preface (21). Items: 2. II: Main Discourse (22-23): Against Wicked Kings & Prophets. Items: 2. III: Appendix (24): Postscript to 22:18-30: 4th King.
9. 9th Discourse, (25 & 3 Appendices, 26-29). A. Central Prophecy (25): Items 3. B. 3 Historical Apendices (26-29): Items: 2.
10. Book of Consolation:
(A). 10th Discourse, (30 & 31). I: Theme (30:1-8) . II: Delverance of Entire Israel (30:4-22). III: Special Distribution of Salvation to 2 Halves of Nation (31:1-26). (a) Ephraim’s Share (31:1-22). Items: 3. (b) Share of Judah (31:23-26). IV: Entire Renovation (31:27-30, 31-40). Items: 2.
(B). 11th Discourse, (32 & 33. & Appendix, 34:1-7). I: Chapters 32. Items: 3. II: Chapters 33. Items: 6.
11. 11th Discourse (32-33). Historical Appendix to 32:1-5 (34:1-7): Collection: Disobedience of Israel Offset by Obedience of Rechabites, (34:8-35:19).
A. Disobedience of Israelites: Servants Freed & Rebound (34:8-22).
B. Counterpart to Disobedience of Israelites: Obedience of Rechabites (35). Items: 2.

B. 2nd SubDivision: Historical Presentation of Most Important Events from 4th Year of Jehoiakim to Close of Prophet’s Ministry, (36-44). (B.C. 605-570): Chapters 36-45.
(A) Events Before Fall & Capture of Jerusalem, (36-38).
I: Writing Out Prophecies: 4th Year of Jehoiakim (36). Items: 4.
II: Events in 10th & 11th Years of Zedekiah (37-38).
(B) Events After Fall & Capture of Jerusalem, (39-44). Items: 10.
I: Appendix to First Division, (45). Promise made to Baruch.
II. 2nd Divison: (46-51): Prophecies Against Foreign Nations: Against:
1. Egypt I, (46:2-12).
2. Egypt II, (46:13-26, & Appendix, 46:27-28).
3. Philistines, (47).
4. Moab, (48).
5. Ammon, (49:1-6).
6. Edom, (49:7-22).
7. Damascus, (49:23-27).
8. Arabians, (49:28-33).
9. Elam, (49:34-39).
10. Babylon, (50 & 51). Items: 20.

IV. Conclusion: (52). Historical Appendix: Brief Survey: Events from Beginning of Zedekiah’s Reign to Jehoiachim’s Death. Items: 5. }

{{ Lamentations: Introduction: Sect. 1: Name, Place in Canon, Liturgical Use: “In Hebrew MSS. and editions this book is called (’ekah) i.e., ‘How!’ from the first word in it (as Proverbs and the Books of the Pentateuch are designated by their initial words), which word also begins chs. 2 & 4, and thus appears to be a characteristic of the Book. The Rabbins called it (qinoth), i.e., ‘neniae’, dirges, ‘elegiae’, elegies, lamentations. (Qinah) is found in the Old Testament….. The Septuagint always translates this word (thrënos, thrënoi) whence are derived the Latin names ‘Threni, Lamentationes, Lamenta’. [*Syriac, Arabic & later versions bear similar titles.]……Sect. 2: Contents & Structure: 1. The general subject of the Lamentations is the destruction of Judah and Jerusalem by the Chaldeans. That this book is a ‘prophecy’ of the destruction of Jerusalem, as Tremellius and otbers have asserted (see ‘Forster’, ‘Comm. in Thr.’, p. 5), is an utterly groundless opinion [?], which we mention only for curiosity’s sake. Similar Songs of lamentation, having for their subject the death of individual persons, or political catastrophes, occur in the Old Testament. See the citations in §1, 1. But no lamentation of equal length and so artistically constructed is now extant. The peculiar structure which is common to all these songs shows that they all have one general subject. In Song I, the poet himself is the first speaker, 1:1-11b, whilst he introduces to us Zion [Jerusalem] as an ideaI person. He pictures here the sad consequences of the destruction, whilst he indicates the causes of the same (1:8). In the second half of the chapter (1:11-22) the personified Jerusalem herself speaks, portraying her misfortunes under manifold images, explaining their causes and praying for help and vengeance. In Song II, in the first part of it, the poet himself speaks, (a) ascribing the destruction to the agency of the Lord (2:1-9), (b) depicting the consequences of the destruction (2:10-12), (c) addressing the opinion as to the causes of the catastrophe, and exhorting her to prayer (2:13-19). To this exhortation Zion, here represented by the wall of Jerusalem [Zion], responds in a prayer breathing the deepest and acutest sorrow (2:20-22). In Song III, which evidently forms the climax of the whole, the poet introduces as speaking ‘that man’, who in those troublous times had suffered more than all others, and consequently had attained, as it were, to the very summit of the common calamity, for he had suffered not only from the enemy what was common to all, but also from his own people and associates, a thing unheard of save in this particular instance. This sufferer was the Prophet Jeremiah. He does not name him, it is true, and it is evident that he has in his eye, not the person of the prophet merely, but rather the servant of the Lord as a representative of the (Israël pneumaticos) spiritual Israel, yet all the particular features of this Lamentation are borrowed from the history of that prophet (3:1-18). This section ends with a cry of despair (3:18). But immediately the poet lets a morning twilight, as it were, succeed this night of despair, (3:19, 21), which through the utterances of united believing Israel soon expands into daylight, beaming with the most radiant consolation (3:22-38). In what follows successively, the evening twilight gathers, and then the poem sweeps back into such a night of grief and mourning, that Israel begins to confess his sins (3:39-42), but then gives vent to lamentations on account of those sins (3:43-47), until finally, in the last and third part, Jeremiah again takes up the word in order to weep out his grief over Zion’s misery and sins, (those sins which were likewise the source of his own misfortunes), and to implore the Lord, in beseeching prayer, for protection and for righteous avengement upon his enemies (3:48-66). In Song IV, the poem loses more and more of its ideaI character. In the beginning indeed we find an ideal and well sustained description of Israel, as if it were the nobility of the nations, and then, further, of the princes of Israel, as the noblest among the noble , and then, appearing in sharper relief by standing out on such a background, a delineation of the sufferings endured by those nobles (4:1-11); but in the second half of the chapter the poem becomes more prosaic: the chief guilt is imputed to the prophets and the priests, whose well-deserved punishment is then portrayed in the gloomiest colors (4:12-16). Then follows a description, graphic in the highest degree in spite of its brevity, of the events occurring from the extinction of the last gleams of the rays of hope kindled by the Egyptians, till the imprisonment of the king (4:17-20). The conclusion is a short address to Edom, which is ironically congratulated at the downfall of Jerusalem, while, at the same time, the punishment of its malicious joy is foretold (4:21, 22). In Song V, the style is almost entirely prosaic. For, with the exception of 5:16a no poeti¬cal expression is found in the whole chapter, rather only a concrete graphic picture of the naked reality. The alphabetical acrostic is entirely wanting in this chapter. The whole chapter is intended as a prayer; for it begins and end with words of petition (5:1, 19-22). What lies between is only a narration of the principal afflictions, which had befallen those who had been carried to Babylon and those who had fled to exile in Egypt (5:2-18). The concluding prayer expresses the hope that the Lord, who cannot Himself change, nor altogether reject His people, will bring them back again to Himself and to their ancient splendor (5:19-22).
2. As regards its ‘external structure’, the composition of this book, both as a whole and in its several parts, is so artistic, that anything like it can hardly be found in any other book of Holy Scripture. First of all it is significant, that there are five Songs. For the uneven number has this advantage, that the middle part of the whole Poem is represented by a whole number, and does not fall between two numbers, as it would in case there were an even number of songs [i.e., the middle part of the whole poem is represented by one Song, and is not composed of parts of two songs]. By this means the prominence of the middle Song and, in connection with that, an ascent and a descent, a ‘crescendo’ and ‘decrescendo’ movement, with a clearly marked climax, is made possible. Thus it is manifest that the third chapter constitutes the climax. And this is truly and really so in two respects, both as to matter and form. As to the first, we have already shown that the first two chapters bear an ideal and highly poetical character. They constitute only the front-steps to the third chapter, which, externally, as the middle of the five songs and by its internal character, conducts us into the very middle of the night into which Israel sank, and then of the day which rose over Israel. For are not the frightful sorrows which the Prophet Jeremiah, the servant of God and representative of the spiritual Israel, had endured, and which rose at last to that terrible exclamation –’My strength and my hope is perished from Jehovah’ (3:18), the expressions of the highest outward and inward temptation which can befall a true servant of the Lord’? Here it should be observed that in 3:1-17, there is no reference to God except as the author of those sorrows which are represented, on that account, as Divine temptations; while the name of God is not even mentioned till at the end of 3:18, where, as the last word, with startling vehemence, the name “Jehovah” is pronounced. Here then we see the servant of the Lord, in the deepest night of his misery, on the brink of despair. But where exigency is greatest, help is nearest. The poet could lay up in his heart everything that be had against God, but he could not shut God Himself out of the heart. On the contrary it was proved, that after he had given the fullest expression to what he had in his heart against God, God Himself was deeply rooted therein. The night is succeeded by the dawn of morning, as represented in 3:19-21. With 3:22, breaks the full day. This ushers in with full effulgence the light of Heavenly consolation. Suffering now is seen to be the proof of God’s love. In this love, that suffering finds its explanation, its limit, and its remedy. As the pyramid of Mont Blanc, seen at sunset from Chamouny, its summit gleaming with supernal splendors, whilst below, the mountain has already disappeared wrapped in deepest darkness (See Gothe’s ‘Letters from Switzerland’, Nov. 4. 1779; Aug. 12, 1840), so, out of the profound night of despair and misery, this middle part of the third song and of the whole book towers upward, radiant with light. From this culmination point, the poet again sets out upon his downward track. Evening twilight follows the bright day (3:40-42) and passes into a night dark with misery (vers. 43-47), From the beginning of the section, so full of hope and enrouragement (3:22), the poet speaks in the plural number, as if he would make it most emphatically apparent, that this was common property. He continues to speak in the plural number till after the beginning of the third and last part of the Song, when the night has begun again. Then once more (3:48), the poet speaks in the singular number. But he no longer speaks of those highest temptation , which were the subject of 3:1-18, but of those inferior ones, which men inflict upon us. He treats of them also much more briefly; and from 3:55 to the end of the chapter, finds relief in a prayer for help and avengement. –It is evident that this chapter consists of three parts. The first part includes 3:1-21; the second, 3:22-42; the third, 3:43-66. The second part represents the culmination point of the whole book. It constitutes the point of separation between the ‘crescendo’ and ‘decrescendo’ movement. The latter continues in chapter fourth, in which the ideal and poetical sensibly subside, until at last in chapter fifth the style changes into plain prose. –With this artistic arrangement of the matter, the external form or structure corresponds. Every one of the five Songs has 22 verses, according to the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, only in the third Song every verse is divided into three members, hence it has 66 (masoretic) verses. The first four Songs are acrostics. In the first two Songs the verses consist of three distiches. It has been usual to recognize four distiches in 1:7 & 2:9, but improperly: for there is no fixed measure for the length of each member of the distich; and there are, therefore, in the places referred to, only three distiches, some lines of which are composed of a greater number of syllables than the others have. The third chapter shows by its external dress that it is the middle and climax of the whole. The three distiches of each verse (corresponding to three Masoretic verses successively) begin with the same alphabetical letter. The middle part, namely 3:19-42, is still further distinguished, as the dome crowning the whole building, as follows: (1). Every verse-triad constitutes a finished whole with respect to sense [is one complete sentence]. (2). In 3:25-39, each distich begins with the same word, or with a similar word (see Intr. to chap. 3). (3). While in 3:1-18, the name of God is mentioned only once, and then with peculiar emphasis at the end of 3:18, in 3:19-42 we read the names of God repeatedly, and so arranged that in 3:22, 24,25,26 we have (Yehowah), in 3:31, 36,37 (’Adonai) alternating with (‘Elyon) in 3:35, 38, in 3:40 again (Yehowah) and at last in 3:41 (’El baShamaim). Observe here, particularly, that (‘Elyon) occurs in the Lamentations only in the two places named above, and (’Adonai) occurs only once, in the beginning of the ‘decrescendo’ movement, 3:58, whilst in chapter first it is used three times, 1:14, 15 (twice), and in chapter second seven times, 2:1,2, 5, 7, 18,19,20. Chapter fourth is indeed an acrostic, but the decline of the poetical afflatus is indicated externally by the verses being composed of only two distiches. The solemn names of God (’Adonai) and (’Elyon) occur no more, on the other hand (Yehowah) occurs three times, 4:11, 16, 20. The fifth chapter indicates its relation to the four preceding ones only by the number of verses (22). The acrostic dress entirely disappears. The style has become prose. Yet the name of God (Yehowah) is found three times in the words of prayer, 5:1, 19, 21.
We have here only one other matter to remark upon, the question why in chapters 2, 3 & 4 (P, Peh, 17th letter) is placed before (‘, ‘Ayin, 16th let.). This is usually explained as a copyist’s mistake. In fact some Codd. in ‘Kenicott’ and ‘De Rossi’ have these verses in their usual places. The Peschito also gives these verses in their proper alphabetical order. The Septuagint places the letters in their proper order in the margin, but leaves the verses themselves to follow each other in the order of the original. But this supposition of an error of transcriber is refuted, (1) by the fact that it is repeated three times, (2) by the impossibility of supposing that in chap. 3 three verses could have been transposed by mistake, (3) by the interruption of the sense which would result in chapters 3 & 4 [if the present order were changed]. If some Codd. and Versions have the letters in their right order, this is evidence of revision and correction. Others (as ‘Riegler’) explain this irregularity as merely arbitrary, others again (‘Berthholdt’) as the result of forgetfulness on the part of the author. ‘Grotius’ holds the singular opinion that the order in chapters 2, 3, 4 may be that of the Chaldaic alphabet, and therefore that Jeremiah in chap. 1 “speaks as a Hebrew, in the following chapters as a subject of the Chaldeans.” ‘Thenius’ would explain the alphabetical difference by a diversity of authors, but the unity of the plan, already proved above, and the unity of the language used, which will be proved in § 3 (to which also belongs the threefold (’Ekah, [How]) at the beginning of chaps. 2, 3, 4) contradict this most decidedly. ‘Ewald’ is (even still in his Second Edition, p. 326) of the opinion that the (‘Ayin) in chapter 1 “might have been transferred to its own place by later hands.” But this would be a manifest interruption of the connection: for 1:16 is directly connected in the closest manner with 1:15 by (‘al ken) ‘therefore’, [‘al-’elleh,’for these things’?], whilst 1:18 [17 ?] begins a new thought. The liberty which the older poets especially allowed themselves in pursuing the alphabetical order (see Ps. 9, 10, 25, 37, 145, and ‘Keil’ in ‘Haevernick’s’ ‘Introduction to Old Testament’, III., p. 50) are manifold [See ‘Barnes’ ‘Introduction to Job’, pp. 44, 45]. Whether they were influenced in this by a then prevailing diversity of method in respect to the succession of the letters, is not yet by any means sufficiently ascertained, but is nevertheless the most likely explanation of that liberty. See ‘Delitzsch’ on Ps. 145, p. 769.” }}

{ Jeremiah’s Lamentations: outline & Analysis: Chapters: Songs:
I: Lamentation of Zion’s Daughters: Ruin of Jerusalem & Judah: (Destruction of City, Nation & Temple):
1: (1:1-11, Aleph-Kaph): Description: City’s Wretched Condition. Poet Speaks as City (Zion, Jerusalem).
2: (12-22, Lamed-Tau): Lamentation over Condition. Zion’s Sorrows, Cries, Sins, Judgment, Calamity, etc.
II: Lamentation of Zion’s Destruction: Jehovah’s Destruction on Zion. Extent. Land, People, Temple, etc.
1: (2:1-10, Aleph-Yod): Lord’s Judgment Inflicted. All Israel & Judah. Enemy. Kings, Princes, Prophets, etc.
2: (2:11-22, Kaph-Tau): Zion Lament’s Calamity. Jeremiah’s & Israel’s Sufferings & Sorrows. Divine Doom.
III: Middle Song: Poem’s Climax: Israel’s Brighter Day of Consolation Contrasted with Gloomy Night of Sorrow Experienced by God’s Servant Jeremiah.
1: (3:1-18, Alephs-Waus (3×6=18)): Poet’s Sufferings, Sorrows, Complaints, Wounds, Assaults, Insults, etc.
2: (3:19-42, Zains-Nuns (3×8=24)): Poet’s Transition, Comfort, Prayers, Hope, Faith, Love, etc.
3: (3:43-66, Ayin-Tau (3×5=15; Peh omitted)): Poets as Israel: God’s Wrath, Calamity, Prayer, Hope, etc.
IV: Zion’s Guilt & Punishment: Described by Eye-Witness: Sufferings: All Peoples, Grades, Ranks, etc.
1: (4:1-6, Aleph-Wau): Elegy: City of Jerusalem, Zion & Temple, Prophets & Israel, & All Peoples, etc.
2: (4:7-11, Zain-Kaph): Princes of Judah, Rape of Zion, National Devastation, Divine Punishment, etc.
3: (4:12-16, Lamed-Peh): Causes of Catastrophe, Sins of Peoples, Prophets, Priests, Princes, etc.
4: (4:17-22, Ayin-Tau): Final National Catastrophe & Egypt & Chaldea & Edom, etc.
V: Distress & Hope of Prisoners & Fugitives: (Expressed in Prayer & Pitiful Complaint to God, etc.: Non-Alphabetical (5:1-22): Post-Captivity Condition of Jerusalem: Poet as Zion, Lord Entreated, Sorrows & Tragedy, Total Devastation, Anquish, Starvation, Poverty, Slavery, Genocide, Mourning, Prayers, Exile, etc. }

(4)
Biblical Commentary on Old Testament, Edited by C. F. Keil, D.D. & F. Delitzsch, D.D., Professors of Theology. Prophetical Books. Greater Prophets. Jeremiah, Prophcies & Lamentations. v1-2. v1, Keil. Translated from German by David Patrick, (1889). v2, Keil. Translated by James Kennedy, (1874). CFTL. TTC. (1889). as.

Book of Jeremiah’s Prophecies: Outline & Analysis & Exposition: (Chapters & Verses):
(1): Heading: Call & Consecration of Jeremiah to be Prophet.
I. General Admonitions & Reproofs: Time of Josiah. (2-22)
(2:1-3:5): Lord’s Love & Faithfulness & Israel’s Disloyalty & Idolatry.
(3:6-6:30): Rejection of Impenitent Israel.
(7-10): Vanity of Trust in Temple & Sacrificial Service, & Way to Safety & Life.
(11-13): Judah’s Faithlessness to Covenant Obligations, & its Consequences.
(14-17): Word concerning Droughts.
(18-20): Figures of Potter’s Clay & of Earthen Pitcher.

II. Special Predictions of Judgment: Accomplished by Chaldeans, & of Messianic Salvation. (21-33)
A. Predictions of Judgment on Judah & Nations. (21-29)
(21-24): Shepherds & Leaders of People.
(25): Judgment on Judah & All Nations.
(26): Accusation & Acquittal of Jeremiah: his Prophesying Threatenings. Prophet Urijah Put to Death.
(27-29): Babylon’s Yoke upon Judah & Neighbouring Peoples.
B. Announcement of Deliverance for All Israel. (30-33)
(30-31): Israel’s Deliverance & Glorious Future Condition.
(32): Purchase of Field as Symbol: Restoration of Judah After Exile.
(33): Renewed Promise of Restoration & Glorious Condition of People of God.

III. Prophet’s Labour & Suffering Before & After Jerusalem’s Conquest & Destruction. (24-45)
A. Prophecies Delivered under Zedekiah, & Events of Jehoiakim’s Time. (34-36)
(34): Concerning Zedekiah & Emancipation of Men- & Maid-servants.
(35): Example of Rechabites.
(36): Jeremiah’s Discourses are Written Down, & Read in Temple.
B. Jeremiah’s Experiences & Utterances During Siege & Capture of Jerusalem. (37-39)
(37): Declaration Regarding Issue of Siege; Imprisonment of Jeremiah & Conversation with King.
(38): Jeremiah in Miry Pit. Last Interview with King.
(39): Capture of Jerusalem; Fate of Zedekiah & Jeremiah. Consolatory Message to Ebedmelech.
C. Jeremiah’s Predictions & Experiences after Destruction of Jerusalem. (40-45)
(40-41): Liberation of Jeremiah. Murder of Gedaliah by Ishmael, & its Results.
(42): Word of God concerning Flight to Egypt.
(43): Flight to Egypt: Conquest of Egypt predicted.
(44): Warning Against Idolatry, & Intimation of its Punishment.
(45): Promise Addressed to Baruch.

IV. Prophecies Directed Against Foreign Nations. (46-51)
(46): On Egypt.
(47): Concerning Philistines.
(48): Concerning Moab.
(49): Concerning Ammon, Edom, Damascus, Kedar, Hazor, Elam.
(50-51): Against Babylon.

V. Appendix:
(52): Historical Account of Capture & Destruction of Jerusalem, Fate of Zedekiah & People, & Liberation of Jehoiachin from Imprisonment.

Lamentations of Jeremiah: (Chapters): Exposition:

(1): Sorrow & Wailing Over Fall of Jerusalem & Judah.
(2): Lamentation Over Judgment of Destruction that has come on Zion & Desolation of Judah.
(3): Suffering & Consolation of Gospel.
(4): Submission under Judgment of God, & Hope.
(5): Prayer to Lord by Church, Languishing in Misery; for Restoration of her former State of Grace.

{{ Prophecies of Jeremiah: Introduction:
Section 1: Jeremiah’s Times: “It was in the thirteenth (13th) year of the reign of Josiah, B.C. 629, that Jeremiah was called to be a prophet. At that time the kingdom of Judah enjoyed unbroken peace. Since the miraculous destruction of Sennacherib’s host before the gates of Jerusalem in the fourteenth (14th) year of Hezekiah’s reign, B.C. 714, Judah had no longer had much to fear from the imperial power of Assyria. The reverse then sustained before Jerusalem, just eight (8) years after the overthrow of the kingdom of Israel, had terribly crushed the might of the great empire. It was but a few years after that disaster till the Medes under Deioces asserted their independence against Assyria; and the Babylonians too, though soon reduced to subjection again, rose in insurrection against Sennacherib. Sennacherib’s energetic son and successor Esarhaddon did indeed succeed in re-establishing for a time the tottering throne. While holding Babylon, Elam, Susa, and Persia to their allegiance, he restored the ascendency of the empire in the western provinces, and brought Lower Syria, the districts of Syria that lay on the sea coast, under the Assyrian yoke. But the rulers who succeeded him, Samuges and the second Sardanapalus (II), were wholly unable to offer any effective resistance to the growing power of the Medes, or to check the steady decline of the once so mighty empire….Under Esarhaddon an Assyrian marauding army again made an inroad into Judah, and carried King Manasseh captive to Babylon; but, under what circumstances we know not, he soon regained his freedom, and was permitted to return to Jerusalem and remount his throne (2nd Chron. 33:11-13). From this time forward the Assyrians appeared no more in Judah. Nor did it seem as if Judah had any danger to apprehend from Egypt, the great southern empire; for the power of Egypt had been greatly weakened by intestine dissensions and civil wars. It is true that Psammetichus, after the overthrow of the dodecarchy, began to raise Egypt’s head amongst the nations once more, and to extend his sway beyond the boundaries of the country; but we learn much as to his success in this direction from the statement of Herodotus (ii. 157), that the capture of the Philistine city of Ashdod was not accomplished until after a twenty-nine (29) years’ siege. Even if, with Duncker, we refer the length of time here mentioned to the total duration of the war against the Philistines, we are yet enabled clearly to see that Egypt had not then so far recovered her former might as to be able to menace the kingdom of Judah with destruction, had Judah but faithfully adhered to the Lord its God, and in Him sought its strength. This, unhappily, Judah utterly failed to do, notwithstanding all the zeal wherewith the godly King Josiah laboured to secure for his kingdom that foremost element of its strength. In the eighth (8th) year of his reign, “while he was yet young,” ‘i.e’. when but a lad of sixteen (16, his 8th yr) years of age, he began to seek the God of David his father; and in the twelfth (12th, age 20) year of his reign he began to purge Judah and Jerusalem of the high places and Astartes, and the carved and molten images (2nd Chron. 34:3). He carried on the work of reforming the public worship without intermission, until every public trace of idolatry was removed, and the lawful worship of Jahveh was re-established. In the eighteenth (18th, age 28) year of his reign, upon occasion of some repairs in the temple, the book of the law of Moses [Deuteronomy] was discovered there, was brought and read before him. Deeply agitated by the curses with which the transgressors of the law were threatened, he then, together with the elders of Judah and the people itself, solemnly renewed the covenant with the Lord. To set a seal upon the renewal of the covenant, he instituted a passover, to which not only all Judah was invited but also all remnants of the ten tribes that had been left behind in the land of Israel (2nd Kings 22:3-23:24 ; 2nd Chron. 34:4-35:19). To Josiah there is given in 2nd Kings 23:25 the testimony that like unto him there was no king before him, that turned to Jahveh with all his heart, all his soul, and all his might, according to all the law of Moses; yet this most godly of all the kings of Judah was unable to heal the mischiefs which his predecessors Manasseh and Amon had by their wicked government created, or to crush the germs of spiritual and moral corruption which could not fail to bring about the ruin of the kingdom. And so the account of Josiah’s reign and of his efforts towards the revival of the worship of Jahveh, given in 2nd Kings 23:26, is concluded: “Yet Jahveh ceased not from His great wrath wherewith He was kindled against Judah, because of all the provocations wherewith Manasseh provoked Him; and Jahveh said: Judah also will I put away from My face as I have put away Israel, and will cast off this city which I have chosen, Jerusalem, and the house of which I said, My name shall dwell there.” The kingdom of Israel had come to utter ruin in consequence of its apostasy from the Lord its God, and on account of the calf-worship which had been established by Jeroboam, the founder of the kingdom, and to which, from political motives, all his successors adhered. The history of Judah too is summed up in a perpetual alternation of apostasy from the Lord and return to Him. As early as the time of heathen-hearted Ahaz idolatry had raised itself to all but unbounded ascendency; and through the untheocratic policy of this wicked king, Judah had sunk into a dependency of Assyria. It would have shared the fate of the sister kingdom even then, had not the accession of Hezekiah, Ahaz’s godly son, brought about a return to the faithful covenant God. The reformation then inaugurated not only turned aside the impending ruin, but converted this very ruin into a glorious deliverance such as Israel had not seen since its exodus from Egypt. The marvellous overthrow of the vast Assyrian host at the very gates of Jerusalem, wrought by the angel of the Lord in one night by means of a sore pestilence, abundantly testified that Judah, despite its littleness and inconsiderable earthly strength, might have been able to hold its own against all the onsets of the great empire, if it had only kept true to the covenant God and looked for its support from His almighty hand alone. But the repentant loyalty to the faithful and almighty God of the covenant hardly lasted until Hezekiah’s death. The heathen party amongst the people gained again the upper hand under Hezekiah’s son Manasseh, who ascended the throne in his twelfth (12th) year; and idolatry, which had been only outwardly suppressed, broke out anew and, during the fifty-five (55) years’ reign of this most godless of all the kings of Israel, reached a pitch Judah had never yet known. Manasseh not only restored the high places and altars of Baal which his father had destroyed, he built altars to the whole host of heaven in both courts of the temple, and went so far as to erect an image of Asherah in the house of the Lord; he devoted his son to Moloch, practised witchcraft and soothsaying more than ever the Amorites had done, and by his idols seduced Israel to sin. Further, by putting to death such prophets and godly persons as resisted his impious courses, he shed very much innocent blood, until he had filled Jerusalem therewith from end to end (2nd Kings 21:1-16; 2nd Chron. 23:1-10). His humbling himself before God when in captivity in Babylon, and his removal of the images out of the temple upon his return to Jerusalem and to his throne (2nd Chron.33:11 ff., 15 ff.), passed by and left hardly a trace behind; and his godless son Amon did but continue his father’s sins and multiply the guilt (2 Kings 21:19-23; 2nd Chron. 33:21-23). Thus Judah’s spiritual and moral strength was so broken that a thorough¬going conversion of the people at large to the Lord and His law was now no longer to be looked for. Hence the godly Josiah accomplished by his reformation nothing more than the suppression of the grosser forms of idol-worship and the restoration of the formal temple-services; he could neither put an end to the people’s estrangement at heart from God, nor check with any effect that moral corruption which was the result of the heart’s forsaking the living God. And so, even after Josiah’s reform of public worship, we find Jeremiah complaining: “As many as are thy cities, so many are thy gods, Judah; and as many as are the streets in Jerusalem, so many altars have ye made to shame, to burn incense to Baal” (2:28, 11:13). And godlessness showed itself in all classes of the people. Go about m the streets of Jerusalem,” Jeremiah exclaims, “and look and search if there is one that doth right and asks after honesty, and I will pardon her (saith the Lord). I thought, it is but the meaner sort that are foolish, for they know not the way of Jahveh, the judgment of their God. I will then get me to the great, and will speak with them, for they know the way of Jahveh, the right of their God. But they have all broken the yoke, burst the bonds ” (Jer. 5:1-5). “Small and great are greedy for gain; prophet and priest use deceit” (6:13). This being the spiritual condition of the people, we cannot wonder that immediately after the death of Josiah, unblushing apostasy appeared again as well in public idolatry as in injustice and sin of every kind. Jehoiakim did that which was evil in the eyes of Jahveh even as his fathers had done (2nd Kings 23:37; 2nd Chron. 36:6). His eyes and his heart were set upon nothing but on gain and on innocent blood, to shed it, and on oppresssion and on violence, to do it, Jer. 22:17. And his successors on the throne, both his son Jehoiachin and his brother Zedekiah, walked in his footsteps (2nd Kings 24:5, 19; 2nd Chron. 36:9, 12), although Zedekiah did not equal his brother Jehoiakim in energy for carrying out evil, but let himself be ruled by those who were about him. For Judah’s persistence in rebellion against God and His law, the Lord ceased not from His great wrath; but carried out the threatening proclamation to king and people by the prophetess Hulda, when Josiah sent to consult her for himself, and for the people, and for all Judah, concerning the words of the newly found book of the law: “Behold, I bring evil in this place, and upon its inhabitants, all the words of the book which the king of Judah hath read: because that they have forsaken Me, and burnt incense to other gods, to provoke Me with all the works of their hands; therefore My wrath is kindled against this place, and shall not be quenched” (2nd Kings 22:16 ff.). This evil began to fall on the kingdom in Jehoiakim’s days. Josiah was not to see the coming of it. Because, when he heard the curses of the law, he humbled himself before the Lord, rent his raiment and wept before Him, the Lord vouchsafed to him the promise that He would gather him to his fathers in peace, that his eyes should not look on the evil God would bring on Jerusalem (2nd Kings 22:19 f.); and this pledge God fulfilled to him, although they that were to execute God’s righteous justice were already equipped, and though towards the end of his reign the storm clouds of judgment were gathering ominously over Judah. While Josiah was labouring in the reformation of public worship, there had taken place in Central Asia the events which brought about the fall of the Assyrian empire. The younger son of Esarhaddon, the second Sardanapalus, had been succeeded in the year 626 by his son Saracus. Since the victorious progress of the Medes under Cyaxares, his dominion had been limited to the cradle of the empire, Assyria, to Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Cilicia. To all appearance in the design of preserving Babylonia to the empire, Saracus appointed Nabopolassar, a Babylonian by birth and sprung from the Chaldean stock, to be governor of that province. This man found opportunity to aggrandize himself during a war between the Medes and the Lydians. An eclipse of the sun took place on the 30th September 610, while a battle was going on. Both armies in terror gave up the contest; and, seconded by Syennesis, who governed Cilicia under the Assyrian supremacy, Nabopolassar made use of the favourable temper which the omen had excited in both camps to negotiate a peace between the contending peoples, and to institute a coalition of Babylonia and Media against Assyria. To confirm this alliance, Amytis, the daughter of Cyaxares, was given in marriage to Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar; and the war against Assyria was opened without delay by the advance against Nineveh in the spring of 609 of the allied armies of Medes and Babylonians. But two years had been spent in the siege of that most impregnable city, and two battles had been lost, before they succeeded by a night attack in utterly routing the Assyrians, pursuing the fugitives to beneath the city walls. The fortification would long have defied their assaults, had not a prodigious spring flood of the Tigris, in the third year of the war, washed down a part of the walls lying next the river and so made it possible for the besiegers to enter the city, to take it, and reduce it to ashes. The fall of Nineveh in the year 607 overthrew the Assyrian empire; and when the conquerors proceeded to distribute their rich booty, all the land lying on the western bank of the Tigris fell to the share of Nabopolassar of Babylon. But the occupation by the Babylonians of the provinces which lay west of the Euphrates was contested by the Egyptians. Before the campaign of the allied Medes and Babylonians against Nineveh, Pharaoh Necho, the warlike son of Psammetichus, had advanced with his army into Palestine, having landed apparently in the bay of Acco, on his way to war by the Euphrates with Assyria, Egypt’s hereditary enemy. To oppose his progress King Josiah marched against the Egyptian; fearing as he did with good reason, that if Syria fell into Necho’s power, the end had come to the independence of Judah as a kingdom. A battle was fought in the plain near Megiddo; the Jewish army was defeated, and Josiah mortally wounded, so that he died on the way to Jerusalem (2nd Kings 23:29 f.; 2nd Chron. 35:20 f.). In his stead the people of the land raised his second son Jehoahaz to the throne; but Pharaoh came to Jerusalem, took Jehoahaz prisoner, and had him carried to Egypt, where he closed his life in captivity, imposed a fine on the country, and set up Eliakim, Josiah’s eldest son, to be king as his vassal under the name of Jehoiakim (2nd Kings 23:30-35; 2nd Chron. 36:1-4). Thereafter Necho pursued his march through Syria, and subjected to himself the western provinces of the Assyrian empire; and he had penetrated to the fortified town of Carchemish (‘Kirkesion’) on the Euphrates when Nineveh succumbed to the united Medes and Babylonians. –Immediately upon the dissolution of the Assyrian empire, Nabopolassar, now an old man no longer able to sustain the fatigues of a new campaign, entrusted the command of the army to his vigorous son Nebuchadnezzar, to the end that he might wage war against Pharaoh Necho and wrest from the Egyptians the provinces they had possessed themselves of (cf. Berosi ‘fragm. in Joseph. Antt’. x. 11. 1, and ‘c. Ap’. i. 19). In the year 607, the third year of Jehoiakim’s reign, Nebuchadnezzar put the army entrusted to him in motion, and in the next year, the fourth of Jehoiakim’s reign, B.C. 606, he crushed Pharaoh Necho at Carchemish on the Euphrates. Pursuing the fleeing enemy, he pressed irresistibly forwards into Syria and Palestine, took Jerusalem in the same year, made Jehoiakim his dependant, and carried off to Babel a number of the Jewish youths of highest rank, young Daniel amongst them, together with part of the temple furniture (2nd Kings 24:1; 2nd Chron. 36:6 f.; Dan. 1:1 f.). He had gone as far on his march as the boundaries of Egypt when he heard of the death of his father Nabopolassar at Babylon. In consequence of this intelligence he hastened to Babylon the shortest way through the desert, with but few attendants, with the view of mounting the throne and seizing the reins of government, while he caused the army to follow slowly with the prisoners and the booty (Beros. ‘I.c’.). This, the first taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, is the commencement of the seventy (70) years of Judah’s Chaldean bondage, foretold by Jeremiah in 25:11, shortly before the Chaldeans invaded Judah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim; and with the subjection of Judah to Nebuchadnezzar’s supremacy the dissolution of the kingdom began. For three years Jehoiakim remained subject to the king of Babylon; in the fourth (4th) year he rebelled against him. Nebuchadnezzar, who with the main body of his army was engaged in the interior of Asia, lost no time in sending into the rebellious country such forces of Chaldeans as were about the frontiers, together with contingents of Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites; and these troops devastated Judah throughout the remainder of Jehoiakim’s reign (2nd Kings 24:1,2). But immediately upon the death of Jehoiakim, just as his son had mounted the throne, Nebuchadnezzar’s generals advanced against Jerusalem with a vast army and invested the city in retribution for Jehoiakim’s defection. During the siege Nebuchadnezzar joined the army. Jehoiachin, seeing the impossibility of holding out any longer against the besiegers, resolved to go out to the king of Babylon, taking with him the queen-mother, the princes of the kingdom, and the officers of the court, and to make unconditional surrender of himself and the city. Nebuchadnezzar made the king and his train prisoners; and, after plundering the treasures of the royal palace and the temple, carried captive to Babylon the king, the leading men of the country, the soldiers, the smiths and artisans, and, in short, every man in Jerusalem who was capable of bearing arms. He left in the land only the poorest sort of the people, from whom no insurrectionary attempts were to be feared; and having taken an oath of fealty from Mattaniah, the uncle of the captive king, he installed him, under the name of Zedekiah, as vassal king over a land that had been robbed of all that was powerful or noble amongst its inhabitants (2nd Kings 24:8-17; 2nd Chron. 36:10). Nor did Zedekiah either keep true to the oath of allegiance he had sworn and pledged to the king of Babylon. In the fourth (4th) year of his reign, ambassadors appeared from the neighbouring states of Edom, Ammon, Moab, Tyre, and Sidon, seeking to organize a vast coalition against the Chaldean supremacy (Jer. 27:3, 28:1). Their mission was indeed unsuccessful; for Jeremiah crushed the people’s hope of a speedy return of the exiles in Babylon by repeated and emphatic declaration that the Babylonian bondage must last seventy (70) years (Jer. 27-29:27). In the same year Zedekiah visited Babylon, apparently in order to assure his liege lord (overlord, baron, feudal lord) of his loyalty and to deceive him as to his projects (Jer. 51:59). But in Zedekiah’s ninth (9th) year Hophra (Apries), the grandson of Necho, succeeded to the crown of Egypt; and when he was arming for war against Babylon, Zedekiah, trusting in the help of Egypt (Ezek. 17:15), broke the oath of fealty he had sworn (Ezek. 17:16), and tried to shake off the Babylonian yoke. But straightway a mighty Chaldean army marched against Jerusalem, and in the tenth month of that same year established a blockade round Jerusalem (2nd Kings 25:1). The Egyptian army advanced to relieve the beleaguered city, and for a time compelled the Chaldeans to raise the siege; but it was in the end defeated by the Chaldeans in a pitched battle (Jer. 37:5 ff.), and the siege was again resumed with all rigour. For long the Jews made stout resistance, and fought with the courage of despair, Zedekiah and his advisers being compelled to admit that this time Nebuchadnezzar would show no mercy. The Hebrew slaves were set free that they might do military service; the stone buildings were one after another torn down that their materials might serve to strengthen the walls ; and in this way for about a year and a half all the enemy’s efforts to master the strong city were in vain. Famine had reached its extremity when, in the fourth month of the eleventh (11th) year of Zedekiah, the Chaldean battering rams made a breach in the northern wall, and through this the besiegers made their way into the lower city. The defenders withdrew to the temple hill and the city of Zion; and, when the Chaldeans began to storm these strongholds during the night, Zedekiah, under cover of darkness, fled with the rest of his soldiers by the door between the two walls by the king’s garden. He was, however, overtaken in the steppes of Jericho by the pursuing Chaldeans, made prisoner, and carried to Riblah in Coele-Syria. Here Nebuchadnezzar had his headquarters during the siege of Jerusalem, and here he pronounced judgment on Zedekiah. His sons and the leading men of Judah were put to death before his eyes; he was then deprived of eyesight and carried in chains to Babylon, where he remained a prisoner till his death (2nd Kings 25:3-7; Jer. 39:2-7, 52:6-11). A month later Nebuzar-adan, the captain of the king of Babylon’s guard, came to Jerusalem to destroy the rebellious city. The principal priests and officers of the kingdom and sixty (60) citizens were sent to the king at Riblah, and executed there. Everything of value to be found amongst the utensils of the temple was carried to Babylon, the city with the temple and palace was burnt to the ground, the walls were destroyed, and what able-bodied men were left amongst the people were carried into exile. Nothing was left in the land but a part of the poorer people to serve as vinedressers and husbandmen; and over this miserable remnant, increased a little in numbers by the return of some of those who had fled during the war into the neighbouring countries, Gedaliah the son of Ahikam was appointed governor in the Chaldean interest. Jeremiah chose to stay with him amidst his countrymen. But three months afterwards Gedaliah was murdered, at the instigation of Baalis the king of the Ammonites, by one Ishmael, who was sprung from the royal stock; and thereupon a great part of the remaining population, fearing the vengeance of the Chaldeans, fled, against the prophet’s advice, into Egypt (Jer. 40-43). And so the banishment of the people was now a total one, and throughout the whole period of the Chaldean domination the land was a wilderness. Judah was now, like the ten tribes, cast out amongst the heathen out of the land the Lord had given them for an inheritance, because tliey had forsaken Jahveh, their God, and had despised His statutes. Jerusalem, the city of the great King over all the earth, was in ruins, the house which the Lord had consecrated to His name was burnt with fire, and the people of His covenant had become a scorn and derision to all peoples. But God had not broken His covenant with Israel. Even in the law –Lev. 26 and Deut. 30– He had promised that even when Israel was an outcast from his land amongst the heathen, He would remember His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and not utterly reject the exiles; but when they had borne the punishment of their sins, would turn againtheir captivity, and gather them together out of the nations.”…..
Section 2: Prophet’s Person: “Concerning the life and labours of the prophet Jeremiah, we have fuller information than we have as to those of many of the other prophets. The man is very clearly reflected in his prophecies, and his life is closely interwoven with the history of Judah. We consider first the outward circumstances of the prophet’s life, and then his character and mental gifts”……(‘b’). His Character & Mental Qualities: –If we gather togetlier in one the points of view that are discovered in a summary glance over Jeremiah’s work as a prophet, we feel the truth of Ed. Vilmar’s statement at p. 38 of his essay on the prophet Jeremiah in the periodical, ‘Der Beweis des Glauhens’. Bd. v. Gütersloh 1869: “When we consider the prophet’s faith in the imperishableness of God’s people, in spite of thier inevitable ruin which is to overwhelm the race then living, and his conviction, firm as the rock, that the Chaldeans are invincible until the end of the period allotted to them by Providence, it is manifest that his work is grounded in something other and higher than mere political sharp-sightedness or human sagacity.” Nor is the unintermitting stedfastness with which, amidst the sorest difficulties from without, he exercised his office to be explained by the native strength of his character. Naturally of a yielding disposition, sensitive and timid, it was with trembling that he bowed to God’s call (1:6) ; and afterwards, when borne down by the burden of them, he repeatedly entertained the wish to be relieved from his hard duties. ” Thou hast persuaded [‘deceived’, (AKJV of 1611) ] me, Lord,” he complains in 20:7 ff., “and I let myself be persuaded [‘I was deceived’ (‘ibid’)]; Thou hast laid hold on me and hast prevailed. I am become a laughing-stock all the day long: the word of Jahveh is become a reproach and a derision. And I thought: I will think no more of Him nor speak more in His name; and it was in my head as burning fire, shut up in my bones, and I become weary of bearing up, and cannot.” Though filled with glowing love that sought the salvation of his people, he is compelled, while he beholds their moral corruptness, to cry out: “O that I had in the wilderness a lodging-place of wayfarers! then would I leave my people, and go from them; for they are all adulterers, a crew of faithless men” (9:1). And his assurance that the judgment about to burst on the land and people could not be turned aside, draws from him the sigh: “O that mine head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears I then would I weep day and night for the slain of my people” (8:23). “He was no second Elijah,” as Hgstbg. Christol. ii. p. 370 happily puts it: “He had a soft nature, a susceptible temperament; his tears flowed readily. And he who was so glad to live in peace and love with all men, must needs, because he has enlisted in the service of truth, become a second Ishmael, his hand against every man, and every man’s hand against him; he whose love for his people was so glowing, was doomed to see that love misconstrued, to see himself branded as a traitor by those who were themselves the traitors to the people.” Experiences like these raised bitter struggles in his soul, repeatedly set forth by him, especially in 12 and 20. Yet he stands immovably stedfast in the strife against all the powers of wickedness, like “a pillar of iron and a wall of brass against the whole land, the kings of Judah, its rulers and priests, and against the common people,” so that all who strove against him could effect nothing, because the Lord, according to His promise, 1:18 f., was with him, stood by his side as a terrible warrior (20:11), and showed His power mighty in the prophet’s weakness……
Section 3: Book of Jeremiah’s Prophecies: (‘a’) Contents & Arrangement: The prophecies of Jeremiah divide themselves, in accordance with their subjects, into those that concern Judah and the kingdom of God, and those regarding foreign nations. The former come first in the book, and extend from chap. 1-45; the latter are comprised in chap. 46-51. The former again fall into three groups, clearly distinguishable by their form and subjects. So that the whole book may be divided into four sections; while chap. 1 contains the account of the prophet’s consecration, and chap. 52, furnishes an historical supplement……(‘b’). Origin of the Compilation or Book of Jeremiah’s Prophecies: “Regarding the composition of the book, all sorts of ingenious and arbitrary hypotheses have been propounded. Almost all of them proceed on the assumption that the longer discourses of the first part of the book consist of a greater or less number of addresses delivered to the people at stated times, and have been arranged partly clironologically, but partly also without reference to any plan whatever. Hence the conclusion is drawn that in the book a hopeless confusion reigns……The first notice of a written collection of the prophecies occurs in 36. Here we are told that in the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim’s reign, Jeremiah, by divine command, caused his assistant Baruch to write in a roll all the words he had spoken concerning Israel and Judah and all nations from the day he was called up till that time, intending them to be read by Baruch to the assembled people in the temple on the approaching fast. And after the king had cut up the roll and cast it into the fire, the prophet caused the words Baruch had taken down to his dictation to be written anew in a roll, with the addition of many words of like import. This fact suggests the idea that the second roll written by Baruch to Jeremiah’s dictation formed the basis of the collected edition of all Jeremiah’s prophecies. The history makes it clear that till then the prophet had not committed his prophecies to writing, and that in the roll written by Baruch they for the first time assumed a written form. The same account leads us also to suppose that in this roll the prophet’s discourses and addresses were not transcribed in the precise words and in the exact order in which he had from time to time delivered them to the people, but that they were set down from memory, the substance only being preserved. The design with which they were committed to writing was to lead the people to humble themselves before the Lord and turn from their evil ways (36:3, 7), by means of importunately forcing upon their attention all God’s commands and warnings……If we are desirous not to add by new and uncertain conjectures to the already large number of arbitrary hypotheses as to the compilation and origin of the book before us, we must abide by what, after a careful scrutiny of its subject-matter and form, proves to be certainly established. And the result of our examination may be epitomized in the following propositions: 1. The book in its canonical form has been arranged according to a distinct, self-consistent plan, in virtue of which the preservation of chronological order has been made secondary to the principle of grouping together cognate subjects. 2. The book written by Baruch in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiakim’s reign, which contained the oracles spoken by Jeremiah up till that time, is doubtless the basis of the book as finally handed down, without being incorporated with it as a distinct work; but, in accordance with the plan laid down for the compilation of the entire series, was so disposed that the several portions of it were interspersed with later portions, handed down, some orally, some in writing, so that the result was a uniform whole. For that prophecies other than those in Baruch’s roll were straightway written down (if they were not first composed in writing), is expressly testified by 30:2, 29:1, and 51:60. 3. The complete edition of the whole was not executed till after the close of Jeremiah’s labours, probably immediately after his death. This work, together with the supplying of the historical notice in chap. 52, was probably the work of Jeremiah’s colleague Baruch, who may have survived the last event mentioned in the book, 52:31 ff., the restoration of Jehoiakim to freedom after Nebuchadnezzar’s death, B.C. 563.”…..Appendix: Chapter 52: Historical: Capture & destruction of Jerusalem, Fate of Zedekiah & People & Liberation of Jehoiachin from Imprisonment: “By the closing formula, 51:64, the contents of chap. 52 are separated from, and marked as an appendix to, the prophecies of Jeremiah; yet nothing is said regarding the author of this chapter. However, if we keep in mind the nature of its contents, then, from the very fact that it gives an account of the liberation of King Jehoiachin from prison, and of his elevation to royal honours, it necessarily follows that it cannot have been composed by Jeremiah, because the prophet can scarcely have lived till this occurred, which was less than 561 B.C. It must further be considered that the contents of this chapter also agree, almost word for word, with 2nd Kings 24:18-25, 30; moreover, the introductory notice regarding Zedekiah’s ascension of the throne, his age, and the character of his rule, given vers. 1-3, was unnecessary for the object of this appendix. The same holds true of the notice regarding the liberation of Jehoiachin from prison, at the close, vers. 31-34, which does not seem to stand in any close and intimate connection with the history of the destruction of Jerusalem and the fate of Zedekiah, while both of these events are closely connected with the plan and aim of the Books of Kings, and are written quite in their spirit. On these grounds, most expositors, both ancient and modern, assume that this historical appendix to the prophecies of Jeremiah has been derived from the Second Book of Kings. But weighty reasons oppose this assumption. (1.) The very fact that ‘the name of th king of Babylon is throughout written Nebuchad-rezzar makes it unlikely that the narrative was derived from 2nd Kings 24:18 ff., because the name is there constantly written Nebuchad-nezzar, –a form which also occurs in Jeremiah, though not often (see vol. i. p. 397, note). (2.) This chapter contains notices which are not found in 2nd Kings 24 and 25. Thus, it is stated, in ver. 10, that Nebuchad¬rezzar also caused all the princes of Judah to be executed at Riblah, and King Zedekiah, who had been carried to Babylon, to be put in prison till his death; in vers. 19-23 we find a whole series of special remarks as to the vessels of the temple and the ornaments of the brazen pillars, –observations which are not met with either in 2nd Kings 25, or in the description of the building of the temple, 1st Kings 7. We further find, in vers. 28-30, a notice regarding three deportations of the people, giving the numbers, not roundly, but precisely, as they are nowhere else given in the historical books of the Old Testament. Were this statement the only additional detail given by this chapter, as compared with 2nd Kings 25, one might perhaps suppose that it was an interpolation from another source, added to the rest of the account that has been derived from 2nd Kings 24 and 25; but this opinion, which even in itself is not very probable, is excluded by the other additions found in ver. 10 and in 19-23. If the author of this chapter had been able to derive, and had actually derived, these additional particulars from a historical source, treating of the later times of the kingdom of Judah, which has not come down to us, and which contained more than our canonical books of Kings and Chronicles, he would no doubt have also found there the account of the three deportations, and taken it from that source. We must therefore assume that this chapter, and 2nd Kings 24:18 on to 25:30, have both a common origin, in which the fall of the kingdom of Judah was more fully described than in the historical books of the canon; in this way, the remarkable coincidence, almost word for word, between the narrative portions which are common to the two extracts, is accounted for quite as easily as the differences that have just been mentioned.”…..}}

{{ Jeremiah’s Lamentations: Introduction: Section 1: Book: Name, Contents, & Arrangement: “Name: The five Lamentations composed on the fall of Jerusalem and the kingdom of Judah, which have received their position in the canon of the Old Testament among the Hagiographa, have for their heading, in Hebrew MSS. and in printed editions of the Hebrew Bible, the word (’Echah) (“alas! how…”), which forms the characteristic initial word of three of these pieces (1:1, 2:1, & 4:1). The Rabbis name the collection (Qinoth) (Lamentations), from the nature of its contents: so in the Talmud (‘Tract. Baba Bathra’, f. 14’b’); cf. Jerome in the Prol. ‘galeat’, and in the prologue to his translation : “‘incipiunt Threni, i.e. lamentationes, quae Cynoth liebraice inscribuntur.'” With this agree the designations (Thrëni) (LXX), and ‘Threni’ or ‘Lamentationes’, also ‘Lamenta’ in the Vulgate and among the Latin writers. Contents: The ancient custom of composing and singing lamentations over deceased friends (of which we find proof in the elegies of David on Saul and Jonathan, 2nd Sam.1:17 ff., and on Abner, 2nd Sam. 3:33 ff., and in the notice given in 2nd Chron. 35:25) was even in early times extended so as to apply to the general calamities that befell countries and cities; hence the prophets often speak of taking up lamentations over the fall of nations, countries, and cities; cf. Amos 5:1, Jer. 7:29, 9:9, 17 f., Ezek. 19:1, 26:17, 27:2, etc. The five lamentations of the book now before us all refer to the destruction of Jerusalem and of the kingdom of Judah by the Chaldeans; in them are deplored the unutterable misery that has befallen the covenant people in this catastrophe, and the disgrace which the falien daughter of Zion has thereby suffered. This subject is treated of in the five poems from different points of view. In the ‘first’, the lamentation is chiefly made over the carrying away of the people into captivity, the desolation of Zion, the acts of oppression, the plundering and the starvation connected with the taking of Jerusalem, the scoffing and contempt shown by the enemy, and the helpless and comfortless condition of the city, now fallen so low. In the ‘second’, the destruction of Jerusalem and Judah is set forth as an act of God’s wrath against the sins of the people, the impotency of human comfort in the midst of the terrible calamity is shown, and the people are exhorted to seek help from the Lord. In the ‘third’, the deep spiritual sufferings of God’s people in the midst of the general distress form the subject of grievous com¬ plaint, out of which the soul endeavours to rise, and to see the compassion of the Lord, and the justice of His dealings on earth generally, as well as in this visitation of judgment; and on this is founded the confident expectation of help. In the ‘fourth’, the dreadful misery that has befallen Zion’s citizens of every class is represented as a punishment for the grievous sins of the people and their leaders. And lastly, in the ‘fifth’, the Lord is entreated to remove the disgrace from His people and restore them to their former state of grace. According to this view, one may readily perceive in these poems a well¬ cogitated plan in the treatment of the material common to the whole, and a distinct progress in the execution of this plan…..}}

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Book of Prophet Jeremiah & Lamentations. Map Notes & Introduction by Rev. A. W. Streane; M.A.; Edited for the Syndics of Univ. Press. Cambridge Bible for Schools & Colleges; Edited by J. J. S. Perowne, D.D. (1881).gs

{{ Introduction: Chapter II: Character & Style of Book:
“1. Jeremiah is personally the most interesting to us of all the prophets; because, unlike the others, he shews us the inmost recesses of his mind. The various qualities which made up the man are quickly and easily gathered from his own lips. There is hardly a clearer illustration of the Providence of God in raising up men for special sorts of work than is afforded by Jeremiah. We have just seen that they were no ordinary times in which he lived. ‘The snake’ of idolatry had been ‘scotched not killed’ by Hezekiah and Josiah. The spirit of disobedience and rebellion, which had been so long working in his countrymen, was now past remedy by all common means. Nothing but the nation’s total overthrow, at least for a time, could effect a radical cure.
2. Glowing appeals, such as had been made by an Isaiah, a Hosea, a Micah in former days, would now have been of no avail. Those prophets had fulfilled their task, and the Holy Spirit had employed their special gifts for the work which belonged to their age. Jeremiah’s office on the other hand was to utter and reiterate the warning, though sensible all the while that the sentence of condemnation was passed and would speedily be put into execution. It was not for him as for those who had preceded him to proclaim the certainty of God’s protection, to urge resistance to the foe, to present scarce any but bright pictures of the future. Hopes like these, bestowed through Isaiah, had since been forfeited, and now hardly anything remains save to mourn the downfall of the kingdom, to point again and yet again to the canker that had eaten out the vitals of the nation……
6. Belonging to the orders both of Priest and Prophet, and living at the very time when each had sunk to its lowest state of degradation, he was compelled to submit to the buffeting which they each bestowed upon a man who was by his every word and deed passing sentence upon themselves. He saw them permitted to vent their rage upon his person, he saw them held in esteem by the people, their way prospering, those that dealt treacherously happy. “For the greater part of his mission he ‘had no man likeminded with him.’ From the first moment of his call he was alone, amidst a hostile world.” But through it all conscientious devotion to duty maintained its place within his heart. The promise that he should be as a brasen wall made at the time of his call and renewed later never failed him……
8. His style corresponds closely with what we should expect from his character. It displays (‘a’) Absence of ornament…..(‘b’) Frequent repetition……(Table of Repetitions: Chapters & Verses:
2:28 & 11:13. 5:29 & 9:9. 6:13 & 8:10-12. 7:14 & 26:6. 10:12-16 & 51:15-19. 11:20 & 20:12. 15:2 & 43:11. 16:14,15 & 23:7, 8. 17:25 & 22:4. 23:19,20 & 30:23,24. 30:11 & 46:28. 31:35,36 & 33:25,26.
List of Places in which the same Thought or Image is Repeated:
‘The brasen Wall’, (1:18; 15:20). ‘The turned back’, (2:27; 7:24; 32:33).
‘Fury that burns like fire’, (4:4; 21:12).
‘The travailing woman’, (4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 22:23; 30:6).
‘Rising up early’, (7:13, 25; 11:7; 25:3,4; 26:5; 29:19; 32:33; 35:14,15; 44:4).
‘Water of gall,’ (8:14; 9:15; 23:15).
‘The incurable wound’, (15:8; 30:12).
‘The fig, too bad to be eaten’, (24:8; 29:17).
Phrases which often Recur:
‘Walking in the stubbornness of the heart’, (3:17; 7:24; 9:14; 11:8; 13:10; 16:12; 23:17).
‘The evil of men’s doings’, (4:4; 21:12; 23:2, 22; 25:5; 26:3; 44:22).
‘The voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride’, (7:34; 16:9; 25:10; 33:11).
‘Men dying in the siege by the sword, by the pestilence, and by famine’, (14:12, 15,16; 15:2; 18:21; 21:7, 9; 24:10; 27:13; 29:17; 32:24, 36; 34:17; 38:2; 13:17, 22; 43:11; 44:13).
(Taken with slight additions from the ‘Speaker’s Commentary’.)

(‘c’) Frequent cases of coincidence in language with earlier prophets, as well as especially with the Book of Deuteronomy……(‘d’) Numerous images used by way of illustration……

Chapter III: Contents & Arrangement:
1. The prophecies of Jeremiah cover, as we have seen, a period of at least some thirty years (30)……
2. So far as any order is observable, it is an order not of time but of subject-matter, The following is a Summary of the Contents of the Book: (Chapters & Verses):
(i) (1-45): Prophecies mainly relating to Home Events & History of Times.
(ii) (46-51): Prophecies relating to Foreign Nations.
(iii) (52): Supplementary & Historical.
(i) Subdivided thus:
(a) (1-20): Prophecies mostly from Time of Jeremiah’s call (13th year of Josiah) to 4th year of Jehoiakim.
(b) (21-25:14): Prophecies directed at various times Against Kings of Judah & Against False Prophets.
(c) (25:15-38): Kind of summary of Fuller Predictions Against Foreign Nations which occur (46-51); perhaps placed here as suggested by the announcement of Approaching Overthrow of Babylon, which ends (b).
(d) (26-28): Prophecies concerning Fall of Jerusalem, with Historical Notices interspersed. These belong to Different Periods of Jeremiah’s Life, and seem Grouped Together here in accordance with the Principle of Arrangement mentioned above.
(e) (29): Letter & Message to Captives in Babylon.
(f) (30-31): Prophecies mainly of Comfort & Hope.
(g) (32-44): History of Two Years Preceding Capture & Destruction of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans, & Prophecies of Jeremiah during that time. (35-36) Break Chronological Order here.
(h) (45): Supplementary Notice on the part of Baruch.
(ii) Subdivided thus:
(a) (46:1): Superscription. (b) (46): Against Egypt. (c) (47): Against Philistines. (d) (48): Against Moab, (e) (49:1-6): Against Amnion. (f) (49:7-22): Against Edom. (g) (49:23-27): Against Damascus. (h) (49:28-33): Against Kedar & Hazor. (i) (49:34-39): Against Elam. (j) (50,51): Against Babylon. ” }}

{{ Lamentations: Introduction: Chapter III: Subject-Matter & Purpose of Book:
I. The subject, as we have seen already, is undoubtedly the capture of the city under Nebuchadnezzar, and the sorrow and suffering which were thereby entailed. Herewith is united both the confession that this has come upon the people on account of their sins, and entreaties for deliverance.
2. Taking the poems severally: Chap. i. (‘Miseries of Jerusalem’) dwells upon the solitary condition and grief of the city; Chap. ii. (‘God’s judgments upon City. Lamentation. Supplication’) sets forth the destruction that has come upon lier, and acknowledges that it is the result of sin; Chap. iii., (‘Prophet, as Representing Nation, bewails their Sufferings. Words of Submission & Hope. Renewed Expressions of Suffering joined with Appeal to God for Help. Thanksgiving & Prayer for Vengeance.) which although framed for the most part in the singular number, yet includes the nation throughout, complains of the bitter cup which God’s people have to drink, and yet acknowledges that the trials which are come upon them are inflicted by a Father’s hand; Chap. iv. (‘Sufferings of People are consequent on Sin’. ) describes the reverses in fortune that have been brought about by recent events, and again acknowledges sin; Chap. v. (‘Sorrowful Enumeration of Insults heaped on Zion because of her Sins’.) recapitulates the pitiful details of their condition, and ends by an earnest prayer for deliverance.
3. The Book from an historical point of view thus forms a supplement to the Book of Jeremiah. There we traced the life and thoughts of the prophet while events were gradually leading to the final catastrophe. Here we see him after that catastrophe has been reached, and mark that it is the same man still, clearly recognizing the sin of his fellows, but as full as ever of sympathy for them and of love for his country. “All feeling of exultation in which, as mere prophet of evil, he might have indulged at the fulfilment of his forebodings, was swallowed up in deep overwhelming sorrow” (Prof. Plumptre in ‘Sm. Bib. Dict’.).
4. It was not in one who had faithfully warned his country-men for so long, to keep silence now, and doubtless the very pouring out of his heart in this form gave his sorrow a certain relief. As he had probably lamented for Josiah in some such I manner (2nd Chron. 35:25), so now he was moved to come forward and embody in language those thoughts which an inspired prophet like him would be guided to publish and record.
5. “There are perhaps few portions of the Old Testament which appear to have done the work they were meant to do more effectually than this.” It has not been connected with the theological or ecclesiastical disputes of any age, while it has supplied the earnest Christian of all times with words in which to confess his sins, and shortcomings, as well as with a picture of Him Who bore our sins and carried our sorrows, on Whom was ” laid the iniquity of us all.”
6. The Book is annually read among the Jews to commemorate the burning of the Temple. The following is Schaff’s description (‘Through Bible Lands’, pp. 250—252) of the scene at the ‘Wailing Place of the Jews’ at Jerusalem. “There the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon and on festivals to bewail the downfall of the holy city. I saw on Good Friday a large number, old and young, male and female, venerable rabbis with patriarchal beards and young men kissing the stone wall and watering it with their tears. They repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and Prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms. . . . The key note of all these laments and prayers was struck by Jeremiah, the most pathetic and tender hearted of prophets, in the Lamentations, that funeral dirge of Jerusalem and the theocracy. This elegy, written with sighs and tears, has done its work most effectually in great public calamities, and is doing it every year on the ninth of the month Ab (July), when it is read with loud weeping in all the synagogues of the Jews and especially at Jerusalem. It keeps alive the memory of their deepest humiliation and guilt and the hope of final deliverance. The scene of the Wailing Place was to me touching and pregnant with meaning.” }}

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Holy Bible. Vol. 5 Old Testament. Authorized Version & Notes & Introductions: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, & Ezekiel. Christian Wordsworth,D.D., Bishop of Lincoln. (1871).

{{ Introduction to Book of Prophet Jeremiah: “There are two Prophets in the Hebrew Canon of Holy Scripture, whose history and writings may best be studied in connexion, as illustrative of each other. Both of them were Priests as well as Prophets; both foretold the destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; both were contemporary with that event; both survived it. The one dwelt among Hebrew exiles and captives at the river Chebar in Babylonia, and echoed the voice of the other, prophesying at Jerusalem. Both were signal types of the Lord of all the prophets, the Incarnate Word of God; both pre-announced the graces and glories of His Advent, and the building up of His Church Universal; both are exemplary and instructive to all, especially to pastors and priests of the Church of Christ, who are commissioned to maintain and to declare the truth in evil days, and to cheer fainting hearts with hopes of future victories, and who, though feeble in themselves, are assured of strength and support from above, if they are faithful witnesses to Him Who has called them to their work. One of these two prophets is ‘Jeremiah’: the other, ‘Ezekiel’. The prophetic mission of Jeremiah at Jerusalem lasted about forty (40) years, dating from the thirteenth (13th) year of the good King Josiah (*B.C. 627; Jer. 1:2; 25:3) and closing with the fall of Jerusalem in the eleventh (11th) year of his son Zedekiah. These forty (40) years of probation, granted to Jerusalem during Jeremiah’s prophetic ministry, may be compared with the forty (40) years beginning with our Lord’s mission, inaugurated at the river Jordan, and continued in His Apostles, sent by Him and filled with the Holy Ghost (Spirit) given by Him from heaven, and preaching of coming judgments to Jerusalem, until the time of its destruction by the armies of imperial Rome. After the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans, Jeremiah prophesied in a heathen land, Egypt; and, similarly, after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, the prophetic work of Christ was extended to the heathen world. There is no Hebrew prophet with whose personal character and history we are so intimately acquainted as Jeremiah. But the time, place, and manner of his death are not known. He vanishes from the sight in a mysterious manner. The Jewish rabbis supposed that he would reappear as a herald of the Messiah; and in the ancient Christian Church it was a prevalent opinion, that Jeremiah would come again in the latter days to fight against Antichrist (*’Victorinus Pet’., in Apocalypsim, xi. 3; ‘Sixtus Senensis’, Bibl. Sanct., vi. ann. 316; ‘, Eiuleit. pp. 68-72.) There is a moral significance in these popular traditions. The spirit which animated Jeremiah breathes and moves in all faithful witnesses, who prepare the way for the Second Coming of Christ; and among the prophets of the Old Dispensation none affords more instruction than Jeremiah, both by his history and writings, how they may contend against the Antichristianism of the last times before the Second Advent of Christ. Let us contemplate him in this light.”…..
”Such theories as these, however groundless, have their uses to the reverent and thoughtful student of Holy Writ. The allegation just specified may serve to remind us of an important truth. Not only is there a striking resemblance between the prophecies of Jeremiah and the Book of Deuteronomy, but the spirit of Moses lived and moved in Jeremiah (See below Wordsworth-Kueper’s Index of examples.). Jeremiah’s mission began as the mission of Moses began, and as the mission of all true prophets begins –in a confession of personal weakness, and in words of humility: “Ah! Lord God, behold I cannot speak, for I am a child.” Jeremiah’s prophecies are impregnated with the Pentateuch. Many of the phrases and portions of them are not intelligible without reference to it, especially the Book of Deuteronomy. The Book of Deuteronomy is like that written roll, of which his brother prophet Ezekiel speaks, which he was commanded to take into his hands and eat. Deuteronomy was such a roll to Jeremiah. He took it and ate it. It passed into his life-blood, and assimilated itself to bis spiritual being. Jeremiah had a special mission to show to the Hebrew nation that the Pentateuch bad a living power for himself and for his own age. He throws himself back upon the Law, and grounds himself upon it; he appeals to its code as a divine standard of moral and spiritual truth; and be declares that the curses for disobedience which had been denounced in Deuteronomy nearly a thousand years before were now growing up and springing forth in vigorous energy, and were about to be fulfilled in all their terrible reality. But he also comforts them with the assurance that the promises made in Deuteronomy would be accomplished, if they turned to God with contrite hearts. Hence the prophecies of Jeremiah ring with a clear note of power which sounded forth in the book of the Law at Horeb and in the wilderness of Arabia. 2. A like use may be made of another sceptical allegation of modern times, with regard to Jeremiah’s prophecies. It bas been observed with truth, that a great portion of these predictions, especially those concerning Babylon, Moab, and Edom, are reiterations or amplifications of the prophecies of his great predecessor, Isaiah. Hence it has been inferred by some, that either the prophecies of Isaiah were interpolated by the author of those predictions in Jeremiah, or that those prophecies in Jeremiah are due to an unknown author, whom some critics dignify by the name of “the second Isaiah” but who never had any existence. Such theories as these vanish before the light of truth.”
Compare: Genesis & Jeremiah: G 1:2 & J 4:23. G 1:28 & J 3:16. G 6:7 & J 9:9. G 8:22 & J 31:36. G 11:3 & J 51:25, &c. G 15:5 & J 33:22, & 34. G 17:14 & J 32:17. G 19:15 & Jer. Ii. 51:6, 50. G 19:25 & J 20:16. G 25:26 & J 9:3. G 30:18, 20 & J 31:16,17. G 37:35; 42:36 & J 31:15. G 49:17 & J 8:16.
Compare: Exodus & Jeremiah: E 4:10, &c. & J 1:6,7; 15:19. E 7:14 & J 50:33. E 16:9 & J 30:21. E 20:8; 11 & J 17:21. E 22:20 & J 5:28. E 32:9 & J 7:26. E 32:16 & J 17:1. E 34:7 & J 30:11; 32:18.
Compare: Leviticus & Jeremiah: L 13:45 & Lam. 4:15. L 19:12 & J 5:2. L 19:16 & J 6:28; 9:3. L 19:27 & J 9:25. L 19:32 & Lam. 5:12. L 26:6 & J 14:13. L 26:13 & J 2:20. L 26:33 & J 4:27.
Compare: Numbers & Jeremiah: N 5:11-31 & J 2. N 6:5, &c. & J 7:29. N 16:22 & J 32:27. N 21:6 & J 8:17. N 21:28; 24:17, &c. & J 48:4-5, 46; 4916. N 24:14, 16 & J 26:8, 9. N 36:7,8 & J 6:12; 8:10.
“Vides, nullam Pentateuchi esse partem, quin in usum vocata sit. Simul consequitur, omnia, quae de lege divina antiquitus data apud Prophetam dicantur, ad Pentateuchum referenda esse, ita ut Jeremiae saltem aetate Judaeis nihil de posteriori legis origine compertum esse potuerit.” –’Aug. Kueper’, Jeremias Librorum Sacrorum Interpres, atque Vindex, p. 48. Berlin, 1837. [‘Yu see, none of the Pentateuch to be a part, which in usage is called; such it follows, all, that’s of Divine Law, anciently spoken by the Prophet, in response to the Pentateuch referred to, such as in Jeremiah’s age at least of Judaea, nothing of the Law of latter origin ascertained was possible.’ -‘Aug. Kueper’ Holy Book of Jeremiah, Interpretation & Index. p. 48, Berlin, 1837.]
….. Jeremiah, in the last days of Jerusalem, discharged a sacred office in repeating and authenticating the prophetic oracles of former generations. By his ministry the Holy Spirit gathered together His own Words, uttered by former Prophets, and gave them new life and light. Jeremiah’s prophecies are like a fair tesselated pavement, in which the enamelled glasswork, and precious stones, and rich jewels, of divine truth are inlaid and incrusted as in a sacred mosaic spread before the altar of some beautiful temple. (*See on Jer. 48:1. It is well said by a recent German Expositor, that Jeremiah leans throughout upon utterances of the earlier Prophets, and reproduces their thoughts, figures, and words. Thus, for example, nearly all his prophecies against foreign nations are founded upon utterances of the earlier Prophets: that against the Philistines (Jer. 47), upon Isaiah’s prophecy against that people (Isa. 14:28-32); that against the Moabites (Jer. 48), upon that of Isaiah, in chaps. 15,16; that against the Ammonites (Jer. 49:1-6), upon the prophecy of Amos against the same (Amos 1:13-15); that against Damascus (Jer. 49:23-27), upon that of Amos against this kingdom (Amos 1:3-5); and lastly, that against Babylon (Jer. 50,51), upon the prophecy of Isaiah against Babylon, in Isa. 13-14:23. To this we may add (1) that the prophecy of Isaiah against Edom contains a number of expressions peculiar to himself and characteristic of his style, not a single one of which is to be found in Obadiah; whilst nothing is met with elsewhere in Jeremiah, of that which is common to Obadiah and him (for the proofs of this, see ‘Caspari’, pp. 7, 8); and (2) that what is common to the two Prophets, not only forms an outwardly connected passage in Obadiah, whereas in Jeremiah it occurs in several unconnected passages of his prophecy (compare Obad. 1-8 with Jer. 49:7, 9,10; 14-16); but, as the exposition will show, that in Obadiah it is more closely connected, and apparently more original than in Jeremiah. But if it be a fact, as this unquestionably proves, that Obadiah’s prophecy is more original, and therefore older, than that of Jeremiah, Obadiah cannot have prophesied after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans, but must have prophesied before it, since Jeremiah’s prophecy against Edom belongs to the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim. See ‘Caspari’, p. 14, sqq., and ‘Grafs’ Jeremias, pp. 558—559, compared with p. 506 (‘Keil’, Die zwolf Kleinen Propheten, p. 243. ‘Introd’. to Obadiah).)…..
3. Another arbitrary assertion of the same recent criticism may also be specified here, in order that it may be converted to good by reminding us of another remarkable attribute of Jeremiah’s character, which renders it specially instructive and exemplary to the champions of the truth in days of public trial and distress. It has been alleged, that some of the prophetic portions of Holy Scripture which foretell the sufferings of Christ, especially the fifty-third (53rd) chapter of Isaiah, and the sixty-ninth (69th) Psalm, have no reference to Jesus of Nazareth, but were fulfilled in the person of Jeremiah. True it is, that the language of that fifty-third (53rd) chapter of Isaiah, and of that sixty-ninth (69th) Psalm, had a remarkable applicability to Jeremiah. But why was this? Because Jeremiah was not only a prophet, but a prophecy. Jeremiah is among the prophets what Job is among the patriarchs. Jeremiah is the ‘suffering’ prophet. He was a signal type of “the Man of sorrows.” He was a figure of Him Who suffered on the cross, and Who conquered by suffering. When therefore we read in Isaiah, “He is brought as a lamb to the slaughter;” and when we hear Jeremiah saying, “I was like a lamb brought to the slaughter; ” and when we hear the Psalmist say, “I sink in deep mire where is no standing” and “let not the pit shut her mouth upon me;” and when we read of Jeremiah the prophet, that “they took him and cast him into the dungeon or rather the pit (it is the same word in the original as in the Psalm, and is repeated no less than six times in the seven verses of that narrative concerning Jeremiah), “and they let down Jeremiah with cords, and in the pit there was no water, but mire; so Jeremiah sank in mire:” when we hear and read such words as these, and many others in Jeremiah’s history, and when also we remember that Jeremiah was cast into the pit and left to die there (as far as they were concerned) by the rulers of Jerusalem, and was drawn out of the pit by a Gentile stranger, the Ethiopian eunuch Ebed-melech (as the Gospel of Christ, rejected and put to death by the Jews, was gladly received by the Gentiles), we are brought to the conclusion, which is confirmed by countless incidents in Jeremiah’s life, that in his history we have a foreshadowing of the Gospel, and that in seeing the struggles of Jeremiah standing alone against princes, prophets, priests, and people, and contending as a faithful witness of the truth, amid scorn, calumny, and insult, injury and violence; and foretelling the fall of Jerusalem in his prophecies, and yet weeping amid its ruins in his Lamentations, we have a vision of the agony in Gethsemane, and of the arraignment in the hall of Caiaphas, and of the precious death on Calvary, of Him Who shed tears of compassion over Jerusalem, and Who shed His Blood upon the Cross, to redeem her from her sins.” }}

Chronological Table to Illustrate Jeremiah & Ezekiel.
[For Earlier Chronology, see Intr. to Kings, p. xx; and for later, see Intr. to Ezra, p. 295. Received Chronolgy is lowered by two years in the following Table, in accordance with the results of recent investigations.]
B.C.: Judah. Assyria & Babylon. Egypt. Other Nations. (Table: B.C. 650 – 600 – 550 – 500 = 150 Yrs.)
650}|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|{500
650:
639: Josiah Comes to Throne & Reigns 31 Years. Religious Reformation. (Saracus, Last King of Assyria).
633: (Median Empire Founded by Cyaxares).
627: Jeremiah Prophesies at Jerusalem 40 Years.
625: Habakkuk & Zephaniah Prophesy in Reign of Josiah. (Nabo-Polassar Founds Babylonian Empire; & with Cyaxares Takes Nineveh before the year B.C. 610.). (Alyattes, King of Lydia.).
616: (Tarquinius Priscus at Rome.).
615: (Media & Lydia; War of Cyaxares & Alyattes Ended by Mediation of Nabo-Polassar.).
610: (Neko (or Pharaoh Necho) Marches Against Babylonia.).
608: Josiah is Killed in Battle Against Pharaoh Necho. Jehoahaz, or Shallum, Succeeds Josiah, & Reigns 3 Months, & is Deposed by Pharaoh Necho, & Dies in Egypt. Jehoiakim is Set Up by Pharaoh Necho, & Reigns 11 Years.
605: Jeremiah’s Prophecy of 70 Years’ Captivity, & of 70 Years’ Supremacy of Babylon, Ending B.C. Nebuchadnezzar Takes Jerusalem, & Carries Away Sacred Vessels of Temple to Babylon. 1st Captivity of Judah. (Nebuchadnezzar sent Against Necho by his Father Nabo-Polassar, & Defeats him in Battle of Carchemish; & Succeeds his Father on Throne of Babylon.).
604: Jeremiah’s Roll Read.
603: (Daniel at Babylon.).
602: Jehoiakim Revolts from Nebuchadnezzar.
600:
599: (Cyaxares Aids Nebuchadnezzar.).
598: Nebuchadnezzarn Marches Against Jerusalem; Resumes Siege of Tyre, & thence Returns to Jerusalem.
597: Jehoiachin, Jeconiah,or Conlah, Succeeds Jehoiakim, & Reigns 3 Months. Jerusalem Again Taken. King Jehoiachin (Jeconiah or Coniah) is Deposed by Nebuchadnezzar. Great Captivity. Ezekiel Carried Captive to Babylon with Jehoiachin. King Zedekiah Succeeds & Reigns 11 Years.
594: (Solon at Athens.)
593: Jeremiah’s prophecy against Babylon. (Ezekiel’s Vision of Temple, Holy City, & Holy Land.) (Psammetichus II.) (Astyages King of Media.)
588: Jerusalem Besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. (Nebuchadnezzar Marches Against Jerusalem & Against Egypt.) (Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) Takes Gaza, but Retreats before Nebuchadnezzar.)
587: Jerusalem’s Vain Hope of Relief from Egypt (Pharaoh Hophra).
586: Jerusalem is Taken & Destroyed. End of kingdom of Judah. Zedekiah is Carried to Babylon, where he Dies. Gedaliah, Son of Ahikam, is Set Up as Governor by Babylonians. Gedaliah is Treacherously Murdered by Ishmael, Son of Nethaniah, of Seed Royal. Jeremiah & Other Jews Go into Egypt.
585: (Nebuchadnezzar Takes Tyre.)
582: Further Captivity by Nebuzar¬adan, Generalissimo of Babylon.
581: (Nebuchadnezzar Overruns Egypt.) (Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) Defeated by Nebuchadnezzar.)
572: (Destroys Tyre.)
570: (2nd Invasion of Egypt.)
569: (Madness of Nebuchadnezzar?) (Amasis.)
568: (Croesus King of Lydia.)
561: Jehoiachin, at Babylon, is Released. (Evil Merodach.)
560: (Epoch of Greek Tyrants. Pisistratus at Athens.)
559: (Neriglissar.)
558: (Cyrus Deposes Astyages.)
556: (Laborosoarchod.) (Alliance of Babylon, Egypt, & Lydia.)
555: (Nabonedus.)
554: (Cyrus Conquers Lydia.)
550:
539: Daniel’s Dream of Four Beasts. (Nabonedus Associates Belshazzar as Viceroy with himself. Cyrus Defeats Nabonedus. Belshazzar’s Feast. Babylon Taken by Cyrus. Belshazzar Slain.)
538 Daniel’s Vision at Shushan of Ram & He-Goat. Daniel’s Prophecy of Seventy (70) Weeks. (Darius Median. Daniel Governor of Babylon. Edict of Cyrus (in his 1st Year when Sole Monarch) for Restoration of Jews & Rebuilding of Temple.)
536: Return of Jews to Jerusalem.
500:

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Holy Bible According to Authorized Version(A.D. 1611). Explanatory & Critical Commentary, & Revision of Translation, by Bishops & Other Clergy of Anglican Church; Edited by F.C. Cook. M.A., Canon of Exeter, Preacher at Lincoln’s Inn, Chaplain in Ordinary to Queen. Vol. 5. Isaiah – Jeremiah – Lamentations. (1883) gs. Jeremiah & Lamentations: Introduction, Commentary & Critical Notes, by R. Payne Smith, D.D., Dean of Canterbury.

Contents. Commentary & Critical Notes.
Introductory: 1st Prophecy: ‘Call of Jeremiah’.
Jeremiah’s 2nd Prophecy: ‘Expostulation with Israel because of Idolatry’.
His 3rd Prophecy: ‘Call to Repentance’.
Jeremiah’s 4th Prophecy, or Group of Prophecies: ‘God’s Judgment upon Unrepentant’.
2nd Portion of Jeremiah’s 4th Group of Prophecies: 5th: ‘Sermon in Temple upon Fast-Day’.
Jeremiah’s 6th Prophecy: ‘Curse of Broken Covenant’.
His 7th Prophecy: ‘Linen Girdle’.
His 8th Prophecy: ‘Drought’.
His 9th Prophecy: ‘Punishment of Judah by Pestilence & Exile’.
His 10th Prophecy: ‘Sabbath’.
His 11th Prophecy: ‘Potter’.
His 12th Prophecy: ‘Broken Vessel, with Events which Followed thereon’.
His 13th Prophecy: ‘Zedekiah’s Roll’.
His 14th Prophecy: ‘Wine-cup of Fury’.
His 15th Prophecy: ‘Prophet in Danger of Death’ .
His 16th Prophecy: ‘Babylonian Yoke’.
His 17th Prophecy: ‘Israel’s Hope’.
His 18th Prophecy: ‘Fate of Zedekiah, & Jeremiah’s Rebuke of People for Breaking Faith with Their Slaves’.
Emancipation of Hebrew Slaves.
Jeremiah’s 19th Prophecy: ‘Rechabites’.
Historical Events Connected with Collection of Jeremiah’s Prophecies into Volume, & with His Personal History Immediately Before & After siege of Jerusalem: 20th: (1) ‘Burning of the Roll’. (2) ‘Events During Siege of Jerusalem’. (3) ‘Capture of Jerusalem’. (4) ‘Jeremiah’s History After Capture of Jerusalem’.
Baruch’s Disappointment. Prophecies Against Nations.
Destruction of Babylon & Return of Israel From Captivity.
Historical Appendix to Prophecies of Jeremiah.

Book of Prophet Jeremiah: 1:1-3:
1: ‘The words of Jeremiah’: The usual title of the prophetical books, occurring no less than eight times, is The Word of the Lord: on the contrary the two books of Amos and Jeremiah are called the words of those prophets, probably, as Kimchi, Abravanel, and other Jewish commentators suggest, because they contain not merely prophecies, but also the record of much which belongs to the personal history of the writers. In Hebrew historical works are regularly called ‘the words’, rendered ‘acts’ in 1st Kngs 11:41; 2nd Chron. 23:18; but ‘book’ thrice in 1st Chron. 29:29. So also “The Life of Moses,” quoted by Bp Pearson on the Creed, is called in the original (dbry Mshh), the words of Moses. More exactly, therefore, this title might be translated the life or acts of Jeremiah. Graf however and others understand by it a collection of the prophecies of Jeremiah, supposing the phrase to be taken from ch. 36:10, but the other view is more in accordance with Hebrew idiom.
‘Jeremiah’: Most commentators render this name ‘Jehovah shall throw down’, in proof of which Hengstenberg refers to Exod. 15:1, where the verb to throw down is ‘ramah’. A name so ill-omened would scarcely have been in such common use, for seven or eight Jeremiahs are mentioned in the Bible, and a more reasonable derivation is from ‘ram’, high, giving as the meaning ‘God exalteth’.
‘the son of Hilkiah’: As the proper names of the Jews were comparatively few, their bearers were further distinguisheq by the addition of the father’s name. Could we keep the Hebrew form ben-Hilkiah, we should escape the danger of applying to the father what belongs to the son, and of inaccuracies such as occur in the translation of the rest of the verse. This Hilkiah may have been the high-priest of that name. See Introduc¬ tion, p. 311.
‘of the priests that’ were: More correctly, who was, ‘i.e.’ dwelt. The right meaning is that Jeremiah was a priest, who dwelt at Anathoth. The Vulgate makes the same mistake as the A.V., but the LXX. and the Targum render it correctly. The Syriac, like the Hebr., is ambiguous, the pronoun being indeclinable, and neither language using a copula. Hitzig supports the rendering of the A.V.
2: ‘To whom the word of the LORD came’: The simple Hebr. phrase is ‘to whom the word of the Lord was’; but as the verb ‘to be’ is seldom in Hebr. a mere copula, but has a strong meaning, signifying ‘to abide, to exist’, the phrase implies that Jeremiah possessed God’s word from that time onward, not fitfully as coming and going, but constantly.
‘the thirteenth (13th) year of his reign’: According to the ordinary reckoning this would be B.C. 629, but if the Ptolemaic canon is right in putting the capture of Jerusalem in B.C. 586, it would be two years later, namely B.C. 627. According however to the Assyrian chronology it would be B.C. 608. It was the year after that in which Josiah began his reforms.
3: ‘It came also’: Literally, And it was. In the subsequent enumeration of the kings in whose time Jeremiah prophesied, two are omitted, Jehoahaz and Jeconiah, probably on account of the shortness of their reigns. The whole period contained in the verse is no less than forty (40) years and six (6) months, namely, eighteen (18) years under Josiah, two periods of eleven (11) years each under Jehoiakim and Zedekiah, and three (3)
months under each of the omitted kings Jehoahaz and Jeconiah. Few prophets were God’s witnesses for so long a period, and under such trying circumstances, as Jeremiah.
‘in the fifth (5th) month’: The capture of Jerusalem took place in tbe fourth (4th) month, but its destruction in the fifth (5th), called Ab (2nd Kng. 25:3, 8), the ninth (9th) day of which was subsequently kept as a fast-day in remembrance of this sad event (Zech. 7:3).

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Book of Prophet Jeremiah, Revised Translation, Introduction & Short Explanations. Rev. Samuel Rolles Driver, DD. Regius Prof.Hebrew & Canon of Christ Church, Oxford; etc. (1907).gs [This volume of Driver’s labor on the Book of Jeremiah in his Translation, Notes & Comments is highly recommended for the serious student of the Scriptures.]

{ “Preface: The aim of the present volume is to assist an ordinary educated reader to read the Book of Jeremiah intelligently, and to understand the gist and scope of its different parts. For this purpose I have given a revised translation of the Book, in the general style of the Authorized Version, as clear and exact as English idiom would permit; the text has been divided into paragraphs, with headings prefixed to each, summarizing the argument or narrative which follows; and a minimum of short notes has been added sometimes illustrating from other passages the terms used, more frequently explaining briefly historical or other allusions, difficult passages (so far as this was possible), technical expressions, and other things not likely to be familiar to any but special students. It is from being unacquainted with things such as these, that the writings of the prophets are, it is to be feared, found by many readers to be frequently difficult to understand, and consequently unattractive. A few words are, however, often all that is required to remove the obscurity, and render them intelligible. It is especially of importance, if the prophets’ writings are to be properly understood, that attention should be paid to the history and circumstances of the age which gave them birth. For the prophets, however far they rose above the mass of their contemporaries in spirituality and moral force, were essentially, one and all, the children of their time: they spoke out of, and to, the circumstances of their own time ; it was the aim of their life to guide, to reform, or to encourage, as the case might be, their countrymen among whom they lived; and their writings reflect throughout the impression which the movements and circumstances of their own age made upon them. I have accordingly made it my endeavour to acquaint the reader, at least in outline, with the history and circumstances of Jeremiah’s age; and to help him to understand, wherever this was possible, the bearing of his various prophecies upon the events or circumstances which called them forth. Although, however, the volume is intended primarily for readers unacquainted with Hebrew, I have not been forgetful of the needs of Hebrew students; and both the translation, and also the explanatory notes upon some of the renderings at the end of the volume, will, I hope, be found interesting and useful by them. A detailed discussion of exegetical or other difficulties (except in so far as some of them form the subject of the notes just referred to), as also of the deeper literary problems presented by the Book of Jeremiah, I have considered to lie beyond the scope of the present volume. S. R. Driver. Aug. 25, 1906.” }

Book of Jeremiah: Translation & Notes: (Chapters & Verses):
(1): Jeremiah’s Call.
(2-6): Condition & Prospects of Judah under Josiah.
(7-9:26; 10:17-25): Judah’ s Persistent Disregard of Yahweh, & Coming Doom.
(10:1-16): Israel not to Dread Gods of Heathen.
(11:1-12:6): Obedience to Yahweh Inculcated; Consequences of People’s Return to Sins of Their Forefathers; Plot of Men of Anathoth Against Jeremiah’s Life, & Prophet’s Complaint at Their Escape from Justice.
(12:7-17): Lamentation on Desolation of Judah by its Neighbours.
(13): Judah’s Unworthiness, & Approaching Doom, Taught by Symbolism of Marred Waistcloth, & Parable of Filled Wine-Jar.
(14-15): Dialogue between Prophet & Yahweh, Arising out of Drought, on (1) Future Fate of Judah, & (2) Prophets Personal Trials.
(16:1-17:18): Further Predictions of Coming Disaster.
(17:19-27): Exhortation to Observe Sabbath.
(18): Lesson from Potter. Jeremiah’s Predictions of Misfortune Lead to Plots being Formed Against His Life.
(19-20): Lesson of Broken Cruse, & its Consequences to Jeremiah.
(21): Jeremiah declares to Zedekiah Issue of Seige of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans.
(22-24): Jeremiah’s Judgement on Kings & Prophets of His Time: On Kings (22:1-23:8). On Prophets (23:9-40).
(24): Vision of Two Baskets of Figs.
(25): Babylonian Supremacy Foretold.
(26): Jeremiah, Warning People: Temple is likely to Share Fate of Shiloh, Escapes Narrowly with His Life.
(27-29): No Prospect of Speedy End of Babylonian Supremacy: Yoke of King of Babylon Not Yet to be Broken
(27). No Hope of Immediate Restoration of Sacred Vessels (28). Jeremiah’s Letter to Exiles in Babylonia, Bidding Them Dwell Contentedly in Their New Home, & Not Listen to Prophets who Deluded Them with Hopes of Speedy Return to Judah (29).
(30-33): Prophecies & Promises of Restoration.
(34): People Rebuked by Jeremiah for having Promised to Emancipate Their Hebrew Slaves, & then Refusing to Do so.
(35): Lesson from Rechabites.
(36): How Jeremiah’s Prophecies were First Committed to Writing.
(37:1-38:28a): Incidents in Jeremiah’s Life During Siege of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans.
(38:28b-39): Capture of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans, & Favour shewn to Jeremiah Afterwards.
(40-44): Events in Jeremiah’s Life After Fall of Jerusalem: Gedaliah made Governor of Judah; Jeremiah & Other Jews Join him at Mizpah; His Assassination by Ishmael (40-41). Jeremiah Compelled by Other Jews to Accompany Them into Egypt; His Prediction of Invasion of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar (42-43). He Rebukes the Jews Resident in Egypt forb Their Idolatries & Threatens Them with Disaster (44).
(45): Jeremiah’s Prophecy to Baruch.
(46-51): Prophecies Against Nations: On Egypt (46:2-26). On Philistines (47). On Moab (48). On Ammonites
(49:1-6). On Edom (49:7-22). On Damascus (49:23-27). On Kedar & Hazor (49:28-33). On Elam (49:34-39).
On Babylon (50:1-51:58). Message Sent by Jeremiah to Babylon in 4th Year or Zedekiah (51:59-64).
(52): Capture of Jerusalem by Chaldaeans, & Exile of its Inhabitants.

Chronological Table: 100 Years: B.C. 639-537:
‘Josiah’s’ Accession-Year (639) & His 1st ‘Full’ Year (638). ‘Jehoahaz’ & ‘Jehoiakim’ Reign (608). Jehoiakim Tributary to Nebuchadnezzar (c. 600-598). Jehoiachin Reign (597). Zedekiah’s Accession-Year (597). Capture of Babylon by Cyrus (538). Return of Exiles under Zerubbabel (537).

Driver’s Summary & Outline of Jeremiah: (Chapters & Verses):

(1): Jeremiah’s call, in Josiah’s thirteenth year (B.C. 626). (*V. 2, fixing a specific date, forms the title to ch. 1. V. 3 must be an addition by a later hand, intended to extend the terms of v. 2, –though with disregard of prophecies belonging to the period between the thirteenth (13th) year of Josiah (B.C. 626) and the end of his reign (B.C. 608),– so as to include all the prophecies delivered by Jeremiah down to the time of the fall of Jerusalem, B.C. 586 (2nd Kings 25:8, 11).) The vision of Jeremiah’s call to be a prophet of Yahweh. A vision of reassurance for the prophet: Yahweh’s word, though the time may seem long, will not fail of its fulfilment. A vision showing that the judgement will break upon Judah from the north. Jeremiah is encouraged to deliver his message fearlessly, in spite of the opposition which he will provoke by it.

(2-6): The condition and prospects of Judah under Josiah, probably during the years between the prophets call (B.C. 626) and shortly after Josiah’s reformation (B.C. 620). (These chapters contain presumably Jeremiah’s first prophetical discourses, as they were reproduced in a written form in the fifth (5th) year of Jehoiakim (B.C. 603). We learn, namely, from ch. 36, that none of Jeremiah’s prophecies were committed to writing till the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim (B.C. 604); and also that when, in the following year, the king burnt the roll, and it was rewritten by Jeremiah, it was rewritten ‘with additions’ (36:32). Although, therefore, these chapters no doubt, as a whole, reproduce the discourses delivered between 626 and c. 620, it is quite possible that they do not throughout reproduce them ‘verbatim’, but that they are coloured in parts by allusions to the course of subsequent events.)
(1): (2:1-4:4). (Probably shortly after B.C. 626.) The Verdict on Israel’s History. The devotion and happiness of Israel’s youth. Israel’s ingratitude and defection. The bitter consequences of Israel’s unfaithfulness. Israel’s inveterate propensity to idolatry. These gods will give no help in time of need. Israel’s persistent refusal to listen to her prophets. Judah compared to a faithless wife, whose promises of amendment are but as empty words. Judah contrasted unfavourably with Israel. (Vv. 6-18 (in which Judah and Israel are ‘contrasted’) seem to introduce a thought foreign both to 2:1-3:5, and to 3:19-4:4; and have probably been introduced here from a different context.) (* ‘Judah’: So Sept. The Heb. text has, ‘her faithless sister Judah’, which suggests an incorrect sense, as the pronoun can only naturally be understood of the subject in v. 9, which, however, is in fact not Israel, but Judah.) An offer of pardon and restoration, addressed to Israel. The future glory of Jerusalem, in which Judah, as well as Israel, is ultimately to share. How Yahweh’s gracious purpose towards His people had been frustrated (the sequel to 3:1-5). The prophet pictures Judah returning in penitence to Yahweh. Yahweh’s reply to Judah’s words: if Judah is truly penitent, the heathen will be brought to own Yahweh as their God. Let Judah begin a new life, before it is too late.
(2): (4:5-6:30). The approaching judgement. The foe is at the door; and Judah’s heedlessness and sin are working out their natural consequences. (The prominence in this prophecy of the foe from the north (cf. 4:6; 6:1, 22) makes it probable that it is somewhat later than 2:1-4:5, in which no such specific danger is referred to. The foe whom Jeremiah had in mind when he originally delivered the prophecy was in all probability the Scythians, a wild and fierce people, whose proper home was on the north of the Crimea, but who often made predatory incursions into distant parts, and who actually, Herodotus tells us (i. 105-8) overran Western Asia at about 625 B.C., and advanced through Palestine as far as Ashkelon, intending to invade Egypt. When, however, the prophecy was committed to writing, and, as it were, re-edited, in 604 (see above, p. 5), the descriptions were probably intended to refer to the Chaldaeans, who in the interval had become Judah’s most formidable enemy, the phraseology being possibly modified in parts, so as to be more suitable: the ‘lion’ and ‘destroyer of nations’ in 6:7, for instance, are terms more applicable to an individual leader like Nebuchadnezzar than to a horde.) A foe from the north is on his way, and will ere long fill the country with dismay. Description of the enemy’s approach. The prophet, speaking in the people’s name, describes the terror which thrills through him at the prospect of war. The reason of these woes. The prophet’s vision of the desolation about to fall upon Judah. (*’formless and empty’: The two words found in Gen. 1:2: cf. Isa. 34:11 ‘and he shall stretch over it (Edom) the line of formlessness, and the plummet of emptiness.’) Judah’s doom is irrevocable; no arts or blandishments will avail to divert the invader. Gladly would Yahweh have pardoned, had the nation shown itself worthy of forgiveness; but all, high and low alike, are corrupt. Let the appointed ministers of judgement, then, complete their work. The moral cause of the coming disaster; prophet and priest unite in the furtherance of evil. Description of the danger as drawing nearer. The completeness of the ruin. The cause in the corruption of the people. In vain has Israel been warned beforehand by its prophets. Renewed description of the invader (cf. v. 5:15-17). Jeremiah’s report on the character of the people; all his efforts to refine them had been in vain. (*’separated’: A fig. description of the vain efforts made by the prophet to remove the evil elements from his people. In refining, the alloy containing the gold or silver is mixed with lead, and fused in a furnace on a vessel of earth or bone-ash: a current of air is turned upon the molten mass (not upon the ‘fire’); the lead then oxidizes, and acting as a flux, carries away the alloy, leaving the gold or silver pure (J. Napier, ‘The Ancient Workers in Metal’, 1856, pp. 20, 23). In the case here imagined by the prophet, so inextricably is the alloy mixed with the silver, that, though the bellows blow, and the lead is oxidized in the heat, no purification is effected: only impure silver remains.)

(7-10): (except 10:1-16): (A group of prophecies belonging probably to the early years (B.C. 608-5) of Jehoiakim’s reign.)
(1): (7:1-28). Not the presence of Yahweh’s Temple in Judah, but amendment of life and obedience to Yahweh’s moral commands, is the condition of His favour and protection. (The occasion seems to be the same as that of 26:1-9, which is assigned (v. 1 ) to the ‘beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim’ (B.C. 608-7).) Yahweh threatens to do to His temple in Jerusalem as He did formerly to His Temple at Shiloh. Yahweh will accept no intercession on behalf of His people; for it is wholly given to idolatry. Yahweh has demanded of His people not sacrifice, but loyalty to Himself, and obedience to His moral commands. But to these demands Israel has never responded. (*The words must be supposed to be spoken with irony and contempt. The burnt-offering was not eaten by the worshipper, but only parts of the peace-offering. Yahweh however cares so little for either, as offered by these idolatrous Israelites, that they may, if they please, eat both together; they are nothing really sacred, but only ‘flesh.’) (* When Jeremiah wrote, the priestly parts of the Pent. had in all probability not yet been combined with the rest of the Pentateuch, and the reference here is to the latter. Sacrifices are indeed enjoined in JE (Ex. 23:14-19), and Deuteronomy: but little stress is laid upon them; and the ‘promises’ (as here, ‘in order that it may be well with you’) are annexed more generally to loyalty to Yahweh and the refusal to follow after other gods. See Ex. 15:26; 19:5, 6; 23:21 ff.; Deut. 28:1,2; and cf. Deut. 4:40, v. 33 (which particularly resembles v. 23’b’ here), 6:3, 18; also 10:12-13.) Nor will the people respond to them now.
(2): (7:29-8:3). Let the nation mourn over the idolatry which has caused Yahweh to cast off His people. A terrible judgement will overtake the people. Even the bones of the buried Israelites will suffer indignities: their graves will be opened and desecrated by the enemy.
(3): (8:4-17). Judah’s utter refusal to repent and return to Yahweh. (*Or, ‘hath made’ (it) ‘of falsehood’. The priests gave ‘törah’, or ‘direction,’ on cases. The retribution of ceremonial or other usage submitted to them (Deut. 24:8 [where ‘teach’ means ‘direct how to act’], Hag. 2:11-13 [render in v. 11 ‘Ask, now, ‘direction’ of the priests’]); and they declare here that they possess the legitimate traditional body of directions, or ‘law,’ respecting religious practice (cf. 2:8, 18:18). Jeremiah replies that the scribes have falsified this body of directions, –exactly in what way we do not know: perhaps by claiming to have Yahweh’s sanction for practices or ceremonial usages, of which in reality He did not approve.) which will fall upon them. Another description of the approach of the invader from the north.
(4): (8:18-9:22; 10:17-25). Jeremiah bewails the desperate condition and prospects of his country. The corruption of society in Judah. The judgement upon this corruption. The desolation destined shortly to come upon Judah. The bitter consequences of Judah’s abandonment of Yahweh. Let the mourning women come, and chant a dirge over Judah’s fall. (9:23-26): (Two short prophetic utterances, in no apparent connexion with the context, and probably (like 3:6-18) misplaced.) Only the right knowledge of Yahweh, and of His will for men, will profit a man. If Judah has only the circumcision of the flesh, it will be treated by Yahweh as no better than other nations. (10:1-16): No need to dread the gods of the heathen. (This section (10:1-16) interrupts the connexion (for 10:17-25 carries on the train of thought of 9:1-22); and in all probability is the work not of Jeremiah himself, but of some later prophet, probably of one living in the latter part of the Babylonian captivity, when the exiles were in danger of being overawed by the elaborate idol-worship carried on by the Babylonians around them. Cf. the similar descriptions and arguments of the second Isaiah, Is. 40:19-22; 41:7, 29; 44:9-20; 44:5-7.) (9:26-10:6): Let Israel not be tempted to stand in awe of the idols of the heathen. An idol is a thing of nought: it is Yahweh who made heaven and earth. (10:17-25): (Continuation of 9:22). The prophet sees in spirit the capital invested by the foe, and bids the inhabitants prepare to depart into exile. Jeremiah, speaking in the name of the people, prays for a mitigation of the judgement.

(11:1-12:6): (11:1-8). (The date is apparently shortly after the discovery of Deuteronomy in Josiah’s 18th year (B.C. 621).) Jeremiah is instructed to exhort the people to live in accordance with the Deuteronomic Law. Jeremiah instructed again to exhort the people to like effect, and to remind them of the consequences of disobedience. (11:9-17). (This part of the chapter belongs probably to the reign of Jehoiakim, when it had become clear (v. 10) that Josiah’s reformation had led to no lasting results.) The present generation has returned to the sins of their forefathers, and the prophet therefore reaffirms against them the sentence of judgement. (* Viz. after the reformation (2nd Kings 23), following the discovery of the ‘Book of the Law’ (i.e. the discourses of Deuteronomy) in Josiah’s eighteenth year, B.C. 621 (2nd Kings 22).) Yahweh will accept no intercession on behalf of His people; and hypocritical service will not avail to avert the doom. (11:18-12:6) Jeremiah’s discovery of a plot formed against his life by the men of his native place, Anathoth; and the judgement pronounced by him upon them in consequence. Jeremiah is surprised at the prosperity enjoyed by the wicked; and demands upon the conspirators summary vengeance. His impatience is rebuked: he may have in the future still greater trials to endure.

(12:7-17): (The prophecy dates probably from c. 598 B.C., when, after Jehoiakim’s revolt from Nebuchadnezzar, the territory of Judah was overrun by bands of Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites (2nd Kings 24:1,2).) A lamentation on the desolation of Judah by its evil-disposed neighbours (v. 14). (The speaker is Yahweh; and the sorrow and reluctance with which He gives up His heritage are pathetically depicted.) Judah’s evil-disposed neighbours will be taken into exile; but if they adopt from the heart Judah’s religion, they mll be restored to their own lands.

(13): (Vv. 18,19 belong clearly to the reign of Jehoiachin (B.C. 597), the rest of the chapter dates, probably, from that of Jehoiakim (B.C. 608-597).) Jeremiah performs a symbolical act, illustrating the corrupt condition of the people, and its consequences. Explanation of the symbolical act. A parable declaring the disaster about to fall upon Judah. Take this message to heart betimes. A lamentation on the approaching fate of Jehoiachin (B.C. 597), and his Queen-mother, Nehushta. The prophet laments the disaster which the sins of Jerusalem are bringing upon her.

(14-15): A dialogue between the prophet and Yahweh, arising out of a drought in Judah. The distress of men and animals occasioned by the drought. The prophet, interpreting the drought as a sign of Yahweh’s anger, utters a confession and supplication in the name of his people. Yahweh’s reply: He will accept no intercession on behalf of the people. Jeremiah endeavours to excuse the people, laying the blame upon their prophets. Yahweh replies again: the prophets to whom Jeremiah refers have spoken lies in His name: and the doom of Jerusalem will not be deferred. Jeremiah, in more beseeching tones, renews his supplication and confession in the name of his people. The prophet’s intercession is rejected even more decisively than before: the fate of Judah is sealed. Jeremiah laments the hard fate which has made him, through the message of evil which he bears, an object of ill-will to all men. Yahweh reassures him: The time will come when his enemies, crushed by the Chaldaean power, and with exile imminent before them, will come to implore his help. Jeremiah entreats Yahweh to interpose on his behalf: why should he be persecuted for having delivered his message faithfully? Yahweh’s final reply. Jeremiah, if he desires happiness and success, must turn back from following the false path of distrust and despair.

(16:1-17:18): Further predictions of the coming disaster; Jeremiah is not to be the father of a family: for a terrible end will ere long overtake the families of Judah. He is to take no part in either the domestic sorrows or the domestic joys of his people: for a time is coming in which there will be no place for either. The reason for these threatened judgements is the people’s idolatry. A promise of ultimate restoration. (The two following verses recur (with slight verbal differences) in 23:7,8, where they form a suitable close to the preceding prophecy. It is hardly possible that they can have originally stood here at all; for the context, on both sides, relates to Judah’s approaching exile, and vv. 16-18 continue the line of thought of vv. 10-13.) The fate which ere long will overtake the people. (Continuation of w. 10-13.) Yahweh is the prophet’s hope and strength; and the time will come when He will be recognized, even by the heathen, as the true God. Meanwhile Judah will be taught by Yahweh, who it is that they have rejected. Judah’s sin is indelible; and will be followed by condign punishment. It is useless to trust in man: Yahweh, to those who put their trust in Him and act righteously (vv. 9-11), is the sole source of strength in the hour of trouble. The prophet prays to be delivered from those who taunt and persecute him.

(17:19-27): An exhortation to observe the Sabbath.

(18): A lesson from the potter. As the potter, if the need arises, can change the vessel that he is making into another, so can Yahweh deal with His people: if it repents, He can withdraw His threats; if it does evil, He can revoke His promises. Let Judah, then, repent, in order that the threatened doom may be averted. But Judah refuses to repent; and so the judgement originally pronounced is re-affirmed. The people, resenting this unwelcome conclusion of the prophet’s, propose to form plots against his life. Jeremiah’s prayer that their plots against him may be frustrated.

(19-20): The lesson of the broken cruse, and its consequences. (The date, to judge from the distinctness with which Babylon is mentioned (20:4-6), will be after Nebuchadnezzar’s victory at Carchemish (see on 25:1), though probably still in the reign of Jehoiakim, i.e. between 605 and 597 B.C.) Jeremiah, prophesying in the Valley of the son of Hinnom, teaches, by an effective symbolism, that the disaster, impending upon the nation, will be final and irretrievable. Jeremiah repeats in the court of the Temple the substance of what he had said in the Valley of the son of Hinnom. Pashhur, the superintendent of the Temple, has Jeremiah thrown into the stocks, on account of his predictions of disaster. After his release, Jeremiah again emphatically repeats his predictions, pointing them in particular against Pashhur himself. (*Pashhur and his friends represented a policy opposed to that of Jeremiah: they believed that fear of the Chaldaeans was groundless, and that with the help of Egypt Judah would be able to resist them successfully. The name here given to him is intended to describe partly the consternation of which he will be the centre, partly the consternation which he will experience himself, when the fatal consequences of his policy have become apparent to all in the fall of the city, and exile of the nation, at the hands of the Chaldaeans.) Jeremiah complains bitterly of his lot: he could not but give utterance to the Divine word burning within him, yet it had brought him nothing but hostility and misrepresentation. Nevertheless, he is sustained and encouraged by the conviction that Yahweh is with him, and will in the end grant him justice against his persecutors. A renewed outburst of grief and despair, which now wring from him the wish that he had never been born (cf. Job 3).

(21): Zedekiah, shortly after the Chaldaeans began to besiege Jerusalem (B.C. 588), inquires of Jeremiah respecting the issue of the siege. Jeremiah’s reply: the city will be delivered into the hands of the Chaldaeans. The only hope of safety is to submit to the Chaldaeans. (*The policy here inculcated by Jeremiah was due ultimately (cf. ch. 25 and the introduction to ch. 46) to his conviction of the role which the Chaldaeans were destined to play in history; but it seemed to many of his fellow-countrymen to be unpatriotic, and led shortly afterwards, indirectly, to his arrest and imprisonment (37:13 ff.), and to a demand for his death (38:2, 4 ff.).) A warning addressed to the royal house. Only by the strict observance of justice can the coming doom be averted. (Apparently a misplaced fragment. V. 12 is parallel in general thought to 22:3, 5, but is out of connexion with either 21:1-10 or 21:13-14.) Yahweh is against Jerusalem, and will punish her inhabitants for their wrong-doing. (A poetical epilogue to vv. 1-10.)

(22-23): Jeremiah’s judgement on the kings and prophets of his time.
(1) (22:1-23:8). The kings. Exhortation to the king and princes to do justice in the land (cf. 2nd Sam. 8:15, 1st Kings 10:9), if they desire its continued prosperity. A lament on the approaching fall of the house of David. Jehoahaz (2nd Kings 23:31-35), who succeeded Josiah, but after a reign of three months (B.C. 608) was taken captive by Pharaoh Necoh, and carried into Egypt, where he died. Jehoiakim (2nd Kings 23:36-24:7: B.C. 608-597), whose selfish and oppressive luxury is contrasted bitterly with the just rule of his father Josiah. Jehoiachin (2nd Kings 24:8-16; 25:27-30), who, after a reign of three months, was carried captive to Babylon, with the flower of the nation, by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 597). A denunciation of the unworthy rulers of Judah, and promise that Yahweh will raise up faithful rulers in their place. A promise of the ideal King, or ‘Messiah.’ Those now in exile will have a share in these promised blessings; and the memory of their deliverance will eclipse that of the Exodus from Egypt.
(2) (23:9-40). The prophets. The judgement to come upon both prophet and priest. Concerning the prophets. The prophets of Jerusalem are worse than were formerly the prophets of Samaria. A warning not to listen to their delusive promises of peace: Yahweh has not sent them. Yahweh’s purpose of judgement upon the wicked. (vv. 19-20 recur, with unimportant differences, in 30:23,24; and it is doubtful if they are here in their original place. If they are, they will be intended as an announcement of Yahweh’s real purpose, as contrasted with those made by the false prophets, v. 17. vv. 21-22 carry on the thought of vv. 16-18.) Yahweh sees and knows what these prophets do; and will punish them accordingly. The word massä (‘oracle,’ ‘burden’), which was applied mockingly to the prophecies of the true prophets, to be no more used in Judah. (To understand the following paragraph, it is necessary to remember the double sense of the Heb. ‘massä’. ‘Massä’ means something ‘lifted’ or ‘taken up’, i.e. either literally a burden, or fig. something ‘taken up’ upon the lips, a ‘solemn utterance’, or ‘oracle’ (see IRVm. of 2nd Kings 9:26 [where ‘uttered’ is lit. ‘took up’]. Is. 13:1; 15:1, etc.). It seems that on account of Jeremiah’s prophecies being so constantly of coming disaster, this term was applied to them derisively in the sense of ‘burden’, and hence it is forbidden to be in future used in Judah: people are not to ask a prophet, ‘What ‘massä’ have you? ‘ but ‘What hath Yahweh answered’? or ‘What hath Yahweh said?’ At the same time Yahweh retorts the people’s word upon themselves by saying, ‘Not My words, but you yourselves, are the “burden”; and I will no longer be burdened with you; I will cast you from Me!’)

(24): The different characters and destinies of the Jews taken into exile with Jehoiachin (B.C. 597), and of those remaining in the city with Zedekiah, as symbolized by two baskets of figs, seen by Jeremiah in a vision. (*In explanation of the contrast here drawn between the two sections of the people, see the Introduction, p. xxx Ezekiel agrees with Jeremiah in judging Zedekiah and the Jews left with him in Jerusalem unfavourably (ch. 12; 17:1-21; 21:25-27; ch. 22), and in fixing his hopes for the future upon the exiles with Jehoiachin (11:17-21; 20:37, 38).)

(25): The Babylonian supremacy foretold. (Jeremiah, in accordance with the view to which he was led by the defeat of the Egyptians at Carchemish, B.C. 605 (see the Introduction to ch. 46), that the Chaldaeans were destined to become the rulers of Western Asia, declares here, first that Judah and the surrounding nations (vv. 1-14) will be subject to them for seventy years (70), and afterwards that the then known world generally (vv. 15-38) will fall into their hands.) How the people had refused to listen to the warnings of the prophets. Judah, therefore, not less than the neighbouring countries, will be laid waste, by the Chaldaeans, and be subject to them for seventy years (70). (*vv. 12-14, or, in any case, vv. 13-14, cannot have formed part of the original prophecy of Jeremiah delivered in the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, but must have been added when the book of Jeremiah was completed, and stood substantially in its present form. For (1) vv. 15, 16 (notice ‘For’) give the reason, not for vv. 12-14 (the punishment, after seventy years, of Babylon), but for v. 11 (the subjugation of Judah and surrounding nations to Babylon); and (2) the terms of v. 13 presuppose the completion of Jeremiah’s book, and in particular the inclusion in it of the prophecy against Babylon in 50:1-51:58, which, in all probability, is not by Jeremiah at all, and, even if it is, was certainly not incorporated in the book of his prophecies till long after B.C. 604 (the short prophecy against Babylon in 51:59-64 is assigned by its title to the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah, B.C. 593). V. 12 is based most probably upon 29:10, and (at the end) upon 51:26, 62; v. 13 refers expressly to the prophecies against the nations contained in chaps, 46-51, and esp. to chaps. 50-51; v. 14 is based upon xxvii. 27:7’b’, and 50:29, 51:24. Cf. Davidson, in Hastings’ ‘Dict. of the Bible’, ii. p. 574.) Jeremiah (in a vision) gives the cup of Yahweh’s fury to the nations to drink. A figurative and hyperbolical description of what Yahweh will accomplish in the world by the agency of the Chaldaeans. Let kings and nobles wail over the doom that is about to fall upon them.

(26): Jeremiah, warning the people publicly that, unless they mend their ways, the Temple will share the same fate which of old befel the sanctuary of Shiloh, escapes narrowly with his life. (The occasion is generally considered to be the same as that which forms the subject of ch. 7, ch. 7 reporting more fully what Jeremiah said, and this chapter describing at length what is not mentioned in ch. 7, the personal consequences to Jeremiah himself. V. 1 fixes the date to B.C. 608, or shortly after.) The warning addressed by Jeremiah to the people. Jeremiah is attacked on account of what he had said by the priests and prophets opposed to him. He is saved from death only by the intervention of the princes and the people, who endorse his plea that he has simply spoken as Yahweh had commanded him. Certain elders also recall the very different treatment accorded a century before to Micah, when he announced the coming destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple. Jeremiah thus escapes with his life; but Uriah, a prophet like-minded with him, falls under the displeasure of the king, and is put to death.

(27-29): (Jeremiah, on three separate occasions, insists that there is no prospect of a speedy deliverance from the yoke of the king of Babylon, or of a speedy return of the sacred vessels which Nebuchadnezzar had carried away with Jehoiachin in 597 to Babylon.)
(1) (27). The yoke of the king of Babylon not yet to be broken. (In the fourth (4th) year (see 28:1) of Zedekiah (B.C. 593), the kings of Edom, Moab, the Ammonites, Tyre, and Zidon, having invited Zedekiah to join them in revolting from Nebuchadnezzar, Jeremiah sends to warn them of the futility of making any such attempt.) The warning sent to the five kings. Jeremiah addresses a similar teaming to Zedekiah. The prophets who promise the speedy restoration of the sacred vessels delude the people with false hopes: even the vessels still left in Jerusalem will also be carried away, and restored only in a still undetermined future.
(2) (28). No hope of a speedy restoration of the sacred vessels. Hananiah, one of the prophets alluded to in ch. 27, announces that within two years the yoke of the Chaldaeans will be broken: the sacred vessels will then be restored, and the exiled Jews will return. (*For the restoration of various gold and silver bowls, etc., by Cyrus in 536, see Ezr. 1:7-11. The pillars, the brasen sea, and the bases (v. 19), were never restored, for these, being too heavy to be transported entire to Babylon, were broken up by the Chaldaeans before being removed from Jerusalem (52:17).) Jeremiah meets Hananiah’s promises with an emphatic contradiction.
(3) (29). The letter sent by Jeremiah to the exiles in Babylonia, exhorting them to settle down where they are, and not to listen to the prophets who promise them a speedy return to Judah. Settle down contentedly in your new home. Give no heed to the prophets who promise a speedy return to Judah. For no restoration will take place till the seventy (70) years of Babylonian domination are ended, when those now in exile with Jehoiachin will turn to Yahweh, and He will bring them back (cf. 24:5-7). For Zedekiah and the Jews left with him in Jerusalem are beyond hope of amendment, so that they will go into exile and remain there permanently (cf. 24:8-10). (*Vv. 16-20 are not in the Sept., and may not have formed part of Jeremiah’s original letter. The digression on the fate of the Jews in Jerusalem seems out of place in a letter of advice written to the exiles in Babylonia; and it is possible that, in the recension of his letter which found its place in the Heb. text of his book, it was not reproduced with literal exactness, but expanded in parts with additions taking account of the Jews in Jerusalem as well as of those already in exile.) But the false prophets in Babylonia, who fill you with vain hopes of restoration, will meet with an untimely end. (*This verse stands here in Lucian’s text of the Sept. (which contains vv. 16-20): in the ordinary text of the Sept. (which is without w. 16-20), also, it of course stands immediately before v. 21. In the Heb. text it stands before v. 16, where it yields no sense agreeable to the context (for it cannot give a reason for anything contained either in vv. 10-14 or In vv. 16-19); standing before vv. 21-23, it gives the reason why the exiles are to listen to what is said in these verses.) Shemaiah, one of the false prophets in Babylonia, displeased by this letter of Jeremiah’s, writes to Jerusalem, with the view of procuring the prophet’s arrest.

(30-33): Prophecies and promises of restoration.
(1) (30). Judah, though she has suffered greatly for her sins, will nevertheless be restored; her exiles will return, and Jerusalem will be rebuilt. A day of judgement is coming upon the world, out of which, however, Israel will be delivered. Israel, for her sins, has suffered greatly: ruin and exile have fallen upon her: but now Yahweh will heal her wounds, and she will be freed from her oppressors. The exiles will return, Jerusalem will be rebuilt, and again enjoy prosperity, under the rule of an independent prince of David’s line. The approach of the judgement upon the wicked.
(2) (31). A promise of restoration to the Israelites of the northern kingdom. The prophecy of the New Covenant. The territory of Ephraim to be again re-peopled and cultivated. Ephraim’s happy return from exile. The prophet hears in imagination Rachel, the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, bewailing from her grave near Ramah the exile of her sons: but Yahweh bids her stay her grief; there is still hope for her sons’ return. The ground of this hope is Ephraim’s penitence, which enables Yahweh to welcome his prodigal home with affection. Let exiled Ephraim, then, bethink herself of her journey homewards. Judah, also, will be restored, as well as Ephraim. Yahweh will then be watchful over His restored people; and will so transform the constitution of society that, whereas now the children suffer for their fathers’ sins, then the bitter consequences of sin will be confined to the sinner. The prophecy of the New Covenant. Israel, in the ideal future, is to be ruled, not by a system of observances imposed from without, but by a law written in the heart, a principle operative from within, filling all with the knowledge of Yahweh, and prompting all to ready and perfect obedience. Two solemn promises of the national permanence of Israel. Jerusalem will be rebuilt, even beyond its former limits, and be holy to Yahweh.
(3) (32). Jeremiah, in full confidence of his people’s restoration, redeems some land belonging to his family at Anathoth. (In the second year of the siege of Jerusalem (B.C. 587), Jeremiah’s cousin comes to him, offering him the redemption of some land belonging to him at Anathoth. Jeremiah, seeing in this a divine sign, or omen, that, though the exile of the nation was imminent, the Jews would still once again possess the soil of Benjamin and Judah, redeems the land, and takes special precautions to ensure the preservation of the title-deeds, vv. 1-15. In vv. 16-25 Jeremiah records how his heart afterwards misgave him and in vv. 26-44 how he was reassured by Yahweh.) Jeremiah redeems the land belonging to his cousin at Anathoth. Appearances were so strongly against such hopes, that Jeremiah’s heart misgave him; and he casts himself upon Yahweh in prayer. (*The double deed may perhaps be explained from a BabyIonian custom. Contracts stamped upon clay tablets have been found, namely, in Babylonia, enclosed in an envelope of clay, on the outside of which an exact duplicate of the contract was impressod (see an illustration in Maspero, ‘The Dawn of Civilization’, p. 732): if in course of time any disagreement arose, and it was suspected that the outside text had been tampered with, the envelope was broken in the presence of witnesses to see if the inside text agreed with it or not. Earthen jars containing such duplicate contracts have been excavated at Nippur (Peters, Nippur, ii. 198).) Appearances were so strongly against such hopes, that Jeremiah’s heart misgave him; and he casts himself upon Yahweh in prayer. Yahweh’s reply. Jerusalem has indeed abundantly merited the judgement now breaking upon it. Nevertheless, Yahweh will, as He has promised, bring back His people from their exile, and give them a new heart, to serve and please Him continually.
(4) (33). Further promises of future restoration. The land now desolate will then be re-inhabited; and the signs of joy and life will be manifest everywhere in it. A promise of the ideal king or ‘Messiah,’ and of the perpetual permanence both of the Davidic dynasty, and of the Levitical priesthood. (Vv. 14-15 are repeated, with slight variations, from 23:5-6. The entire section, vv. 14-26, is not in the Sept.) A renewed promise of the permanence of the Davidic dynasty, and the Levitical priesthood. Yahweh will never cast off His people, or bring to an end the rule of the seed of David.

(34): (Incidents during the siege of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans (B.C. 588-6).)
(1) Jeremiah declares to Zedekiah the issue of the siege, and the king’s own future fate.
(2) The people, when the siege began, had sworn solemnly to obey the law, and emancipate their Hebrew slaves, but had afterwards, when the siege was temporarily raised, disowned the obligation. Jeremiah rebukes them for their disrespect towards Yahweh, and breach of faith. Yahweh will emancipate them from His own service and protection unto destruction; and the Chaldaeans will ere long return, and take the city.

(35): Jeremiah and the Rechabites. (Towards the close of the reign of Jehoiakim, in consequence of the territory of Judah being overrun by marauding bands of Chaldaeans, Syrians, and others, the family of the Rechabites, who had hitherto lived a nomad life in tents, took refuge in Jerusalem; and Jeremiah, from the example of their staunch adherence to the precepts of their ancestor, points a lesson for his own countrymen.) (*The Rechabites were a subdivision of the Kenites (1st Chron. 2:55), a nomad tribe early associated with Israel, settled afterwords in the S. of Judah (Jud. 1:16, 1st Sam. 15:6, cf. 27:10).)

(36): (How Jeremiah’s prophecies were first committed to writing.) In the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim (B.C. 604), Jeremiah is commanded to write down all the prophecies which had been uttered by him during the past twenty-three (23) years. He dictates them accordingly to Baruch, and directs him to read them publicly in the Temple. In the following year Baruch reads the roll in the Temple. Some of the princes, hearing of its contents, have it read again to them selves, and resolve then to inform Jehoiakim about it. (*Heb. ‘the scribe’. The king’s ‘scribe,’ or, as we should say, ‘secretary’ (1st Kings 4:3 ‘al’., RVm.), was an important minister of state: see 1st Kings 4:3; 2nd Kings 12:10, Isa. 37:2. It was the secretary, Shaphan, here mentioned, who, 18 years before, brought and read Deuteronomy to Josiah, after it had been discovered by the high priest, Hilkiah, in the Temple: see 2nd Kings 23:3, 8, 9-11, 12, 14. Gemariah was the brother of Ahikam, who had befriended Jeremiah a few years previously (26:24).) Jehoiakim orders the roll to be brought and read before him. Enraged by its contents, he cuts it in pieces, and burns it in the fire. Jeremiah is commanded to rewrite the roll of his prophecies; and to announce to Jehoiakim the failure of his dynasty and his own ignominious death. The roll, with many additions, is rewritten by Baruch at Jeremiah’s dictation.

(37-38:28’a’): (The personal history of Jeremiah during the siege of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans (B.C. 588-6): his arrest on a charge of deserting to the enemy; his confinement, first in a dungeon in the house of Jonathan, the king’s secretary, then in the guard-court, after that, in an underground cistern, and lastly in the guard-court again; and his interviews with Zedekiah.) Introductory note on the accession and policy of Zedekiah (B.C. 597-586). The Chaldaeans being obliged to raise the siege, Jeremiah, in reply to an enquiry addressed to him by the king, declares that they will soon return and take the city. He is arrested as a deserter; and thrown into a dungeon in the house of Jonathan, the king’s secretary. Jeremiah tells Zedekiah that he will fall into the hands of the Chaldaeans. He is removed from the dungeon, and placed in honourable confinement in the guard-court, adjoining the royal palace. (*Shaphan, who was ‘secretary’ 17 years before, under Jehoiachin (36:10), was thus no longer in office. If he was not dead, he may have been carried off to Babylon with Jehoiachin and the other ministers in 597 (24:1).) Jeremiah is accused before Zedekiah of high treason; and cast into a disused underground cistern, in the house of one of the royal princes. Ebed-melech, a foreign eunuch employed in the palace, obtains permission from Zedekiah to remove Jeremiah from the cistern. Zedekiah again consults Jeremiah secretly; and is again told by him that his only hope of safety is to surrender Jerusalem to the Chaldaeans. Zedekiah enjoins Jeremiah not to say anything to the princes about the conversation which they had had together.

(38:28’b’-39:3, 14): The favour shown to Jeremiah by the Chaldaeans after the capture of Jerusalem. He is entrusted to the care of Gedaliah, son of his friend Ahikam (26:24), and allowed to retire to his own home. (The narrative is interrupted by particulars respecting the capture of the city, and incidents following it (39:1-2, 4-13: see the notes on vv. 1 and 4). (*Vv. 1-2 interrupt the connexion, –not only (in v. 1) going back to the beginning of the siege, but being inserted in the middle of a sentence,– in a manner which shows that they must originally have been a marginal gloss on the words ‘Jerusalem was taken,’ added to explain how this came about. In substance the verses are an abridgement of 2nd Kings 25:l-3’a’, 4’a’ (–Jer. 52:4-6’a’, 7’a’).) (*Vv. 4-13 are omitted in the Sept., probably rightly. Vv. 4-10, containing particulars of what happened after the capture of the city, –in fact (see 2nd Kings 25:8 –Jer. 52:12) a month afterwards,– are abridged from 2nd Kings 25:4 (second and following clauses), 5-7, 9-12, in the purer and more original text preserved in Jer. 52:7, 8-11, 13-16. The verses were probably (like vv. 1,2) inserted where they now stand, long after the rest of the narrative was completed. It is doubtful also whether vv. 11-13 form part of the original narrative here: not only are they also absent in the Sept., but v. 11 and v. 13 both attach badly to v. 3; Nebuzaradan, the principal officer in vv.11, 13, is not mentioned at all in v. 3, and Jer. 52:12 shows that he did not come to Jerusalem till a month after the city had been taken. What we expect to find after 38:28 is an account of what happened to Jeremiah after the capture of Jerusalem; and this is contained in 28:6; 39:3, 14.) (*Gedaliah was thus son of the Ahikam, who, some twenty (20) years before (26:24), had been instrumental in saving Jeremiah’s life.) Jeremiah, in Yahweh’s name, promises safety to Ebed-melech, who had rescued him from the cistern (38:7-13), in the day when Jerusalem is taken. (Vv. 15-18 form evidently a supplement to ch. 38. They relate to a period anterior in date to the capture of Jerusalem (39:1-14), while Jeremiah was confined in the guard-court (38:13, 28).)

(40-44): (Events in Jeremiah’s life after the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans. The appointment of Gedaliah as governor of Judah; his murder by Ishmael; Johanan and the other Jews with him oblige Jeremiah to migrate with them into Egypt.) Jeremiah is released by Nebuzaradan, and allowed to go where he pleases. He joins Gedaliah (whom Nebuchadnezzar had made governor of Judah) at Mizpah. Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, a member of the royal family, Johanan, the son of Kareah, and other Jews (including many who had been in exile), join Gedaliah at Mizpah. Johanan warns Gedaliah against Ishmael. Gedaliah is murdered in Mizpah by Ishmael. Seventy (70) men, journeying to Mizpah, are murdered by him likewise. Ishmael, taking forcibly with him the other refugees, starts to cross over to the Ammonites, but is overtaken by Johanan at Gibeon, and obliged to flee with the loss of his captives. Johanan and his companions, with the refugees recovered from Ishmael, withdraw to Bethlehem, intending eventually to find a home in Egypt. Johanan and the people with him consult Jeremiah, promising faithfully to do whatever he may tell them. Jeremiah, in Yahweh’ s name, earnestly dissuades them from migrating into Egypt, declaring that, if they do so, destruction will assuredly overtake them. Johanan and his companions refuse to listen to Jeremiah’s words; and proceed to Egypt, taking both Jeremiah and Baruch with them. Upon the arrival of the refugees at the border-city of Tahpanhes (Daphnae), Jeremiah, before the royal palace, foretells the future conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah rebukes the Jews resident in Egypt for continuing the idolatries practised by their forefathers, which had been the cause of Jerusalem’s ruin. The remnant of Judah, who have taken refuge in Egypt, will perish there; at most a mere handful will ever return to Judah. The Jews who worshipped the queen of heaven reply that, as long as they had worshipped her, prosperity had attended them, but it had now ceased. Their prosperity had ceased, Jeremiah replies, not because they had neglected the queen of heaven, but because of Yahweh’s anger with them for worshipping her at all. Jeremiah repeats his previous declaration that of the remnant who have taken refuge in Egypt, all but a mere handful will perish there. And points to the approaching fall of Pharaoh Hophra, as a sign witnessing to the truth of his prediction. (*Pharaoh Hophra (called by the Greeks Apries) reigned from B.C. 590 to B.C. 571. He was deposed by a military revolution; and Amasis (into whose hands he fell, and who ultimately succeeded him) delivered him over to the Egyptians, by whom he was strangled (Herod, ii. 161-163, 169).)

(45): Words of mingled reassurance and reproof, addressed to Baruch, in the depression and disappointment which overcame him, after writing the roll of the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim. (A supplement to 36:1-8.) (*I.e. the words forming the roll of Jeremiah’s prophecies, written by Baruch, at Jeremiah’s dictation, in the fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim, B.C. 605 (36:1-4); and containing predictions of disaster for Judah, and (25:15-38) Western Asia generally.) (*Baruch is reminded that the age is one in which he must not expect great things for himself, but must be content if he escapes with his bare life; even Yahweh (v. 4) is obliged to destroy the work of His own hands.)

(46-51): Prophecies against the nations.
(1) (46-49). (* Nebuchadnezzar was not yet actually ‘king’ of Babylon, though he became so a few months afterwards; see the writer’s ‘Daniel’ (in the ‘Cambridge Bible’), pp. xlix. 2. The fourth (4th) year of Jehoiakim is in 25:1 equated with the first (1st) year of Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 604): so it seems that the battle of Carchemish took place really in the previous year, 605.) (Pharaoh Necho (B.C. 610-594), an ambitious and aspiring prince, essayed to add Syria, and the neighbouring parts of Asia, W. of the Euphrates, to his dominions. As he was marching through Palestine to effect his purpose, Josiah, attempting to turn him back, met his death at Megiddo (B.C. 609). Three months later Necho is mentioned as being at Riblah, in the land of Hamath, some seventy (70) miles N. of Damascus (see 2nd Kings 23:29, 33). Some years afterwards (B.C. 608), he set out with a large army, and joined battle with Nabopolassar, the king of Babylon, at Carchemish, the great commercial city and fortress, commanding the principal ford of the Euphrates, by which armies marching to and fro between Babylon and Palestine, or Egypt, regularly crossed the river, about 260 miles N.N.E. of Damascus. There his army was completely defeated by Nebuchadnezzar, acting as general for his father, Nabopolassar. This defeat of the Egyptians at Carchemish was politically the turning-point of the age. Jeremiah at once saw that the Chaldaeans were destined to become the rulers of Western Asia (cf. ch. 25); and his sense of this led him to come forward with the doctrine, –which to many of his fellow-countrymen seemed unpatriotic,– that the safety of Judah was to be found in submission to the Chaldaean supremacy (21:1-10; 27:5-8, 12, etc.). The group of prophecies contained in chaps, 46-49, except the one on Elam (49:34-39), which is assigned by its title to a later period, reflect the impression which Nebuchadnezzar’s successes made upon the prophet: he pictures not only Egypt, but also the Philistines, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Damascus (all of whom had in the past been often unfriendly to Israel), and even the more distant Kedar, as one after another succumbing helplessly before the invader.” Chapter 25 may be regarded as an introduction to these prophecies: it acquaints the reader with Jeremiah’s general view of the political situation, which is then illustrated, and poetically developed, with reference to particular countries, in the present prophecies. Probably, in the original form of the book of Jeremiah, these prophecies followed immediately after chapter 25, from which they are now separated by the mainly biographical matter contained in chapters 26-45) (*It ought, however, to be mentioned that most recent authorities on Jeremiah, including even A. B. Davidson (Hastings’ ‘Dict. of the Bible’, ii. 573’b’), are of opinion, partly upon grounds of difference of literary style, partly on account of the nature of their contents, that chaps. 46-49 are either wholly (Stade, Wellhausen, Duhin), or in part (Giesebrecht, Kuenen, Davidson), not Jeremiah’s. Gieseb. accepts only chaps, 47, 49:7-8, 10-11, and perhaps 13, and a nucleus in 46:3-12. But, though the prophecies may have been amplified in parts by a later hand (or hands), it is doubtful whether there aro sufficient reasons for reducing the original nucleus to such small dimensions as these. Kuenen (‘Einl’. § 56. 9-11) accepted the whole, except 46:27 f. (= 30:10 f.), and certain parts of chap. 48 (see the note on 48:1). Cornill, while allowing that there are parts which either upon the grounds mentioned above, or on metrical grounds, must in his judgement be rejected, argues strongly against the rejection of the whole, and accepts himself 46:3-26 (Egypt), and substantial parts of most of the other prophecies. On 50:1-11, 58, see the note prefixed to 50:1.) Egypt’s defiant ambition checked and humbled at the battle of Carchemish. Let the warriors arm themselves, and advance to the fight! Hardly has the prophet said these words, when he sees the Egyptians already in flight. Egypt’s boasts of conquest will come to nought: in vain will she endeavour to recover herself after her defeat. (The prophecy vv. 14-26 seems naturally to be the sequel to vv. 3-12; though Cornill has urged that it may be later, and belong to the period of Jeremiah’s residence in Egypt (43:7 ff.), to which 43:10-13 (shortly after 586), foretelling Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion and conquest of Egypt, also belongs. Nebuchadnezzar did in fact invade Egypt in 568: see the note on 43:13.) An imaginative description of the invasion of Egypt by the Chaldaeans, and of the collapse of the power of Egypt before them. A message of encouragement addressed to Israel. (Vv. 27, 28 are nearly identical with 30:10,11. As vv. 14-26 seem to be of the same date as vv. 3-12 (608), they can hardly be here in their original place; for they imply that the exile has begun, and contrast too strongly with the tone of menace, in which in 605-4 (25:8-11) Jeremiah was expressing himself. Probably the two verses were handed down independently; and were placed by a compiler in ch. 30 on account of their being germane there to the context, and also added here as a suitable counterpart to vv. 14-26.) On the Philistines. How the land of the Philistines will be wasted by the Chaldaeans.
(48): (On Moab). (The territory occupied by Moab was the elevated and rich plateau on the E. of the Dead Sea. Originally (Num. 21:26) the Moabite territory extended as far N. as Heshbon, to the N.E. of the Dead Sea (see on v. 2); but the Israelites, after their conquest of the country E. of Jordan, considered the territory N. of the Arnon (which flows down through a deep gorge into the Dead Sea at about the middle of its E. side) to belong to Reuben (Josh. 13:15-21), and regarded the Arnon as the N. border of Moab. But Reuben did not ultimately remain in possession of the district allotted to it; and so here, as in Isa. 15-16, many of the cities assigned in Josh. 13:15-21 to Reuben are mentioned as occupied by Moab.) The desolating invasion about to break upon Moab; and the flight of its population. (*For most of the places mentioned in this chapter, see Num. 32:3, 34-38, Josh. 13:16-19, 21:36-7, and Isaiah’s prophecy on Moab, chaps. 15-16. In vv. 5, 29-38, there are numerous verbal reminiscences from Isa. 15-16……) Moab has for long been left unmolested in his land; but now his security will be rudely disturbed. Moab is utterly crushed and helpless; the entire country is at the invader’s feet. The pride of Moab is humbled; her vineyards and winepresses are ruined; and the whole land is given over to mourning. The final doom of Moab.
(49): (On the children of Ammon). The Ammonites are threatened with retribution for taking to themselves the territory of Gad. (*The territory of Gad was on the E. of Jordan, from Heshbon at least as far N. as the Jabbok (cf. Josh. 13:14-28; Num. 32:34-36; but the details do not entirely agree; see ‘Gad’ in Hastings’ ‘Dict. of the Bible’): the Ammonite territory was on the E. of this, their principal city Rabbah (called by the Greeks, from Ptolemy Philodelphus, ‘Philadelphia’, now ‘ Ammän), on the upper course of the Jabbok, being 14 miles NE. of Heshbon, and 24 miles E. of the Jordan.)
(On Edom). (On Damascus).
(2) (50:1-52:58). On Babylon. (A long and impassioned prophecy against Babylon. The time of her end is approaching, when the violence done by her to Israel will at length be avenged (50:17 f., 33 f.; 51:24, 34-36): a people from the north, even the Medes, are about to be stirred up against her: again and again the prophet with eager vehemence summons them to begin the fray, while he bids the Jewish exiles escape betimes from the doomed city, the future fate of which he contemplates with manifest delight. The date will naturally be shortly before B.C. 538, when the conquests of Cyrus began to kindle the hopes of the exiles, and to mark him out as their coming deliverer (Isa. 41:2, 25; 44:28, etc.). The prophecy cannot be Jeremiah’s. According to 51:59,60, its date, if it were Jeremiah’s, would be the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah (B.C. 593). But (1) the ‘historical situation’ presupposed by the prophecy is not that of B.C. 593, but much later: the Temple is alluded to as having suffered violence (50:28; 51:11, 51), the Jews are in exile (50:4 f., 17; 51:34), and the end of Babylon is approaching rapidly (50:8 f.; 51:6, 45 f.). Then (2) the point of view is not that of Jeremiah either in or about 593 B.C.: Jeremiah at that time, as we know from chaps, 27-29, was earnestly opposing the prophets who promised that the yoke of Babylon would speedily be broken, and was exhorting the exiles to settle down contentedly in their new home: but the prophet who speaks in 50:1-51:58 declares confidently that the fall of Babylon is close at hand, and does his utmost to inspire the exiles with the hope of a speedy release. And (3) the prophecy is animated by a temper which is not Jeremiah’s. The vein of strong feeling against the Chaldaeans which pervades it, and the satisfaction shewn at the prospect of their approaching fate, are not consistent with Jeremiah’s repeatedly avowed conviction that the Chaldaeans were the agents appointed by Providence for the punishment of Israel’s sin –a work which in 593 was not yet accomplished. There breathes in this prophecy the spirit of an Israelite, whose experiences had been far other than Jeremiah’s, who had smarted under the painful yoke of the Chaldaeans (cf. Isa. 47:6 f., 52:3), and whose thoughts were full of vengeance for the sufferings which his fellow-countrymen had endured at their hands. The prophecy must have been the work of a prophet familiar with Jeremiah’s writings, and accustomed to the use of similar phraseology, who wrote shortly before the fall of Babylon (B.C. 538), from the same general standpoint as Isa. 13:2-14:23; 40-66. In later times, it seems, the prophecy came to be attributed to Jeremiah, and was identified with the ‘scroll’ sent by him to Babylon, of which we read in 51:59-64: a late editor of the book of Jeremiah thus prefixed it to 51:59-64, at the same time adding the title, and also 51:60’b’, for the purpose of identifying the prophecy with the contents of the scroll.
The prophecy is remarkable for the many reminiscences, and even (50:40, 41-43, 44 46; 51:15-19) excerpts from other prophecies, contained in it; the more striking instances are pointed out in the notes. The frequency with which, instead of the subject being developed regularly, the same thought is again and again reverted to (as 50:3, 9, 25, 41; 51:1f., 25; 50:14, 21, 26, 29; 51:11f, 27; 50:8; 51:6, 45, 50; 50:12, 39f.; 51:26’b’, 29’b’, 37, 43), is due probably to the torrent of impetuous feeling by which the prophet is carried along.
The doom impending upon Babylon. Yahweh’s purpose to bring a great host of nations against Babylon. The foe invited to begin the attack. A promise of restoration and pardon to Israel. Renewed invitation to the foe to attack Babylon. The prophet’s exultation over her fall. Babylon will be compelled to let her captives go. The doom imminent upon Jerusalem. Description of the invader. Renewed announcement of the approaching doom of Babylon: let Israel hasten to leave her. The foe again invited to attack Babylon. Yahweh’s power contrasted with that of idols. Yahweh is against Babylon. The nations summoned to attack Babylon: its capture by its assailants. The injuries done to Israel shall at last be avenged. The final end of Babylon. Let Israel hasten to leave the doomed city. Yahweh’s final word of judgement upon Babylon.
(3) (51:59-64). Jeremiah, in the fourth (4th) year of Zedekiah (B.C. 593), by the hand of Seraiah, reads Babylon her doom. (The predictions contained in this narrative (vv. 62-64) do not either display the animus, or imply the historical situation, of 50:2-51:58; there is thus no inconsistency in supposing Jeremiah to be their author. A simple, unimpassioned declaration of the future end of Babylon is not inconsistent with Jeremiah’s attitude at the beginning of Zedekiah’s reign (cf. the limit of seventy (70) years assigned to Babylonian rule, and the promise of restoration afterwards, in 29:10), and the symbolical action of v. 63 is analogous to those narrated in 13:17; 19:1, 10; 27:2; 43:9.)

(52): (1) The capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans, and exile of its inhabitants. (Vv. 1-27 are excerpted from 2nd Kings 24:18-25:21: vv. 28-30 are taken by the compiler from some independent source. The entire account was probably added here for the purpose of shewing how Jeremiah’s principal and most constant prediction was fulfilled. The text of vv. 1-27 has, in several places, been preserved here more purely than in Kings. Vv. 4-11, 13-16, have occurred already slightly abridged, in 39:1-2, 4-10.) (* ‘seventh’: Read, probably, `seventeenth`. This would be the year in which the siege of Jerusalem was begun (comp. v. 4 with v. 12): the reference appears to be to the men of Judah taken prisoners (as opposed to those out of Jerusalem, v. 29). The items given do not include the numbers taken into exile after the capture of Jerusalem (in Nebuchadnezzar’s nineteenth (19th) year).)
(2) The favour shown by Evil-Merodach to Jehoiachin. (Excerpted from 2nd Kings 25:27-30.) (*’Evil-Merodach’: Pronounce, Evïl. The name means ‘man of Marduk’ (50:2), in Babylonian ‘Amilu-Marduk’. He succeeded Nebuchadnezzar and reigned for two years [B.C. 561-559).)

9: The Book of Jeremiah the Prophet. Charles Rufus Brown, D.D. Newton Theological Institution. American Baptist Pub. Soc. Phil. (1907).gs (Brown’s work is thorough & defers often to others when appropriate, especially to Driver.)

I. {{ “The Historical Background of Jeremiah’s Ministry.
The general situation in Western Asia has changed since Isaiah lived and preached, and soon after Jeremiah’s call Babylonia took the place of Assyria as the great world-empire. Among the nations whose general history is important and interesting from the point of view of Jeremiah and his times three stand out in boldest relief: Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria; and the mutual relations of these three we must hold in mind. Babylonia we must call the oldest country, Egypt next, and Assyria the youngest. The two great world-powers in ancient times were Babylonia and Egypt, and the rule of Assyria for seven centuries, powerful as it was, and terrible as were her rulers, was hardly more than an episode from the point of view of all the centuries. During the Babylonian-Egyptian wars, at the time when Egypt had reached the height of her glory, say 1500 B.C., Assyria was colonized from Babylonia and about 1300 B.C. won its independence and captured Babylon itself. In or about 606 Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, was captured by the hordes of the Manda, the Scythian allies of the Babylonians, and the empire fell never to rise again. As far back as we can trace the history there was intermittent war between the East and the West, between Egypt and Babylonia up to 1300 and after 600, between Egypt and Assyria in the seven intervening centuries. In Egypt civil wars were frequent and struggle was constant with Ethiopia and with the maritime countries of the Mediterranean, but in the intervals the arms of Egypt were pushed into the far East with varying fortunes until the fall of the empire before the Persians in 525 B.C. The nations of Palestine and its vicinity, lying as they did in the thoroughfare between the two great powers, were sure to be engaged on the one side or the other; and hence it was that different political parties arose more than once in Israel and Judah, urging an alliance with the one country or the other. The Northern kingdom fell before the Assyrian arms a century before Jeremiah’s ministry, but during his life Judah was often involved in war and subjected to conquest; and beginning with the storm that broke upon the country soon after the accession of King Jehoiakim, the political atmosphere was continually charged with one danger or another. It will be seen in the sequel that Jeremiah took an active part in politics, as good ministers frequently do, and that he was in fact, so far as we know, the truest patriot and most keen-sighted statesman of his age. The following chronological tables, covering the time from the call of Jeremiah to the Roman conquest of Syria and Egypt, may aid students seeking to obtain and retain dates for the various portions of Jeremiah. Here the author, contrary to his method of procedure in general (see especially a later section, VI.), has thought it better to adopt dates from other writers of good standing. ‘E.g’., the dates assigned to pieces of Israelitish literature in the second column [list] have been copied from Kautzsch’s ‘The Literature of the Old Testament’, with any such changes of a year or so in the dates as are needed to bring them into consistency with the chronology adopted in the first column [list]. The dates of the Jewish high priests between 520 and 195 B. C. are only approximately correct and several other dates are inexact, notably in the Egyptian column [list]. In the following table c, a, and b stand for about, after, and before respectively.”}}

Tables:Columns-Lists: Judah & Jews. Israelitish Literature Exclusive of Jeremiah. Babylonia. Egypt.: Years B.C. 700-30 A.D. (From C. R. Brown, slightly edited in format.)

B.C.:
700 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
600 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
500 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
400 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
300 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
200 }………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………|………
100 }………|………|………{ A.D. 30

Column-List 1: Judah & Jews:
638-608. ‘Josiah’.
626. Scythians near Palestine.
626. Call of Jeremiah.
621. Great Reformation.
608. Josiah’s Defeat & Death.
608. ‘Jehoahaz’.
607-597. ‘Jehoiakim’.
601. Submission to Nebuchadrezzar.
598. King’s Rebellion.
597. ‘Jehoiachin’.
597. Deportation of King and First Captives to Babylon.
596-586. Zedekiah.
593. Ambassadors Received from Surrounding Countries.
592-570. Ezekiel among the Captives.
586. Fall of Jerusalem and Second Deportation to Babylon.
581. Third Deportation; Departure of Mizpah Colony to Egypt.
538-330. ‘Persian Rule in the East’.
536. Return to Palestine under ‘Zerubbabel’ & ‘Joshua’.
520-500. ‘Joshua’, High Priest.
520-516. Temple Rebuilt.
500-463. ‘Jehoiakim’, High Priest.
463-430. ‘Eliashib’, High Priest.
458 (or 398). Ezra, the Scribe.
445, 432. Visits by Nehemiah.
444 (or 398). Introduction of the Written Priestly Law.
430-400. ‘Joiada’, High Priest.
400. Samaritan Temple Built on Gerizim.
400-350. ‘Johanan’, High Priest.
350-333. ‘Jaddua’, High Priest.
344. Temple Polluted & Jews Enslaved by Persians.
332. Destruction of Tyre by ‘Alexander’ & Submission of Palestine.
331. Settlement of Jews at Alexandria.
330-323. ‘Rule of Alexander the Great’.
323-276. Wars of the Diadochi.
323-320, 314-301, Judaea ruled for the most part by Antigonus. (320-314, 301-294, 280-202, Palestine an Egyptian Province.) (294-280,202-167, Palestine under the Seleucids.) (264-248, 224-198, Sharp Contests between Syria & Egypt.)
321-301. ‘Onias I’.,High Priest.
300-285. ‘Simon I’.High Priest.
284-265. ‘Eleazar’, High Priest.
264-240. ‘Manasseh’, High Priest.
239-225. ‘Onias II’., High Priest.
224-195. ‘Simon II’., The Just, High Priest.
194-175. ‘Onias III’., High Priest.
180.c. General acceptance of the Hist. & Prop. Books & of a Psalm Book.
176. Heliodorus attempts plunder of Temple for Syrians.
174-171. ‘Jason’, High Priest.
170-162. ‘Menelaus’, High Priest.
170. Jerusalem Plundered by Syria.
168. Daily Sacrifice suspended by Antiochus.
167. Hasmonean Uprising.
166. Victory of Judas Maccabeus over Syria.
165. Temple Rededicated.
161-159. ‘Alcimus’, High Priest.
161. Death of Judas.
153-143. ‘Jonathan Apphus’, High Priest & Prince.
142-136. ‘Simon’, Hereditary High Priest & Governor.
141. Citadel & Syrian Garrison Captured; Beginning of Hasmonean Dynasty.
135-105. ‘John Hyrcanus’, High Priest.
134. Walls of Jerusalem Razed by Antiochus VII.
130. First use of term “The Law and the Prophets.”
130. Samaritan Temple Destroyed.
129. Conquest of Edom.
108. Destruction of Samaria.
105,104. ‘Aristobulus I’, High Priest & King.
103-78. ‘Alexander Jannaeus’, High Priest & King.
97. Capture of Gaza.
94. Conquest of Moab and Ammon.
82. Triumphs of Alexander Celebrated in Jerusalem.
77-69. ‘AIexandra’, Queen.
77-69. ‘Hyrcanus II’., High Priest & King.
68-63. ‘Arislobulus II’., High Priest & King.
63. Jerusalem taken by Pompey; Judaea a Roman Province.

Column-List 2: Israelitish Literature Exclusive of Jeremiah:
630.c. Zephaniah 1.
621.b. Deuteronomy in an early form.
615.c. Habakkuk, Zeph. 2:1-3:13.
600.c. Deut. redaction of books of Kings.
592-570. Ezekiel’s Prophecies.
570-500. Lamentations.
560.c. Deut.32; Deut. completed & added to earlier history now contained in Pentateuch & Joshua. Deut. redaction of Judges, Samuel, & Kings. Nucleus of Lev. 17-26.
540.c. Is. 40-55; 21:1-10; 13:1-14:23; 34,35.
536. Zeph. 3:14-20.
520. Haggai.
520-518. Zech. 1-8.
500.c. Priests’ Code of Law now found in Pentateuch & Joshua.
500.a. Is. 56-66.
458.b. Malachi.
458. Aramaic Source of Ezra 4-6.
458.a. Ruth.
444.a. Oldest Collection of Hymns, Ps. 3-41.
435.c. Memoirs of Ezra in Ezra-Nehemiah.
432. Obadiah.
432. Memoirs of Nehemiah.
400.c. Completion of Pentateuch & formation of Gen. 1-2nd Kings 25.
350.c. Completion of Proverbs; Joel; Jonah.
340.c. Collection Ps. 42-89; Job.
332.c. The Song of Songs; Isa. 24-27; Additions to the older Prophets.
311.c. Psalms of the Greek period,
300.c. Ezra-Nehemiah; Chronicles; Zech. 9-14.
250.c. Ecclesiastes, Alexandrian trans. of Pentateuch, the beginning of LXX.
180.c. The Wisdom of Jesus Sirach.
166. Daniel.
150.a. Esther; Five Books of Jason on Maccabean Wars. This the source of 2nd Maccabees.
142. Collection of Ps. 90-150 & close of Psalter.
138.c. Judith.
130.c. Proverbs of Jesus Sirach trans. into Greek.
90.c. 1st Maccabees.
50.a. The Wisdom of Solomon.

Column-List 3: Babylonia, Persia, & Syria:

Babylonia:
625-604. ‘Nabopolasar’.
606. Destruction of Nineveh.
604. Victory over Egypt at Carchemish.
603-562. ‘Nebuchadrezzar III’.
582-569. Siege of Tyre.
568. Invasion of Egypt.
561-560. ‘Evil-Merodach’.
559-556. ‘Neriglissar’.
556. ‘Labashi-Marduk’.
555-538. ‘Nabonidus’.

Persia:
558-530. ‘Cyrus II’, of Elam.
549. Conquest of Media.
548. Amalgamation with Persia.
538. Conquest of Babylon.
529-522. ‘Cambyses II’.
522. ‘Pseudo-Bardes’,
or ‘Smerdis’ (Gomates).
521-486. ‘Darius I’, ‘Hystaspis’.
485-465. ‘Zerxes l’.
465-464. ‘Artabanus’.
463-425. ‘Artaxerxes I’, ‘Longimanus’.
425. Zerxes II.
425, 424. Sogdianos.
423-405. Darius II, Nothus.
404-359. ‘Artaxerxes II’, ‘Mnemon’. Judaeans comparatively undisturbed.
358-338. ‘ArtaxerxesIII’, Ochus.
344. Sidon Destroyed.
337-336. ‘Arses’.
335-330. ‘Darius III’, ‘Codomannus’.
333, 331. Victories of Alexander.

Syria:
312-281. ‘Seleucus I’, ‘Nicator’.
280-261. ‘Antiochus I’, ‘Soter’.
260-246. ‘Antiochus II’, ‘Theos’.
245-226. ‘Seleucus II’, ‘Callinicus’.
225-224. ‘Seleucus III’, ‘Keraunos’.
223-187. ‘Antiochus III’, ‘The Great’.
190. Defeated by the Romans.
186-175. ‘Seleucus IV’, ‘Philopator’.
174-164. ‘Antiochus IV’, ‘Epiphanes’.
174. Attempt to Hellenize.
170. Victory in Egypt.
163-162. ‘Antiochus V’, ‘Eupator’.
161-150. ‘Demetrius I’, ‘Soter’.
152-146. ‘Alexander Balas’.
145-138. ‘Demetrius II’, ‘Nicator’.
145-138. ‘Antiochus VI’, & ‘Trypho’, Rival Kings.
142. Independence of Judaea acknowledged.
137-128. ‘Antiochus VII’, ‘Sidetes’, ‘Euergetes’.
127-125. ‘Demetrius II’.
125. ‘Seleueus V’.
124-96. ‘Antiochus VIII’, ‘Grypos’.
113-95. ‘Antiochus IX’, ‘Kyzicenos’.
96-95. ‘Seleueus VI’, ‘Epiphanes’, ‘Nicator, son of .Ant. VIII’.
95. ‘Antiochus X’, ‘Eusebes, son of Ant. IX’.
94-83. Contests for throne among Sel. VI., Ant.XI., Philip, Dem. III, and Ant. XII., sons of Ant. VIII.
82-69. ‘Tigranes’ of Armenia rules Syria.
68-65. Antiochus XIII., ‘Asiaticus’.
65. Syria a Roman Province.

Column-List 4: Egypt:

663-611. ‘Psamtik I’.
625. Independent of Assyria.
610-595. ‘Neco II’.
608. Jehoahaz of Judah taken Captive.
604. Defeat at Carchemish.
594-589. ‘Psamtik II’.
588-570. ‘Pharaoh Hophra’.
587. Relief army unable to support Zedekiah.
569-526. ‘Amasis II’.
525. ‘Psamtik III’. End of twenty-sixth Dynasty.
525-332. Persian Rule in Egypt.
525-411. Twenty-seventh (Persian) Dynasty.
404-382. Twenty-ninth (Mendessian) Dynasty.
381-343. Thirtieth (Sebennite) Dynasty.
342-332. Thirty-first (Persian) Dynasty.
332. Conquest by Alexander.
323-285. ‘Ptolemy I’, ‘Lagi’, ‘Soter’.
320. Syria and Palestine taken.
284-247. ‘Ptolemy II’, ‘Philadelphus’.
246-222. ‘Ptolemy III’, ‘Euergetes’.
221-205. ‘Ptolemy IV’, ‘Philopator’.
204-182. ‘Ptolemy V’, ‘Epiphanes’.
198. Final loss of Palestine.
182. ‘Ptolemy VI’, ‘Eupator’.
181-146. ‘Ptolemy VII’, ‘Philomator’.
168. Advance of Antiochus resisted by Rome.
146. ‘Ptolemy VII’, ‘Eupator II’, New ‘Philopator’.
145-117. ‘Ptolemy IX’., ‘Euergetes II’, ‘Physcon’.
116-106, 88-81. ‘Ptolemy X’, ‘Soter II’, ‘Lathyrus’.
105-89. ‘Ptolemy XI’, ‘Alexander I’, ‘Philomator’.
81-80. ‘Ptolemy XII’, ‘Alexander II’.
79-51. ‘Ptolemy XIII’, ‘Philopator’, ‘Philadelphia’, New ‘Dionysos Auletes’.
50-17. ‘Cleopatra VII’ & ‘Ptolemy XIV’.
46-45. ‘Cleopatra VII’ & ‘Ptolemy XV’.
44-30. ‘Cleopatra VII’ & ‘Ptolemy XVI’, ‘Caesarian’.
30. Egypt a Roman Province.

{{ “In outlining the ministry of Jeremiah we shall have to do with the period between 626 B.C., about twenty (20) years before the fall of Nineveh, and 575 (?) B.C. Since Assurbanipal of Assyria, the Sardanapalus of the Greeks, lived, however, only till 626 B.C., and the Assyrian empire was in a state of decay from the time of his death, we may say that the thirteenth (13th) year of Josiah (626 B.C.), the year when Jeremiah was called, was synchronous with the downfall of Assyria and the rise of the second Babylonian empire. It is claimed with some degree of plausibility that the immediate occasion of Jeremiah’s call was the Scythian invasion of Western Asia, which probably took place during this decade, and occasioned great commotion to the coast lands, and even to Egypt. There are other historical epochs that are certain. In 608 B.C., Neco II., son of Psamtik I, or Psammetichus I, of the twenty-sixth dynasty, on his way to the Euphrates for conquest of Assyrian dependencies, was met at Megiddo by Josiah of Judah and the latter was slain, the Egyptian king pushing on to Carchemish, on the Euphrates. At this time Assyria had practically fallen, as we have seen, and Babylonia was not yet established on a firm basis; but the Egyptians seem never to have possessed the power to maintain their acquisitions, and a few years afterward, in 604 B.C., after Nineveh had fallen, the Babylonian king, Nabopolassar, sent his son Nebuchadrezzar against the Egyptians. At Carchemish the latter were routed and the Egyptian rule in the East was finally broken. In 601 B.C. Jehoiakim him self submitted to Nebuchadrezzar, and in 597 B.C., after the latter had crushed a rebellion instigated by him, a deportation of the inhabitants to Babylon took place. In 589 B.C. Neco’s grandson, ‘Uahabra’, the Pharaoh Hophra of Scripture, came to the throne of Egypt, and upon his accession there was a confederation of Judah and the surrounding countries against the king of Babylon, but the Egyptians were probably defeated. They withdrew at least, and the war was brought to a close by the capture of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., Zedekiah and nearly a thousand (1,000) of his people being carried off to Babylon. Of the colony that remained many settled in Egypt after unfortunate experiences in Palestine (see II.) and nearly seven hundred and fifty (750) were carried to Babylon (52:30).” }}

The Dates of the Jeremiah Material: (B.C.) (King’s Reign): Jeremiah Chapters & Verses:
1:4-19, (626), (K. Josiah’s).
2:1-6:30, (626-621), (K. Josiah’s)
11:1-5, (621), (K. Josiah’s).
22:10-12, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
11:6-12:6, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
7:1-9:22; 10:17-25, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
26:1-24, (607), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
25:1-38, (604), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
36:1-32, (604,603), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
13:1-17:18, (603), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
18:1-20:18, (601), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
21:13,14, (601), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
22:13-19, 20-23, (598), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
12:7-17, (597), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
35:1-19, (597), (K. Jehoiakim’s).
22:24-30, (597) (K. Jehoiachin & K. Zedekiah).
24:1-10, (596), (K. Zedekiah).
29:1-32, (595), (K. Zedekiah).
23:9-40, (595), (K. Zedekiah).
27:1-28:17, (593), (K. Zedekiah).
22:1-7, (590), (K. Zedekiah).
21:1-10, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
34:1-7, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
37:1-10, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
34:8-22, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
37:11-21, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
30:1-31:40, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
32:1-44, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
33:1-13, (587), (K. Zedekiah).
38:1-39:18, (586), (siege and after fall of Judah).
23:1-8, (586), (soon after fall of Judah).
40:1-16, (586-582), (during over-lordship of Nebuchadrezzar).
41:1-43:7, (582), (during over-lordship of Nebuchadrezzar).
43:8-44:30 (581-575) (?), (Egyptian sojourn).
45:1-6, (about 586), (in Palestine or Egypt).

{{“Excluding the fifty-second (52nd) chapter, which has been taken from 2 Kings and an unknown source, the remaining passages found in Jeremiah are 9:23-26; 10:1-16; 17:19-27; 21:11,12; 22:8,9; 33:14-26; 46:1-51:64. It is impossible to assign definite dates and authors to these sections. Although some of them contain liberal quotations from the prophet’s own words, it is probable that he had little to do with them in their present form, though 9:23-26 may have proceeded from him. The sources of much of this material are to be found in other parts of Scripture as will appear under the next topic.”}}

{{“For general purposes of reference the following table of contents may be found of service: Preface: Introductory Notes of Time, (1:1-3). [Written by Baruch 604, 603 B.C., revised after 536 ]

Part I: Iniquity of Judah Portrayed & Judgment Threatened (1:4-6:30). [Compiled 604, 603 B.C.]
§1. Call of Jeremiah, (1:4-19). [Date 626 B. C, published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§2. Base Ingratitude of People in Departing from Jehovah & Entail of Punishment, (2:1-37). [Delivered 626-621 B.C., dictated and published 604, 603, annotated later.]
§3. Judith’s Superficial Estimate of her Guilt, 3:1-5. [Delivered 626-621 B.C., dictated & published 604, 603.]
§4. Lesser Degree of Israel’s Guilt & Promised Return of Penitent People to Jehovah’s Favor, (3:6-4:2).
[Delivered 626-621 B. C, published 604, 603, annotated as late as 516.]
§5. Judgment Approaching from North, (4:3-81). [Delivered 626-621 B. C, published 604, 603.]
§6. Prevailing Iniquity at Jerusalem & Necessary Result, (5:1-31). [Delivered 626-621 B.C., published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§7. Rejected People, 6 : 1-30. [Delivered 626-621 B. C, published 604, 603.]

Part II: Temple Lament over Jerusalem & Prophecy of Destruction, (7:1-10: 25). [Delivered-607 B.C., published 604, 603, enlarged after 536.]
§1. Necessity of Amendment to Avert Destruction of Zion, (7:1-8:3). [Delivered 626-607 B.C., published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§2. Wilfulness of Judah Exposed; Defeat & Exile Threatened, (8:4-9:1). [Delivered 626-610 B.C., published 604, 603.]
§3. Gross Corruption of People & Inevitable Destruction of Nation, (9:2-22). [Delivered 626-610 B.C., published 604, 603, annotated after 536.]
§4. Best Possession of Man is Knowledge of Jehovah as Divine King, (9:23,24). [Inserted after 536 B.C.]
§5. Punishment in Store for Uncircumcised in Heart, (9:25,26). [Inserted after 536 B.C.]
§6. Impotency of Idols of Nations, (10:1-16). [Written & inserted 400-200 B.C.]
§7. Distress of Zion & Prophet’s Prayer for Mitigation of her Punishment, (10:17-25). [Delivered 626-610 B.C., inserted after 586, annotated later.]

Part III.—The Irrevocable Evil in Judah & Sad Results, (11:1-17:27). [Published 603 B.C., enlarged after Exile.]
§1. Preaching of Deuteronomic Covenant, (11:1-5). [Delivered 621 B.C., published 603.]
§2. Re-enforcement of Covenant, (11:6-8). [Delivered 607 B.C., published 603.]
§3. Apostasy of Judah & Retribution, (11:9-17). [Delivered 607 B.C., published 603.]
§4. Attack at Anathoth & Jeremiah’s Dissatisfaction with Longsuffering of Jehovah, (11:18-12:6). [Date 607 B.C., published 603.]
§5. Devastation of Judah by Neighboring Nations; Banishment & Restoration of Neighbors, (12:7-17) [Delivered 597 B.C., annotated & inserted after 536.]
§6. Damaged Waistband & Rejection of People, (13:1-27). [Published 603 B.C., annotated after 597.]
§7. Evidences of Divine Disfavor & Rejection of Prophet’s Intercession, (14:1-15:9). [Published 603 B.C., annotated in post-exilic times.]
§8. Deep Discouragement of Jeremiah; Admonition & Strength from Above, (15:10-21). [Published 603 B.C., annotated later.]
§9. Abounding Evil in Judah & Recompense, (16:1-17:4). [Published 603 B.C., annotated later.]
§10. Blessedness of Confidence in God; Jeremiah’s Strong Hope in Him, (17:5-18). [Published 603 B. C, annotated later.]
§11. Consecration of Sabbath Day, (17:19-27). [Written after 432 B.C, inserted still later.]

Part IV: Impending Doom, (18:1-20:1). [Compiled 596-586 B.C., enlarged much later, added to Jeremiah Book after 536.]
§1. Amendment of Life Necessary to Avert Threatened Calamity; Jeremiah’s Prayer for Execution of Divine Vengeance, (18:1-23). [Delivered 601 B.C., published soon after but annotated much later.]
§2. Further Prophecies of Impending Disaster & Prophet’s Grievous Discouragement, (19:1-20:18). [Date 601 B.C., published soon after, annotated much later.]

Part V. —Woes Pronounced upon Kings, Prophets, & People of Judah, (21:1-24:10). [Compiled after 586 B.C., added to Book after 536.]
§1. Answer to Zedekiah respecting Approaching Capture of Jerusalem, (21:1-10). [587 B.C., published after 586.]
§2. Woes upon Kings, (21:11-23:8). [Delivered 608-586 B.C., published after 586, annotated still later.]
§3. Woe upon Prophets of Zedekiah’ s Time, (23:9-40). [Delivered 595 B.C., annotated later.]
§4. Captives with Jehoiachin in Exile Contrasted with People left in Jerusalem, (24:1-10). [Delivered 596 B.C., entered in this Part and in Book after 536.]

Part VI: Oracles against Judah & Nations. (25:1-38). [Delivered 604 B.C., annotated & added to chs. 1-24 after 536.]

Part VII: Temple Discourse of ch. 7 & its Results, (26:1-24). [607 B.C., written by Baruch about 590, prefixed to chs. 27-29 after 536, added to Book much later.]

Part VIII: Exhortations to Submission to Babylon & Result (29 : 32). [Compiled 536 B.C., added to Book much later.]
§1. Prediction of Nebuchadrezzar’s Victories, (27:1-22). [Events of 593 B.C, written by Baruch about 590, enlarged later.]
§2. Contention of Hananiah, Prophet of Jerusalem, (28:1-17). [Events of 593 B.C., written by Baruch about 590.]
§3. Communications between Jeremiah & First Captives to Babylon, (29 : 1-32). [Events of 595 B.C., written by Baruch about 590.]

Part IX: New Covenant, or Jeremiah’s Book of Consolation for Israel, (30:1-31:40). [Delivered 626, 587 B.C., annotated & added to Book after 536.]

Part X: Certainty & Glory of Return, (32:1-33:26). [Compiled & united with Book after 536 B.C., annotated as late as 200.]
§1. Jeremiah’s Confident Prediction of Return, (32:1-44). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch 586, annotated after 636.]
§2. Glory of Return, (33:1-26). [587 B.C., annotated as late as 200.]

Part XI: Prophecy of Jerusalem’s Fall, (34:1-7). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch later introduced into ch. 34 & into Book after 536.]

Part XII: Slaves in Besieged Capital! (34:8-22). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch later added to Book after 536.]

Part XIII: Constancy of Rechabites Contrasted with Israel’s Disobedience, (35:1-19). [Events of 597 B.C. written by Baruch about 590, added to Book after 536.]

Part XIV: Jehoiakim’s Scornful Treatment of Divine Warnings, (36:1-32) [Events of 604, 603 B.C., written by Baruch somewhat later, added to Book after 536.]

Part XV: Siege & Capture of Jerusalem, & Deportation of its Inhabitants; Close Confinement of Jeremiah, (37:1-39:18). [Added to Book after 536 B.C.]
§1. Jeremiah’s Prediction of Fall of Jerusalem & his Consequent Imprisonment by Princes, (37:1-21). [Events of 587 B.C., written by Baruch soon after 586.]
§2. Timely Succor of Jeremiah by Ethiopian Slave; Zedekiah’s Secret Interview with Prophet, (38:1-28a). [Events of 586 B.C., written by Baruch soon afterward.]
§3. Fall of Jerusalem; Jeremiah Committed to Gedaliah, (38:28b-39:14). [Events of 586 B.C., written by Baruch soon afterward.]
§4. Promise of Deliverance to Ebed-melech, (39:15-18). [Delivered 586 B.C., written by Baruch not long afterward.]

Appendix A: Judah after Fall of her Capital, (40:1-43:13). [Compiled & added to Book after 536 B.C.]
§1. Colony at Mizpah, (40:1-16). [Written by Baruch after 586 B. C]
§2. Ishmael Traitor & Johanan Brave Defender of People, (41:1-18). [Written by Baruch after 582 B. c]
§3. Journey to Egypt, (42:1-43:7). [Written by Baruch after 582 B.C.]
§4. Destined Fall of Egypt, (43:8-13).[Written by Baruch after 581 B.C.]

Appendix B: Jeremiah’s Last Prophecies to People, (44:1-30). [Written by Baruch after 581-575 (?) B.C., added to Book after 536.]

Appendix C: Admonition & Promise to Baruch, (45:1-5). [Delivered & reported by Baruch after 586 B.C., added to Book after 536.]

Appendix D: Oracles Concerning Nations, (46:1-51:64). [Compiled & added to Book after 536 B.C., annotated down to second century at least.]
§1. Egypt, (46:1-28). [Possibly completed in period 536-332 B.C.]
§2. Philistines, (47:1-7). [536-332 B.C.]
§3. Moab, (48:1-47). [Possibly written in second century B.C.]
§4. Ammon, (49:1-6). [Possibly written in fourth century B.C.]
§5. Edom, (49:7-22). [Written in period 536-332 B.C.]
§6. Damascus, (49:23-27).[Possibly written in second century B.C.]
§7. Kedar, or Hazor, (49:28-33). [Possibly written in fourth century B.C.]
§8. Elam, (49:34-39). [Written in period 536-332 B.C.]
§9. Babylon, (50:1-51:64). [Written 586-332 B.C.]

Appendix E: Historical Supplement, (52:1-34). [Added to Book after 536 B.C.]”}}

10: The Book of the Prophet Jeremiah, With Introduction & Notes. L. Elliott Binns. Late Scholar of Emmanuel College; & Sometime Chaplain & Lecturer in Old Testament History, Ridley Hall, Cambridge. Westminster Commentaries, Edited by Walter Lock. Methodist. (1919) as.

{{“Preface: During the past few years the importance of Jeremiah amongst the prophets of the Old Testament has been increasingly recognised; no longer is he overshadowed by the massive figure of Isaiah, but rather have the two prophets come to be regarded as twin peaks standing side by side and pointing the soul to the things of God. If, however, the number of books written upon the earlier prophet [Isaiah] be compared with those written upon the later [Jeremiah], it will be found that there is a very great disproportion between them. It would seem therefore that room is left for another Commentary on the Book of the prophet Jeremiah.”
Introduction: § 1. The Importance of Jeremiah: The book of the prophet Jeremiah is the longest in the Bible, and though the mere volume of matter contained in even an inspired writing is no sure or final test of its importance –such a test, for example, would make Ecclesiastes of higher value than the Epistles of St John –yet in view of the disappearance of many of the prophetic utterances, it is evidence of the regard in which Jeremiah was held by the men of the Jewish Church, that they were at pains to collect and preserve so many narratives concerning his life, as well as writings attributed to him. The importance of the book, however, does not depend on its bulk, and had there come down to us only such fragments as chh. 9, 15:15 ff., 17:12 ff., and 20:7 ff. it would hardly be an exaggeration to say that Jeremiah was still the most valuable book in OT……No, the value of OT. lies elsewhere than in the chronicling of the pomp of kings and the petty majesty of war; it lies rather in its being a record of the gradual revelation of what was to the Jews –or at any rate to the higher minds amongst them –the supreme good in life, the knowledge of the living God. The peculiar value of OT., nay of the whole Bible, is not therefore historical but spiritual or, one might almost say, psychological. Its value is psychological because it is through the mind of man quickened by the Holy Spirit that God has given the most intimate revelation of Himself. Much can be learned of God by studying His handiwork in Nature, that open book in which he ‘who runs may read’; much can be learned from His guiding of the events of history, especially in the work of preparation for the Incarnation: but it is from His dealings with the souls of men –both collectively and as individuals –that God is to be known most certainly. The unique position which the Bible occupies, even amongst religious literature, lies in the fact that it contains a number of records of such dealings, and moreover records that are inspired by that Word of God upon whose sojourn on earth all the scattered rays of revelation are centred and in the power of whose ascended life alone they are to be interpreted. It is because Jeremiah amongst the prophets has left the most intimate and impressive accounts of what God meant to his soul, of the variety and richness of his religious experience, that the book which bears his name –and which most assuredly contains much that tomes directly from him– has such surpassing importance. The value of Jeremiah, estimated by this standard, is coming more and more to be realised, and the writer of a recent book on the prophets, referring to Jer. 20:7-9, goes so far as to say that ‘Any discussion of the faith of the prophets must centre finally in this fervid record of Jeremiah’s’. In the present day there is a tendency amongst the majority of people, including the professedly religious, to neglect and in many cases altogether to ignore the reading and study of the Bible. Even amongst Bible students themselves two equally dangerous attitudes of mind are not uncommon, attitudes of mind which regard the OT. on the one hand as a collection of obsolete documents, on the other as an armoury of proof texts. (*This latter weakness marked the learning of the period before the Reformation. ‘The scholastic divines, holding to a traditional belief in the ‘plenary’ and ‘verbal’ inspiration of the whole Bible, and remorselessly pursuing this belief to its logical results, had fallen into a method of exposition almost exclusively ‘textarian’. The Bible, both in theory and in practice, had almost ceased to be a record of real events, and the lives and teaching of living men. It had become an arsenal of texts; and these texts were regarded as detached invincible weapons to be legitimately seized and wielded in theological warfare, for any purpose to which their words might be made to apply, without reference to their original meaning or context…. Thus had the scholastic belief in the verbal inspiration of the sacred text led men blindly into a condition of mind in which they practically ignored the scriptures altogether.’ Seebohm, ‘The Oxford Reformers’, ch. ii. § 1.) The effect in each case is the same, the OT. falls into the background and its influence tends to become more and more like ‘a lingering star with lessening ray.’ This modern tendency to neglect OT. is fraught with much danger, because the two parts of Holy Scripture are so closely linked together that a study and appreciation of OT. is essential to a due and proper understanding of the New.” ……..”But the teaching of OT. has a value its own, and in particular the teaching of those great forerunners of the Messiah, the prophets. Amongst the prophetical books there is none which has a more striking message for modern times than the book of Jeremiah. Even in the days before the great European “War the value of a study of this book was recognised by so clear-sighted a judge as Bishop Westcott, who in the notice to the second edition of his commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (Sept. 1892) wrote as follows:
‘The more I study the tendencies of the time in some of the busiest centres of English life, the more deeply I feel that the Spirit of God warns us of our most urgent civil and spiritual dangers through the prophecies of Jeremiah and the Epistle to the Hebrews.’ But it is since the outbreak of the war and amidst all the shocks which the traditional faith has had to undergo, that the supreme importance of Jeremiah’s teaching has come most clearly to be recognised; and it has come to be recognised because the situation in which the prophet found himself has so much in common with that of the present day. His message was delivered during an age of transition, and delivered moreover to a people whose beliefs, founded on material conceptions of God, had been shattered by the course of events, by the harsh tragedies of actual life.” ……”Amongst canonical prophets he owed most to ‘Hosea’. Not only was he indebted to him for many of his ideas, but he has even preserved and re-expressed the very images in which the earlier prophet had clothed them. It is not merely that the circumstances of the two prophets were very similar, Hosea being the herald of the Fall of Samaria, as Jeremiah was of that of Judah, but the resemblance is so close that there must have been definite borrowing on the part of the later prophet”. It is to Hosea that Jeremiah owes the conception of Jehovah as the loving husband of the nation, as well as the idea of God as Father; it is through his influence that the service of other gods is described as adultery and fornication; and doubtless it was from the same source that Jeremiah got his figure of the wilderness period as the espousal time. [Compare Isaiah as to Husband, Father, & Marriage Relations of God to Israel.] From the prophet ‘Micah’, in addition to the quotation of Mic. 3:12 in 26:18, Jeremiah seems to have derived some of his teaching, for the utterances of the two prophets have much in common. It may well be, however, that this similarity, which seldom extends to actual wording, was due more to similarity of situation than to direct borrowing; as was pointed out above the fact that Jeremiah was recognised as a second Micah is evidence of some resemblance in character and teaching. The parallels between ‘Amos’ and the book of Jeremiah are fairly numerous, though it is not certain that they originated with the prophet himself, being found as they are for the greater part in the section on the nations. Dr. Harper sees distinct traces of Amos’ influence and quotes several instances of it, the most striking being that in these two prophetic books only is there use made of the phrases ‘virgin of Israel’ and ‘days are coming’ Jeremiah does not seem to have owed much to the teaching of his greatest predecessor ‘Isaiah’, at any rate as far as it is contained in OT.; and though there are resemblances between his prophecies and those of his contemporary Zephaniah they would appear to arise more from the similarity of environment than from any mutual influence. With ‘Nahum’ and ‘Habakkuk’, who were also his contemporaries in all probability, Jeremiah’s writings shew little kinship and the difference in point of view is so striking as to preclude the possibility of influence.”……”ii: Its Contents: The contents of the book are hard to analyse and indeed bewildering in their present form which seems to follow no consistent scheme of arrangement; and this bewilderment is increased by the absence of any attempt to take advantage of the chronological notes, which in the later chapters, at all events, are sufficiently numerous. As Canon Nairne has said, ‘The book of Jeremiah is not easily analysed. Attempts have been made to classify its contents. One attempt by the Jewish Synagogue provides the book as we know it in our English Bible. Probably the most helpful way of looking at the book is to think of it as a collection of manuscripts, stored in some corner of a library, not yet fully catalogued, but providing material of different kinds for the illustration of a period of history. The period includes political and religious events of great significance, and people and scenes pass so quickly before our eyes that it is only natural we should find it difficult to put the papers in order.’ Perhaps the best attempt to re-arrange the contents of Jeremiah is that of Cornill in SBOT., yet even it can hardly be called final or really satisfactory. His arrangement is as follows:
(‘a’) Discourses from the first twenty-three years of the prophet’s ministry (i.e. up to the date of the compilation of the roll, 604 B.C.), (1:2, 4-19; 2:1-13, 18-37; 3:1-5, 19-25; 4:3-9, 11-31; 5:1-19, 23-31; 6:1-30; 3:6-16; 11; 12:1-3, 5f.; 18; 7; 8; 9:1-21; 10:17-24; 25:1-3, 7, 11, 13’a’, 15-29; 46:1-12; 47; 48:1-21&