Christian Biblical Reflections.15


(Here are pages 260 – 297, the Books of Samuel. Kings to follow shortly. PDF created after the Historical Books completed in Esther. I have had to delete the Hebrew  and Greek words at times in this WordPress format, till the PDF is created it is deficient.mjm)

SAMUEL: 1st & 2nd: The Kingdom: Samuel: United: House of Saul & House of David

1st SAMUEL: 31 Chapters: Samuel’s Birth to Saul’s Death.

      Elkanah ben-Jeroham ben-Elihu ben-Tohu ben-Zuph; Ephraimite of Ramathaim-Zophim in the hills of Ephraim; he had two wives, Hannah childless, and Peninnah with children. He yearly visited Shiloh to worship & sacrifice to the Lord of Hosts. Eli sons Hophni & Phinehas were priests to the Lord. Elkanah gave of his sacrifice portions to Peninnah and her children, but to Hannah double portions, for he loved her, though the Lord prevented her conceptions, for which her rival troubled her to tears yearly on visits to the Lord’s House. Elkanah comforted her that he was better to her than 10 sons. Hannah at Shiloh, after feasting, went to the Lord’s Temple as Eli the Priest was seated by the door-post; and she prayed in tears quietly only moving her lips, vowing that if the Lord grant her a man-child, she would devote him to the Lord as a Nazirite all his life. Eli noticed her lips moving without sounds and rebuked her as a drunkard; but she replied that in sorrow of spirit she has poured out her soul to the Lord with complaint and provocation. Eli blessed her with peace and that the Lord grant her petition. Hannah was glad; she and her husband worshipped the Lord and returned home in Ramah; the Lord remembered Hannah and she conceived and gave birth to a son and named him Samuel (Ask, Request, Borrow, Loan), because she asked the Lord for him. The next three years Hannah stayed home with Samuel when Elkanah and his house went to Shiloh for the annual sacrifice and his vow. When she weaned her son on the third year to keep her vow, she went up to the House of the Lord in Shiloh, and brought three bullocks and one ephah of meal and a bottle of wine. The bullock was slain; and she gave the child to Eli saying that she had prayed and vowed for this child to the Lord that he is loaned and given to be a Nazirite to the Lord as long as he lives; Samuel worshipped the Lord.

Hannah’s Prayer:
Joy in Jehovah’s Salvation; God the Holy Rock; God knows our words and ways;
the mighty are broken; the fallen made strong;
the full beg bread; the hungry are fed;
the barren is fertile, and the fertile frets;
He kills, and He enlivens; He lowers, and He raises;
He makes poor and rich;
He helps the poor and needy to set them with princes and glory.
He maintains the world; He protects His saints; He silences the wicked.
His foes are demolished; He judges all the earth;
He strengthens and exalts His King and His Anointed.

       Samuel’s parents return to Ramah, but he stays ministering to the Priest Eli. Eli sons are base and godless young men; abusing the Lord’s sacrifices at Shiloh causing Israel to despise the Lord’s offerings. Samuel ministered to the Lord girded in a linen ephod, and wore a little robe made and given by his mother every year. Eli blessed Samuel’s parents that the Lord lend to her her request (samuel). The Lord enabled Hannah to be fertile and she in time bore 3 sons and 2 daughters. Samuel grew before the Lord. Eli was aged, and his two sons were fornicating with women serving at the door of the Tent of Meeting; Eli rebuked and warned them for their sins, but they paid no heed, for the Lord determined to kill them. Samuel continued to grow in the Lord’s grace and men’s favor. (It appears Samuel is now entering his teen years.) A Man of God prophesied to Eli concerning the House of Aaron; reminding him of the elect priesthood to serve and wearing an ephod, accusing him of honoring his sons by their fattening themselves from the best of Israel’s offerings to the Lord. So instead of a promised perpetual priesthood, for the Lord honors only those who honor Him, the house of Eli will be cut off by his two sons dying on the same day. The Lord will raise up a faithful Priest fulfilling His heart and mind, to walk always before His Anointed. And Eli’s household will bow and beg him to let them serve in some priest’s office so that they may eat bread.
Samuel continued to care for Eli in his old age (the Word of the Lord was rare and precious, few visions), blind and weak, asleep while the Lamp of God was still burning, Samuel in bed, in the Lord’s Temple with the Ark of God. The Lord called to Samuel and he answered, running to Eli thinking he called, but Eli told him he did not call out, and to return to bed. Again The Lord called to Samuel, who did as before, and Eli in turn replied as before. Again the 3rd time was as before; but Eli told Samuel to answer the next time saying: speak Lord Thy servant is listening. The 4th time the Lord called saying: Samuel, Samuel; and he answered as instructed. The Lord told Samuel He is about to shock Israel and Eli by fulfilling everything He foretold and sworn concerning the house of Eli, without mitigation of any sacrifice or offering. In the morning Samuel opened the doors of the House of the Lord, afraid to tell Eli. He constrained Samuel to tell him every word that the Lord told him last night; Samuel told him every word; and Eli owned it from the Lord Who will do as He pleases. Samuel grew in the Lord’s favor Who established Samuel’s words; and Israel from Dan to Beersheba knew he was a Prophet of the Lord; Who appeared to him again at Shiloh as before. (Samuel now reaches his 20s; as Eli reaches his 90s.)
Israel encamped for battle near Eben-ezer and the Philistines at Aphek. The engaged in battle and they slew of Israel some 4,000. Distressed they brought the Ark of Covenant to the camp to save them from the Philistines. Israel shouted in joy to see the Ark, and Eli’s sons accompanied it. The Philistines hearing the shouts of Israel and heard that the Ark of the Lord was in the camp were afraid, for nothing like this was ever done before, that is, God coming into the camp to fight; for they heard of the God of Israel delivering Israel from the Egyptians with plagues. The Philistines encouraged themselves overcoming their fear of defeat and enslavement to Israel engaged the battle and killed some 30,000 soldiers of Israel; capturing the Ark of God, and killing Eli’s two sons. A Benjaminite runner came to Shiloh and related the battle news to the city and to Eli who was sitting watching for the outcome. Eli asked why the people made such noise, and was told that Israel fled in defeat from the Philistines, that a great slaughter of the soldiers, that his two sons were dead, and that the Ark of God was captured. Eli on hearing the Ark of God was captured fell backwards near the gate and broke his neck, dying old and heavy at 98; he had judged Israel for 40 years (this makes Eli the 13th or 14th Judge and Samuel the last of the Judges; but this must not be taken that there were no more or other judges, it is clear there were). Eli’s daughter-in-law, Phineas’s pregnant wife, heard of the captured Ark of God and the deaths of Eli and her husband bowed in severe labor, dying when the women told her that she birthed a son, calling him Ichabod: for the glory is departed from Israel.
The Philistines moved the Ark of God from Eben-ezer to Ashdod and put it in the House of Dagon. In the morn those of Ashdod found Dagon fallen on his face to the ground before the Ark. They reset Dagon in his place, and the next morn again found him fallen with his head and hands broken off, leaving him a stump; thus no priest or worshiper of Dagon ever crosses the threshold of Dagon in Ashdod. The Lord plagued Ashdod and its borders with tumors or hemorrhoids; so they consulted with the Lords of the Philistines to send the Ark to Gath. But the Lord plagued Gath with tumors; they in turn quickly sent it to Ekron, but the Ekronites cried out against the Ark of God as a curse and plague; and they consulted with the Lords of the Philistines to send the Ark back to Israel to be healed of the plague and death.
The Ark was with the Philistines now 7 months, then the Philistines with their priests and diviners sought appeasement from the Lord cause of His plagues, so they gave a tress-offering of 5 golden-tumors and 5 golden mice, saying perhaps He will lighten His hand off them and their gods, and not to do what He did to Egypt and pharaoh. So they made a new cart, yoked two milk-cows never before yoked, and they put the Ark on the cart, and put on the side in a coffer the jewels of golden images. They let the oxen wander at will to see if they go towards Beth-shemesh of Israel as sign that the Lord accepted their offering. Those of Beth-shemesh while reaping their wheat harvest in the valley rejoiced seeing the Ark. The Ark came to the field of Joshua the Beth-shemite and stopped by a great stone; so they chopped up the cart for fire and offered up the kine for a burnt-offering to the Lord. The Levites took down the Ark; and offered the golden jewels and sacrifices to the Lord. The Philistines after seeing all this returned home to Ekron. The 5 golden tumors and mice were for the 5 Cities and Lords of Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron. But the Lord smote 70 men and 50,000 men of Beth-shemesh because they had looked inside the Ark; terrified they sent messengers to Kiriath-jearim asking them to come get the Ark.
And they came and took it to the house of Abinadab in the hill. and sanctified Eleazar his son to keep the Lord’s Ark. The Ark remained in Kiriath-jearim for 20 years while Israel lamented. Samuel told Israel to repent and turn to the Lord, remove the idols and Ashtaroth that He might deliver them from the Philistines. Samuel gathered Israel at Mizpah in fasts and prayers, judging Israel. The Philistines heard and mustered against Israel at Mizpah; Israel in fear cried to the Lord and to Samuel for salvation. He then offered burnt-offering to the Lord and cried to Him for Israel. The Philistines drew near to attack while Samuel was praying and sacrificing, but the Lord thundered against them and confused them and slew them. Israel pursued the Philistines and killed of them up to Beth-car. There between Mizpah and Shen Samuel set up a stone called Eben-Ezer (Stone of Help) for the Lord’s help. Thus were the Philistines subdued and no longer advanced into Israel’s lands during the life of Samuel. The cities and borders captured by the Philistines from Ekron to Gath were restored; and there was peace between Israel and the Amorites during Samuel’s administration. His circuit as Judge (the 14th or 15th) was from Beth-El, Gilgal, Mizpah, and Ramah his hometown; and he built an Altar to the Lord.
Samuel in his old age put his sons Joel and Abijah as judges in Beer-sheba; but they loved money and bribes and perverted justice so that Israel’s Elders came to Samuel at Ramah complaining about them and demanding to be given a King to judge us like the Gentiles. Samuel displeased prayed to the Lord Who told him to listen to them for they have decided to reject the Lord as their King and Ruler; for since the Exodus till Samuel they have been rebellious idolaters. In protest he is to warn them of the manner of their King; and Samuel described to Israel that their King will make their children his servants and soldiers, his farmers and merchants, his perfumers, cooks, bakers; he will take their best fields and vineyards and oliveyards to give them to his officers and servants; he will enlist and draft your best children and animals for his service and pleasure and enterprise; and he will tax to take a 10th of your flocks, and make you his servants; so that you will complain to the Lord because of your King, but He will not hear or help you. Israel told Samuel: No, we will have a King over us, like the Gentiles, to judge us, and to lead us in battles. Samuel reported Israel’s words to the Lord, Who told him to do as them have decided. Samuel dismissed Israel to go to their cities.
Benjaminite named Kish (Qish) ben-Abiel ben-Zeror ben-Becorath ben-Aphiah ben-Ben-Jamin, valiant fighter, whose son was Saul, a handsome young man, a foot taller than most Israelites. Kish’s donkeys were lost, and he sent Saul and a servant to find them, who searched the hills of Ephraim and in Shalishah then in Shaalim then in the land of the Benjaminites without finding the donkeys, finally at Zuph Saul told his servant we should return lest his father now worry that they too were lost. Saul’s servant suggested that in this city was a Man of God honorable and whose words come to pass, perhaps he can help. Saul asked what they can offer as a gift to him, and his servant said he had 1/4th a shekel silver-coin; (for it was custom to give the Man of God who was a Prophet as Seer and note here the Prophet-Seer is in Samuel as Judge and Priest) such payment or donations). So ascending to that city they met young maidens going to draw water who informed them the Seer was here and for the people’s sacrifice in the High Place, he can be easily found, for the people will not partake of the sacrifices till he is present to bless. As they drew near Samuel, forewarned by the Lord to anoint the visiting Benjaminite as Prince over Israel and Savior from the Philistines, came toward to them on the way to the High Place. When Samuel saw Saul the Lord said: this man shall have authority over My People. Saul unknowingly asked Samuel where the Seer’s house was; Samuel told Saul he was the Seer, and to go ahead to the High Place, since he must eat with him today; and in the morn he may return home, informed of all on his heart, and not to fret about the donkeys that his father has found; adding is not the desire of Israel on Saul and his father’s house. Saul surprised asked why Samuel said this since his father’s house was insignificant of the smallest tribe of Israel (which we saw in Judges was almost exterminated about 100 years earlier). Samuel seated Saul and his servant at the chief place amid 30 of his guests, and had the cook bring the reserved thigh for Saul to eat. Afterwards they descended the High Place, and Samuel talked with Saul on the housetop. Early the next day Samuel awoke Saul and told him to send his servant ahead; and he related to him the Word of God.
Samuel poured from a vial oil on Saul’s head, and kissed him saying: The Lord has anointed him to be Prince over His Inheritance; and he will meet by Rachel’s sepulchre in the border of Benjamin at Zelzah two men, who will tell him that his father’s donkeys are found, and he is looking for his son. Then at the Oak of Tabor he will meet three men on the way to Beth-El, with 3 kids and 3 loaves of bread and a bottle of wine; they will greet him and offer him two loaves, which he must take; afterwards at the Hill of God near the garrison of the Philistines, near the city he will meet a band of prophets descending the High Place with musical instruments in processions while prophesying; and the Lord’s Spirit will change him and cause him to prophesy; and at that time act for God Who is with him; afterwards to wait for Samuel at Gilgal for the sacrifices and offerings to the Lord. Saul departed and met a band of prophets and the Spirit of God caused him to prophesy with them, so that the people asked if Saul ben-Kish was also a prophet, but who is his Father (Master). So he ended his prophesying and came to the High Place. Saul’s uncle (Abner’s father) asked the servant where they went, he told him of the donkeys and Samuel, and he wanted to know what Samuel said, so Saul related about the donkeys but withheld the details of the Kingdom. Samuel assembled the People to the Lord at Mizpah, telling that the God of Israel saved them from Egypt and the kingdoms that oppressed them, yet Israel has rejected their Savior God for a human King. So he gathered the tribes of Israel and chose Benjamin, and of all the families of the Benjaminites he selected the Matrites, and of them Saul ben-Kish, but he could not be found; but the Lord revealed that he was hiding, so they brought him out and he stood taller than all the people. Samuel told the people this is King the Lord has chosen, and Israel shouted Life to the King; so Samuel described the manner of the Kingdom and wrote it in a Book and deposited before the Lord. Samuel dismissed the People. Saul returned home to Gibeah attended by a host whose hearts God had touched, but some worthless fellows voiced doubt and despised him, not giving any token gifts, but he kept quiet.
Nahash the Ammonite encamped against Jabesh-Gilead, but they tried to make a covenant to serve him; but he stipulated that they put out their right eyes as a reproach to Israel; the Elders of Jabesh ask for 7 days to send messengers to Israel’s borders for help, and if none, they will comply. The messengers (angels) came to Gibeah of Saul and related the crisis, and the people cried. Saul heard and asked and was told the details; then God’s Spirit came upon Saul and he was enraged. He took a yoke of oxen and cut them into pieces and sent the pieces throughout the borders of Israel, saying so will happen to their oxen if they refuse to muster to Saul and Samuel. The Lord’s dread was on the people who rallied as one man. Israel was numbered in Bezek some 300,000, and of Judah 30,000. They sent the messengers back with words of promise to Jabesh-Gilead of deliverance the next day. They in turn told the Ammonites the next day they’ll come out as they demanded. Saul divided the host into 3 divisions, and early attacked and slaughtered all the Ammonites. Some called for the men who mocked Saul as King to be put to death, but Saul prevented them since it is the Lord’s deliverance in Israel. Samuel then took Israel to Gilgal to renew the Kingdom and inaugurate Saul as King; and they offered sacrifices in gladness to the Lord.
Samuel said to Israel concerning their new King and called them to witness against him as wronging and abusing them, and they said he has never defrauded or oppressed them or taken a bribe. So he confirmed their testimony before the Lord and the King of his innocence. Samuel testified to Israel: The Lord by Moses and Aaron delivered Israel from Egypt by righteous acts after they cried to Him, and brought them to this Place. Israel forgot Him, and He sold them to Sisera of Hazor, to Philistines, and to Moab; who fought them, and made them cry to the Lord confessing their sins and idolatry; He sent Jerubbaal, Bedan, Jepthah, and Samuel to save them. (Tolah and Jair were both Gileadites, like Jepthah ((‘Bedan is named as the deliverer of Israelites in 1 Samuel 12:11. (compare 1st Chron. 7:14-17; compare Num. 26; 27; 32). He is not mentioned elsewhere as a judge of Israel. Bp. Patrick and others hypothesis the name to be a contraction of ben Dan (ben-Dan) by which they suppose Samson is meant, as the Targum reads. The LXX, Syriac, and Arabic, however, refer to the name as Barak, instead of Bedan; and the two latter versions refer to Samson, instead of Samuel. These readings are adopted by Houbigant, and appear to be genuine, for it is not probable (except as quoted or cited by the Lord and spoken by another) that Samuel would enumerate himself.” The Study Bibles cite the reading from the LXX and the Pesh., settling that Bedan = Barak, and Samuel = Samson; Bullinger offers a soft reason from Hebrew similarity and Dake adds his interpretation to that, and as usual without credit or referral; the Net Bible gives two notes on the reading and rendering; some even translate Barak and Samson as the text, without a note or comment. Here is William Smith’s Bible Dictionary (1863) entry: “BE’DAN (bedan; Badan), mentioned 1 Sam. 12:11, as a Judge of Israel between Jerubbaal (Gideon) and Jephthah. As no such name occurs in the Book of Judges, various conjectures have been formed as to the person meant, most of which are discussed in Pole (Synopsis, in loc.). Some maintain him to be the Jair mentioned in Judg. 10: 3, who, it must then be supposed, was also called Bedan to distinguish him from the older Jair, son of Manasseh, (Num. 32: 41), a Bedan being actually named among the descendants of Manasseh in 1 Chron. 7: 17. The Chaldee Paraphrast rends Samson for Bedan in 1 Sam. 12: 11, and many suppose Bedan to be another name for Samson, either a contraction of BenDan (the son of Dan or Danite), or else meaning in or into Dan (be) with a reference to Judg. 13: 25. Neither explanation of the word is very probable, or defended by any analogy, and the order of the names does not agree with the supposition that Bedan is Samson, so that there is no real argument for it except the authority of the Paraphrast. The LXX., Syr., and Arab, all have Barak, a very probable correction except for the order of the names. Ewald suggests that it may be a false reading for Abdon. Alter all, as it is clear that the Book of Judges is not a complete record of the period of which it treats, it is possible that Bedan was one of the Judges whose names are not preserved in it, and so may perhaps be compared with the Jael of Judg. 5: 6, who was probably also a Judge, though we know nothing about the subject except from Deborah’s song. The only objection to this view is, that as Bedan is mentioned with Gideon, Jephthah, and Samuel, he would seem to have been an important Judge, and therefore not likely to be omitted in the history. The same objection applies in some degree to the views which identify him with Abdon or Jair, who are but cursorily mentioned. [G.E.L.C.]”))). When Nahash the king of the Ammonites attacked, Israel insisted on greeting a King to rule though the Lord God was their King. So now you have your chosen King; to fear the Lord, to serve and fear and listen to Him, not rejecting His commandment, and following Him; and if not His hand will be against you and your king. Samuel to Israel called in the wheat-harvest for the Lord to make it rain with thunders and lightening; that they know and see that their rejection of the Lord for a King was wickedness; and it was so, and they feared the Lord and Samuel. Israel asked Samuel to pray for them in this great sin against the Lord; and He bid them to fear not but to continue to serve Him with all their heart, for the Lord will not forsake them for His great name’s sake, since He was pleased to make them His People. Samuel assured them he would not sin against the Lord to neglect to pray for them and to instruct them in the good and right way; but only that they fear and serve Him whole heartedly in truth, considering His ways; and if they do wickedly He will destroy them and their king.
Saul (ben-shanah Saul) ruled Israel, the 2nd year he mustered 3,000 fighters, 2,000 with him at Michmash and a mount of Bethel, 1,000 with Jonathan in Gibeah of Benjamin [this suggests Saul some 40 years old and Jonathan about 20]; and he dismissed the rest of the hosts. Jonathan struck the Philistine’s garrison at Geba, then Saul sounded the trumpet for the Hebrews to hear; so Israel thought that Saul had defeated the Philistines, and they hated Israel; Israel gathered to Saul at Gilgal. The Philistines mustered 30,000 chariots, 6,000 horsemen, and a mighty host at Michmash east of Beth-Aven. Israel distressed hid in everywhere; and some went across the Jordan to Gad and Gilead; the rest was with Saul at Gilgal trembling. He waited 7 days as Samuel ordered, but Samuel did not show up, and they people scattered; so Saul offered the sacrifices himself. Samuel arrived and Saul went to meet him. Samuel asked him what he was doing; he said that he was afraid in Samuel’s delay so he offered to the Lord for His protection. Samuel rebuked him for such foolishness and disobedience, and now his kingdom will not be established permanently; rather the Lord has found him a man after His own heart, and appointed him to be Prince over the People, because of Saul’s disobedience. Samuel left Gilgal to go to Gibeah of Benjamin; Saul with 600 men with Jonathan and some of the people stayed at Geba of Benjamin while the Philistines were at Michmash. The Philistine fighters (spoilers) moved in 3 companies: one toward Ophrah of Shual, second to Beth-Horon, and 3rd to the desert of the valley of Zeboim. (Now Israel had no smiths or iron-workers or tool-sharpeners, except some sharpening files, because the Philistines were afraid that the Hebrews would make weapons; thus most the people had no iron weapons, except for Saul and Jonathan.) The troops of the Philistines restationed to the passage of Michmash.
Jonathan and his armor-bearer decided to get near the garrison of the Philistines, but had not informed his father Saul, who was still at Gibeah by the pomegranate-tree of Migron; with Ahijah ben-Ahitub, Ichabod’s brother, ben-Phineas ben-Eli the Lord’s Priest in Shiloh, wearing the Ephod. Jonathan was between two passes of rocky crags, Bozez and Saneh., one north before Michmash, the other south before Geba. Johnathan told his armor-bearer that they should attack the uncircumcised Philistines for the Lord saves by few or many, and he agreed to go. They went and plotted to test for a sign if they should wait or advance by asking the fighters if they should come or stay for the battle; the Philistines replied thinking the Hebrews were coming out of their hiding places to fight, so bid them come on, to teach them; thus Johnathan took it as the Lord’s answer of victory. They crept into the garrison and killed about 20 men in distance of 1/2 a furrow of 1/2 acre; causing great fear and confusion in the camp, and the earth quaked. Saul’s watchmen of Gibeah of Benjamin saw the Philistines dwindle in numbers being routed; he asked who was missing from his fighters and was told Jonathan and his armorbearer. Saul told Ahijah to bring the Ark of God, and while he talked with the Priest the Philistines continued their tumult, Saul told Ahijah to withdraw his hand (that is from the breastplate of the lots of the Urim & Thumim); when Saul and his men came to the camp the Philistines were slaughtering themselves in confusion. The Hebrews allied to the Philistines then deserted and aligned themselves with Israel; and the Israelites in hiding came out to take part in the battle.; the Lord saved Israel, and the battle spread to Beth-aven. But Israeli fighters became hungry because Saul had cursed and banned anyone from eating till the evening till he was avenged. The people came to the forest and Jonathan tasted some wild honey not knowing Saul’s curse, but the men refused fearing the King’s oath; Jonathan objected to Saul’s ban as troublesome and deprived the men their portion from the spoils. They continued to fight from Michmash to Aijalon, and the people flew in craze upon the spoil, eating animals raw with blood. Saul was told, and he ordered a great stone be rolled for the sin; then he dispersed men throughout the camp to order every man to bring their animals to be slaughtered before him to prevent their eating blood meat; and he built an Altar to the Lord. Saul desired to pursue the Philistines to complete destruction and his men agreed, but he asked counsel from God, but He answered not; so he demanded of the chiefs what is this sin, but none answered; Saul swore that even if the sin is in Jonathan his son, as the Lord lives, he shall die. Saul set Israel on one side and he and his son on the other, and cast lots, and he and Jonathan was taken; he cast lots between them, and Jonathan was taken. Saul demanded what he had done, Jonathan related about the honey, and Saul was determined to kill him for violating the ban; but the people rescued Jonathan from death saying he shall not die for he worked with God to save Israel. So Saul abandoned his pursuit, and the Philistines went home. Now Saul in his kingdom over Israel defeated Moab, Ammon, Edom, the Kings of Zobah, the Kings of the Philistines, and wherever he turned; he was valiant against the Amalekites, delivering Israel from his spoilers. His sons were Johnathan, Ishvi, and Malchishua; his daughters were Merab the older, and Michal the younger; his wife was Ahinoam bath-Ahimaaz; his general was Abner ben-Ner, Saul’s uncle; Kish (Qish) was his father; and Ner, ab-Abner, was ben-Abiel. (Now the Philistines warred against Israel through Saul’s reign; and whenever he found a mighty man or valiant or brave man, he enlisted him.
Samuel told Saul how the Lord sent him to anoint him as King over Israel, now listen to the voice of the Lord’s words to destroy completely Amalek and all that belongs to them for their assault on Israel after the Exodus. Saul mustered 200,000 footmen of Israel, and from Judah 10,000; he came to the City of Amalek in ambush; he told the Kenites to depart lest they be destroyed, for they showed kindness to Israel after the Exodus. So Saul struck the Amalekites from Havilah going towards Shur before Egypt; he took Agag the King of the Amalekites as hostage, but utterly destroyed the people, but spared Agag and the best of the animals and good things, only destroying the useless or worthless things. The Lord’s words came to Samuel: I regret making Saul king, for he has stopped following Me and disobeyed My commands; and Samuel was angry and cried to the Lord all night. Samuel went to meet Saul early next morn, but was told that Saul came to Carmel and set up a monument, but went to Gilgal. Samuel went to Saul and greeted him in the Lord and declared his obedience; but Samuel asked what the noise of the animals was; he told him it was the Lord’s sacrifices from the slaughter of the Amalekites. Samuel told Saul to stay to hear what the Lord told me tonight: When you were little in your sight, the Lord made you Head of Tribes of Israel and anointed you King of Israel; He sent you on a journey to utterly exterminate the sinners, the Amalekites; but you have disobeyed, and fly upon the spoils, and did evil before Me. Saul replied defending his actions and excusing the people’s actions. Samuel replied that the Lord delights in obedience than animal sacrifices (ritual worship), for rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness (self-will) as idolatry and idols; since Saul rejected the Lord’s word, He has rejected him as King. Saul confessed his sin and asked forgiveness from him, and that he go with him to worship the Lord, but Samuel refused and turned away, but Saul grabbed his skirt and it was torn; thus Samuel said the Lord has torn away the Kingdom or Monarchy and given it to a better neighbor: the Strength of Israel will not lie or repent as if a man. Saul insisted that Samuel honor him with his presence in prayer before the Elders and the People in worship. Samuel yielded, and Saul worshipped the Lord. Samuel called for Agag who thought death was past; but Samuel said as he made mothers’ childless so too his mother would be, and he cut him in pieces before the Lord in Gilgal. Then he returned to Ramah, and Saul to Gibeah; Samuel never saw Saul again till his death but mourned for Saul whom the Lord rejected.
The Lord told Samuel stop mourning Saul, take a horn of oil and anoint one of the sons of Jesse the Beth-lehemite; but Saul said Saul will kill him; so told him to take a sacrifice for the Lord, and invite Jesse; so he came to Beth-lehem, and the Elders in fear asked if it was in peace, and he replied in peace, to sacrifice to the Lord, sanctify yourselves for the sacrifice, and he sanctified Jesse and his sons. Samuel saw Eliab and thought he was the Lord’s anointed, but the Lord said not to look on the outward features for the Lord looks at the heart. Jesse then showed him Abinadab, then Shammah, then his other sons, but the Lord did not choose them. Samuel asked if he had any other sons, and he said his youngest was watching the sheep. Samuel told him to fetch the boy, then he took him to Samuel, who saw he was ruddy and handsome, and the Lord told him to anoint this boy. Samuel anointed David witnessed by his brothers. The Spirit of the Lord thence moved upon David. Samuel returned to Ramah. The Spirit of the Lord left Saul and a evil spirit from the Lord troubled him; his servants suggested to rid the evil spirit from God by a skilled harpist playing when he was oppressed; and Saul agreed; they suggested young David who also was brave fighter and prudent and handsome and favored of the Lord. Saul sent messengers (angels) to Jesse to send to him David the shepherd youth. Jesse sent him to Saul with a donkey loaded with bread and wine, and a kid. David stood before Saul who loved him, and he became his armorbearer; and he told Jesse he wants to keep David as favored. When Saul was troubled by the evil spirit from God David played and Saul was refreshed, and the spirit departed.
The Philistines gathered to battle at Socoh of Judah and encamped at Ephes-dammim between Socoh and Azekah. Saul and Israel encamped in the Vale of Elah; the Philistines on one mountain and Israel on another, a valley lay between them. A Philistine man, a champion (ish-habenaim), Goliath of Gath, 6 cubits 1 span (some 9 feet) tall, with a helmet of brass on his head, wearing a coat of mail, an armor weighing some 5,000 brass-shekels, with greave leggings of brass, a brass javelin between his shoulders, his spear staff was like a weaver’s beam weighing 600 iron-shekels, and his shield-bearer before him ((“5,000 shekels (of brass or otherwise) is equal to approximately 125 lbs or 2000 ounces. Example: 1 talent= 60 maneh (mina)= 3,000 shekels = about 75 lbs or 1200 oz (little less than half ounce per shekel 0.4 oz) 1 maneh= 50 shekels= 100 beka= 1,000 gerahs= about 20 ounces or 1 lb 4 ounces, one beka or a half shekel is about equivalent to the weight of a US Jefferson 5¢ coin.)) ((125 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 25 + 50 = armor items = some 275 pounds of armory)). Goliath shouted out a challenge to Israel and Saul that one man be sent to fight him and if he kills him then the Philistines will serve Israel, but if he kills him then Israel must serve the Philistines; he defied Israel with these words. Saul and Israel were dismayed in fear. Now David was son of Jesse an Ephrathite of Beth-lehem-Judah, father of 8 sons, very old at this time. His 3 oldest sons (Eliab, Abinadab, and Shammah) fought for Saul; but David was his youngest. David went from Saul to Jesse, back and forth, to tend his father’s flocks at Beth-lehem. The Philistines taunted Israel for 40 days. Jesse sent David to his brothers encamped with ephah of parched grain and 10 loaves of bread, along with 10 cheeses to the captains of their 1,000; to see how his brothers fared and their report or pledge. Saul and his men fought with the Philistines in the Vale of Elath; David leaving his sheep with a keeper, went early has he was instructed, and came to the place of the wagons (supply wagons) and the armies were marching to fight with battle shouts. The hosts faced off, and David leaving his baggage (provisions) with a keeper, he ran to the battle field to greet his brothers. Goliath again came forth with his challenge, and David heard his words. The fighters of Israel in fear talked with each other, and mentioned that the King will enrich anyone who defeats Goliath, and offer him his daughter and make his father’s house free in Israel. So David asked concerning the King’s words and offer, and replied who was this uncircumcised Philistine to defy the armies of the living God; and the men in turn repeated the reward. Eliab his oldest brother heard and reproached him as a proud brat, deserting the flocks, desiring to see the battle; but David objected and turned to the men repeating his words. His words were rehearsed to Saul who had him brought to him; and he said to Saul no one need fear, he would go and fight the Philistine; Saul told him he cannot fight him for he was but a boy, and he Goliath was a man of war from his youth. David replied that when a lion or bear took a lamb from the flock he went after him to save the lamb and took it by the beard and killed it., both lion and bear; and so will do to this uncircumcised Philistine who has defied the armies of the living God; so as the Lord delivered me from the paws of the lion and bear, so He’ll deliver me from the hand of this Philistine; so Saul permitted him to go and the Lord be with him. Saul clad David with clothes, brass helmet, coat of mail, and girded with a sword; but David could not move easily for it was not proved, so he told Saul he could use these, and took them off. David took his staff, chose 5 smooth stones from the brook and put them in his shepherd’s bag in his wallet pouch, and his sling was in his hand; and he drew near the Philistine. The Philistine with his shield-carrier ahead in front advanced towards David, and when he saw him he disdained him with his pretty features, asking if he was a dog that David came to him with sticks; and he cursed David by his gods; telling David to come to him that he might feed the birds and beasts with his flesh. David shouted back that the Philistine came with sword, spear, and javelin, but he came in the name of the Lord of hosts (Jehovah Tsabaoth), the God of Israel’s armies whom he defied; and today the Lord will deliver the Philistine into David’s hand to kill him, cut off his head, feed the birds and beasts with the carcases of the Philistines, that all the earth may know there is a God in Israel, and all this assembly may know that the Lord saves not with sword and spear: for the battle is the Lord’s and he will give him into Israel’s hands. The Philistine moved closer to David, David quickly ran toward the army to meet him, and took a stone from his bag and slingged it and struck the Philistine in his forehead, and the stone sunk into his forehead and he dropped dead. David did not have a sword, so he ran and stood over the Philistine and drew his own sword from his sheath and cut off his head. The Philistines saw their champion was dead and they fled, but Israel and Judah pursued them with shouts to Gai and to Ekron, and the wounded fell along the way to Shaaraim to Gath and to Ekron. Israel then returned and plundered their camp. David took the head of Goliath the Philistine to Jerusalem, but but his armor in his tent. Saul afterwards asked Abner his general whose son was this youth, and Abner said he had no idea; so Saul asked Abner to find out; so Abner found David after his return and brought him to Saul, who asked him, and he answered that he was the son of his servant Jesse the Beth-lehemite.
Saul’s son Jonathan was knit in love in soul to David; Saul enlisted David as his servant; Jonathan covenanted with David, clothed him in his own robe, sword, bow and girdle. David went as Saul sent him, behaved wisely, and he set him over the men of war, and the people and Saul’s servants were pleased. When David returned from the defeat of the Philistines the women from the cities of Israel celebrated with songs and dance to meet Saul with musical instruments, singing Saul slayed his 1,000s and David his 10,000s. Saul was angry and displeased that they ascribed 10,000s to David but to him only 1,000s; and what is left but the kingdom for him. Saul eyed David ever after; and the next day an evil spirit from God visited him in his house, and he prophesied while David played as usual, and he threw a spear at David to kill him, and again at another time. Saul was obsessed with fear of David (phobic insanity) for the Lord was with him and He had abandoned Saul. Saul then reassigned David to military field service as captain over 1,000s, marching to and from, conducting himself wisely and favored by the Lord, so that Saul was in awe; and Israel and Judah loved David as a leader. Saul then offered David his oldest daughter Merab as a bride if he would show himself brave in in fighting the Lord’s battles, thinking that in this way he will die in war rather than by Saul. But David replied to Saul why should he be considered of such honor to be the King’s son-in-law; and in time when Merab should have been given to David she was given in marriage to Adriel the Meholathite. But Saul’s daughter Michal, loved David, and Saul heard and was pleased, saying he would let him marry her that she might be a snare to him, and that he might die fighting the Philistines. So again Saul offered David the chance of becoming the King’s son-in-law; and he urged his servants to commend David to accept the King’s offer being loved and favored by all. David objected to the servants that they treated it easy and small matter for a poor and simple man should be the King’s son-in-law. The servants related his answer to the King, who in turn demanded only a dowry of 100 foreskins of the Philistines as vengeance against his enemies, thinking thus will he die. They told David who was pleased, and in the time allotted went with his men and slew 200 Philistines, and he presented to the the King the foreskin dowry; so Saul married off his daughter to David. Saul saw and knew the Lord was with David; and Michal loved him; and he became more afraid (paranoid), and was his enemy continually. The Philistines Princes went forth, and David responded more wisely than all Saul’s servants so that his name was famous and respected.
Saul solicited David’s death from his son and his servants; Jonathan related to David that his father sought to kill him, so he told him to be careful, and to hide himself, and he will talk to Saul of David and see his father’s response and then tell David. Jonathan defended David as a faithful and good servant, a great warrior favored by the Lord, and innocent of any wrong against the King. Saul reconsidered and agreed and swore that David will not be put to death. So Jonathan told David, and brought him back, and he was in the King’s presence as before. Again the Philistines made war, and David defeated them again; but an evil spirit from the Lord caused Saul to throw a spear at David while he played, but he got away again, and fled. Saul sent messengers to David’s house to watch and kill him, so Michal urged him to escape that night, and she let him down through the window; she then took a teraphim idol and laid it in David’s bed covered, and when Saul’s servants came she told them he was sick in bed; they told Saul and he ordered them to bring him in bed to him that he might slay him. The messengers came and found a teraphim idol in bed with goat’s hair at the head. Saul demanded from Michal why she deceived him and let his enemy escape, she replied he threatened to kill her. David escaped to Samuel at Ramah, and told him all that Saul did, so they went to stay in Naioth. Saul was told, and he sent messenger’s to Naioth in Ramah, but when they saw the company of prophets led by Samuel, the Spirit of God made the messengers of Saul prophesy, so Saul sent other messengers, but they too prophesied, and then the 3rd time with the same result; so Saul went to Ramah near the great well in Secu and asked for Samuel and David, and was told they were in Naioth of Ramah, and as he went the Spirit of God made him prophecy up to Naioth, and he stripped naked while he prophesied that day and night. So people asked if Saul also was one of the prophets.
David fled Naioth of Ramah and came to Jonathan asking for what wrong Saul sought his death; he replied that its not true, his father would have disclosed it to him; but David swore it was so, and Saul knowing that it would grieve Jonathan he hid his intent; he agreed to do whatever David asked; David said to him that tomorrow on the new moon he must sit at the King’s table, but he will hide himself for three days, and if he notice, tell him that he requested to go to his city Bethlehem for a yearly family sacrifice, and if he says its good, then there is peace; but if he is angry, he intends evil. Since we have a mutual covenant in the Lord then slay me rather than wait for your father. Jonathan objected and said he will tell him his father’s intent; David asks how, and he said let’s go into the field and he said good or bad he will tell him. He promised David, and asked the same kindness from David towards his house and family; so they both swore and reaffirmed the covenant before the Lord. He told David to hide in the field for 3 days near the stone Ezel, and on the 3rd day he would shoot 3 arrows toward the the place, then will tell his servant to fetch the arrows by saying the arrows are on this side, then there is peace all is well; but if he says the arrows are beyond you, then David must go for the Lord is sending him away. The King sat to eat at the new moon, he was seated by the wall as usual, Jonathan stood, and Abner sat by Saul’s side, Saul notice David’s place was empty but thought maybe he was unclean, The next evening he asked of David, and Jonathan told, and Saul was enraged and accused him as a son of a perverse rebellious woman that has chosen the son of Jesse to his shame and his mother’s nakedness; and that his kingdom will never be established while he lives; and he demanded David be brought and killed. Jonathan protested that David has done nothing worthy of death; Saul threw a spear at him, so he knew his father was determined to kill David; and he arose in rage and ate nothing, grieved for David and for his father shaming him. In the morn he and a lad went to the field as he promised and did as they agreed; he then gave his weapons to the boy and sent him back to the city. David surfaced from the South and bowed 3 times, and they hugged and kissed and cried. Jonathan bid him to go in peace in the Lord’s name, and may He be with their offspring for ever; and David departed, and Jonathan returned home.
David came to Ahimelech the Priest at Nob, who greeted in fear and caution; David relates to him that he is on secret errand from the King, and in a hurry took no food, and he asks if any bread was on hand; the Priest had no common bread, but offered him holy bread (the Show-Bread of Presentation to the Lord) soon to be exchanged for fresh hot loaves, only if the men have abstained for 3 days from their women (sexual pollutions); David assures him none of them have been near women for 3 days, and the men’s vessels were holy when they left. Now Saul’s servant Doeg the Edomite, his chief of his herdsmen, was detained before the Lord that day. David asked Ahimelech for any spear or sword on hand, and he only had the sword of Goliath the Philistine who David slew, wrapped in cloth and placed behind the Ephod; David said there is none like it, so he took it, and fled in fear of Saul to Achish the King of Gath. Achish’s servants said to him, is this the David that they celebrate in songs that Saul slew 1000s but David his 10,000s; David wondered and worried of Achish; he then acted insane with erratic motions at the city-gate, spit drooling on his beard; so Achish asked why such a madman was brought to him.
David then escaped to the Cave of Adullam, and his relatives and family went to him; any who were distressed or discontented joined him, some 400 men. He then removed to Mizpeh of Moab (David’s great great grand-mother was a Moabitess), and he requested of the King of Moab asylum for his kin folks till he knew what might do for him; they stayed there while David hid in the Stronghold (Fortress). The Prophet Gad told David to leave the Fortress and go to Judah; so he went to Hereth. Saul, while sitting under a tamarisk-tree in Ramah of Gibeah, holding his spear with his men, heard David and his men was discovered. Saul accused his servants as Benjaminite traitors conspiring to get rewarded and promoted as captains by the son of Jesse, so no one has felt sorry for Saul to reveal that his son has plotted with his servant waiting to attack him. Doeg the Edomite standing near Saul’s servants, informed the King that he saw and heard that the son of Jesse came to Ahimelech ben-Ahitub the Priest, who inquired of the Lord for him, gave him food, and the sword of Goliath. Saul summoned Ahimelech the Priest and his house, the priests of Nob; Saul demanded why he has conspired against the King and help David the rebel. The Priest Ahimelech replied that who is as faithful to Saul as David the King’s son-in-law, of the King’s council, and honorable in the King’s house; and it’s not now he has inquired of God for him, it is not so, I know nothing of any of this. The King sentenced Ahimelech and his house to death; and he ordered the guard to execute the Lord’s priests, but his servants refused to slay the Lord’s priests; so he ordered Doeg the Moabite to do it, and so he did killing all 85 priests wearing linen ephods. He also smote Nob, the city of the priests, slaughtering every living animal or persons. But Abiathar, Ahimelech’s son, escaped and related all to David; David said I knew that day that Doeg the Edomite would tell Saul; I have caused the death of all your father’s house; stay with me without fear and in safety, for he who seeks my life seeks your life.
David was told the Philistines were fighting Keilah and robbing the threshing-floors; he inquired of the Lord Who told him to go save Keilah; but David’s men voiced their fears in Judah how much more with the armies of the Philistines; he again inquired of the Lord, again He told him to go, for He will deliver the Philistines into his hands. David and his men fought the Philistines and slaughtered them, taking their cattle, and saved Keilah. Now Abiathar ben-Ahimelech had brought with him an Ephod. Saul was told that David was at Keilah, so he said alas God has delivered him into his hands, for he is imprisoned in a town with gates and bars. Saul summoned all the people to war against David at Keilah. and they besieged them. David had Abiathar bring forth the Ephod; he asked the Lord if the people of Keilah will hand him over to Saul; and He answered yes. David and his 600 men left Keilah; Saul heard, and gave up the chase. David stayed in the wilderness of Ziph, and God did not let Saul capture him. Jonathan went to David in the woods and strengthened his hand in God, assuring him that Saul will not find him, and that David will be King over Israel and Jonathan will be next to him, as Saul knows. Again they renewed their covenant, then he returned home, and David stayed in the woods. The Ziphites told Saul David was hid in the fortress in the woods, in the Hill of Hachilah, south of the desert. They invited Saul to come get him as he desired, and they will deliver him to the King; and Saul blessed them in the Lord for their compassion. Saul asked them to make certain David’s whereabouts, his hiding places, and movements, then return with the intelligence, and he will come and hunt him anywhere he runs, to the thousands of Judah. So they returned to Ziph ahead of Saul; but David was now in the desert of Maon in the Arabah south of the desert. So Saul went after David in the desert of Maon by a mountain side, David and his his men on the other side, in flight, Saul and his men compassed them on all sides. Then news came to Saul that the Philistines had raided the land; so Saul gave up the pursuit, and went to fight with the Philistines; the place was thus called Sela-ham-mahlekoth (Rock of Division). David repositioned to the fortresses of En-gedi.
Saul returned from fighting the Philistines and was told David was in the wilderness of En’gedi; and he took 3,000 chosen men of Israel to seek David and his men among the rocks of the wild goats; and came to the sheepfolds by the way, near a cave, where Saul went to cover his feet. David and his men were in the innermost of the cave; his men wanted David to kill Saul as the Lord promised to deliver him into his hands; but he only cut off the skirt of Saul’s robe quietly. David was grieved for this action, saying the Lord forbid that I shout mistreat the Lord’s anointed; thus he checked his men’s desire against Saul. Saul arose and went on his way; then David followed and shouted out : my Lord the King; Saul turned around to see David bowing face down in obeisance; saying to Saul, why he was listening to men’s words that David seeks his hurt; when today the Lord delivered the King into his hand but he would not kill Saul being the Lord’s anointed; and he lifted up Saul’s skirt of his robe in his hand as proof that he is innocent, without evil or transgression or sin, though Saul hunted to slay him. The Lord judge between us, avenge me, but I will not harm thee; as says the ancient proverb: wickedness from the wicked, but my hand shall not touch thee. The King of Israel pursues a dead dog and a flea. The Lord vindicate me rightly. Saul shouted back: is this my son David, and he cried aloud, saying you are more righteous than me, rendering me good for my evil; seeing that you spared my life when the Lord gave you a chance to kill me; for who spares his enemy and let him go free. I know you will be King, and the Kingdom of Israel will be established in your hands; swear to me by the Lord you will not cut off my seed or my name in my father’s house. David swore to Saul; Saul returned home; David and his men went to the fortress.
Samuel died, and all Israel lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah. David relocated to the wilderness of Paran. A man, named Nabal (Folly), in Maon was very rich, having some 3,000 sheep, and 1,000 goats, shearing his sheep in Carmel; his wife’s name was Abigail, intelligent and beautiful, but her husband was churlish and an evil doer, and was of the house of Caleb. David sent 10 young men to Nabal to greet him in peace, informing him that he and his men have protected his shepherds without robbery, requesting favor and whatever he could give to help. The men went and related to Nabal David’s words, but he answered roughly: who was the son of Jesse, for many servants are run-aways from their master; that I should give bread and water and my shearer’s meat, to give to nobodies. They returned and reported Nabal’s words to David; he ordered 400 hundred men to girt for war, and 200 to stay with the stuff. Abigail was told by the servants of her husband’s actions and David’s reaction and intent to wipe out Nabal’s house; she quickly took 200 loaves, 2 bottles of wine, 5 prepared sheep, 5 measures of parched grain, 100 clusters of raisins, and 200 fig cakes, all loaded on donkeys. She ordered her young men to ride ahead, and she’ll follow; and she did not tell her husband. As she rode by the covert of the mountain, David came to meet her; voicing his rage and threatened to get revenge on Nabal for his ingratitude and offense, by slaughtering all the males of his house to the last man-child. Abigail dismounted and bowed before David’s feet, asking his wrath be upon her, begging with words and admitting her husband named Nabal which means Folly is true to his name, informing him she did not know when the young men came for help; requesting that David has been kept back from guilt of personal revenge, and may my lord David’s enemies all perish; that he forgive her trespass, for the Lord will establish David’s house, for he fights the Lord’s battles, and thus be free from evil; though men seek to kill him, his soul will be bundled with life with the Lord his God; but the souls of his enemies will be shot out as from a sling’s pouch (mouth); thus when the Lord has appointed David Prince over Israel that this revenge will not grieve or stain his heart; and at that time remember your handmaid. David blessed the Lord for Abigail for her discretion and preventing his vengeful act that he was determined to carry out on Nabal’s house. David received Abigail’s gifts of supplies, dismissing her in peace and favor. Abigail returned to Nabal who held a great feast as a king, got merry and drunk; the next day she told him everything, and he became as a stone; about 10 days later the Lord smote Nabal to death. David heard that the Lord had avenged him of Nabal, and sent for Abigail to be his wife; David’s men came to Abigail with David’s marriage proposal; she in turn offered to become his handmaid to wash his servants feet; but David married her (as his second wife). He married also Ahinoam of Jezreel (as his 3rd wife); for Saul had married off Michal, David’s 1st wife), to Palti ben-Laish of Gallim.
The Ziphites came to Saul in Gibeah informing him that David was hiding in the hill of Hachilah before the desert; Saul went to the wilderness of Ziph with 3,000 select Israelites, and encamped near David’s hide out; David sent spies to verify Saul’s position, then came to Saul’s camp while he rested, near Abner ben-Ner his general, within the place of the wagon supplies, surrounded by the people. David asked Ahimelech the Hittite and Abishai ben-Zeruiah, Joab’s brother, to go down with him into Saul’s camp. Abishai volunteered, and they went at night and found Saul sleeping, with his spear by his head stuck in the ground; Abishai wanted David to let him spear Saul to death with one stroke, for God has delivered his enemy to him; but David told them not to touch the Lord’s anointed and be guilty. He said the Lord will one day smite him, or by chance die in battle; but only take his spear and the cruse of water; Saul and his men were in deep sleep caused by the Lord. David went over the other side opposite Saul and shouted out to the people and to Abner; Abner in turn asked who was shouting to the King; David replied that Abner deserved death for not guarding the life of his King and Master, the Lord’s anointed; and showed the King’s spear and cruse as proof. Saul recognized David’s voice, and spoke; David asked why was he seeking to kill him, and petitioned the King to accept a peace offering, and let the sons of men be cursed by the Lord for driving him out from the Lord’s inheritance to serve idols; and that David not perish outside Israel as a flea or a hunted partridge in the mountains. Saul responded that he sinned, that David return without harm, because he spared the King’s life, for he has played the fool and sinned. David asked the King to let a young man come fetch the King’s spear; and may the Lord repay each man his righteousness and faithfulness, and as I have regarded the King’s life, the Lord’s anointed, may He regard and preserve me from all trouble. So Saul blessed David to do mightily and prevail; and David departed but Saul returned home.
David said in his heart that one day he will perish by the hand of Saul; its best that I escape to the land of the Philistines that Saul give up pursuing me in the borders of Israel. David and 600 men passed over to Achish ben-Maoch, King of Gath, along with all their households, and David’s two wives. Saul heard and stopped chasing David. David asked favor from King Achish to settle in a city in the country away from the King’s royal city; so he gave him Ziglag, which belongs to Judah to this day (perhaps Solomon’s time and after). Now David stayed in the country of the Philistines 1 year 4 months. He and his men made raids on the Geshurites, Girzites, and Amalekites, for they inhabited the land anciently, from Shur to Egypt; he slaughtered the people, taking the livestock and clothes, then returned to Achish. He asked David of his recent raids, and he said on South of Judah, and South of Jerahmeelites, and South of the Kenites; sparing no person that could tell of his manner in the country of the Philistines. Achish believed David, saying he has made himself odious to his people, and he will be my servant forever.
Now in those days the Philistines mustered their armies for warfare against Israel; and Achish told David he and his men will join him in the battle; David agreed, and Achish said he’ll be my body guard. Samuel was dead and buried in Ramah, while Israel mourned. Saul had put away those of familiar spirits and wizards from the land. The Philistines were encamped in Shunem, and Saul and Israel were in Gilboa; he was afraid of the Philistines’ host; and he inquired of the Lord, but He answered not by dreams or Urim or prophets. So Saul demanded that a woman with a familiar spirit be brought to him; he was told that there is such a woman at En-dor; he went disguised to her by night, and asked her to divine by the familiar spirit and bring up the one he names. The woman said that Saul has cut off the witches and wizards from Israel, why is he trying to snare her life to die. Saul swore to her by the Lord that she would not be punished; so she asked who he wished to be brought up; he said Samuel; when she saw Samuel she screamed at Saul that he has deceived her; the King calmed her not to fear, but tell him what she saw; she said she sees a god rising from the earth; Saul asked of his form; she said a old man dressed in a robe; so Saul perceived it was Samuel, and he bowed in homage. Samuel asked Saul why he disturbed him to bring him up; Saul said that he was distressed for the Philistines at war with him, and God has departed from him and will not communicate with him by any means; that I might known what will happen. Samuel told Saul since God has deserted him and become his adversary; He is fulfilling His words that He spoke by Samuel, that the Lord has rent the Kingdom from Saul and given it to David; because Saul disobeyed the Lord’s voice in not executing His wrath on Amalek. The Lord will deliver Israel with Saul into the hands of the Philistines, and tomorrow Saul and his sons will be with Samuel. Saul immediately fell flat face down on the ground at these words, having no strength not having eaten that day and night; so the woman pleaded with Saul to grant her favor for doing as he wished, and to eat some bread to be strengthened for his journey; but he refused, but his servants and the woman prevailed to persuade him, so he sat up on the bed, while she took the calf and killed it, and prepared unleavened bread, and they all ate, then departed.
The Philistines hosts were in Aphek and Israel was encamped in Jezreel; and the Lords of Philistines crossed on by 100s and by 1,000s; David and his men passed on rearward with Achish; the Princes of the Philistines objected to Hebrews’ presence; Achish told them David the ex-servant of Saul Israel’s servant, has been these days and years faithful and loyal. The Princes protested in anger, and told Achish to send David away from the battle lest they turn against us in the fighting to reconcile himself to Saul; for it this David that they sing and dance that Saul slew his 1,000s and David 10,000s. Achish told David that though, as the Lord lives, he has been upright and loyal in everything; yet the Lords of the Philistines, demand he turn back ; David replied that he is loyal and ready to fight all the enemies of the Lord and King Achish; he in turn agreed that David as been good, as angel of God; but the Lord insist. Achish ordered David and his men to return at early light in the morn; so David returned to the land of the Philistines in Ziklag; but the Philistines moved on to Jezreel.
David returns to Ziklag on the 3rd day to find that the Amalekites had raided the South, and attacked Ziklag and burned it, taking the women and children captive with them. David and his men cried and shouted for their families, and David’s two wives were taken captive also; he was in great distress for the people talked of stoning him in their grief; but David strengthened himself in the Lord. He asked the Priest Abiathar to bring the Ephod and inquire of the Lord if he should pursue the troop; and was told to pursue and overtake them, and recover all. David and the 600 men advanced to the brook Besor, then left 200 men to guard the stuff because they were exhausted, he and 400 continued. They found an Egyptian in the field famished, they fed with bread and fig-cakes and gave him water to drink, for he had not eaten or had water for 3 days. David asked and was told he was an Egyptian a servant to an Amalekite, who left him sick 3 days ago; that they had raided the South of the Cherethites in Judah, and the South of Caleb, and burnt Ziklag. David asked if he could lead them to this troop; he made them swore to not kill him nor hand him over to his master, and he will lead them to them. They came to the Amalekites who were spread out eating, drinking, and dancing for all the spoils they had gotten from the land of the Philistines and from Judah. So David smote and slaughtered them from that evening to the next evening, killing all except for 400 who escaped on camels.; thus he recovered all, his wives, the women and children, the cattle and goods; and they called it David’s spoil. They returned to the brook Besor to the 200 men guarding the stuff; then so base wicked men said that the 200 men who stayed behind should get nothing of the spoils save their own wives and children. David protested not so, for the Lord gave us and preserved us and defeated the troop that came against us; we must share alike all with those who went to battle and with those who stayed with the baggage; thus David made from that day a statute and ordinance for Israel to share equally the spoils of war. When they came to Ziklad David sent gifts and presents of the Lord of the spoils to the Elders and his friends, to them in Beth-El, in Ramoth of the South, in Jattir, in Aroer, in Siphmoth, in Eshtemoa, in Racal, in the cities of the Kenites, in Hormah, in Bor-ashan, in Athach, in Hebron, and to all the hiding places of David.
The Philistines defeated Israel at Mount Gilboa, and they pursued Saul and his sons and killed his sons Jonathan, Abinadab and Malchishua; and the battled increased and Saul was distressed by the archers; and he commanded his armorbearer to slay him with the sword, for he was wounded, and did not want to be struck and abused by the hands of the uncircumcised; his armorbearer was too afraid to obey; so Saul fell on his own sword and died. When the Israelites on the other side of the valley saw the Israelites with Saul retreating, and that Saul and his sons were dead they also deserted the field, and forsook the cities; the Philistines then occupied the cities. Next morn the Philistines came to strip the slain and found the bodies of Saul and his 3 sons at Mount Gilboa; they cut off Saul’s head, removed his armor, and sent news and tokens through the land of the Philistines, to the house of their idols, and to their people. They put Saul’s armor in the House of the Ashtaroth, his body on the wall of Beth-shan. The citizens of Jabesh-gilead heard and sent valiant men to take the body of Saul and his sons from the wall of Beth-shan; then came to Jabesh and burnt the bodies there; and buried the bones under the tamarisk-tree in Jabesh, and fasted 7 days.

        2nd SAMUEL: 24 Chapters: Saul’s Death to David’s Last Days:

      After Saul’s death, after David returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites, after 2 days in Ziklag; on the 3rd day a man from Saul’s camp came to David with torn clothes and dirt on his head and knelt in homage to David; saying he was escaped from Israel’s camp. David asked of the battle; he said the people fled the battle, many wounded and dead, and Saul and Jonathan were dead. David asked how he knew this: he said that in Mount Gilboa he noticed Saul was leaning on his spear, the chariots and riders were in hot pursuit; when Saul looked behind him and saw me he called me to him, and asked who I was; I said I was an Amalekite, and he asked me to stand near to slay him, for he was in anguish of bare life; so I stood and slew him, for he was already mortally wounded. I then took his crown and arm bracelet to bring to my Lord. David and his men tore their clothes, mourned in tears, and fasted till eve, for Saul, Jonathan, the Lord’s people, and the house of Israel slain in battle. Again David questioned the Amalekite that reported Saul’s death, and asked why he was not afraid to destroy the Lord’s Anointed. He commanded a young man to execute him, for his blood is on his own head by his own mouth.

David lamented the death of Saul and Jonathan with a Lamentation Song, (and taught that children of Judah must learn to use the bow, this is written in the Book of Jashar (Upright, or Ya-Shar, Jehovah’s Prince or Captain)):

Israel thy Glory is slain on the High-places; the Mighty are fallen.
Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Ashkelon;
lest the daughters of the uncircumcised Philistines rejoice in triumph.
Mountains of Gilboa be without dew or rain or fields of offerings:
for the shield of the mighty was tossed as trash;
Saul’s shield was not anointed with oil.
Jonathan’s Bow was stained with the blood of the mighty;
and Saul’s Sword returned soaked.
They were lovely and pleasant in life, and undivided in death:
swifter than eagles and stronger than lions.
Daughters of Israel weep for Saul, who clothed you scarlet and gold ornaments.
The Mighty are fallen in battle: Jonathan slain on the heights!
I am distressed for thee my brother Jonathan;
you were pleasant with love surpassing women.
The Mighty are fallen and the weapons perished!

      Afterwards David inquired of the Lord which of Judah’s cities should he enter; He told him Hebron; David, his two wives, Ahinoam the Jezrelitess, Abigail the Carmelite, Nabal’s wife (widow), with his men and their families, and resettled in Hebron. The men of Judah anointed David as King over the House of Judah. David was told that those of Jabesh-gilead buried Saul; he sent messengers (angels) to them with the Lord’s blessings for their kindness to their Master Saul, and that the Lord show mercy and truth to them, and also, he will requite their deed. Abner ben-Ner Saul’s army general conveyed Ish-bosheth ben-Saul to Mahanaim, and made him King over Gilead, the Adhurites, Jezreel, Ephraim, Benjamin, and over Israel; he was 40 years old, and reigned 2 years. But the House of Judah followed David. He was King in Hebron for 7 1/2 years. Abner and Ish-bosheth’s servants moved from Mahanaim to Gibeon.; Joab and David’s servants met them at the Pool of Gibeon, each sitting opposite each other at the pool; Abner said to Joab that the young men should compete, 12 for Benjamin and Ish-bosheth, and 12 of David’s servants. The young men each grabbed his opponent and thrust each his sword in each other to death, so that the place was called Helkath-hazzurim in Gibeon. The battle was intense, and Abner and Israel was beaten before David’s servants. The 3 sons of Zeruiah: Joab, Abishai, and Asahel (who was swift as a wild roe deer) were there; Asahel pursued Abner tenaciously, and Abner turned while running and bid Asahel to turn and seize a young man, and take his armor; but he refused, and again Abner warned him, for how would he face Joab if he should kill Asahel; but he still refused, so he thrust his spear shaft into his body and the spear end came out his back and he dropped dead on the ground. Joab and Abishai continued to chase Abner till sunset and the reached the Hill of Ammah before Gath by way of the Wilderness of Gibeon. The Benjaminites united as one band under Abner atop the hill. Abner called out to Joab asking if the sword will forever devour ending in bitterness; and how long before the chase of the people against their brothers end. Joab blew the trumpet, and the people quit the chase, never to pursue again. Abner and his men continued through the night crossing the Jordan passing through Bithron till they arrived at Mahanaim. Joab gathered the people and found only 19 men plus Asahel were missing. But David’s men had killed some 360 of Benjamin. They buried Asahel in his father’s sepulchre in Beth-lehem. But Joab and his men traveled all night till daybreak at Hebron.
The House of Saul and House of David continued at war, David getting stronger, and Saul weaker. David 6 sons born in Hebron were by birth: Ammon of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; Chileab of Abigail the Carmelite (Nabal’s wife (widow)); Absalom ben-Maacah bath-Talmai king of Geshur; Adonijah ben-Haggith; Shephatiah ben-Abital; and Ithream of Eglah, David’s wife. As the two Houses warred, Abner made himself strong in Saul’s House. Saul’s concubine Rizpah bath Aiah, was suspected with Abner of infidelity; but Abner in anger replied if he was a dog’s head of Judah, and for the kindness he’s shown to Saul’s House, his brothers, and his friends that he should be accused with fault with the woman. He said, by God he will now fulfill the Lord’s words sworn to David, to transfer the Kingdom from Saul’s House to establish the Throne of David over Israel and Judah, from Dan to Beer-sheba. He was afraid to answer Abner. Abner sent messengers (angels) to David asking who’s the land is, and to make a league with him to bring all Israel to David. David agreed with the condition Abner must also bring his wife Michal. David sent messengers to Ish-bosheth demanding his wife Michal betrothed at the cost of 100 Philistines’ foreskins; he sent and took her from her husband Paltiel ben-Laish, who followed her in tears up to Bahurim, where Abner told him turn back. Abner communicated with Israel Elders that in time past they wanted David to be King, as the Lord spoke that by David’s hands Israel should be delivered from the Philistines. He spoke also to Benjamin, then went to relate it all to David in Hebron, and with him 20 men. David made a feast for Abner and his men; Abner said he would now go to gather all Israel to his lord the King, so that they may covenant, and that David may rule over all he desired; and he sent him away in peace. David’s servants and Joab returned from a raid with great spoils; they told Joab Abner came, and David let him go in peace. Joab asked David why he let him go, since came to deceive and betray as an informant; he left David and sent messengers to bring Abner back to the well of Sirah secretly; and when Abner returned to Hebron Joab took him aside to speak quietly, and he smote him to death for his brother’s Asahel’s blood. David heard and said: I and my Kingdom are guiltless before the Lord for Abner’s blood, but the guilt fall upon Joab and his father’s house, so that none be without disease, wounds in war, or poverty. So Joab and Abishai killed Abner to avenge Asahel’s blood in battle at Gibeon. David ordered Joab and the people with him to rip their clothes, gird with sackcloth, and mourn for Abner; and David followed the bier; they buried him in Hebron; and the King cried aloud with tears at the grave, and so too the people. David lamented Abner saying:
Should Abner die as a fool die? Hands unbound, and feet unfettered:
As a man falls by sons of iniquity, so fell thou!
The people wept, and tried to get David to eat, but he swore he will not eat till the sun sets; thus, they knew David did not intend Abner’s death; they noticed and were pleased, as ever, with the King. David said to his servants that today a great man has fallen in Israel; and I am weak because these sons of Zeruiah are too much: may the Lord reward the evil-doer for their wickedness.
Saul’s son (ish-bosheth) heard that Abner was dead in Hebron, he became feeble, and the Israelites were troubled; Saul’s son had 2 captains over 2 divisions, Baanah and Rechab, sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, Benjaminites, (for Beeroth is reckoned to Benjamin, for the Beerothites fled to Gittaim and settled there to this day). Saul’s son Jonathan also had a son with lame or crippled feet from when he was 5 years of age, news of Saul and Jonathan at Jezreel, so that his nurse took him and fled, and he fell and injured his feet; his name was Mephibosheth. Rechab and Baanah came at noon to the house of Ish-bosheth while he rested in bed, acting as if they would fetch wheat, instead struck him and beheaded him, and took his head, then escaped by way of Arabah at night. They brought the head of Ish-bosheth to David in Hebron, saying, here is the head of thine enemy, the Lord has avenged my lord the King of Saul and his seed. David answered them, as the the Lord my Redeemer from adversity lives, when a man brought me news of Saul’s death by his hands, thinking I would reward him, instead I slew him at Ziklag for his news; how much more now when wicked men kills a righteous person in his own house in his bed, shall their blood be required and they be removed from earth; so David commanded a young man to slay them, to cut off their hands and feet and hang them beside the pool in Hebron. But they buried Ish-bosheth’s head in Abner’s grave in Hebron.
The tribes of Israel came to David saying: we are thy bone and thy flesh; when Saul was King, it was David that led Israel, and to whom the Lord said he will be My Shepherd and Prince of My people Israel. The Elders of Israel came to King David in Hebron and covenanted and anointed him before the Lord over Israel; he was 30 years old, and reigned 7 1/2 years in Hebron over Judah, and 33 years he ruled over Israel and Judah, some 40 years (30th – 70th year). The King and his men went to Jerusalem (Yeru-Shalem, City of Peace) against the Jebusites, its citizens, who had mocked David saying he must remove the blind and lame before he enter. David took the Fortress of Zion to become the City of David: and he said those who smite the Jebusites, first get up to the watercourse and strike the lame and blind hated by David: thus they say: No blind or lame may enter the house. David dwelt in the fortress and called it his city, and he built it around from Milo and inward. David continued to increase by the Lord God of hosts. Hiram the King of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar-trees, carpenters and masons to build him a house (palace). David perceived that the Lord had established his Throne and his Kingdom for His people’s sake. David took more concubines and wives from Jerusalem and had more children: Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon; Ibhar, Elishua, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama, Eliada, and Eliphelet (11 sons in addition to the 6 sons at Hebron). The Philistines heard that Israel had anointed David, so sought him, and David heard, so he went to the fortress or garrison; the Philistines spread themselves in the Valley of Rephaim; David inquired of the Lord, if he should go against them with success; the Lord said to go, and they will be defeated by David; so he came to Baal-perazim, and smote them, saying: the Lord has broken his enemies, so he called it Baal-perazim; for they left their images (of Baal) which David and his men destroyed. Again the Philistines encamped in the Valley of Rephaim; David inquired of the Lord, and He told him not to go up, but to make a circuit behind them across from the mulberry-trees, then stir themselves when they hear the sound of marching in the tops of the trees, for then the Lord has defeated them; so David obeyed and smote the Philistines from Geba to Gezer.
David with 30,000 Israelites went to Baale-judah to bring back the Ark of God, called by the Name (Shem), the Name of the Lord of Hosts (Jehovah-Sabaoth) seated over the Cherubim (Cherubs); they placed the Ark of God on a new cart, brought it out of the house of Abinadab on the hill; Uzzah and Ahio, sons Abinadab, drove the cart; so they took the Ark led by Ahio; David and the House of Israel celebrated to the Lord with various instruments of strings and percussions; near the threshing-floor of Nacon, Uzzah touched the Ark of God to steady it from falling; the Lord in anger killed him for this error. David displeased called the place Perez-Uzzah because the Lord Broke Forth against Uzzah; and he was afraid to move the Ark any further, but took it to the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite, and it remained there for 3 months, with the Lord’s blessings. David was told of His favor towards Obed-edom, so he brought the Ark of God to the City of David with joy. Now when they moved the Ark about 6 paces (about 20 feet) they sacrificed an ox and fatling; and David danced before the Lord girded with a linen ephod, with Israel, with shouts and music, and came to the City of David. Michal saw David from a window leaping and dancing and she despised him. They placed the Lord’s Ark in a tent that David had pitched for it, and he offered sacrifices to the Lord; afterwards he blessed the people in the name of the Lord of hosts, giving each and every person cake of bread and some meat, and raisin-cakes, and they returned home. He returned home to bless his household, but Michal criticized him as a shameless naked fool; but he replied that before the Lord Who chose me above thy father’s house and appointed me Prince over His people; and I will be viler and baser, but the handmaids will have me in honor. Thus Michal was childless to her death.

      David dwelt in his house, the Lord giving him rest all about; he said to Nathan the Prophet that he dwells in a cedar house but the Ark of God in curtains. Nathan told him to do what he desires, for the Lord is with him; but that night the Lord’s word came to Nathan to tell My servant David he will not build Me a House to dwell in; for from the Exodus to now I have walked in a Tent and Tabernacle; and I never asked of any tribe of Israel to build Me a cedar House. Tell David My servant that I took thee from following sheepfolds to be Prince of My people Israel, to be with thee, and to subdue all thine enemies, and made thy name great as those of great ones of the earth. I will appoint a place for My people to be planted, no longer to be afflicted by wicked men as before and during the time of the Judges; also I will cause thee to rest from thine enemies, and the Lord will build thee an House; after thee I will set up thy seed and establish thy Kingdom, and he will build a House for My Name, and I will establish his Kingdom forever. I will be His Father, and he will be My Son; if he is lawless I will chasten him with the rod of men and the stripes of children of men; but My mercy will never depart from him as with Saul. Thy House and Kingdom and Throne will abide and be established. By these words and this vision Nathan spoke to David.

King David sat before the Lord:
Who am I and what is my house that Thou hast brought me to this;
that Thy servant’s future House be after the manner of man;
and what can David say more, for Thou knowest me.
For Thy word’s sake of Thine heart to work this greatness to show me.
Thou art great, none like Thee, no other God exists as we have heard with our ears.
What nation on earth is as Thy people Israel,
whom God redeemed for Himself, for His great Name,
for greatness and awesome works,
redeemed from Egypt and the nations and their gods;
to make them Thy people, and Thou Lord became their God.
Now Lord God establish and confirm Thy word to Thy servant;
Thy name be magnified, Thou Lord of hosts, Thou God over Israel;
and establish Thy servant’s David House forever:
for Thou hast revealed to build a House for Thy servant:
and for this reason, I pray this prayer.
Thou art God and Thy words are truth, and promised good things;
so be pleased to bless Thy servant’s House forever with Thy blessings.

      Later David subdued the Philistines and took the bridle of the mother (Methegammah) city from them; then he measured Moab, making them lie down on the ground in two lines to put them to death or to keep alive; making Moab subservient, paying tribute. Then he stopped Hadadezer ben-Rehob King of Zoah as he went to recover his dominion at the River; taking from him 1,700 horsemen and 20,000 footmen; he hocked the chariot horses reserving 100 chariots. When the Syrians of Damascus tried to help Hadadezer David killed 22,000 of them; putting garrisons in Syria of Damascus, making them tribute paying subjects. The Lord gave David victory wherever he went. He brought the shields of gold of the servants of Hadadezer to Jerusalem; and much brass from Betah and Berothai, cities of Hadadezer. Then Toi the King of Hamath heard news of the defeat of the Syrians, and he sent his son Joram to King David to greet and bless him for victory against a common enemy; and he also gave David vessels of silver, gold, and brass: these spoils as with the other silver and gold he dedicated from all nations he subdued: Syria, Moab, Ammon, Philistines, Amalek, and of Hadadezer. David was famous after he had defeated 18,000 of the Syrians in the Valley of Salt. David put garrisons in Edom, and the Edomites became subject to him. David prevailed, and ruled Israel, and executed justice and righteousness to his people. Joab ben-Zeruiah was General, Jehoshaphat ben-Ahitub was Recorder; Zadok ben-Ahitub, Ahimelech ben-Abiathar, were Priests; Seraiah was Scribe; Benaiah ben-Jehoiada over the Cherethites and Pelethites; and David’s sons were Chief Ministers.
David asked if any of Saul’s house survived that I might show kindness for Jonathan’s sake. Ziba a servant of Saul’s house was brought to David, and told him that Jonathan’s son who with crippled feet was in the house of Machir ben-Ammiel in Lo-debar. David sent and brought to him Mephibosheth, who bowed before the King; and David said not to fear, for I will be kind to you for Janathan’s sake; I restore to thee all the land of Saul thy grand-father, but thou wilt eat bread at my table. He bowed again and asked why such kindness to such a dead dog; but David called Ziba and commanded him to care for all the household and property and possessions than belonged to Saul for Mephibosheth thy master: to till the ground, to harvest the crops, to feed the servants; but he must eat at my table. Now Ziba had 15 sons and 20 servants; and he agreed to do as the King ordered. Mephibosheth’s young son was Mica; so he ate at the King’s table in Jerusalem.
Later the King of the Ammonites died, and his son Hanun ben-Nahash reigned in his place. David sent servants to console him with kindness as his father had treated David kindly; when they came to the land of the Ammonites, the Princes accused the men as spies of David to overthrow the land; Hanun then shaved half the beards of the men, cut off their garments exposing their butts, then sent them away. David was told how they were shamed; and he told them to stay at Jericho till their beards grew back before they returned to him. The Ammonites seeing they made themselves odious to David, also hired the Syrians of Beth-rehob and of Zobah, with the men of Tob, some 12,000 men. David sent Joab with a large militia of warriors; and the Ammonites engaged battle at the gate: the Syrians and Tobites being in another division. Jobab in response to these two divisions before and behind Israel, divided his armies in two, the most mighty Israelites under himself against the Syrians, the majority of the Israelites under Abishai his brother against the Ammonites; instructing that if the Syrians prove too strong you must come to my help; and if Ammon prove too strong we will aid you; be brave and manly for our people the cities of our God, and the Lord do as He please. The battle begun and soon the Syrians fled from Joab’s army, and the Ammonites seeing their retreat fled also from Abishai’s force into the city. Joab returned to Jerusalem; but the Syrians being defeated, gathered a great army under Hadarezer, who enlisted the Syrians beyond the River Euphrates, that came to Helam with Shobach his general. David responded by leading a large army of Israel; and they fought but David defeated the Syrians killing some 700 chariots, and 40,000 riders, and killed Shobach the general. The Kings subject to and in league with Hadarezer being defeated made peace with Israel to be subjects. The Syrians feared to ever help the Ammonites again.

       At the the return of the year when kings go to war, David sent Joab and his men and Israel to destroy the Ammonites by besieging Rabbah. But David stayed at Jerusalem; and in the evening he arose from bed and walked on the roof of the King’s house; and he noticed across the way a beautiful woman bathing; he inquired concerning her and was told she was Bath-sheba (Daughter of Sheba) bath-Eliam, the wife of Urijah the Hittite. David sent for her, and he laid with her (she was already purified of her uncleanness); then she returned home. She was pregnant, and informed David; who sent for Joab to send him Uriah the Hittite. When he came David asked concerning the Joab and Israel in the war; then he told Uriah to go home to wash and rest; he departed, and David sent to him food from the King; but Uriah slept at the door of the King’s house with the servants without returning home. David was told, so he asked Uriah why he did not return home after such a long journey; he answered that the Ark and Israel and Judah abide in booths, while my lord Joab and my lord’s servants are encamped in the fields; how can I go home to eat and drink and lay with my wife; as thou livest I will not do it. David told him to stay in Jerusalem that day, and the next day will send him back. David invited him to feast at his table and got him drunk; but when he retired he slept near the servants and did not go home. In the morn David wrote a letter to Joab and sent it with Uriah. The letter instructed Joab to place Uriah at the forefront of the hottest battle, then withdraw, so that he will die. Joab set Uriah with the bravest warriors; and in the fierce fighting some men died along with Uriah the Hittite. Joab sent a report of the war to David and told the messenger that after he related the war details, that when the King became angry, and say why they went so near to the city, did you not know they would shoot from the wall; like Abimelech ben-Jerubbesheth, when a woman threw an upper millstone from the wall and he died at Thebez; then tell the King that thy servant Uriah the Hittite is also dead. When the messenger related to the King that the enemy prevailed at first into the fields, but we pushed them back to the entrance of the gate; the shooters on the wall shot and killed some of King’s servants, also Uriah the Hittite is dead. David told the messenger to tell Joab don’t be displeased, the sword devours one as the other; strengthen yourself against the city and overthrow it; to encourage him. Uriah’s wife heard and lamented her husband’s death; and afterwards David married her, and she birthed him a son. But this thing David did, displeased the Lord.
The Lord sent Nathan to David, and he said: Two men in the same city, one rich, the other poor; the rich man had great flocks and herds; the poor man only one she lamb as a pet and a daughter in his family; the rich man had a traveling guest, so he took the poor man’s lamb and prepared it for his guest. David became enraged and said to Nathan: as the Lord lives this man deserves to die! and he must restore the lamb fourfold for his merciless act. Nathan said to David: Thou art the man; the Lord God of Israel says that I anointed thee King over Israel, delivering thee from Saul, I gave thee thy master’s house, his wives, and the House of Israel and Judah; and if that was not enough I would have added more. Why did thou despise the word of the Lord to this evil in killing Uriah the Hittite by the hands of the Ammonites and then taking his wife to be thy wife? For this reason the sword shall never depart from thy house; I will take thy wives and give them to thy neighbor, and he will violate then in broad daylight; for thou did it in secret, but I will do it in the sight of all Israel. David confessed to Nathan: I have sinned against the Lord; and he replied that the Lord has put away thy sin, thou shalt not die; however, because thou hast occasioned the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, the child must die. Nathan departed; and the child became sick; David begged God for the child, fasting and lay prostrate that night; the elders of his house tried to get him up to eat but he refused, then on the 7th day the child died; but they were afraid to tell him lest he does something to himself in his despair. But David saw them whispering and asked is the child dead; they said he is dead; so David arose, bathed, anointed himself, changed his clothes, then came into the Lord’s House and worshipped; he then requested bread to be served him to eat. The servants amazed asked why he fasted and cried for the child when he was alive, but now after his death thou rise and eat. he replied that while the child lived he fasted and mourned in hopes that the Lord may be gracious to spare the child; but now he is dead, I cannot bring him back, but I will go to him. David then comforted Bath-sheba and again lay with her and she gave birth to a son, and he named him Solomon; and the Lord loved him; and sent the Prophet Nathan to him, calling the child Jedidiah (Jehovah’s Beloved), for the Lord’s sake.
Now Joab fought against Rabbah of the Ammonites, and took the royal city; and he sent word to David that he took the City of Waters; therefore to muster the rest of the people and encamp against the city and take it, lest it should be named after Joab’s name; so David did it, and took the crown of their King which weighed a talent of gold, and in it precious stones, and it was set upon David’s head; and he brought back great spoils; but he slaughtered the citizens by saws, iron, axes, and brick-kiln; and in like manner other cities of Ammon; then they returned to Jerusalem.
After this Absalom, David’s son, whose sister Tamar was a beautiful virgin; Amnon, David’s son, loved her; so that he became sick over her, how he might have her. Amnon’s friend and cousin, Jonadab ben-Shimeah, David’s brother, cleverly suggested to the King’s son: why art thou daily so lean and sad; he told him; he replied that Amnon should pretend to be sick and confined to the bed, and to ask the King to let Tamar prepare food before to eat from her hands. David told Tamar to go to her brother Amnon’s house to prepare food for him. She took dough and baked cakes, giving them to him in a pan, but he refused to eat. Instead he ordered everyone to leave his chamber, but told Tamar to bring the cakes to him; he then took hold of her demanding her to have sex with him ; she begged him not to force her for no such folly (rape and incest) should be done in Israel; and where will I hide my shame, and you will be treated as one of the fools in Israel; so she pleaded with to ask the King to let them marry; but he refused to listen, and being stronger forced or raped her. Afterwards he hated her even more than when he loved her before, and told her to get out. She replied no, this was even worse than the wrong or rape itself; but he rejected her, and ordered his servants to put this woman out, and to bolt the door. Tamar with ashes on her head, tore her dress of multi-colors, with her hands on her head, went crying aloud. Absalom her brother asked if Amnon thy brother had been with her; and said she should not be too troubled, but be quiet since he was her brother; so she remained desolate and stayed in Absalom’s house. When King David heard he was enraged. Absalom did not speak with Amnon good or bad, but hated him for raping his sister Tamar. After 2 years Absalom had sheep-shearers in Baal-hazor near Ephraim, and he invited all the King’s sons and the King and his servants to a feast; but the King turned down the invitation as too burdensome for his son, but blessed him anyway. He asked the King to permit Amnon to attend; but David asked why; but he pressed the King till he consented for Amnon and the King’s sons to go. Absalom instructed his servants to watch Amnon, and when he is merry with wine, and he gives the order, they must kill him without fear or reserve; and so they did. The King’s sons all fled by mule; and David heard news that Absalom had slain all the King’s sons; the King tore his clothes and lay prostrate on the ground, with his servants standing with torn clothes. But Jonadab ben-Shimeah, his brother’s son, told the King the truth is only Amnon is dead, for Absalom had appointed it from the day Tamar was violated. Absalom fled; and the servants which watched saw a crowd coming, and Jonadab said to the King: look, your sons ; and they came in tears and the King and his servants cried with them. Absalom took refuge with Talmai ben-Ammihur King of Geshur; but David mourned for his son daily. Absalom was with Talmai for 3 years; and David’s soul longed for Absalom, for he was comforted from the loss of Amnon.
Now Joab sent for a wise woman of Tekoa; and told her to pretend to be a mourner in mourning clothes, without the oil of anointment, be a mourner of many days; to go to the King and speak in this manner; just as Joab instructed her. She spoke to the King, prostrate, begging for help; the King asked of her trouble; she replied that she was a widow with two sons who were fighting and one slew his brother and he died; the family arose and demanded the death of her surviving son, thus to quench the last of her coal, leaving no male heir. The King dismissed her saying I will decide; but the woman of Tekoa implored the King to remove the iniquity from the King and her father’s house, that the King and his throne be guiltless; the King assured her that she may bring anyone wanting to harm her son, and that will end the matter. But she petitioned the King by the Lord God, not to let the avenger of blood destroy him; so he swore to her by the Lord; so she asked for a few more words with the King; he said speak; she said why he has devised a thing against the people of God; for by such words he incriminates himself guilty, in that he has not fetched and restored his banished exile. We all must die as spilt water on the ground; but even God restores life by making a way for the exile to return; and I have spoken these words to the King because the people made me afraid; so perhaps the King will grant this one favor towards his handmaid; for the King is determined to deliver me and my son from the avenger to preserve the inheritance; so I said my Lord the King’s word is comforting, he is as an angel of God, and knows the good and the bad, for the Lord God is with him. The King then asked her to tell him the truth about these words she has spoken if Joab was not behind them; she replied the King knows all secrets as an angel of God, and yes, thy servant Joab put all these words in my mouth to persuade the King. So the King told Joab I have heard you, go and bring the young man Absalom back. Joab bowed in homage and blessed the King for the favor shown him in this request. Joab brought Absalom from Geshur to Jerusalem. The King said he must not see my face, but must go to his own house. In Israel none was praised for spotless beauty as Absalom; when he cut his hair yearly, for it was heavy, it weighed 200 shekels according to the King’s scale. Absalom had 3 sons and one daughter, who he named Tamar, and she was beautiful; and he stayed 2 full years in Jerusalem never seeing the King’s face. He sent for Joab to go to the King, but he ignored him; so he told his servants burn Joab’s field of barely next to his; so Joab demanded why he set his field aflame; and he replied that he wanted him to go to the King and ask why he was brought from Geshur if I cannot see the King’s face; if I deserve to die then let the King put me to death. So Joab went to the King, and he permitted Absalom to see his face, and he came and bowed, and the King kissed Absalom.
Afterwards Absalom prepared a chariot with horses and 50 front runners; early he stood by the way of the city gate, and when anyone had a case that should go to the King for judgment; he asked what city they were from, and when they said they were from a certain city of Israel’s tribes, he told them their case is valid but there is no one deputed to hear the case for your city, adding that if only he was a judge in the land he would hear every litigation and give justice. When any bowed to him he extended his hand and kissed him; thus he stole the hearts of the men of Israel. Absalom (now 40; or end of David’s 40th year reign) asked the King to pay his vow to the Lord in Hebron, which he made at Geshur in Syria, that if the Lord bring me back to Jerusalem then I will serve Him; so the King permitted him and he went to Hebron. But Absalom sent spies to all the tribes of Israel that at the sound of the trumpet they should shout that Absalom is king in Hebron. He had 200 men from Jerusalem ignorant of his intentions; he then sent for Ahithophel the Gilonite, David’s counselor from his city Giloh, while offering sacrifices; the conspiracy was strong for Absalom; and a messenger told David; so David told his servants that we must flee lest Absalom quickly overtake us and strike the city with the sword. His servants replied that they were ready to do his will; the King and his household escaped; but he left 10 concubines to tend the house; the King and the people came to Beth-merhak; followed by his servants the Cherethites, Pelethites, Gittites, and 600 followers from Gath. The King asked Ittai the Gittite to stay home with the King (Absalom), being a foreigner and an exile, arriving only yesterday; return with your brothers, and mercy and truth be with thee. But Ittai insisted as the Lord and the King lives he will go with the King to life or death; David permitted him and his men and his little ones to cross over; the country wept, and the people crossed over the brook Kidron with the King by way of the wilderness. Zadok and the Levites, carrying the Ark of God and set it down, while Abiathar went up till the people exited the city. The King told Zadok to take the Ark of God back into the city; for if the Lord show me favor He will return me to see it and His habitation; but if not, let Him do as He please. The King told Zadok the Priest and Seer to return in peace with his two sons, Ahimaaz and Jonathan ben-Abiathar; and I will stay at the fords of the wilderness until I hear word; they returned with the Ark to Jerusalem. David ascended the Mount of Olives, crying as he went, head covered and barefoot, together with the people. David was told that Ahithophel is among the conspirators with Absalom; so David prayed that the Lord turn his counsel to foolishness. David reached the top where God was worshipped; Hushai the Archite came with coat ripped and earth on his head; but David said if he cross over to him he will only be a burden, but if he returns and be Absalom’s servant as the King, just as he was his father’s servant; thus, thou will defeat Ahithophel’s counsel. What you hear in the King’s house thou may send me word by Zadok and Abiathar the Priests, by sending their sons Ahimaaz or Jonathan. So Hushai went to the city, and Absalom came to Jerusalem.
David passed over the top of the mount, and Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with couple of donkeys saddled, loaded with 200 loaves of bread, 100 clusters of raisins, 100 summer fruits, and bottle of wine. The King asked what is all this; he replied that these are for the King’s household, for the young men, and for the faint in the wilderness; and he asked where was his master’s son; and Ziba said he was staying in Jerusalem, saying that today the House of Israel might restore to me the Kingdom of my father. The King told Ziba that now all that belongs to Mephibosheth is thine; but Ziba said I bow in the favor of my Lord the King. ((Those who think that Ziba is false and deceptive are in error; it is clear he was on David’s side againt the House of Saul, including Mephibosheth.)) David then came to Bahurim, and Shimei ben-Gera of the family and House of Saul came out and cursed him as he went along, throwing stones at David and the servants; the people and fighters on the right and the left of the King. Shimei cursed, saying, begone! get out! thou man of blood and base fellow: the Lord has returned on thee the blood of Saul’s House, whose reign thou replaced, and He has delivered thy Kingdom to Absalom, and thou art taken in thy mischief, thou bloody man! Abishai ben-Zeruiah asked the King to permit him to go cut off this dead dog’s head that curses my lord the King. The King replied: what do I have to do with you sons of Zeruiah? The Lord permits him to curse me, who can say no? My own son from my body seeks my life, how much more this Benjaminite; let him curse as the Lord bids; perhaps the Lord will see the wrong done to me and requite me with good for his curses. So they continued on while Shimei cursed and threw stones and dust. The King and the people were tired and he refreshed there. Absalom and the people of Israel with Ahithophel came to Jerusalem; Hushai the Archite, David’s friend, greeted Absalom, saying, the King lives! Absalom responded: Is this thy kindness to thy friend, why are you not with him? He said that whom the Lord and Israel chooses to him will he stay; as I served thy father, so I now serve his son. Absalom asked counsel from Ahithophel; who said he should violate his father’s concubines keeping the house; thus Israel will know thou art odious to thy father, and will be more resolute in supporting you. So they spread a tent for him on the housetop, and he violated his father’s concubines before Israel. Now the counsel of Ahithophel was in those days, for David and Absalom, as if one inquired from the Oracle of God. Further, he asked Absalom to permit him to take 12,000 men and pursue David this night, and will catch him weak and weary, and he will be afraid, and the people will desert him; and I will only need to kill the King; and I will bring back all the people in peace. Absalom and the Elders of Israel were pleased with this counsel; but he asked Hushai his counsel; he replied that at this time Ahitophel’s counsel was not good; for you know that your father and his men are brave fighters and chafed in their minds, as a bear robbed of her cubs, and your father as a valiant warrior will not lodge with the people; he will be hid in some pit or place, and when some are fallen (naphal, nephallim), they will report that there is a slaughter of Absalom’s followers; and even the most valiant warrior with a lion’s heart will melt at the news. But I counsel that Israel be mustered from Dan to Beer-sheba, a great army led by Absalom; and we will surprise him as the morning dew and leave none alive; and if he flees to a city of Israel, we will take ropes and drag it into the river, that a stone be not left. Absalom and the men of Israel declared the counsel of Hushai the Archite is better than Ahitophel’s counsel. The Lord had ordained to defeat the good counsel of Ahitophel, that He may destroy Absalom. Hushai related to the Priests Zadok and Abiathar to tell David the counsels given to Absalom, and that he lodge not at the fords of the desert, but pass over, lest the King and the people be swallowed up. Now Jonathan and Ahimaaz were staying by En-rogel, a maid-servant would inform them, then they would go tell David, thus not be seen to come into the city; but a youth saw them and informed Absalom; meanwhile they both went quickly to the house of a man in Bahurim, who had a well in his court; they hid inside; and a woman covered the well with straws of bruised grain; so they were undetected. Absalom’s servants asked the woman of the house, where are Ahimaaz and Jonathan; she told them that they crossed over the brook; they searched but could not find them, they returned to Jerusalem. They then came out of the well and went and told David the counsel of Ahithophel against David. David quickly crossed the Jordan. When Ahithophel’s counsel was ignored, he saddled his donkey and went home to his city, put his house in order, then hanged himself, and they buried him in his father’s sepulchre. David came to Mahanaim; but Absalom and the Israelites crossed Jordan. Absalom replaced Joab with Amasa as general, he was the son of Ithra the Israelite, that wedded Abigail bath-Nahash, Zeruiah’s sister, Joab’s mother. Israel and Absalom encamped in the land of Gilead. At Mahanaim Shobi ben-Nahash of Rabbah of the Ammonites, and Machir ben-Ammiel of Lodebar, and Barzillai the Gileadite of Rogelim; they brought beds, basins, earthen vessels, wheat, barley, meal, parched grain, beans, lentils, parched pulse, honey, butter, sheep, and cheese for David and his people, who were hungry, weary, and thirsty in the desert.
David numbered the people, he set captains of 1,000s and 100s; and divided the people in thirds, 1/3 under Joab, 1/3 under Abishai ben-Zeruiah, Joab’s brother, and 1/3 under the hand of Ittai the Gittite. The King also said he would go with them; but the people said no, for if all the people flee, they will not care if we all die, but thou art worth 10,000 of us; so it’s better that thou comfort us out of the city. The King agreed to do as they deem best, and he stood by the gate-side, while the people exited by 100s and 1000s. Now the King commanded Joab, Abishai, and Ittai to deal gently with young man Absalom, and the people heard; so they went to war with Israel in field and forest of Ephraim. The Israelites were beaten by the servants of David, some 20,000 were slaughtered; the battle spread over the country, so that the forest devoured more of them than the sword. Absalom by chance encountered David’s servants, while riding his mule, and he rode under the thick boughs of a great oak tree. and his head got stuck, and his mule went on. One told Joab that Absalom was hanging in the oak tree; and he replied that you should have struck him to the ground, and I would have given you 10 silver pieces and a girdle; he replied that not 1,000 pieces of silver would entice him to harm the King’s son, since he commanded us specifically; and if I had acted falsely against his life, the King knows all things, even thou would be set against me. Joab said he could not waste time; so he took three darts and pierced Absalom’s heart; then 10 young men that carried Joab’s armor struck Absalom to death. Joab blew the trumpet and Israel returned from the chase; they took Absalom and threw him into a great pit in the forest, and heaped stones over him; and Israel fled to their tents. Now Absalom had before erected a pillar in the King’s Dale in his own memory, saying he had no son to remember him, and he called it Absalom’s Monument to this day (times of Solomon to Ezra.). Ahimaaz ben-Zadok asked to run to the King with the news of the Lord avenging the King of his enemies. Joab said not today, maybe another time, for the King’s son is dead. Then Joab told the Cushite (black runner) to tell the King what he has seen, so he bowed and ran; Ahimaaz insisted to be allowed also to run, saying why? you will get no reward for the news; yet he insisted to let him run. Ahimaaz ran by way of the Plain, and outran the Cushite. David was seated between the two gates; the watchman from the roof of the gate of the wall, shouted out that a lone runner was coming; David said if he is alone he brings news. The watchman shouted to the porter that another man runs alone; the King said he too brings good-news. The watchman said that the fastest runner appears to be Ahimaaz; the King said he is a good man with good news. Ahimaaz greeted the King and bowed, saying, the Lord is blessed Who delivered up those who rebelled against the King; but he asked is the young man Absalom safe; he said when Joab sent him he heard a tumult but did not know why. The King told him to step aside; then the Cushite greeted the King saying the Lord has avenged him of all his enemies; David asked of Absalom; he answered that may all those who rise up against my Lord the King be as that young man. The King greatly moved went to the chamber above the gate and wept, and as went crying: O Absalom, my son! my son Absalom! wished I had died for thee!
Joab was informed of the King’s grief for Absalom, turning the victory into sorrow; the people quietly as if ashamed deserters, moved in the city; while the King agonized over Absalom. Joab came to the King’s house and rebuked the King for shaming his men and people who saved his live and of all those loyal to the King, showing that the King loved his haters more than his lovers; and if Absalom survived and we all, princes and servants, died, the King would be pleased. Now get up and speak comfort to thy servants, or I swear by the Lord, not one man will be loyal to thee this night; and that will be the worse evil to thee from thy youth to today. The King arose and sat in the gate; the people were told, and they stood before him; for they had fled to their tents, quarreling that he delivered us from our enemies and the Philistines, but now flees because of Absalom who is dead; and why have we not brought back the King. King David sent the Priests Zadok and Abiathar to the Elders of Judah, asking why they are the last to reinstate the King in his house, as Israel has voiced. Ye are my brethren and kin; tell Amasa that thou art my bone and flesh, and God act, if I do not make thee my general of the army to replace Joab. Thus he bowed the heart of the men of Judah as if one man, that they might restore the King and his servants; so he returned, and Judah met him at Jordan, to escort him over the Jordan, Judah also came to escort him at Gilgal. Shemei ben-Gera the Benjaminite of Bahurim in haste joined the Judaens to meet King David; also 1,000 Benjaminites; and Ziba Saul’s servant with his 15 sons and 20 servants accompanied the King; a ferry-boat transported the King’s household, and for his use. Shimei prostrated himself, and spoke to the King not to impute lawlessness or perversity to his actions on the King leaving Jerusalem, for he knows his sin, and came first of all the House of Joseph to meet my Lord the King. Abishai demanded that Shimei be put to death for having cursed the Lord’s Anointed! But David objected that ye sons of Zeruiah are my adversaries; no, not a man shall be put to death this day, for I am now King over Israel. So he swore to him not to put him to death; Mephibosheth also came to Jerusalem, unkept from the time the King fled till his return; the King asked why he was not an exile with him; he replied that Ziba deceived him when he was about to saddle the donkey and ride out to the King; also he has slandered me to the King; but the King is as an Angel of God ; so do what you deem best; for I and my father’s house were good as dead before the King’s favor when you me at your table; so I have need to trouble the King. But the King said, why speak of any of this; I have declared that thou and Ziba divide the land! Mephibosheth told the King to let Ziba have it all; for my Lord the King has returned home. ((Mephibosheth expected that David’s death at Absalom’s hand would disrupt the Throne of David’s House, and the Kingdom would be restored to the House of Saul; so he played the part of an unkept mourner, and his alibi, a lame excuse, was to accuse Ziba as subverting his attempt to flee; but David did not fall for this version)) Barzillai the Gileadite, a great man, came from Rogelim, to accompany the King across Jordan; he was 80 years old; and he had supplied the King with provisions at Mahanaim. The King asked him to go with him to Jerusalem, and he would take care of him; but he said no, I am a very old man ready to die, poor health and vision, feeble mind, simple diet, and bad hearing, why be a burden; why reward me for just going a little way with the King; no, let me return to die in my own city, and my grave to be with my parents. Instead let thy servant Chimham cross over with the King, and do to him what is good. He said, yes, he will go with me and I will do what you require. So the people and the King crossed Jordan, the King kissed Barzillai and blessed him, he went to his place. The King came to Gilgal, with Chimham; and all Judah and half Israel brought the King over; the rest of Israel complained to the King that Judah has stolen the King from them, along with his household and men. The Judaens answered the Israelites: the King is our near kin; why are you upset? have we ate at the King’s expense or be rewarded? Israel answered them that we have 10 parts in the King, with more rights to him; so why did you despise us to not seek our help to restore our King. But the words of Judah were more fierce that those of Israel.
Then Sheba ben-Bichri, a Bemjaminite, a base fellow, sounded the trumpet declaring that Israel has no portion or inheritance in David ben-Jesse, thus back to your tents; Israel left and followed Sheba; but Judah stayed loyal to their King, from Jordan to Jerusalem. David returned to his house in Jerusalem, he took the 10 concubines that kept the house, and he sheltered them and sustained them as widows, but never cohabited with them again. He ordered Amasa with Judah to appear before him in 3 days; but Amasa took longer than the days appointed; so David told Abishai that maybe Sheba will do more harm than Absalom: so take the servants and pursue him, before he escapes to fortified cities. Joab’s men, and the Cherithites, and Pelethites, and all the mighty men pursued Sheba; at the Great Stone in Gibeon Amasa met them; Joab was girded war clothes, with girdle and sheathed sword around his waist; the sword fell out while approaching Amasa, asking him if all was well; he answered it was; Joab held Amasa’s beard as if to kiss him, but he did not notice the sword in Joab’s hand, by which he thrust him to death, disembowelling him. Then Joab and Abishai continued after Sheba; a young man of Joab’s stood and said: he who is for Joab and David follow Joab; but Amasa still laid in his blood, and the men refused to march till they removed his body from the highway to the field, and covered him; then the soldiers pursued; and Joab pursued him thru Israel’s tribes, to Abel and to Beth-maacah and the Berites, all together; and they besieged him in Abel of Beth-maacah; they made a mound and set up the rampart, and battered the wall to overthrow it. A wise woman cried out to Joab to come near and let her speak; he answered her that he was listening; so she said that they say of old that go ask at Abel and that settles it: I am one of peace and faith in Israel; so why do you seek to destroy a city and mother in Israel; will you swallow up the Lord’s inheritance? Joab replied, never, but only Sheba ben-Bichri of the hill-country of Ephraim has revolted against King David; deliver him over and I will depart; she answered that his head will be tossed over the wall. The woman in her wisdom convinced the people, and they cut off his head and threw it to Joab; so he blew the trumpet and dispersed; and he returned to Jerusalem to the King. Joab was general over all the army of Israel; Benaiah ben-Jehoiada was over the Cherethites and Pelethites; Adoram over the taskworkers; Jehoshaphat ben-Ahilud was Recorder; Shava was Scribe; Zadok and Abiathar were Priests; and Ira the Jairite was Chief-minister to David.
Now a famine lasted for 3 years in the days if David, and sought the Lord concerning it, and He said it was because of Saul and his bloody house putting the Gibeonites to death; the King David asked the Gibeonites (these were not Israelites but  remnants of Amorites, who had a treaty with Israel, but Saul in his zeal for Israel and Judah slaughtered attempting to exterminate them) what do you want to make atonement, and for your blessing on the Lord’s inheritance. We want neither money nor innocent blood, only the 7 sons of Saul’s House be handed over, that we may hang them to the Lord in Gibeah of Saul, the Lord’s Chosen; he gave them over, but he spared Mephibosheth ben-Jonathan ben-Saul for his oath’s sake; the 7 sons were: 2 sons Saul by Rizpah bath-Aiah, Saul’s concubine, Armoni and Mephibosheth; 5 sons of Michal bath-Saul born to Adriel ben-Barzillai the Meholathite. The Gibeonites hung them together in the mountain before the Lord, this was in harvest season, the first days of the barley harvest (spring, April); then Rizpah covered the rock (covering the bones) with sackcloth and guarded it till the rain fell upon it, letting no birds near by day, or beasts by night. David was told about Rizpah, and he went and took the bones of Saul and Jonathan from the Jabesh-gileadites, who had stolen them from the street of Beth-shan, where the Philistines had hanged them in Gilboa; so he buried all the bones of Saul, Jonathan, and the others, in Benjamin in Zela, in the sepulchre of Kish, just as the King commanded; afterwards God was entreated for the land.
The Philistines again warred with Israel, and David and his servants fought them; he was exhausted, and Ishbi-benob, a son of the giant (offspring of Rapha), whose spear weighed 300 brass-shekels, girt anew, intended to kill David; but Abishai defended him by slaying the Philistine. David’s men swore that he must not again go out to war lest he quench the lamp of Israel. Again (2nd time) the Philistines fought at Gob, and Sibbecai the Hushathite slew Saph one of the sons of the giant (offspring of Rapha). Again (3rd time) the Philistines warred at Gob; and Elhanan ben-Jaareoregim the Beth-lehemite slew Goliath the Gittite, whose spear staff was like a weaver’s beam. Again (4th time) they warred at Gath, and a giant of great stature, having 6 fingers hands, and 6 toes feet, 24 in all; he defied Israel, and Jonathan ben-Shimei, David’s brother, slew him. These 4 were born to the giant in Gath (Rapha in Gath), and were killed by David and his servants.

David’s Song of Jehovah’s Deliverance from his Enemies and Saul:

Jehovah is my Rock, my Fortress, my Deliverer;
God my Rock and Refuge; my Shield, and Horn of my Salvation;
my High Tower, and my Refuge; my Saviour from violence;
I will call on the Lord, the praise-worthy: I shall be saved from my enemies.
The waves of death compassed me; the floods of ungodliness frightened me;
the cords of hell (sheol) surround me; the snares of death upon me.
In my distress I cried to the Lord and called to my God:
He heard my voice from His Temple, my cry with His ears.
The earth shook & trembled, heaven’s foundations quaked and shook at His wrath.
Smoke from His nostrils, devouring fire from His mouth: coals were kindled.
He bowed the heavens and descended with thick darkness under His feet.
He rode a flying Cherub, on the wings of the wind;
darkness were pavilions, waters gathered in thick clouds of the skies;
brightness before Him, kindled coals;
The Lord thundered from heaven, the Highest shouted;
His arrows scattered them, lightning discomfited them.
Sea channels appeared, the world foundations laid naked,
at His rebuke and the blast of His nostrils;
from on high He rescued me out of many waters,
He delivered me from a strong enemy, and the mighty who hated me;
they came in my calamity, but the Lord was my Stay;
He brought me to large place, He delivered me because He delighted in me;
He rewarded my righteousness, He recompensed my clean hands.
I have kept the Lord’s ways, and not departed from my God.
His ordinances were before me, His statutes were not abandoned;
I was perfect toward Him, and kept from my iniquity;
the Lord repaid my righteousness and cleanness.
Thou art merciful to the merciful, and perfect with the perfect;
and pure with the pure, but perverse with the perverse.
The afflicted Thou wilt save, but Thine eyes are against the haughty to humble them.
Lord, Thou art my Lamp! enlighten my darkness!
By Thee I run upon a troop, by God I leap over a wall.
God’s Way is perfect, the Lord’s Word is tried;
He is a Shield to all who seek refuge in Him.
God is the Lord, the Rock and Strong Fortress;
He guides the perfect, and makes his feet like the hinds,
and set me on high-places, and teaches my hands to war, to bend a brass bow.
Thou gavest me the shield of Thy salvation; Thy gentleness made me great.
Thou enlarged my steps, and my feet slipped not;
I pursued and destroyed my enemies, relentless to consume them,
striking them down, they cannot arise, under my feet;
Thou girdest me with strength for battle and subdued the rebels.
They looked for salvation even to the Lord, but He answered not;
I beat them to dust, crushed them as mud in the streets, and spread them all over.
Thou delivered me from the people’s strife;
made me Head of the nations (Gentiles), of foreigners who submit to me,
they hear and obey, they fade away and tremble in hiding places.
Jehovah lives! blessed and exalted be my Rock of Salvation!
my Avenging God and Subduer of my people and subjects my enemies.
Thou elevate me above my conspirators and the violent man:
I thank Thee among the Gentiles, and sing praises to Thy Name:
great deliverance He gives to His King, and shows lovingkindness to His Anointed;
to David and his seed forever!

The Last Words of David:
David ben-Jesse, the Man Elevated, the Anointed of Jacob’s God,
the Sweet Psalmist of Israel:
Jehovah’s Spirit spake by me, His Word on my tongue;
the God of Israel, Israel’s Rock spoke:
the righteous ruler over men, ruling in the fear of God,
is as morning light, as sunrise, a cloudless morn,
as the earth’s tender grass, in the sunshine after the rain.
My house is not ordered so with God,
yet He made with me an everlasting changeless covenant;
it is my salvation and honor, although unborn;
but the ungodly as thorns are thrust away as useless thorns,
which must be handled with gloves of iron and staff (fork) of spear,
to be utterly burned in fire.

These are the Mighty Men, Valiant Warriors, Brave Fighters of David:
1st, Josheb-basshebeth a Tahchemonite, Chief of the Captains (same as Adino the Eznite), against 800 slain at one time.
2nd, Eleazar ben-Dodai, son of an Ahohite, one of David’s three mighty men, when they defied the Philistines in battle while Israel was absent; he fought the Philistines until his hand clung to his sword, and the Lord gave great victory that day, and the people took spoils.
3rd, Shammah ben-Agee an Hararite; when the Philistines encamped near a plot of ground full of lentils, the people fled, but he stood in the middle of the field and defended it, and slew them, the Lord giving victory.
Now 3 of David’s special 30, came to David during the harvest time, to the Cave of Adullam, while the Philistines’ troops camped in the Valley of Rephaim; David was still in the fortress, but the Philistines’ garrison was in Beth-lehem. David sighed that he longed for a drink from the Well of Beth-lehem by the city’s gate! The Three Mighty Men broke through the Philistine’s army and drew water from the Well of Beth-lehem and brought it to David; but he refused to drink, but poured it out to the Lord, saying he would not drink the blood of these Three warriors who risked their lives for his thirst.
4th, Abishai ben-Zeruiah, Joab’s brother, was Chief of the 3; he fought with spear some 300 and killed them, he was famous among the 3, but was not the most honorable, he was their Captain, but not one of the Three.
5th, Benaiah ben-Jehoiada, son of a brave fighter of Kabzeel, famed for killing the two sons of Ariel of Moab (two Ariel, Warriors, Champions, Lion-like): he went into a pit and killed a lion in the snow; and he killed a handsome Egyptian with his own spear, which had taken from him; he was famous among the three, and more honorable than the 30, but not of the Three; and David set him over his guard.
David’s 30 Mighty Men: 1, Asahel, Joab’s brother; 2, Elhanan ben-Dodo of Bethlehem; 3, Shammah the Harodite; 4, Elika Harodite; 5, Helez Paltite; 6, Ira ben-Ikkesh Tekoite; 7, Abiezer Anathothite; 8, Mebunnai Hushathite; 9, Zalmon Ahohite; 10, Maharai Netophathite; 11, Heleb ben-Baanah Netophathite; 12, Ittai ben-Ribai of Gibeah of Benjamin; 13, Benaiah Pirathonite; 14, Hiddai of the Brooks of Gash; 15, Abialbon Arbathite; 16, Azmaveth Barhumite; 17, Eliahba Shaalbonite; 18, Jonathan of the sons of Jashen; 19, Shammah Haraite; 20, Ahiam ben-Sharar Ararite; 21, Eliphelet ben-Ahasbai ben-Maacathite; 22, Eliam ben-Ahithophel Gilonite; 23, Hezro Carmelite; 24, Paarai Arbite; 25, Igal ben-Nathan of Zobah; 26, Bani Gadite; 27, Zelek Ammonite and 28, Naharai Beerothite; both Joab’s armorbearers; 29, Ira Ithrite; 30, Gareb Ithrite; and 31, Uriah the Hittite.
Again the Lord’s Anger was ignited against Israel, so He moved David to number Israel and Judah; so David ordered Joab to take a census of all the people from all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beer-sheba; that I may know the sum. Joab objected saying may the Lord add 100 fold, but why must my Lord the King delight in this; David insisted and prevailed against Joab and the Captains of the army; and they crossed Jordan, encamped in Aroer, to the right of city in the middle of Gad, and to Jazer; they came to Gilead and to the land of Tahtim-hodshi; to Dan-jaan, and all about to Sidon; to the Fortress of Tyre; to all the cities of the Hivites, and Canaanites; down to the south of Judah at Beer-sheba; completing the circuit thru all the tribes in 9 months 20 days, and returned to Jerusalem and reported to the King the census numbers: 800,000 fighters with swords in Israel, and in Judah 500,000; thus in all 1.3 million ready militia. But David regretted and confessed to the Lord he had sinned greatly in ordering this census; he asked forgiveness for his wicked folly. David arose early the next morn, and the Word of the Lord by Gad the Prophet, David’s Seer, saying: The Lord gives thee 3 options of judgment, choose one: 1st, 7 years of famine in thy land; or 2nd, to flee for 3 months from thy enemies chasing thee; or 3rd, 3 days plague of pestilence in thy land. David very perplexed said its best to fall into the Lord’s hands, for He shows great mercies, than in man’s hand. So the Lord sent a pestilence on Israel from dawn to dusk as appointed, and some 70,000 people died from Dan to Beer-sheba. When the Angel stretched out his hand toward Jerusalem to destroy it, the Lord repented and said: Enough! hold thy hand; now the Angel of the Lord was in the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite. David saw the Angel and spoke to the Lord: I alone have sinned perversely, but not these sheep; let Thy hand be on me and my father’s house. Then Gad that day told David to erect an Altar to the Lord in the threshing-floor of Araunah the Jebusite. David went to Araunah, who saw the King and his servants, and bowed before him; asking why the King has visited his servant. David said he wished to buy the threshing-floor to erect an Altar to the Lord to stop the plague from the people. Araunah: Let the King take it and offer what he deems best; take the oxen for the burnt-offering and take the threshing tools and yokes for wood to burn; all of it I give to the King, and may the Lord thy God accept thee. The King replied: No, I must buy it at price, for I will not offer to the Lord my God what cost me nothing. So David bought everything for 50 silver shekels; and built an Altar to the Lord and offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings; and the Lord was entreated for the land, and the plague was stopped against Israel.

Some Reflections on SAMUEL:
The Theocracy of Moses Law and Covenant on behalf of the Lord as the representation and reflection of the Divine Word and the Kingdom it reveals during the rule of the Judges over a 500-year period is about to change to a Monarchy. God had given Israel 5 centuries to generate a world which conformed to the Divine Will, and to eradicate all opposition to the Word revealed. The Land and the People were to be transformed by the Book, and the Divine work of Creation and Judgment and Salvation was to produce fruit to God’s glory. The world of the Gentiles, the Nations not in covenant with God, nor related to the Lord, had for a millennium gone astray, and as they strayed, they altered all Divine knowledge and memory, and substituted vain imagination for truth and facts. The world history in each nation was more fiction than veracity, more virtual than real. The Law as Testimony had failed to change or perfect the chosen elect nation but was very much alive in judgment against the sins and nature of man in Israel and the world. Mankind was also maturing and aging in their own distinct ways and cultures. Religion was everywhere, but philosophy was becoming visible in many ways. Wisdom was discovered to be unique with man, and that with wisdom in its many forms, a man or a family, or a tribe, or a nation, could dominate all others. The Book as the repository of wisdom, human and divine, could unlock well guarded secrets and forbidden mysteries. Israel must needs undergo a change in regard to wisdom, and the Book must be enlarged to incorporate new features and meanings to the Divine knowledge. This wisdom will produce what centuries later we call science, that is, to apply the wisdom to produce, invent, create, make, and manufacture from ideas to reality for life and living. The sea merchant nations like the Phoenicians and the Greeks (the Hellenes) would learn from and teach to the nations of the Mediterranean world, and the Alphabet and the Book would spread throughout the earth; and with the Greeks new versions of old stories borrowed from Egypt, Canaan, Babylon, and elsewhere: stories, myths, legends and the like, of their gods and goddesses, of Hercules (compare with Samson), of Achilles, of David’s Mighty Men, of Goliath, etc.
In Samuel we have a member of the  tribe of Judah and Ephraim. The similarity to 1st Chron. 6:33-38 of Elkanah ben-Jeroham of Kohath ben-Levi is problematic and uncertain. The Levites lived in various cities of Israel among the different tribes, their lineage became mixed and diluted among the tribes as seen in Judges, and often mixed with foreign marriages. Samuel as a decedent of Levi instead of Judah via Caleb, or of Benjamin, is confused and difficult to determine. The names are common and popular, the variants of spelling adds to the problem and eludes the solution. (In Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on 1st Samuel 1 it is properly treated, and Samuel as a Levite maintained; and also more fully treated in Lange & Schaff Commentary; and Barrett’s; but I am not convinced that is the best or accurate solution, but I agree it is reasonable; and some interpret Samuel Levitically (Lee in the Recovery Version, and others), while most emphasize his prophetic-judicial significance. But I lean closer to Driver’s note and solution, but with caution: (((From: S. R. Driver ‘Notes on Hebrew Text of Books of Samuel’ (1890)) [’aphrthi] This word appears to represent Elqanah not merely as resident in Ephraim (mohed ’Ephrim), but as an Ephraimite; in 1 Chron. 6 he is represented as a Levite, of the descendants of Qohath (Num. 3:27 etc.). The discrepancy is hard to reconcile. Jud. 17: 7 the expression ‘of the family of Judah,’ applied to a Levite, shews that Levites settled in a particular tribe may have been reckoned as belonging to it (cf. Ew. Hist. ii. 421); but there the addition (whu’ lui) makes the double relationship clear; here the addition (’Ephrthi) seems to shew that the narrator has no consciousness of Samuel’s Levitical descent. The explanation that the term designates Elqanah as an Ephraimite, merely so far as his civil rights and standing were concerned, makes it express nothing more than what is virtually declared in v. a (v. 1-4), and moreover implies a limitation which is not, at least, sustained by usage. It is a question whether the traditions embodied in Chron. have been handed down uniformly in their original form, and whether in some cases the genealogies have not been artificially completed. The supposition that Samuel was really of Ephraimite descent, and was only in later times reckoned as a Levite, appears to be the simplest explanation of the divergence.) But see Oehler’s solution below, that Samuel was a non-priest Levite of Ephraim.)) It is certain Samuel is shown to be a little priest adopted into Eli’s care, if not family, and is made to appear Levitical, but no more than symbolic, for his priesthood was to be a prophetic nature in relations to the new monarchy. Like Samson his birth is by divine intervention, and like the Angel’s instruction to Samson’s parents that he will be a Nazirite for life (‘from the womb to the tomb’), and his long hair ever a sign of his divine relation and obligation; so too, Samuel’s mother uses the Nazirite vow to bind her son to the priesthood and the Lord’s House and Tabernacle. There was a new way at work to displace and expose the priesthood, both Aaronic and Levitical. With Samson God uses a warrior and wild man, but with Samuel He has a scribe and prophet. The prophetic office was developing out of the Mosaic law, and Moses as a Prophet prefigured both the prophetic office of which Samuel is to play a major role, and ultimately Messiah the Prophet and the Anointed. In Moses’s death his prophetic office is given as the standard and measurement of all future prophets (Deut.34), and we saw in Deut. 18 and 13 the nature of the future prophetic office. We will not here future explore the prophetic office, but reserve that for the division of the  Tanakh beginning with Isaiah the Prophet. The School of the Prophets, as colleges and bands or families, will multiply and adapt to their heads, leaders, and fathers. Soon the Prophets Elijah and Elisha will display those features of which we speak and seek. The Theocracy of the Judges was that of a prophetic nature and not lordship or monarchy in government. Samuel as the last and final judge will become a warrior and prophet in his priestly function. Eli and his sons died, and the priesthood is temporarily suspended till the monarchy is established. In Joshua the priesthood, with the High Priest in Eleazar and Phinehas known and served, but the in Judges they are hidden, lost, and void. We find in Samuel that the priesthood, headed by Eli, is corrupt and artificial, and contrary to the Mosaic order. The prophets will be raised up to reform and renew the priesthood and the people. There are many doctrines and principles both small and great that are matured and germinated in this new period, and we must each search and explore as He gives us desire and power to find and understand. I leave Samuel to move on to the Kings with these selections form Oehler who has taught many of the former generations.

(From: G. F. Oehler ‘Theology of the Old Testament’ (1874).  Opening Words at the Last Delivery of Lectures October 21, 1870 (end of the Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War 1870-1871):

     “Gentlemen, in resuming our academic activity after long interruption, we all doubtless feel emotions of mingled joy and sorrow. We thank God for the deeds of deliverance by which He hath glorified Himself in our nation, and for the gracious protection which makes it possible for us to pursue here the works of peace while the conflict still surges without; we trust that He will bring forth judgment to victory, and from the pangs of these days bring forth for our nation a felicity worthy of the sacrifices offered. But, on the other side, we may not doubt that the duration of the serious crisis of history in which we stand is still incalculable; that perhaps it bears in its lap many new sufferings, and will yet add many to the lamented sacrifices which already have fallen on the altar of our Fatherland. In such critical moments, in which man would gladly have leave to ask a question at fate, and in lieu of this is ready to cradle himself in sanguine dreams, the Christian is referred to the word of God, as the light by which we ever learn to read God’s ways, as the source from which in all circumstances we are to draw doctrine and counsel, admonition and comfort. In this blessing, by the divine word, the Old Testament has its proper share, as a prophetic word unveiling the divine purposes and the goal of all God’s ways, and displaying in every crisis of the fortunes of nations the coming of the God who judgeth and delivereth the world, perfecting His own kingdom;—as an historic word holding up tons a mirror in which we see the severity and goodness of God in the guiding of men: His severity against those who, revolting from Him, harden themselves in pride and lies; His goodness to those who, in repentance and humility, give Him honour and walk in His paths;—finally, as a word of prayer which teaches us in every case to seek God’s face, and to seek help from Him.
In the course of recent years it has often been said, especially in ecclesiastical assemblies, that a special need of the age is a better recognition of the importance of the Old Testament for religious knowledge and life—that the treasures of this book, so little known, especially to so-called persons of culture, be more fully laid open to the body of the Church. To this end the first requisite is, that theologians shall form a more thorough acquaintance with the Old Testament, especially that they become more familiar with it as a whole. It is true of every intellectual product, that it cannot be rightly esteemed by those who concern themselves only with its outer features, or with individual fragments of it; and of the Bible this is peculiarly true. What is here unfolded is one great economy of salvation—unum continuum systema, as Bengel puts it—an organism of divine deeds and testimonies, which, beginning in Genesis with the creation, advances progressively to its completion in the person and work of Christ, and shall find its close in the new heaven and earth predicted in the Apocalypse; and only in connection with this whole can details be rightly estimated. He who cannot apprehend the Old Testament in its historical context may produce in detail much that is valuable and worth knowing, but he lacks the right key to its meaning, and there fore true joy in the study of it; then he easily stops short at the puzzles which lie everywhere on the surface of the Old Testament, and from them he condemns the whole. Now, to introduce to organic historical knowledge of the Old Testament, is the very business of the discipline to which these lectures are to be devoted. We must not think it below its dignity to serve the practical need just indicated; nay, in general, he is no true theologian who leaves an open breach between science and life. But we vindicate for Old Testament theology no small importance also for science, especially for systematic theology. It possesses this importance as a part of biblical theology, since, in virtue of the Protestant principle of the authority of Scripture, every question for which the Protestant theologian seeks an answer leads back directly or indirectly to Scripture, and the historical investigation of the divine revelation it contains.
In its development as an independent science, biblical theology is one of the most recent branches of theology. We shall see by and by that the name and conception of biblical theology as a special historical science arose only in the course of last century, and the division of Old and New Testament theology was made still later. Older theologians did not separate dogmatic and biblical theology, and were still further from the idea of dividing Old and New Testament theology, ignoring the gradual progress of revelation, the constant connection of the revealing word with the advance of the revealing history, and treating the Old and New Testament as a sort of promptuarium which could be used alike in all its parts—prooftexts for every Christian doctrine being brought together from the various parts of the Bible. We are now far beyond such onesidedness, although some recent Old Testament theologians (Hengstenberg) still show a tendency to confuse the two Testaments after the fashion of the older orthodoxy. On the other hand, we are confronted in recent times by a view of the Old Testament which entirely cuts loose the Old Testament religion from specific connection with the New Testament, placing it on one line with the other pre-Christian religions, which also in their own way were a preparation for Christianity, —a view of the Old Testament which scarcely allows its theology to claim a higher significance for the theologic knowledge of the Christian, than could, for example, be ascribed to Homeric theology. This antipathy to the Old Testament in the spirit of Marcion and Schleiermacher is still prevalent among theologians, though far less so than it was twenty or thirty years ago. From this point of view the name Old Testament religion is as far as possible avoided, and Judaism and Judish religion are spoken of by preference, although everyone may learn from history that the Old Testament and Judaism are distinct—that Judaism begins when the Old Testament is about to end, viz. with Ezra and the wisdom of the scribes founded by him. This view consistently leads to the ignoring of the specific character as revelation of the New Testament also—of Christianity. On this point we must not allow ourselves to be deceived. The relation of the New Testament to the Old is such, that both stand or fall together. The New Testament has no other view than that Old Testament law and prophecy form its positive presupposition. According to the New Testament, God built up Christianity out of other elements than those with which modern destructive criticism is accustomed to calculate. We cannot have the redeeming God of the new covenant, without the Creator and covenant God preached in the old; we cannot place the Redeemer out of connection with Old Testament predictions which He appeared to fulfill. No New Testament idea, indeed, is already fully set forth in the Old Testament, but the genesis of all the ideas of New Testament salvation lie in the Old Testament; and Schleiermacher himself was compelled to give a striking testimony to the organic connection of the two Testaments, which in principle he denies, when he reintroduced into dogmatic the treatment of the work of Christ on the type of the threefold office. Against the assertion that, to gain the true sense of Scripture, we must put aside everything that is Israelitish, or, as people say, everything that is Jewish, or, in Bunsen’s words, must translate from Semitic into Japhetic, we must teach, with Hofmann (in his Schriftbeweis), that the history contained in Scripture being the history of Israel, is what makes it Holy Scripture; for Israel is the people whose vocation lies in the history of salvation [Greek deleted in WordPress, see PDF, when created.] (hë sötëria ek tön Ioudaiön estin), says our Lord to the woman of Samaria. Not to conceal God from the world, but to reveal Him to the world as the Holy One whom heathenism knows not, is the work for which Israel was chosen. In Israel were implanted such living forces, thatonly in this people could be born the God-man, the Redeemer of theworld. The whole national figure of Israel; the election and the rejection; the curse that lies upon the nation, which Hitzig has compared to the oyster, which produces the pearl by its own destruction, —all these are revelations of God to the world.
Therefore Old Testament theology still retains its importance for Christian dogma, though not in the same way in which the older Protestant theology utilized the Old Testament in dogmatic. The old atomistic system of Scripture proof must be superseded by one that shows that the truths of salvation formulated in dogmas, arise as the result of the whole historical process through which Revelation has passed. The possibility of such a Scripture proof is demonstrated just by biblical theology, which presents the Bible revelation in its totality and in its gradual historical course, and so displays the genesis
of the scriptural notions from which dogmatic propositions are to be coined, and the context in which they appear in the divine economy of salvation. When dogmatic makes use of the structure of biblical theology, this not only serves continually to renew and deepen the former in regard to existing dogmas; but also those biblical doctrines which, in the dogmatic labours of former centuries, fell too much into the shade, will receive more justice. For Scripture is, as Oetinger has called it, the store-book of the world, the store-book of all times: it offers to the Church in every age just such instruction as it specially requires. Thus, to give a single example, recent times have directed to biblical eschatology an interest in which the older Protestant theology had no share.
In these remarks I think I have brought forward the principal points of view by which the importance of Old Testament theology is to be estimated, and which are my guides in dealing with the Old Testament. Of the greatness and difficulty of the task, no one can have a livelier conviction than I myself. There are good reasons why there are innumerable monographs on isolated portions of biblical theology, but only few discussions of the whole subject, and also few separate books on Old Testament theology, and that some of these are posthumous. If these lectures awake in one or other of you an inclination to labour at the solution of this problem independently, not through the glasses of a theological system or a critical school, but to devote to the Old Testament a thorough study, with a receptive sense of its holy grandeur, this will be the best result which I could wish for these lectures. So, then, let us begin the journey that lies before us with trust in God, that we may pass through it without disturbance to its goal, and, arrived thither, may thank Him for His help in the way.”

(From Oehler’s as cited above.)
Part II —Prophetism. First Section. The Development of the Theocracy, from the Death of Joshua to the Close of the Old Testament Revelation.
First Division. The Times of the Judges. I. —The Disintegration of the Theocracy till the Times of Samuel.
§157. Course of Events. Import of the Office of Judge.

      “The history of the period of the judges, when viewed from the theocratic point of view in which it is contemplated in the Book of Judges, and especially in the second introduction to this book (chap. ii. 6-iii. 6) (1), presents a constant alternation between the apostasy of the people and their consequent chastisement by the Divine Power, on the one hand, and the return of the people to their God and the Divine deliverances therewith connected, on the other. The course of events during the three centuries preceding the time when Samuel filled the post of judge, may be generally described as follows: —After Joshua, who had no immediate successor, and the other elders, who had known all the works of the Lord that He had done for Israel ” (Josh. xxiv. 31), had passed from the scene, the nation was left to itself, that its life might now be freely developed under theocratic institutions. So long as the remembrance of the Divine manifestations endured, the people remained faithful to these institutions. Even the internal war against the tribe of Benjamin, related in the sequel of the Book of Judges (chap. xix—xxi), which, occurring during the high-priesthood of Phinehas, must have been waged shortly after the death of Joshua, is an indication that the theocratic zeal of the nation had as yet suffered no diminution. This is, however, the last occasion for many years on which we meet with the united action of the whole people. For Joshua having committed the further execution of the work of conquest to the individual tribes, it ceased to be the common concern of the nation, and opportunity was thus given for the promotion of private interests. The several states were not always entirely successful in the petty warfare which they carried on; a portion of the still remaining Canaanites were not subdued, against others the sentence of extermination was not strictly carried out. Those who were rendered merely tributary, and suffered to dwell among the Israelites, not only seduced the people to the service of Canaanitish gods, but also regained the mastery in isolated parts of the land. Irruptions of numerous nomadic hordes of Midianites and Amalekites from the east ensued, while the nation was repeatedly exposed to danger from the hostile attacks of the neighbouring Moabites and Ammonites. In the west, the power of the Philistine Pentapolis, situate on the low-lying plains near the Mediterranean, became increasingly formidable during the middle period of the judges. The oppressions which the Israelites suffered at the hand of these different nations usually extended only to certain tribes; but this very circumstance was the reason that not even these afflictions were capable of drawing the tribes out of their isolation, and uniting them in a common enterprise. Such slothful selfishness on the part of individual tribes, in withdrawing from the national cause, is sharply reproved in the Song of Deborah, Judg. v. 15-17. In times of oppression like these (when the children of Israel cried unto the Lord, chap. iii. 9, 15, iv. 3, etc.), individuals called judges arose, who, aroused by the Spirit of Jehovah, turned back the heart of the people to their God, revived in them the remembrance of God’s dealings with them in past times, and then broke the hostile yoke under which they were suffering. The whole intention of the narrative of this book is not, however, fulfilled in the glorification of these men as the heroes of the nation, —-its purport being rather to show that the help afforded was the result of an outpouring of the Divine Spirit; and that God, in effecting the deliverance of His people, made choice of the lowly and despised as His instruments. Compare what is already said of Shamgar, iii. 31. Very instructive in this respect is the history of Gideon, the most prominent among the earlier judges; see such passages as vi. 15, vii. 2. It was on this account that these ministers of the theocracy were called, not kings or rulers, but Shophetim (judges). This name must not, moreover, be specially restricted to the exercise of the judicial office, though its performance is asserted in the cases of Deborah (iv. 5), Eli, and Samuel, and must be assumed in that of others in so far as they remained for any length of time at the head either of the whole nation or of single tribes. It bears a more general signification, and represents these men as advocates of those Divine claims which it was their part to maintain and restore. The office of judge was neither permanent nor hereditary, but purely personal. Called to a prominent position by the necessities of the times, they interposed with energy in the affairs of the individual tribes at the head of which they were placed, but exercised no abiding influence upon the nation, which, on the contrary, relapsed into its former course, when its burdens were lightened or when the judge was dead; comp. especially the passage ii. 16-19.”

(From Oehler’s as cited above.)
§ 158. Religious Condition: Decline of the Theocratic Institutions.
§ 159. Continuation: Religious Syncretism of the Period,

II. Restoration of the Theocratic Unity by Samuel. Growth of Prophetism. Foundation of the Monarchy,
§ 160. The Philistine Oppression. Changes effected by Samuel.

     “The appearance of Samuel, and the growth of Prophetism by his means, forms the turning-point of the period of the Judges. The new state of affairs had been prepared for, partly by the Philistine oppression, which was both a longer and a heavier judgment than any with which the people had yet been visited, partly by the judgeship of Eli. For the judgeship depending in his case not upon a successfully-conducted war or on any other act of heroism, but upon the high-priestly office, the sanctuary could not fail to acquire fresh importance, and consequently the theocratic union fresh power with the people. Their first attempt, however, to break the Philistine yoke in united battle, ended in a fearful overthrow, in which even the ark, which had so often led them to victory, fell into the hands of the enemy, 1 Sam. iv. The oppression of the Philistines then became still more grievous, for it is evident, from xiii. 19-22, that they disarmed the entire nation. The fact that the ark of the covenant, the medium of Jehovah’s help and presence, should have fallen into the hands of the heathen, could not fail to exercise an important influence upon the religious consciousness of the people. The ark, after being restored by the Philistines, was for a long time laid aside: ” it was not inquired after,” 1 Chron. xiii. 13 (comp. Ps. cxxxii. 6); it continued an object of fear, but not of worship. The tabernacle was transferred from Shiloh, as a place now rejected of God, to Nob in the tribe of Benjamin; but, having lost with the ark its essential significance as the place of God’s habitation, it ceased to be the religious centre of the nation, though, as we may infer from 1 Sam. xxi. and xxii. 17 sq., the Levitical services were carried on in it without interruption. The person of Samuel, impelled as he was by the prophetic spirit, was now the centre of the nation’s vitality. The sanctuary being rejected, and the agency of the high-priesthood suspended, the mediatorship between God and His people rested with the prophet, who, though not of the priestly race, but by descent a Levite of the region of Ephraim, now performed sacrificial services in the presence of the people (1 Sam. vii. 9 sq.). The central sanctuary no longer existing, we now also find various places of sacrifice, as the high places at Raman, 1 Sam. ix. 13, Bethel and Gilgal, x. 3 sq., comp. xi. 15, xv. 21. Thus were the bounds imposed by the Mosaic ritual for the first time broken through. Israel attained to the experience that the presence of God is not confined to an appointed and sensible symbol, but that wherever He is sincerely invoked, He bestows His abundant blessing. The day of penitence and prayer for which Samuel assembled the people at Mizpah, in the tribe of Benjamin, after he had put down idolatry, became, by the help of Jehovah, who acknowledged the prayer of His prophet, a day of victory over their enemies, and the beginning of their deliverance (chap. vii.). Samuel was henceforth judge of the whole nation; and the prophetic office began from this time to develope its agency, on which account the history of Prophetism, properly speaking, dates from Samuel (Acts iii. 24).”

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Christian Biblical Reflections.14

(Here are pages 238-260, covers Judges and Ruth; as stated before, the PDF will not be created till Esther is completed in the Historical Books; Samuel and Kings are finished but sickness, and other matters has delayed my submission by the date intended. mjm)

JUDGES: 21 Chapters: 400 Years Transition: 12 (13) Judges:

JUDGES open after the death of Joshua: the Israelites asked the Lord who should lead the war against the Canaanites; He said Judah must lead, for I have delivered the land into his hand; Judah requested Simeon to help them in the fight, and we will also help you in your fight; and they went. The Lord defeated the Canaanites and Perizzites; and they killed in Bezek 10,000 men. Adoni-Bezek escaped, but they caught him and cut off his thumbs and great toes; and he said 70 kings I cut off the thumbs and great toes, so God has repaid me; and they brought him to Jerusalem to die. The Judaites (Jews) fought and destroyed by sword and fire Jerusalem. Judah fought the Canaanites in the hill-country and the Negev and lowland. They went against the Canaanites at Hebron (Kiriath-Arba), and smote Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai; thence to Debir (Kiriath-Sepher). Caleb said that the one who takes the city he may marry my daughter Achsah; Othniel his nephew (son of Kenaz, his younger brother) took it and got Achsah. Later she requested the springs of water in the Negev, and Caleb gave her the upper and lower springs. Now the Kenites were from Moses’ brother-in-law (his wife’s (cothen)), they left the City of Palm-Trees with Judah, in the south of Arad and lived with the People. Judah and Simeon defeated and destroyed the Canaanites of Zephath (Hormah). Judah also captured 3 cities with borders: Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron. The Lord was with Judah to drive them out of the hill-country; but they could not drive them out of the valley due to their iron-chariots. They gave Hebron to Caleb as Moses instructed, and he drove out the 3 sons of Anak. But the Benjaminites did not expel the Jebusites from Jerusalem. The house of Joseph went against Beth-El, and the Lord was with them. And they sent spies to Beth-El (Luz); the ones on watch ask a man leaving the city to show them entrance and he will be spared; he did so, and they struck the city, but let go the man and his family; and he moved to the land of the Hittites, built a city and named it Luz which continues (to the time of Samuel). Manasseh did not expel those of Beth-Shean and its towns, or of Megiddo, but the Canaanites still dwelt in them; but Israel made them subservient instead of expelling them. Ephraim did not expel the Canaanites in Gezer; and Zebulun expelled not those of Kitron or Nahalol; but the Canaanites continued as their task-workers. Asher expelled not those of Acco, Sidon, Ahlab, Achzib, Helbah, Aphik, or Rehob; but the Asherites dwelt together with the Canaanites. Naphtali expelled not those Beth-Shemesh or Beth-Anath, but dwelt together with the Canaanites, and made them laborers. Now the Amorites forced the Danites into the hill-country and kept them out of the valley; the Amorites resided in Heres, Aijalon, and Shaalbim; yet the house of Joseph prevailed and made them subservient. The border of the Amorites was from the ascent of Akrabbim, from the Rock, and upward.
The Lord’s Angel or Messenger (Malak-Yehowah) came from Gilgal to Bochim, and said: I extracted you out of Egypt, and then I introduced you into the Promised Land of My sworn Covenant; that ye make no covenant with the Canaanites, but to demolish their altars; ye refused to obey; so I will not drive them out, but they shall be your thorns, and their gods your snare. The People (Israel) heard and wept and called the Place Bochim (Place of Tears or Weeping); and there they sacrificed to the Lord. When Joshua had died at a 110, and they buried him in his inheritance in Ephraim; and that Generation with the elders who outlived Joshua, Israel then continued to serve the Lord; but the next Generation (some 20-40 years later), did not know the Lord or His work for Israel. The Israelites did evil in the Lord’s sight and served Baalim; they forsook Him for the gods of Canaan to worship idols to provoke Him to anger. They served Baal and the Ashtaroth, and His anger ignited against Israel, and He turned them over to the spoilers who despoiled them; and He sold them to their enemies in defeat. The Lord was against Israel in their goings for evil and distress as He warned and swore. The Lord rose up Judges who saved them from their despoilers; but they refused to listen to their Judges; for they played the harlot with other gods and bowed to them; turning away quickly from the way of their fathers who obeyed the Lord’s commandments. And when the Lord established Judges, He was with that Judge, and saved them from their enemies while the Judge lived: for He regretted and grieved for their groans by those who oppressed and vexed them. But after the Judge died they turned back to worse corruption and idolatry than their fathers; never ceasing from evil and stubbornness. The Lord’s anger burned against Israel: Because this Nation transgressed My Covenant in disobedience, I will not quickly expel those nations (Gentiles) that Joshua left at death; I may prove Israel, if they will keep and walk in the Lord’s way; and it was.
These are the Nations the Lord allowed to prove the next Generation of Israel, those who did not know the Wars of Canaan; so that they might learn War: the 5 Philistines’ Lords, Canaanites, Sidonians, and Hivites of Lebanon, from Mount Baal-Hermon to the Entrance of Hamath. These peoples were to test if Israel would listen to the Lord’s commandments as commanded by Moses. These nations Israel co-existed in the Land: Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites; intermarrying with them, and served their gods in idolatry and evil, forgetting Him to serve Baalim and Asheroth. The Lord’s anger ignited against Israel, and He sold them to Cushan-Rishathaim a King of Mesopotamia, and Israel served him for 8 years. Israel cried to the Lord, and He provided a saviour to save them in Othniel ben-Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother. The Spirit of the Lord visited him, and he judged Israel, and initiated war: and the Lord delivered Cushan-Rishathaim into his hand, and he defeated him; the Land rested from War for 40 years; and Othniel (1st Savior-Judge) died. Israel offended the Lord with evil, so He strengthened Eglon the King of Moab against Israel. And Eglon allied himself with Ammon and Amalek, and they struck Israel and captured the City of Palm-Trees. Israel was subject to Eglon for 18 years. They cried to the Lord, and He provided a saviour in Ehud ben-Gera (2nd Savior-Judge) the left-handed Benjamite. Israel sent the tribute-money to Eglon the King of Moab by Ehud; who made a short sharp two-edged sword or dagger (cubit or 1 1/2 feet in length) which he secured to his right thigh under his clothing. He offered the tribute-money to Eglon, who was very fat; then departed and dismissed tribute envoy; but himself returned to Eglon with a secret errand to the king; Eglon bid silence, then the attendants left. Ehud drew near to Eglon while he was alone in his cool upper room, to convey the message from God; Eglon stood up, and Ehud with his left hand drew the dagger from under his clothing from his right thigh and thrust it into Eglon, the handle followed the blade and the blade went out the back. Ehud secured the upper room and left. His servants returning assumed he was resting but waiting very long became concerned and opened the room and found him dead. Ehud escaped beyond the quarries to Seirah; He then blew the trumpet in the hill-country of Ephraim, and Israel gathered to him. He bid them follow him for the Lord has delivered their enemies the Moabites to them. He took the fords of Jordan preventing the Moabites to cross. 10,000 Moabites were slain, attractive and brave, none escaped; and Moab was subdued by Israel; and the Land rested 80 years. Next Shamgar ben-Anath (3rd Savior-Judge), who himself struck 600 Philistines with his ox-goad and saved Israel.
Israel again did evil to the Lord after Ehud died; and the Lord sold them to Jabin King of Canaan, who reigned in Hazor, and his Captain of the army was Sisera of Harosheth of the Gentiles (Nations). They cried to the Lord because Jabin had 900 iron chariots; and he oppressed Israel 20 years. Now Deborah (4th Savior-Judge) a Prophetess and wife of Lappidoth, judged Israel at the time, who lived under the Palm-Tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill-country of Ephraim; and Israel came to her for judgment. She summoned Barak (4th Savior-Judge co-ruled with Deborah) ben-Abinoam of Kedesh-Naphtali, saying that the Lord God of Israel commands him to muster 10,000 men from Naphtali and Zebulun; and He will draw Sisera the Captain of Jabin’s army with chariots and numbers to him. Barak stipulated that Deborah must go to war with him; she replied if she does the honor will not be his, for the Lord will sell Sisera to a woman. Deborah and Barak went to Kedesh. Barak gathered Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh with 10,000; and Deborah went. Heber the Kenite had separated from the sons of Hobab, Moses’ brother-in-law, and pitched tent as far as the Oak in Zaananannim by Kedesh. They told Sisera Barak went to Mount Tabor; and he gathered his 900 iron chariots and people fro Harosheth of the Goim (Gentiles, nations) to Kishon. Deborah told Barak to engage against Sisera for the Lord will give victory; and he went with his 10,000 to Mount Tabor; and the Lord defeated them utterly by Barak. Sisera escaped by foot to Jael the wife of the Kenite Heber; for there was peace between King Jabin and the Kenite Heber’s house. Jael met and invited Sisera to hide in her tent, and she covered him with a mantle or blanket. He asked for water for his thirst and she gave him a bottle of milk and covered him; He asked her to stand at the tent door and divert anyone seeking him. Jael took a tent-pin or spike and a hammer and went softly to him and struck the spike through his temples to the ground while he slept, and he swooned or jerked and died. Barak in pursuit of Sisera came, and Jael met him and showed him a dead Sisera by a tent-pin in his temples. God subdued Jabin the King of Canaan by Israel, and they prevailed to destroy him.

Deborah and Barak sang this Song:
Bless the Lord for the leaders in Israel, and for the people who offered themselves freely.
Listen up you kings and princes to my Song of Praise to the Lord God of Israel.
Lord, in Your advance to Seir, and Your march from Edom’s field;
the earth trembled, the heavens dropped, the clouds rained,
and the mountains quaked at Your Presence, (this or that) Sinai at the Lord’s Presence.
In the days of Shamgar ben-Anath, and Jael,
the highways untraveled, and byways travelled; no rulers in Israel.
Then I, Deborah, arose as a Mother in Israel.
Israel chose new gods; war at the gates: no shield or spear among 40,000 in Israel.
My heart is for the governors of Israel who offered themselves willingly among the people.
Bless the Lord! declare ye riders on white donkeys,
ye that sit on rich carpets, and walk by the way:
Far from the noise of the archers, in the places of drawing water,
they will rehearse the Lord’s righteous acts, and His rule in Israel;
then His people went down to the gates.
Awake Deborah with a Song, arise Barak and lead away captives;
the remnant of the nobles of the people;
the Lord came against the mighty for me;
from Ephraim the roots of Amalek; after Benjamin among Thy peoples;
from Machir came governors, from Zebulun the handlers of the marshal’s staff.
Issachar’s princes with Deborah, Issachar and Barak;
into the valley they rushed following him;
by the watercourses of Reuben were great resolve of heart.
They sat with the sheepfolds, by the watercourses of Reuben with great heart searchings;
Gilead stayed beyond the Jordan, and Dan remained in ships,
Asher sat in the sea haven and stayed near his creeks.
The Zebulunites risked their lives, with Naphtali on the high places in the field.
The kings battled, the Kings of Canaan fought,
in Taanach by the waters of Megiddo; without money;
the stars fought from heaven, from their courses against Sisera;
the ancient Kishon River swept them away.
My soul march on in strength!
The horse-hoofs stamped by the prancings of the strong ones.
The Lord’s Angel cursed Meroz and its citizens for not aiding the Lord against the mighty. Blessed is Jael, the wife of the Kenite Heber, above women in the tent:
He asked water, she gave milk, with butter in a lordly dish;
she took a tent spike in the left hand, and in her right hand the workmen’s hammer;
she pierced his head through his temples (she severed his head after she pierced his temples); he bowed and fell at her feet dead.
Sisera’s mother looked out the window lattice, asking why his chariot wheels delayed;
her wise ladies answered with her reply:
they have found spoil to divide; a damsel or two for each man;
to Sisera dyed double embroidered garments, from the necks of the defeated.
O Lord, let all Thine enemies so perish;
but let those who love Him be as the sun in high noon.

The Land rested 40 years. The Israelites again offended the Lord with evil, so He handed them over to Midian for 7 years. Midian prevailed against Israel, so that Israel hid in mountain dens and caves and strongholds. When Israel farmed, the Midianites, Amallekites, and the children of the east (Beney-Qedem, Qedemites, easterners), came and encamped against them to destroy the produce and harvest, up to Gaza, leaving no sustenance in Israel, no sheep, ox, or donkey. They invaded with their cattle and tents, as locusts, with countless camels. Thus Israel was reduced by Midian, and they cried to the Lord; who in reply sent a Prophet to the Israelites, saying: The Lord God of Israel says: I saved you from Egypt the house of slavery; and from your oppressors, expelling them, and gave their land to you; I told you not to fear the gods of the Amorites in Canaan; but you refused to obey. Now the Angel of the Lord sat under the Oak-tree in Ophrah of Joash the Abiezrite, whose son Gideon was threshing wheat in the winepress to hide it from the Midianites. The Lord’s Angel appeared and greeted him: The Lord is with you mighty man of valor; he replied that if so why has all this befallen us? And where are all His wondrous works our fathers told us of from Egypt to Canaan? He has cast us off and delivered us to Midian. The Lord looked at him and commanded him to go in might and save Israel from Midian as I send you. Gideon asked how he was to save Israel, since his family is the poorest of Manasseh, and he the least of his father’s house. But the Lord assured him that He will be with him; and he must strike the Midianites as one man. Gideon asked for a visible sign that it was the Lord speaking. He asked the Angel to stay under the Oak till he returns with meal as an offering; and he agreed; Gideon cooked a kid, baked unleavened cakes or loaves; then put the meat in a basket, the broth in a pot, and set it before the Visitor. The Angel of God told him to put the meat and the unleavened cakes upon this rock and pour the broth out; then the Angel of the Lord extended his staff and touched the meat and the cakes, and fire came from the rock and consumed the meat and cakes; then the Angel departed. Gideon then surprised realized he had seen the Lord’s Angel face to face. The Lord assured him with peace, and that he will not die. Gideon built an Altar there, calling it Jehovah-Shalom (the Lord of Peace); it still exists in Ophrah of the Abiezrites. That night the Lord told him to take his father’s second bullock of 7 years old; and he must demolish his father’s altar of Baal, and to cut down the Asherah next to it; and to build an Altar to the Lord on this stronghold, in an orderly manner; and offer the second bullock on it as a burnt-offering with the wood cut from the Asherah. Gideon did so with 10 of his servants, at night for fear of his father’s household and men of the city. In the morn the citizens saw it and demanded to know who did this; they discovered it was Gideon ben-Joash; they demanded Joash to hand over his son to die for demolishing Baal’s altar and cutting down the Asherah. But Joash responded that if anyone contends to save Baal, they must be put to death immediately; if Baal is a god let him contend for himself against the one who destroyed his altar; he called him Jerubbaal (Baal’s Contender or Opponent). The armies or divisions of the Midianites, Amalekites, and Easterners assembled, and passed over the Jordan, and encamped in the Valley of Jezreel. The Lord’s Spirit came upon Gideon (5th Savior-Judge), and he blew the trumpet, and Abiezer gathered after him; he sent messengers (angels) through Manasseh, to those who gathered to him, to Asher, to Zebulun, and to Naphtali; and they gathered to him. Gideon prayed to God for a sign that He will save Israel by his hand as He said; let me, he said, put a fleece of wool on the threshing-floor, and if the dew is on the fleece but not on the ground, then he will know the word is sure; so he did and he wrung out a bowlful of water. Gideon begs for another sign; that another fleece will be dry put the ground soaked; and God did as he asked.
Then Jerubbaal (Gideon) (5th Savior-Judge), and all the people with him, early in the morn and encamped beside the Spring of Harod; the camp of Midian was on the north side by the Hill of Moreh, in the Valley. The Lord told Gideon that people are too many to give victory over the Midianites, lest Israel boast that they saved themselves. He told Gideon to dismiss anyone who is fearful and trembling to return and depart from Mount Gilead; 22,000 departed, leaving 10,000. He reduced the number by bringing them to the waters to drink; those who lap water with their tongue as a dog to stand in one group, and all who bow on their knees to drink in another group. Those who lapped from their hand to mouth were 300, all the rest (9,700) knelt to drink. The Lord told Gideon that He will save Israel from the Midianites by the 300 that lapped; and the rest were dismissed with food in their hand, and their trumpets, to return to their tents; and the camp of Midian was below in the valley. That night the Lord told him to go down to the camp, for He will deliver them to him; but if you fear to go down, then take Purah your servant to the camp; and you will hear their plans; then you will be strengthened to attack; so they went down to the edge of the camp of the armed men. The hosts were like countless locusts along the valley, and camels without number, as sand of the sea-shore. Gideon came near and heard a fighter telling his dream to another, that a cake of barley bread tumbled into the camp of Midian into the tent and knocked it over, and it fell and flipped over flat; the other replied with the interpretation that it was the Sword of Gideon of Israel, that God has delivered Midian and all the host to him. Gideon after the dream and interpretation, worshipped, then returned to the camp of Israel; saying, up, the Lord has delivered to us the armies of Midian. He divided the 300 hundred men into 3 companies, each with trumpets, empty pitchers with only torches in them; he instructed them to copy his action as they reached the outer limits of the camp, and to say: for the Lord and Gideon. Gideon and his men did so at the time of the middle watch when they changed watch and guard; they blew the trumpets with the right hands, and shattered the pitchers, and held the torches in the left hands, and they shouted: The Sword of the Lord and Gideon. They stood in place encircling the camp; the armies were routed and fled to escape; but the 300 trumpets blew, and the Lord turned each man’s sword against his fellow through all the army; they fled as far as Beth-Shittah toward Zererah, to the border of Abel-Meholah by Tabbath. The Israelites from Naphtali, Asher, and Manasseh pursued Midian. He invited those of Ephraim to come against Midian before the waters as far as Beth-Barah to Jordan; and they did so; capturing the 2 princes of Midian, Oreb and Zeeb; Oreb they slew at the Rock of Oreb, and Zeeb at the Winepress of Zeeb; they continued their chase of Midian across the Jordan, carrying the heads of Oreb and Zeeb.
The Ephraimites, west of Jordan, criticized Gideon, that he insulted them by not inviting them at outset of the assault against Midian; he replied that the gleaning of grapes of Ephraim are better than the vintage of Abiezer; and since God has handed over the Princes of Midian Oreb and Zeeb, what is my comparison; with that word they were appeased, and their anger abated. Gideon and the 300 crossed Jordan in hot pursuit but tired. He asked from the men of Succoth for loaves of bread for his tired and hungry men, in pursuit of the Kings of Midian, Zebah and Zalmunna; but they answered asking if he already captured them, so that food should be rewarded to his army. Gideon promised them that after capturing them by the Lord’s help, I will tear your flesh with desert thorns and briers. He asked the same of the men of Penuel, who answered like the men of Succoth; he promised to return in peace and victory and will demolish this Tower. Zebah and Zalmunna were in Karkor with their hosts of some 15,000 from the Easterners, for some 120,000 soldiers died. Gideon went by way of tent dwellers on the east of Nobah and Jogbehah and attacked the secured army; so Zebah and Zalmunna escaped; but he chased both and caught them and routed the host. He returned from the battle from the Ascent of Heres, and caught a young man of Succoth, and interrogated him; he described to him the Princes of Succoth and the Elders, in all 77 men; he came to the men of Succoth and reminded them of their words to him in refusing food for his tired men; so with desert thorns and briers he taught the City Elders a lesson; and he demolished the Tower and killed the men of the city. Then he asked Zebah and Zalmunna what kind of men they killed at Tabor; they told him they were like him, they resembled sons of a king. He said to them that they were his brothers, his mother’s sons; and if they had been spared, by the Lord they would be allowed to live. Gideon told Jether his firstborn to slay them, but he was afraid being young; the two Kings bid him to prove his manhood to slay them himself; he slew them and took the crescents from their camel’s necks. Israel asked Gideon to rule over them, you and your sons and your grandsons, since you saved us from Midian. Gideon declined, telling them the Lord must rule over them. He requested of them to give him the ear-rings of the plunder, for the Ishmaelites had golden ear-rings. They spread a garment and gave the spoil of golden ear-rings, weighing some 1,700 shekels of gold, besides the crescents and pendants, and the purple garments on the Kings of Midian, and the chains about their camel’s necks. Gideon made an Ephod from them, and put it in his city (Ophrah), and all Israel played the harlot with it there; which was a snare to Gideon and his house. Midian was subdued before Israel, and they did not lift their heads again. And the Land rested 40 years in Gideon’s days. Jerubbaal (Gideon) went home; his own sons, by his many wives, were 70. His concubine in Shechem birthed to him his son Abimelech. Gideon died in old age and was buried in the sepulchre of his father Joash, in Ophrah of the Abiezrites. Again, Israel turned to idolatry and harlotry with Baalim, and made Baal-Berith their god; and Israel forgot the Lord God Who saved from all their enemies; neither showed kindness to the house of Jerubbaal-Gideon for all his goodness to Israel.
Abimelech ben-Jerubbaal (6th Judge and King or Ruler) went to Shechem to his mother’s brothers, asking the house of his mother’s father if it’s better that 70 or 1 to rule over them; and to remember he is their bone and flesh; the men of Schechem heard and agreed to follow their brother Abimelech. They gave him 70 silver pieces from the House of Baal-Berith, which he used to hire worthless and useless followers. He went to his father’s house at Ophrah and murdered all 70 sons of Jerubbaal; but Jotham the youngest hid himself. The Shechemites assembled at the House of Milo, and they made Abimelech King by the Oak of the Pillar in Schechem. It was told to Jotham, and he went on top of Mount Gerizim, and shouted for the Shechemites to listen to him that God may hear them: The Trees went to anoint a King over them, and asked the Olive-Tree to reign over them; the Olive-Tree declined not wanting to leave their fatness which honor God and man, to wave to and fro over the Trees. The Trees asked the Vine; which declined, not desiring to leave its new wine, which cheers God and man, to wave over the Trees. The Trees asked the Bramble; which agreed to be anointed King over them if they take refuge in its shade; but if they refuse, let fire from the Bramble consume the Cedars of Lebanon. So, he asked, have you have done right in making Abimelech King, and treated Jerubbaal and his house properly for his fighting and risking his life to deliver them from Midian: rather you have risen against my father’s house, murdered his 70 sons on one stone, and made Abimelech, his maid-servant’s son, your kin, King over the Shechemites; then rejoice in him, and he with you; and if not, let fire from Abimelech devour the Shechemites and the house of Millo; and let the fire from the Shechemites and the house of Millo devour Abimelech. Then Jotham ran away, and escaped to hide at Beer, for fear of his brother Abimelech. He was Prince over Israel 3 years, and then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the Shechemites to deal treacherously with him, to repay his treatment, Jerubbaal’s 70 sons, for blood-guilt murder to him and them. The Shechemites set ambush on the mountain tops for him and robbed all that passed by that way; and it was told to Abimelech. Gaal ben-Ebed came to the Shechemites and they trusted in him; they gathered from their vineyards in the field, trod the grapes, and held a festival, and went into the house of their god to eat and drink, and cursed Abimelech. Gaal denounced Abimelech as Jerubbaal’s son and a nobody, and Zebul his officer; rather serve the men Hamor Shechem’s father; would that this people were under my rule, then I would get rid of Abimelech; he challenged Abimelech to a great battle. Zebul the city’s ruler heard and was enraged. So Gaal sent messengers (angels) to Abimelech craftily, warning him that Gaal has attack the city against you; at night you and the people lay in ambush to come against him in the morn by surprise, and meet him as they leave the city, and do what you will. Abimelech and his men by night lay ambush in 4 companies against the Shechemites; Gaal stood at the entrance of the city gate, and Abimelech rose from the ambush to confront him; Gaal told Zebul that the people are coming down the mountains; Zebul said he was seeing the mountains shadows as men; but Gaal said again, the people, as one company, are in the middle of the land by way of the Oak of Meonenim. Zebul asked him about his mouth against service to Abimelech, and to go out to fight the people he despised. So Gaal leading the Shechemites in battle, was chased by Abimelech; and he fled the field of the many wounded, up to the city entrance. While Abimelech was at Arumah, Zebul ousted Gaal and his brothers from Shechem. They told Abimelech, and he with three companies ambushed the city, and they killed the people leaving the city; then he rushed the city at the gate, while the two companies killed those in the field. He fought the city that day, then captured it, killed the citizens, destroyed the city, and salted it. The Shechemites of the Tower entered the Stronghold of the house Elberith; and Abimelech was told; he and his men went to Mount Zalmon, and he and they took axes and cut down branches and carried them on their shoulders; then they sieged the Stronghold and set in on fire, killing about 1,000 men and women. Abimelech besieged and captured Thebez; but the people had fled to the city’s strong Tower and shut themselves in and went to the roof. Abimelech attacked it, and was about to burn it, when a woman on the roof of the Tower threw a millstone down on his head, breaking his skull. He called to his armorbearer while dying to kill him with the sword that it may not be said a woman killed him, and thus he did. Israel departed and returned to their place after his death; for God requited Abimelech’s wickedness and murder of his brothers; and that of the Shechemites with the curse of Jotham ben-Jerubbaal
After Abimelech, arose Tola ben-Puah ben-Dodo of Issachar (7th Judge) at Shamir, in the hill-country of Ephraim. He judged Israel for 23 years and was buried at Shamir. Next Jair the Gileadite (8th Judge) judged Israel 22 years; he had 30 sons riding 30 donkeys’ colts, having 30 cities called Havvoth-Jair in Gilead; he died and was buried in Kamon. Again, Israel outraged the Lord by idolatry in service to Baalim, the Ashtaroth, and the gods or idols of Syria, Sidon, Moab, Ammonites, and Philistines; they forsook the Lord in disobedience. The Lord sold them to the Philistines and Ammonites. That year they vexed and oppressed Israel, for they had done so for 18 years in Trans-Jordan in Gilead. Now the Ammonites crossed Jordan to attack Judah and Benjamin and the house of Ephraim; Israel was distressed, and cried to the Lord, confessing their sin of disobedience and idolatry to Baalim. The Lord responded to Israel, that He saved them when they cried to Him, from the oppression of Egyptians, the Ammorites, Ammonites, Philistines, Sidonians, Amalekites, and Maonites. But, He said, you have forsaken Me for idols; I will no longer save you; rather go to your gods to be saved from distress. But Israel confessed their sin, and begged to be saved now, and for Him to do with them what He will. Israel got rid of the foreign gods to serve the Lord; and He was grieved for Israel’s misery. The Ammonites encamped in Gilead and Israel in Mizpah. The Princes of Gilead asked who could lead the fight against the Ammonites; and they promised to make him head or ruler of all the Gileadites.
Jephthah the Gileadite (9th Judge-Ruler) was a brave warrior, but was a son of a harlot, but Gilead fathered him. Gilead’s wife bore him sons, who when grown rejected and banished him from the household as an outcast; he fled and lived in the land of Tob; and outcasts gathered to him. When the Ammonites warred against Israel, the Elders of Gilead appealed to Jephthah to be their Chief and fight the Ammonites; he reminded them that they hated him, and drove him away, so why come to him in trouble. But they insisted that he help them against the Ammonites, and become, they said, our head; he committed them to their word; if the Lord should give him victory. They made him head and chief, and he spoke these words in Mizpah. He sent messengers to the King of the Ammonites as to their campaign, which he answered, that Israel after the Exodus from Egypt appropriated my land from Arnon to Jabbok to Jordan; and demanded the lands be restored peaceably. Again he sent messengers stating that Israel did not take land of Moab or Ammon; but after the Exodus entreated the King of Edom for passage, which he refused; in like manner the King of Moab; so Israel stayed in Kadesh; going through the Desert or Wilderness, going around Edom and Moab, to the east side of Moab, and encamped on the other side of Arnon, and no closer. Afterwards, Israel sent messengers to Sihon King of the Amorites and Heshbon, asking for passage; Sihon refused, and gathered his people and encamped against Israel in Jahaz for battle; the Lord God of Israel defeated them by Israel’s sword, and Israel thus possessed the land of the Amorites by conquest; occupying the borders from Arnon to Jabbok, and from the desert to Jordan. The Lord our God dispossess the Amorites for us by conquest. Should you now take possession? Are you better than Balak ben-Zippor the King of Moab, who never warred against Israel? Israel dwelt in Heshbon and its towns, in Aroer and its towns, and all the cities along the way, for 300 years; why did you not recover them during that time? I have not sinned against you, but you wrong me to war against me; the Lord judge between Israel and Ammon; but the King of Ammon refused this response. The Spirit of the Lord (Ruach Yehowah) came on Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead and Manasseh, Mizpeh of Gilead, to the Ammonites. He vowed to the Lord for victory, to sacrifice the first thing that meets him at the door of his house after his success as a burnt-offering. He fought and utterly defeated the Ammonites from Aroer to Minnith, 20 cities, even to Abelcheramim; thus, Israel subdued the Ammonites. Jephthah returned to his house in Mizpah, and his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and dances; and she was his only offspring. He saw her and tore his clothes in shame and blame, very troubled for the oath or vow he made to the Lord; she replied that since the Lord has given him victory over the Ammonites, he should do with her according to his vow or oath. She requested a leave of 2 months to go along the mountains and bewail her virginity with her companions; and so she did; then she returned and Jephthah did with her as he vowed (he sacrificed her as a burnt-offering); she died a virgin; and it became a custom in Israel that the Daughters of Israel to yearly celebrate or commemorate the Daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite for 4 days.
The Ephraimites gathered and passed northward and asked Jephthah why he fought the Ammonites without consulting them and said they will burn his house and him with fire. He replied that he and his people were at great strife with the Ammonites, and they turned to the Ephraimites but were not helped; he risked his life against the Ammonites; and the Lord delivered them into his hand. So why do you now come to fight against me? Jephthah and the Gileadites fought against the Ephraimites; who said that the Gileadites were but fugitives of Ephraim and Manasseh. The Gileadites took the fords of the Jordan against the Ephraimites, so that when a fugitive of Ephraim tried to pass over, and denied being an Ephraimite, he was asked to pronounce Shibboleth, but would say Sibboleth incorrectly; they killed him at the Jordan’s banks; all Ephraimites killed were 42,000. Jephthah judged Israel for 6 years; then he died and was buried in one of the cities of Gilead. Next Ibzan of Beth-Lehem (10th Judge) judged Israel; he had 30 sons and 30 daughters; he got 30 daughters from abroad as wives for his sons; he judged Israel for 7 years; he died and was buried at Beth-Lehem. Next Elon the Zebulunite (11th Judge) judged Israel for 10 years; he died and was buried at Aijalon in Zebulun. Next Abdon ben-Hillel the Pirathonite (12th Judge) judged Israel for 8 years; he had 40 sons, and 30 grandsons, and they rode on 70 young donkeys; he died and was buried in Pirathon in Ephraim, in the hill-country of the Amalekites.
Now there was a man of Zorah of the Danites, Manoah, whose wife was barren; the Lord’s Angel appeared to her with news that she will become pregnant and birth a son; that she must not drink wine or strong drink, nor eat anything unclean; the boy must not have a haircut or eat unclean things; for he is a Nazirite from birth to death. Manoah prayed that the Lord would send that Man of God to teach us how to raise the child. God heard and sent His Angel to the woman in the field, her husband not present; she hurried and told her husband, Manoah came to the Man and asked him if he spoke to the woman; and how to raise the child. The Lord’s Angel told him to do all that he instructed his wife, she must abstain from all product of the vine, no wine or strong drink, and eat nothing unclean. Manoah desired the Angel to stay for a meal; but he said that if he is detained he will not eat, and if a burnt-offering is offered it must be to the Lord; for he did not know it was the Lord’s Angel. Manoah asked the Angel’s Name to honor him after his words come true; but he said, why? for it is Wonderful. Manoah offered a kid and grains on the rock to the Lord; and the Angel did wonders while he and his wife watched; as the flames consumed the sacrifice and ascended, so too the Angel ascended in the flames of the altar; they fell face down to the ground. The Angel never appeared again; but Manoah told his wife of his fear of death for seeing God; she replied that if the Lord wanted to kill them He would not have accepted the offerings or showed us or told us these things. The woman gave birth to a son named Samson; which grew with the Lord’s blessing. The Spirit of the Lord began to move on him in Mahaneh-Dan, and Zorah, and Eshtaol.
Samson (13th Judge) went to Timnah and saw a woman of the daughters of the Philistines. He told his parents to arrange for him to marry her; but they objected that he wanted a wife from the uncircumcised Philistines; but he insisted he was pleased with her. But his parents did not know that Lord by him sought occasion against the Philistines; since they were then rulers of Israel. He and his parents went to Timnah; but near the vineyards a young lion roared against him; and the Lord’s Spirit came on him mightily, and he tore him as if a kid with his bare hands; but he did not tell his parents. Samson was pleased with her, and soon went to take her; and on the way the carcass of the lion had a swarm of bees in the lion’s body and honey; he took some honeycomb to eat along the way, then gave the rest to his parents without telling them that he took it out of the lion’s body. Samson’s father went to the woman, and Samson made a feast as the young men were accustomed to do. They brought 30 companions as guests; he put a riddle to them, and if they can explain it in 7 days he will give them 30 linen garments and 30 robes; but if they cannot, they must give him 30 linen garments and 30 robes; they agreed. Samson’s Riddle: From the Eater came forth Food and from the Strong came forth the Sweetness. For 7 days they tried to explain the Riddle, and his wife also they threatened to get the meaning of the Riddle, or, they threatened, would burn her and her family, for making them poor. She complained that he did not reveal it to her, but he said I have not told it even to my parents; she cried for seven days; on the 7th day she begged him, and he told her, and she told them. Before sunset they interpreted the Riddle: What is sweeter than Honey? Or what is stronger than a Lion? But he replied: If ye had not plowed with my Heifer, ye had not found out my Riddle. The Lord’s Spirit mightily came upon him and he went to Ashkelon and killed 30 men and took their clothes as spoil and gave it to the interpreters of his Riddle. His anger burned, so he went to his father’s house; but his wife was given to his companion he used as a friend.
Later, during the wheat harvest, Samson visited his wife with a kid, and desired to be with her in the bedroom; but her father objected, saying he thought he renounced her, so he married her off to his companion; but offered, in her place, her younger and more beautiful sister. Samson now said he would be blameless to do more mischief to the Philistines. He caught 300 hundred foxes, and tied firebrands between every two tails, then lit them and turned them loose in the standing grain of the Philistines; and it burnt up shocks, standing grain, and the oliveyards. The Philistines was told that Samson the son-in-law of the Timnite did it, because his wife was given to his companion; they burnt up her and her father. But Samson said this thing is reason to get more revenge, and then he will cease. He struck and slaughtered them hip and thigh; then went to stay in the Cleft of the Rock of Etam. The Philistines encamped in Judah and spread out in Lehi. The Judaens demanded why they came; they said for Samson to do to him what he did to them. Then 3,000 Judaens came to him and said the Philistines are our rulers what have done? he replied that I did to them what they did to me. They demanded him to be bound and handed over to them; but he insisted that they swear not to kill him themselves; they agreed that they will bind and deliver him to them; they bound him with 2 new ropes and brought him from the Rock. At Lehi the Philistines shouted as they met him; then the Spirit of the Lord came mightily on him, and the ropes became as flax burnt with fire and fell off his hands; he found a fresh donkey’s jawbone and with it killed 1,000. He then said that Heaps on Heaps by a Donkey’s Jawbone I killed 1,000 men; then he threw the jawbone away; the place was called Ramath-Lehi. He was very thirsty and called on the Lord who gave His servant great deliverance, not to let him now die of thirst, and captured by the uncircumcised. God split the hollow place at Lehi, and water flowed; he drank and his spirit revived; the place was called En-Hakkore to this day. Samson thus judged Israel in the days of the Philistines for 20 years.
Samson went to Gaza to a harlot; the Gazites surrounded the place, waiting quietly all night to kill him at daybreak; but at midnight he took the doors of the city gate by its two posts, pulling them out bar and all, and carried them on his shoulders to the top of the mount before Hebron. Later, he loved a woman named Delilah in the Valley of Sorek. The Lords of the Philistines persuaded her to entice him and discover the secret of his great strength, and how to prevail against him; to bind and afflict him; and they promised each one to give her 1,100 silver-pieces. Delilah asked him to tell her the secret of his strength, and how he may be bound and afflicted. He told her if he is bound with 7 green withes or vines never dried, he would be weak as other men; the Lords of the Philistines gave her the 7 green withes undried; she bound him; while an ambush waited hid in the inner chamber. She told him that the Philistines are on him; he broke the withes as if a string of tow when burnt. The secret of his strength still unknown, Delilah complained to him for mocking and telling her lies; she demanded the secret. He told her to use new ropes never used, and he will be another man. She did as before; but he awoke and broke them as thread. She complained of his trick and mockery and lies; and demanded the truth; he replied that if his hair is weaved into 7 locks with a web; she did and fastened it with the pin; she alerted him, and he awoke and plucked the pin and beam and the web. She complained that he didn’t love her since he has mocked and tricked her 3 times, and she persisted daily with words till he was vexed to death. He revealed his heart and the truth that he was a Nazirite to God from his mother’s pregnancy and no razor has ever cut his hair; if shaven he will be weak as an ordinary man. Delilah told the Philistines to return this once, for he has told his heart and the secret; they came with the money in hand. She let him sleep on her knees or lap, and then had a man shave his 7 locks of hair, and his strength was gone. She alerted him, and he awoke to shake himself as before, but knew not the Lord had departed. The Philistines took him and put out his eyes, brought him to Gaza bound with brass fetters or chains, and made him grind grain in the prison house. But his hair began to grow again; and the Philistines gathered to offer a great sacrifice to their god or idol Dagon with joy; for their god has delivered Samson to them; they saw him and praised their god for his capture who had wasted their country and killed many of them. In their festive celebration they called for Samson to entertain them, setting him between the two pillars; Samson asked the youth that led him to rest on the pillars of the house. The house was filled with men and women, along with the 5 Lords of the Philistines, and some 3,000 guests on the roof; watching as he entertained them. Samson prayed to the Lord Jehovah, God, to remember and strengthen him this last time to avenge the Philistines for his two eyes. He took hold of the two middle pillars, and said: let me die with the Philistines, and bowed himself with all his might, and the house collapsed on the Lords and the people in it. He killed more in his death than he did in his life. His relatives and took him and buried him between Zorah and Eshtaol in the burial place of Manoah his father. He judged Israel 20 years.
Now Micah was an Ephraimite of the hill-country, he told his mother that the money (1,100 silver-pieces) that she uttered a curse and told him was stolen by him; his mother blessed him in the Lord. He restored the money; his mother said she had dedicated the money to the Lord to make of it a graven and molten image; she gave it back to him. After he restored the money, she took 200 silver-pieces and gave to the founder to make a molten and graven idol; and it was in Micah’s house. Micah had a House of Gods, with an Ephod, and Teraphim, and he consecrated one of his sons to be his Priest. (In those days there was no King in Israel; every man did what was right in his own eyes.) Now a young man, a Levite from Beth-Lehem-Judah in Judah’s family, travelled from that city to find another place, and he came to the hill-country of Ephraim to Micah’s house. Micah asked from where he came and to where he was going, and he told him. Micah asked him to stay with him and become a Father and Priest to him; for which he would give 10 silver-pieces yearly, a suit of apparel, and victuals. The Levite was content to stay with him; who was as one of his sons; and Micah consecrated the young Priest in his house. Micah said the Lord will do me good since I have a Levite as Priest.
(In those days there was no King in Israel). At that time the Danites were seeking a place of inheritance, for yet they had not possessed their inheritance in Israel. The Danites sent 5 brave men from Zorah and Eshtaol to spy and survey the land. They came to the hill-country of Ephraim and lodged at Micah’s house; and the recognized the young Levite; and they asked how he got here and what he was doing and what he had; and he said Micah hired him to be Priest. They asked him to inquire from God as to their mission’s success; he told them to go in peace for the Lord goes with them. The 5 Danites came to Laish and saw the people dwelt securely like the Sidonians, safe and quiet, without authority to shame or stop them; far from the Sidonians in isolation. They returned to Zorah and Eshtaol and reported to make a quick assault and possess the land; for the people are secure, and the land large and abundant and God has given it to you. The Danites sent 600 men armed for war; they came and camped behind Kiriath-Jearim in Judah (the place is called Mahaneh-Dan to this day); thence passed through the hill-country of Ephraim to Micah’s house. The 5 spies related about Micah’s houses and his Ephod and Teraphim and idols; so they turned to the house and asked the young Priest his welfare; then they secured the entrance of the city-gate; the 5 spies went and took the idols, Ephod, and Teraphim; and the Priest asked what were they doing; they replied for him to keep silent, and to go with them to be a Father and Priest to a tribe in Israel instead of one man; the Priest was glad and went with them in the midst with the Ephod, Teraphim, and idols. They departed with the little ones, and cattle and goods in front. After while Micah and his neighbors overtook the Danites, and shouted at them; the Danites turned around and ask what was there problem to come with such a company? Micah replied that they have stolen his gods and his Priest, what is left; and you say what is my problem? The Danites retorted to keep quiet before some angry fellows fall upon you and you lose your lives. The Danites continued toward home; Micah returned home seeing that they were too strong for him to stop. They continued to Laish and killed the citizens and burned the city; there was no deliverer or savior, being far from Sidon and secluded in the Valley by Beth-Rehob; and they built a city and called it Dan, their father the son of Israel; but its original name was Laish. The Danites set up their idols, and Jonathan ben-Gershom ben-Moses (Moses’ grandson; some 100 years from the Entrance to Canaan) ((the variant Manasseh, with the altered Nun (N) saves Moses honor, but does not explain the genealogy)) and his sons were Priests to the tribe of Dan till the day of the Captivity of the Land (some 700 years later); the House of God then was in Shiloh.
(In those days there was no King in Israel.) Now there was a certain Levite traveling on the outskirt of the hill-country of Ephraim, who took a second-wife or concubine from Beth-Lehem-Judah; and she played the harlot against him and returned to her father’s house in Beth-Lehem-Judah and stayed 4 months. Her husband went to get her with kind words, with his servant and donkeys. She brought him to her father and he was glad to see him; and his father-in-law retained him for 3 days and nights entertained with food and drink and lodging. On the 4th day he tried to leave early but his father-in-law said to stay awhile to eat then go. But when he later tried to go he begged him to stay the night; he did. Early the 5th day the damsel’s father again insisted that he stay the day till sunset; he did. The Levite rose to depart with his concubine and servant; his father-in-law tried to persuade him to stay another night; but he refused and departed toward Jebus (Jerusalem); his servant suggested they turn to lodge in Jebus of the Jebusites; but the Levite answered that we will not stay in a city of foreigners but in a city of Israel like Gibeah or Ramah. They came to Gibeah of Benjamin and entered to lodge there and waited in the street for hospitality. Now at even an old man came from work in the fields, he was of the hill-country of Ephraim and settled in Gibeah of the Benjamites. The old man asked the visitors why they were there, whence they came and wither they went; the Levite told him from Beth-Lehem-Judah near the hill-country of Ephraim but now are going to the House of the Lord; but no one has invited us to lodge, although we have our own provisions; the old man in peace invited him to not stay in the street but to lodge with him and let him provide for all their needs. They lodged with the old man, who fed the donkeys, washed their feet, and fed them; while their hearts made merry some degenerate men of the city surrounded the house, beating the door, and demanded to the old man to hand over the visitor that they may know them (sexually). The master of the house, the old man, went out to appeal to them as brothers not to do this evil thing; and he offered his daughter and the man’s concubine to satisfy their sexual lusts. The locals rejected the offer; and the Levite grabbed his concubine and thrust her out to them; and they sexually abused her all night till morning and let her go. The woman at daybreak reached the door of the man’s house where her lord was lodging and collapsed at the doorway with her hands on the threshold. Her master, her husband the Levite, told her to get up and let us go; but she answered not; he put her on the donkey and returned home. In his house he took a knife and dismembered his concubine dead body, limb by limb, into 12 pieces; and sent each a piece to all the tribes and borders of Israel. All were shocked that such a deed which had never been done in Israel from the Exodus from Egypt to the present; and they took counsel to act.
All the congregation of Israel assembled as one man, from Dan to Beer-Sheba, with the Land of Gilead, to the Lord at Mizpah. The tribal Princes presented themselves in the Assembly of God’s People, 400,000 foot-soldiers with swords. The Benjamites heard that the Israelites mustered in Mizpah; The Israelites asked the Levite how this wickedness came about; and the murdered woman’s husband told them the details of what they did and what he did. The Israelites vowed to not return home till this is judged. They cast lot to determine how to go against Gibeah; they enlisted 10 men of 100, 100 of 1,000, and 1,000 of 10,000, to get food supply for the fighters against Gibeah of Benjamin, and the folly done in Israel. Israel united against Benjamin and demanded what is this wickedness that was committed. They demanded the degenerates to be handed over to be put to death to remove the evil from Israel. But the Benjamites refused but mustered from all their cities to fight the Israelites; some 26,000, not counting the 700 Gibeahites. Now of the Benjamites were 700 left-handed stone slingers, able to hit a mark at a hair-breath. Israel forces numbered 400,000 swordsmen; and they inquired counsel from God at Bethel for the first to lead against Benjamin; the Lord designated Judah. Israel early in the morn encamped against Gibeah; they engaged in battle; and the Benjaminites slaughtered of the Israelites that day 22,000. The next day the Israelites were encouraged to array themselves in battle again; they wept before the Lord and asked should they go to war, and the Lord said to go. The 2nd day Israel battled Benjamin at Gibeah; and Benjamin destroyed of Israel some 18,000 swordsmen. Israel then went to Beth-El and wept and sat before the Lord and fasted that day till even; and they offered burnt-offerings and peace-offerings. The Israelites asked of the Lord (for the Ark of the Covenant of God was then there, and Phineas ben-Eleazar ben-Aaron stood before it) if they continue to war against Benjamin or cease; the Lord said go up, for tomorrow they will be defeated. Israel set an ambush around against Gibeah; on the 3rd day the Benjaminites went to war outside the city, wounding and killing about 30 of Israel along the highways towards Beth-El; saying, they are smitten before us as before; but the Israelites had agreed to flee to lure Benjamin from the city to the highways and the ambush. The Israelites rose to battle at Baal-Tamar, and those in ambush went forth at Maareh-Geba. The Israelites, some 10,000 strong, came against Gibeah in battle; and Gibeah did not know their end was near. The Lord struck Benjamin before Israel; and some 25,100 swordsmen were slaughtered. The Benjaminites saw they were smitten before Israel, trusting in their ambush against Gibeah. So those in ambush rushed on Gibeah and struck the city with the sword. The Israelites had agreed that after attacking the city that they burn it, to cause smoke to ascend; when the cloud arose as a pillar of smoke; the Benjaminites saw behind them that their city was in smoke; then Israel turned around against the dismayed and doomed Benjaminites. They turned in flight from the Israelites towards the desert; but the battle pursued them; but those from the city joined the pursuit trapping the Benjaminites in the middle. Israel enclosed the Benjaminites, routed them, chassed and trod them in their resting-place as far as Gibeah toward sunrise east. Some 18,000 brave Benjaminites died; the rest turned and fled toward the desert, to the Rock of Rimmon; gleaning some 5,000 more along the highways; in hot pursuit to Gidom; and killed another 2,000. So that day some 25,000 brave fighters of Benjamin died in battle. Now some 600 men fled to the desert near the Rock of Rimmon and hid there in the rocks for 4 months. Israel turned against the Benjaminites killing everyone in the city, the cattle, and whatever they found, and they set the city on fire.
Now the Israelites swore in Mizpah that they would not give to Benjamin any of their daughters in marriage. The People came to Beth-El and sat before God, lifting their voices and crying greatly. They prayed: Lord God of Israel why has all this happened, that one tribe has been lost in Israel. Next day, early in the morn, they built an Altar to the Lord, and offered burnt and peace offerings. They asked which tribe was not represented in the Assembly to the Lord; since they swore that those who did not come to the Lord at Mizpah must dye. The Israelites repented and regretted for Benjamin being cut off; how shall we get wives for the survivors? No one came from the camp of Jabesh-Gilead to the Assembly, from the census that was taken. The Congregation sent 12,000 valiant men to kill the inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead, men, women, and children; but to spare the virgin girls; and they found some 400 young virgins, which brought to the camp at Shiloh in Canaan. The entire Congregation sent and told the Benjaminites at the Rock of Rimmon in peace’ Benjamin returned, and they gave them the spared women of Jabesh-Gilead; but they still were short of wives. The People grieved still for the breach in Israel; and the Elders consulted and sought to preserve the tribe from extinction; but could not allow their daughters to marry the Benjaminites for the curse of the oath sworn. They suggested, that at the Lord’s Feast at Shiloh, north of Beth-El, east side of the highway leaving Beth-El to Shechem, and south of Lebonah: that they go and hide in the vineyards; and when the Daughters of Shiloh come out to dance, then catch each one a wife and go to the land of Benjamin. And when their fathers come to complain, we will ask them to be gracious in this, since we did not reserve any wives in battle, lest we incur guilt; and they did. The Benjaminites took their new dancing wives and returned to their inheritance, built the cities, and settled in them. (In those days there was no King in Israel: every man did what was right in his own eyes.)

Judges in the Book of Judges: 12 + 1:
1. Othniel: ben-Kenaz, achi-Caleb, wife Achsah bath-Caleb from Debir of Judah: defeated King Cushan-rishathaim of Mesopotamia; ends 8 yrs servitude: years judged unknown: 40 years of rest.
2. Ehud: ben-Gera, left-handed Benjamite from Gilgal of Manasseh: defeats King Eglon of Moab with Ammon & Amalek; ends 18 yrs servitude: 80 yrs rest.
3. Shamgar: ben-Anath [of Naphtali?]: defeated the Philistines.
4. Deborah & Barak: Prophetess, Lappidoth’s wife; from Bethel in Ephraim; & ben-Abinoam of Kedesh-Naphtali: defeated King Jabin of Canaan in Hazor, with Jael, the Kenite Heber’s wife, ends 20 yrs oppression: 40 yrs rest.
5. Gideon: ben-Joash the Abiezrite from Ophrah of Issachar-Manasseh, Jerubbaal: defeated & subdued Midian, killed the Princes, Oreb & Zeeb, and Kings, Zebah & Zalmunna; ends 7 yrs servitude: 40 yrs rest.
6. ((Abimelech: ben-Jerubbaal (Gideon), made King by Schechemites after they murdered Gideon’s 70 sons; ruled 3 yrs; killed by a woman throwing down a millstone on his head from the Tower of Shechemites of Thebez.))
7. Tolah: ben-Puah ben Dodo from Shamir of Manasseh-Issachar-Ephraim; judged for 23 yrs.
8. Jair: the Gileadite from Kamon of Trans-Jordan of Manasseh; judged 22 yrs.
9. Jepthah: the Gileadite, ben-Gilead, from Ramoth-Gilead of Trans-Jordan Manasseh; of a harlot mother by Gilead, and rejected by his brothers of Gilead wife; defeated the Philistines & Ammonites; ends 18 yrs of oppression; judged 6 yrs.
10. Ibzan: of Bethlehem of Judah; judged 7 yrs.
11. Elon: the Zebulunite; judged 10 yrs
12. Abdon: ben-Hillel the Pirathonite of Manasseh-Ephraim; judged 8 yrs.
13. Samson: ben-Manoah of Zorah of Dan-Judah; fought the Philistines; judged for 20 yrs; killed thousands of Philistines in life and more in death.
((The years of Rest were about 200, the years of Servitude or Oppression were about 70, 3 years of usurpation rule of a local King (Abimelech ben-Gideon of Shechem via his mother the harlot-concubine); and the years of Judges rule were about 100.))

Judges resumes the Divine History from Joshua’s death, in the Conquest of Canaan, to complete the occupation and conversion of Palestine to Israel, the transformation of the old land to the new. The nation is tested by each tribe dealing with the challenges as they arise in each adversary and resistance of the natives. Judah and Simeon first strike the Canaanites and the Perizzites in Southern Judah (Hebron and Debir, formerly Kiriath-Arba and -Sepher, and the Negeb from the Dead Sea to the Great Sea coasts: Ashkelon-Ashdod, Gaza, Ekron, Debir, Gerar, Beersheba, Zephath, Hormah, Zoar, etc.), and Judah will increasingly become the power of Israel against the Canaanites and the Philistines. Benjamin and Dan and Simeon becoming dependent on the house of Judah. Some natives were too difficult to drive out, like the Jebusites of Jebus or Jerusalem, and a compromise or mutual toleration developed. It was so with each tribe in their failure to displace the native Gentiles in Canaan and Trans-Jordan. Canaan was never ever completely transformed into Israel from Joshua to David to Messiah. At times Israel would dominate, in a certain locality, but often the natives controlled and subjugated the country. Instead Israel intermarried and shared the customs and cultures of the natives, in violation to the Mosaic laws and the covenant they had with the Lord their God. They became idolatress in every way and place, and God would charge them with harlotry as a nation and a people. Their religious peculiarity and purity would be negated, defiled, and confused as an unfaithful wife to her spouse. The generations would undergo constant changes from good to bad and from evil to repentance and reform. God would deal with Israel according to their obedience or disobedience, their faithfulness or their disloyalty, and countless manners and ways possible. We see in Judges how the Lord relates to His people, and by extension, how God moves with the nations and the world, that is, how the Creator interacts with His creation. Israel would sin, the Lord would be enraged and punish them in different degrees, they would regret and repent, He would raise up deliverers, saviors, judges, and prophets as they needed, but only on temporary bases, avoiding the permanent system of kingship for some 400 years. The Lord would use the natives and the nations to chastise Israel, and when required even the land, the animals, and the earth and heavens as His rod and whip. The natives which were not displaced completely were the Philistines, the Canaanites (the Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, and the Jebusites), the Sidonians, and the Hivites; these intermarried with the Israelites, who turned to idolatry to the offence of the Lord; Who in turn sold them into servitude to the King of Mesopotamia. The testimony of God to Israel in responding to their cries and prayers, their distress and repentance was to serve the nation of His faithfulness in His righteousness and holiness; and to bear witness to the Gentiles of His character and attribute of justice and grace. Each generation would undergo the same trial and training in the wisdom of God, and His patience or endurance with Israel would find its limits. In the Judges as deliverers and saviors, as teachers and rulers, we see the condition of the Israel in the varied aspects and states. Israel was increasing in population into the tens and hundreds of millions and the military force was easily mustered into hundreds of thousands and into millions. In like manner with all the nations far and near, warfare soon numbered into millions with those nations which grew into kingdoms and empires; and the human sufferings were unspeakable, and deaths innumerable. War became the most common way of population control for the local populace, and for the distant peoples as subjects to a foreign power. Self-defense was essential to ward off the invaders both small and great. The means of warfare in the offense or defense came in surprising features or instances such as with the women Deborah the Prophetess-Judge, the wife of Lappidoth; and Jael the wife of the Kenite Heber, related to Moses by his wife Zipporah bath-Hobab (or -Jethro) ben-Reuel the Midianite. When Israel became unfamiliar to war they were reluctant to fight and oppose the Gentile influences, and they easily compromised and reverted to idolatry. The Book of Judges as with the Five Books of Moses and the Book of Joshua, is concerned with the spiritual state of the People, their relations to the Lord God of Israel. It traces those events of the history and the generations which reveal that state and condition. The progression of the judgeship into kingship is shown in various instance’s, and polygamy of the leader-ruler proliferated. Gideon had many wives who generated some 70 sons not counting the daughters and other illegitimate offspring. As with the older generations since the Great Flood, all through the patriarchal generations from Abraham to Jacob, polygamy, and inbreeding was the way of mankind; first of necessity, then of immorality. The Law would in time expose and eradicate this evil in the nations conscience and experience. The place of women, children, and servants and slaves was often lower than the value and status of animals. The example of those in power and anointed crowned, and enthroned was at best hypocrisy and depravity, and the exceptions became few and far between. Cities grew to comprise thousands and tens of thousands of citizens and would continue to enlarge into the millions as it is to this day. In Abimelech ben-Gideon the Gentile influence and practice of a King surfaced and did not disappear till they got themselves a King like the nations about them. The distant foreign powers continued to spread their hands to dominate other countries and people, and Israel would be oppressed by mighty nations from Meopotamia, Egypt, Syria, and what we call Europe, along with the Arabs, India and Armenia, and all around their borders. Israel in Canaan-Palestine was situated as a vital way and passage for many nations in their imperial quests. The depravity and insanity of Jephthah’s sacrificing his daughter to the Lord as a burnt-offering based on an illegal and foolish vow, easily atoned for by an animal sacrifice for such guilt. In the same way we judge that yielding to depraved men who wish to commit unspeakable immorality and sexual vice on men and guests, that they may use and abuse a servant-girl, or a slave-maiden, or a concubine or mistress, and even a man’s own daughter reveals the depth and total depravity of human nature both among the Gentiles and in Israel. In Samson (the Nazirite) many of these things as just recounted find display and examples; and the dominance of the Philistines’ shown. After Samson the last judge of Judges, the history focuses on the Priesthood and the Tribes of Israel dealing with Dan and Benjamin. 4 times the expression will occurred in these last chapters: “In those days there was no King in Israel.”
In Micah an Ephraimite of Joseph and Joshua we see idolatry at work within Israel, the Levite easily compromised the sacred priesthood to subserve Micah, and this in service and worship to the Lord. The Danites share in this idolatry and violation of the divine ritual, and Moses grandson or great-grandson, Jonathan, (the Masoretic variant to salvage Moses’ honor by reading ‘Manasseh’, doesn’t help) and his sons became Priests to the Danites. Another example of the depravity of the priesthood is seen in the Levite of Ephraim and a second marriage to a concubine of Bethlehem-Judah who committed harlotry and adultery and ran away. He sought to win her back and travelling back home to the hill-country of Ephraim via Gibeah of Benjamin; where taking hospitality from a local, an old man, was threatened with rape from men of the city; and instead the old man offered his daughter and the Levite’s concubine-wife to their vile intent and lust. The Levite forced his concubine out the house and locked the door behind her; and they gang raped her all through the night till morning, to the brink of death. She walked back to the house and collapsed and the doorstep; the Levite in the morning seeing she was dead, loaded her body on the donkey, went home, dissected her body in 12 parts and sent them throughout Israel. The Assembly of Israel discovered the depravity of the Benjaminites and demand justice executed on the rapists and murderers; Benjamin refused, war ensued, at last the Tribe of Benjamin, known for their many left-handed slingers, were destroyed and annihilated; and to remedy the total extinction of the tribe the allowed young virgins of Shiloh to be kidnapped to become wives to the few hundred Benjaminites that survived the massacre. And from this decimated and exterminated tribe came the house of Kish and Saul.

RUTH: 4 Chapters: Kinsman Redeemer during Judges: Generations of Perez to Boaz to David:

RUTH: In the days of the judging Judges (shephot hash-shophetim) during the famine in the Land; a man of Bethlehem-Judah moved to the country of Moab with his wife and two sons. Their names were Elimelech, his wife Naomi, and his sons Mahlon (Machlon) and Chilion (Chilyon, Kilyon); Ephrathaites of Bethlehem-Judah. Naomi’s husband died; and her sons married Moabite women, Orpah and Ruth; and they stayed 10 years. Mahlon and Chilion both died; Naomi got ready to return home, since she heard the Lord visited His people with bread. She and her two daughters-in-law started back to Judah; but Naomi bid them to return to their mother’s house; and that the Lord deal kindly with them as they dealt with the dead and to her; that the Lord grant them rest in the house of a husband. She kissed them; but they cried, and desired to go with her; but she insisted that they go back, since she cannot bear sons for them to marry; for she was too old; and if she did, would they wait till they grew up to marry them; and she grieved for them that the Lord was against her. They cried again; Oprah kissed Naomi and returned; both Ruth refused and clung to Naomi. She said to Ruth to follow her sister-in-law who has returned to her people and her god. Ruth begged her not to send her back; but she will go and lodge with her, and her people and God will be hers also; that nothing but death may sever them. Naomi yielded to her persistence; they both came to Bethlehem; and the city gathered around them, and asked: is this Naomi? but she told them not to call her Naomi (Sweet, Pleasant, Delight) but Mara (Bitter, Sad, Grief); since Shaddai (Almighty-Nourisher, Nurse) has treated me bitterly; for I left full, but the Lord brought me back empty; so do not call me Naomi for He has witnessed against me, and Shaddai has afflicted me. Naomi and Ruth came to Bethlehem at the beginning of barley harvest (in the spring).
Naomi’s husband Elimelech’s near kin was Boaz, a wealthy man. Ruth asked Naomi to permit her to glean in the fields of any who might favor her; and Ruth by chance gleaned after the reapers of the field in the lot of Boaz. Boaz came from Bethlehem, and blessed them in the Lord, and they him. He asked the reapers about the young woman, and the foreman said she was a Moabite returned with Naomi, who requested to glean the sheaves after the reapers; and she has continued from morn till now, except a little time in the house. Boaz told Ruth, my daughter glean only in this field and stay near my maidens; watch and glean the field they reap; and I have warned the young men not to touch you; and when you thirst drink from the vessels that they filled. She fell to the ground, asking why he was so kind to her as a foreigner; and he told her that it was reported how she has treated her mother-in-law as a widow; and that you left your family and country and people; the Lord God of Israel repay and reward your work for taking refuge under His Wings. She replied: lord (master), may I find favor and comfort in the kind words spoken to one not like your handmaidens. At meal-time Boaz told her to share bread and vinegar with them, and she was also given parched grain, with leftovers. When she began to glean Boaz commanded his young men to let her glean even of the sheaves without reproach and pull out some from the bundle for her to glean without rebuke. She gleaned till even, and then beat it out, amounting to an ephah of barley. She returned with the gleanings to her mother-in-law; and gave her leftovers she had saved. She asked where she gleaned and worked; blessed be the one that noticed you; and Ruth said his name was Boaz; Naomi said, blessed be the Lord for His continued kindness to the living and dead; and that the man is very close kin. Ruth added that he also instructed her to stay with his young men till the harvest ends. Naomi agreed that Ruth stay with his maidens in his field. She stayed with them till the barley and wheat harvests ended (in autumn), living with her mother-in-law.
Naomi said to her: my daughter what rest may I find for your good? Boaz is a close kinsman, and you are with his maidens, and he winnows barley tonight in the threshing-floor; wash yourself, anoint yourself, get dressed, and go down to the threshing-floor; but do not make yourself known to him, till he has finished eating and drinking; then when he lay down at the end of the heap of grain, to mark the place he slept; then uncover his feet and lay down; he will tell you what to do. She came quietly and uncovered his feet, she lay down. At midnight he was afraid and turned himself to find a woman at his feet; and asked who she was; and she said: I am Ruth your handmaid, spread your skirt over me, for you are a near kinsman. He blessed her in the Lord for her kindness at the end, greater than at the start; that she did not follow young men, rich or poor; but fear not, I will do as you ask, for all know that you are a worthy woman. It is true I am a near kinsman, but there is one still nearer; stay the night here till morn; and if he will perform the Kinsman part then so be it, if not, then I will do so as the Lord lives. She arose early before being detected; for he said let it not be known that a woman came to the threshing-floor. He asked her to hold her mantle (robe), and he filled it with 6 barley-measures; then he went into the city. She came to her mother-in-law; and she told her the man’s decision; and his gift of 6 barley-measures for her mother-in-law. Naomi told Ruth to wait, for he will finish the matter this day.
Boaz went and sat at the city-gate till the other near Kinsman came; and said to him to, turn and sit; and Boaz, along with 10 City Elders sitting, told them: Naomi has returned from the country of Moab, and is selling the parcel of land of our brother Elimelech. I disclose it to yu to buy it in the presence of these Elders, to Redeem it, but if yu will not Redeem it then tell me; for the right to Redeem is yurs as the nearest Kinsman and I am after yu. He said he would Redeem it; Boaz replied in the day yu Redeem it yu must also do so from Ruth the Moabite, the widow (wife) of the deceased, to raise up the name of the dead on his inheritance; he replied that he cannot Redeem it lest he mar his own inheritance; that Boaz should take the Right of Redemption. Now the custom in Israel in Redeeming and Exchanging property and persons, to confirm all things, was a man removed his shoe (sandal) and gave it to his neighbor, as witness in Israel of the transaction; and he did. Boaz said to the Elders that they were witnesses of his purchase of the property of Elimelech’s sons Chilion and Mahlon from Naomi; also, the purchase of Ruth the Moabite, the widowed-wife of Mahlon, to become my wife, to raise up the name of the deceased on his inheritance, for a memorial here. The people and the Elders replied: We are witnesses; and the Lord make this woman and wife like Rachel and Leah, who both built the house of Israel; and may you do worthily in Ephrathah, and be famous in Bethlehem; and may your house be like the house of Perez, whom Tamar birthed to Judah, from the seed or offspring which the Lord shall give you of this woman. Boaz took Ruth as wife, and went in to her, and she became pregnant and gave birth to a son. The women blessed Naomi in the Lord, Who gave her this near Kinsman; may he be famous in Israel. For he (the child) shall be a Restorer and Nourisher of thine old age, because your daughter-in-law who loves you and is better to you than 7 sons, gave him birth. Naomi took and laid the child in her bosom and nursed him; and the neighborhood women said, Naomi has a baby boy; and they called him Obed; he became the father of Jesse the father of David (abi-Yishai abi-Dawid). These are the Generations of Perez: abi-Hezron; abi-Ram; abi-Amminadab; abi-Nahshon; abi-Salmon; abi-Boaz; abi-Obed; abi-Jesse; and abi-David. (8 Generations, not counting Perez and Judah.)
In the Book of Ruth, we are given a window into the times of the Judges of Israel during the days and years of Gideon (the 5th Judge), and perhaps during the 40 years the land rested, which is ascertained in that Salmon was David’s great great-grandfather and thus about 100 years before David, and according to Jephthah (the 9th (8th) Judge), 300 years transpired from Joshua to Jephthah. Those who place Ruth during the times of Samson are not clear. The picture is beautiful and simple. The Kinsman Redeemer is the Mediator between God and man; a Relative or Near-Kin Who can stand before God on our behalf; Who takes us up and in, sharing all He is and has with us. It is a lovely portrait of redemption and salvation. In David’s line we have Tamar and Ruth, Gentiles brought into the family of God. We see sin, ruin, lost, and the need for divine help; and Boaz shines in the dark background of the period of the Judges. The Law was not entirely forgotten, but it was not carefully observed. The Trans-Jordanians Israelites of the tribes of Reuben and Gad, dwelling within and alongside of Moab and Ammon, reveals the mixed condition of Israel’s occupation and the prevalence of the Gentiles in the people’s history, and daily experience. In Ruth we see the Goel, the Kinsman Redeemer, as He is seen in Job 19 and 23, where God is approachable as a man and friend and brother. This is Messiah in all that is meant to our hope and life. But in David will be the fulfillment of this hope and longing, and David is the seed that Ruth produced in her birth of a son to Boaz. And from David the Seed of Woman would come forth in due time in Jesus the Christ, the Messiah of Israel, and the Savior of the world.
We continue in the Scriptures in the Books of Samuel which is in the Hebrew Bible, in the traditional Masoretic Text is one Book called Samuel, but the Greeks and the Latins named them Kings 1st & 2nd, which they name Kings 1st & 2nd Kings 3rd & 4th. The history concludes the dispensation of the Judges, and the generations are seen in light of the Book of the Law as made known in Deuteronomy. The People or the Nation of Israel is governed by the Book, administered and maintained by the Priesthood of Aaron and the Levites. Judges exposed the defect and deterioration of both the Law and the Priesthood as displayed in the People. We read and understood that the People were the Kingdom of the Lord their King and Savior. Yet they lived in opposition to His Headship, and the Kingdom became an anarchy without a Monarch. Israel craved the visible Monarchy as they saw with the Gentiles, and they demanded to have a King, as seen in Abimelech ben-Gideon. Samuel enters the ‘divine drama of redemption’ to reveal a change in the Covenant and the Dispensation, that is the Divine in Economy in its Administration from Judgeship to Kingship, from local Heads to the Federal and National Headship. The failure of Israel to eradicate the local Gentiles, and to fully occupy their inheritance, and their violation of both their covenant relation to the Lord and their obligation to produce a future for their children and grandchildren in testimony to the nations compelled the Lord to interpose a new way to accomplish His long-term goals and Messianic preparations. Ruth has the Seed of the King of the Lord’s Kingdom, but Samuel must be created by God to have the Lord’s man in a new generation which, like in Ruth, must begin with a woman and wife. The Dispensation from Exodus to Malachi, is in three parts, the 1st is Moses and Aaron, from Exodus – Deuteronomy; the 2nd is Joshua and the Judges from Joshua to Samuel, and the 3rd is the Kings, from David & Solomon to Zerubbabel and the Captivity. As in previous dispensations the great dispensation is divided into three parts, it is a Dispensation of Israel as Jehovah’s Kingdom on earth, and it begins United by the Mosaic Law and Covenant supported by the Aaronic and Levitical Priesthood; then it undergoes tests and failure in Israel’s troubles and experience, with the added helps of the Judges and the Prophets; at last the Kingdom is altered in its visible headship and transferred by delegation and anointing to the Kings of Israel and Judah, and then to the Gentile Monarch’s in Israel’s Captivity and Exile. It is the 5th great Dispensation o0f the Historical and Generational Lampstand and corresponds or complements or answer to the 3rd Great Dispensation of the Sons of Noah as the Nations or Gentiles.
As with Joshua the Divine direct speaking continues to fade and is rare; it first occurs in Judges 1:2: “Judah shall go up: I have delivered the land into his hand.” Then later recalls the Exodus and warns about their duties concerning taking the land, and their disobedience; then at last of Samson the Nazarite against the Philistines; and concludes with these few words in chapter 20 against the Benjaminites: “Judah first” “Go up against him.” “Go up; for tomorrow I will deliver them into your hand.” He is silent in Ruth.

We give Bullinger’s ‘Summary of Principal Events’ Appendix 50.viii, from B.C. 1431 to A.D. 69.
Judges: Years of Servitude & Years of Rule
1431 First servitude. Mesopotamia 8 yrs
1423 Othniel. 40yrs [rest]
1393-1392 First Jubilee year (Anno Dei reckoning).
1383 Second servitude. Moab 18 yrs
1365 Ehud. 80 yrs [rest]
1285 Third servitude. Canaan 20 yrs
1265 Barak. 40 yrs
1225 Fourth servitude. Midian 7 yrs
1218 Gideon. 40 yrs
1178 Tola. 23 yrs
1155 Jair. 4 yrs
1151 Jephthah. 6 yrs (300 years from the entry into the Land. See note on chart 50. IV.)
1145 Ibzan. 7 yrs
1138 Elon. 10 yrs
1128 Abdon. 8 yrs
1120 Fifth servitude. Philistine. 40 yrs
[Total years of Rest and Rule: 258; and Total years of Servitude: 93.]

1808 Eli, 40 years.
1040 Samuel, 40 years.
1020 The “Reformation”. 1Sam. 7.
1000 Ends the 45 years of Acts 13:20, and 490 years from the year they should have entered into the Land.
1000 THE KINGDOM. Saul, 40 years.
990 David b.
974 David’s first anointing (16).
960 David, 40 years. Second anointing (30).
953 David’s third anointing (37).
920 Solomon, 40 years.
917 The Temple begun. 573 years after the Exodus. (Cp. Acts 13:20-23).
910 The Temple finished.
897 At the end of twenty years, the “two houses” finished (1Kings 9:10).
880 The Disruption. Rehoboam, 17 years.
863 Abijam, 3 years.
860 Asa, 41 years.
819 Jehoshaphat, 25 years.
796 Jehoram’s accession.
794 Jehoshaphat d.
789 Ahaziah’s accession.
788 Ahaziah slain by Jehu.
788-782 Gap, 6 years. Athaliah’s usurpation.
782 Jehoash, 41 years.
743 Amaziah, 29 years.
714 Amaziah ends.
714-701 Gap, 13 years.
701 Uzziah, 52 years.
687 Hosea’s prophecies begin?
649 Gap. One year between Uzziah’s death and Jotham’s accession.
647 Jotham, 16 years.
634 Micah’s prophecies begin?
632 Ahaz, 16 years.
617 Hezekiah’s accession.
616 Ahaz d.
615 Hosea ends?
613 Siege of Samaria begun.
611 Samaria taken and Israel ends.
603 Sennacherib invades Judah in the fourteenth year of Hezekiah (2Kings 18:13).
588 Manasseh, 55 years.
584 Isaiah killed? (Cp. Isa. 7:6).
533 Amon, 2 years.
531 Josiah, 31 years.
530 Zephaniah?
518 Jeremiah’s prophecies begin in Josiah’s thirteenth year.
513 The Book “found” and the Passover in Josiah’s eighteenth year.
500 Jehoahaz, 3 months.
499 Jehoiakim, 11 years.
497 Nebuchadnezzar’s first siege of Jerusalem.
496 Jehoiakim’s fourth year, Nebuchadnezzar’s first. Daniel taken to Babylon.
495 Jehoiakim burns the roll.
494 Nebuchadnezzar’s second year. His dream of the Great Image. Daniel interprets.
489 Jehoiachin, 3 months. Captivity begins in Nebuchadnezzar’s eighth year (second siege).
488 Zedekiah, 11 years.
484 Ezekiel’s prophecies begin.
478 Nebuchadnezzar’s third siege of Jerusalem begins.
477 Jerusalem taken, and Temple destroyed, in Nebuchadnezzar’s nineteenth year. Jeremiah ends.
473 Punishment for the murder of Gedaliah (Jer. 52:30).
462 Ezekiel’s last dated prophecy.
461-454 Nebuchadnezzar’s seven years of “madness”.
454 Twentieth year of Asteiages (Artaxerxes). The commandment to rebuild Jerusalem. (See 50. VI, VII. 5, 12.) Nehemiah’s first visit to Jerusalem.
452 Nebuchadnezzar d. after forty-four years’ reign.
452 Evil-Merodach. Jehoiachin’s captivity ends.
446 Nabonidus.
429 Belshazzar, 3 years.
426 Belshazzar slain. “Darius the Median” (Asteiages) takes the kingdom. Cyrus (Asteiages’ son) issues the Decree to rebuild the Temple. Daniel’s vision of the “seventy sevens”. The “seven sevens” begin. Foundations of the Temple laid. Nehemiah’s second visit to Jerusalem.
421 Cyrus ends.
418 Cambyses makes Nehemiah governor. Nehemiah’s third visit to Jerusalem.
411 Darius Hystaspis re-enacts the decree of Cyrus.
410 Haggai and Zechariah begin. The temple superstructure commenced and carried on to completion, from the second to the sixth year of Darius.
408 Zechariah’s last date.
405 The Temple finished and dedicated. The “seven sevens” end, and the “sixty-two sevens” commence.
404 The Passover.
403 Ezra’s last date: 1st of Nisan.
375? Darius Hystaspis d. (according to Herodotus, 63 years old).
4 The Nativity.
0 The Common Era of A.D.
29 The “sixty-nine sevens” end with the “cutting off of the Messiah”, 483 years from the “going forth of the commandment to build Jerusalem” in 454 B.C.
69 Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.

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Christian Biblical Reflections.13

(Here are pages 229 – 241. The PDF which includes Joshua to Esther will not be created till this section or digit is completed, which should be during this month of April. mjm.)

JOSHUA – ESTHER: Historical Books of the Early Prophets:
JOSHUA: 24 Chapters:
Moses death initiates the period of the Judges commencing with Joshua and terminates with Samuel, who in turn initiates the Monarchy or the period of the Kings. We will follow God as He moves both visibly and hidden during some 400 years of moving in His People to test and save them. As with the Creation, then with Adam, and with Noah and his three Sons, then with the three Patriarchs with the House of Jacob-Israel, so with Moses and Israel God continues to work out His eternal purpose and the counsels of His own heart. The Covenant by Abraham and Moses, in the tokens of Circumcision with Promises, and the Ten Commandments or the Law with Conditions (as the tokens of Two Trees in the Garden, and the Rainbow after the Flood) are now to be tested and judged to redeem and establish a new people. The Lord must needs extend and enlarge the lessons and pictures of His glorious redemptive work of His People. We have moved from the books of the Bible or the Old Testament and First Covenant to a new Division of the Book which we call the Historical Books, but the Jews call them the Prophetical Books, composed of the Early and the Later Books, and the Major and Minor Prophets. No doubt it is due to the Writers of these Books being Prophets, Joshua and Samuel, that this designation has come about. We repeat again that God is concerned with the Land or the Place, and with the People or the Man, and with the Book or the Word; and these three things and thematic doctrines must continue to unfold. Our Reflections will follow the Bible Divisions as they have come down to us in English or the Latin and the Greek, but admitting the Hebrew order has its own peculiar and special place, both for Israel and Christians. As with the Five Books of Moses we will survey in a synoptical way these Books as we find them in their order. Our object and goal are to reach the Psalms of David in the Poetical Books, as the next step of our manual-symbol of the Hands of God. The Legal Books of Genesis and Deuteronomy will reach the high point or the highest place in the Psalms, which then will advance to the Prophetical Books proper, with Isaiah and Daniel concluding the Old Testament, taking with them all the other Books. The Historical Books tell us a Story, ours and His, both are witnesses to each other, or as we say, the lesser reflects the greater, or the image mirrows the real. As we read the Divine and Inspired History we see the greater and truer Story of the Lord God in His creation and world and are nurtured by Him as the Shaddai of the Patriarchs, till we mature as a creation of mankind to value Him in a new and better relations. In one sense He moves from a Garden to a Tent and then to a House, but it is one and the same: God dwells with man. We have said as a principle that there are countless types and shadows in hidden mysteries in the words of Scripture, and the Text embodies the soul as the soul the spirit.

JOSHUA opens with the death of Moses the Lord’s Servant, and the Lord speaks to Joshua ben-Nun, Moses’ Minister to lead Israel across the Jordan River into Canaan, their new Home. The Land of Promise and Oath, the sworn word of God, must be taken by their feet and swords in conquest of war. The Land or Country is some 100 miles wide and 200 miles long from the South to the North and from the East to the West or from Southern Deserts to Northern Mountains of Lebanon and from the Eastern Euphrates River (bordering the Land of the Hittites) to the Western Great Mediterranean Sea. The Jordan divides the Land, with the two smaller seas, Galilee and Dead Sea, irrigating the land. The War and the Conquest is of the Lord Who goes with Joshua and Israel to fulfill His Word of settling them in Canaan. As Moses represented the People to God as the collective man, the greater man, the corporate man or company, so here and now Joshua stands as the Man and the People. The conquest and the success of possessing the inheritance must be faithful obedience to His Word commanded in the Law of Moses; in which Joshua must daily read and speak, meditate and reflect, to observe all things written. It is to the faithful and fearless obedience to words of God, that the Lord God promises to be with Joshua in this mission. The Elders and Officers of the People are delegated to prepare the People in three days for the invasion. The 2 ½ tribes are admonished to leave their families to stay in their new country in Trans-Jordan, but the fighters must march with the other 9 ½ tribes to war, till Canaan is conquered, then they may return home. They agree to obey with oath, and they warn against refusal to obey Joshua means death. They exhort him to be strong and brave that Lord may be with him as He was with Moses. Joshua, at Shittim west of the Jordan, here commissioned two spies to gain intelligence of the Land and of Jericho. They came and hid in the house of Rahab the harlot or prostitute, and she lied to the King of Jericho as to the two spies having left the city in the dark. She then concealed them on the rooftop under straws till safe; she told the spies that she believed the Lord has handed the city over to Israel; and that all Jericho were in fear and despair; having heard that the Lord dried up the Red Sea for Israel in the Exodus from Egypt; and that Israel utterly destroyed the two Kings of the Amorites, Sihon and Og; for the Lord the God of Israel is the true and only God. She made them pledge by Him to show her and her family kindness in return and to give a token or sign for salvation from death. They agreed mutually by oath; and she let them down from her house on the rooftop by a cord down the wall; and they instructed her to tie this scarlet thread or rope to the window, and to gather all her family inside the house, or the oath will be voided; and if she keep her promise to not disclose their business; and she agreed; and spies safely escaped, hiding in the mountains for three days. They returned to Joshua and reported all the matter. Joshua led Israel to the Jordan from Shittim to cross over, the Officers and Captains after three days they ordered the People to set out marching following the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant, at distance 2,000 cubits or 3,000 feet or 3/5th a mile. They must not come too close to the Ark leading them in a new way. The People must sanctify themselves, for the next day the Lord will work wonders. The Priests are to carry the Ark of Covenant and cross ahead of the People; and so did they. The Lord magnified Joshua to Israel that He will be with him as with Moses. The Priests must stand carrying the Ark of the Covenant at the brink in the Jordan; and Joshua must tell Israel the words of the Lord God; that they may know that He is among them, and He will drive out the 7 Nations in Canaan. The Ark of the Covenant of the Lord of all the earth passes over before them into the Jordan; and 12 men, one man for each tribe, after the Priests with the Ark step into the Jordan’s waters, and the running waters stop as one heap (although Jordan overflows all it banks during harvest season), and the People leave their tents and cross the Jordan on dry ground, and the dammed waters from distant city Adam near Zarethan, and the waters flowing toward the Sea of the Arabah, the Salt Sea, were cut off , that the People pass over across from Jericho on dry ground, and the Priests with the Ark standing on dry ground till all the Nation crossed over; the 12 men took 12 Stones near the Priest’s feet in Jordan, and carried them out on their shoulder to the lodging-place of the Camp. This was a sign and a witness for a perpetual memorial to future generations in Israel, that the waters of the Jordan were cut off before the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant. Israel, along with the 2 ½ tribes, some 40,000, armed men of war, for the Lord’s battle, came to the plains of Jericho. The Lord magnified Joshua to Israel, that they might fear Joshua as they did Moses, all his life. The Jordan waters again flowed as before and overflowed its banks. This was on the 10th day of the 1st month (Abib), and encamped at Gilgal east of Jericho west of the Jordan. Joshua set up the 12 Stones of the Jordan at Gilgal; and instructed Israel to tell their children that Israel crossed the Jordan on dry ground, when the Lord God dried up the waters for them, as He did to the Red Sea (Yam Suf); that the peoples of the earth may know the Lord’s mighty Hand; and Israel to fear the Lord God for ever.
When the Kings of the Amorites west in Trans-Jordan, and the Kings of the Canaanites by the Sea, heard the news of all this their heart melted, and their spirit vanished. The Lord told Joshua to make sharp flint knives and circumcise Israel a 2nd time; at the Hill of Foreskins (Gibhath-ha-Araloth) he did so; because the generation of the adult male fighters of the Exodus died circumcised, as sworn, within the 40 years of wandering, for disobedience; but the new generation of the Desert were uncircumcised. They stayed in camp till they healed; thus, the Lord rolled-away the reproach of Egypt: and they named the place Gilgal to this day. On the 14th of Abib they kept the Passover in the plains of Jericho; the next day they ate of the produce of the land, with unleavened cakes and parched grain; the next day the manna ceased in Canaan. While Joshua was near Jericho a man appeared with drawn sword in hand opposite him, and he asked him if he was a friend or foe; he replied, neither, but he came as Prince of the Lord’s armies; Joshua fell prostrate and worshipped, asking what the Lord says to His servant. The Prince of the Lord’s host demanded the removal of his shoe or sandal for the ground is holy. Jericho was secure against Israel. The Lord told Joshua that He has handed over Jericho and its King and warriors; and the fighters must circle the city once a day for 6 days. The 7 Priests with 7 Trumpets of Ram’s Horns before the Ark; and on the 7th day to circle the city 7 times, then the Priests must blow the Trumpets; at the sound of the trumpets all the People must shout: and the wall of the city will collapse, and the People will go straight in. Joshua had 7 Priests with 7 Trumpets carry the Ark of Covenant following the People and the armed men ahead of the Lord’s Ark; they did as they were instructed for 6 days, and on the 7th day after the 7th time the wall of Jericho collapsed. The city of Jericho must be devoted to destruction, banned and condemned, entirely to the Lord; only Rahab and her family to be spared for helping the spies or messengers. Nothing of the devoted or banned things must be taken or Israel will be accursed and troubled. The silver, gold, and vessels of brass and iron are holy to the Lord and must be put into His Treasury. They destroyed Jericho and killing everything; but spared Rahab and her family (who resides in Israel to Samuel’s time); and burnt the city and put the dedicated metals in the Treasury. Joshua at that time charged Israel with an oath and curse: may the man be cursed who rebuilds Jericho, to lose his first-born in its foundations and to lose his youngest son in setting up its gates. The Lord was with Joshua, and his fame spread in all the Land.
Israel trespassed in the devoted thing by Achan ben-Carmi ben-Zabdi ben-Zerah of Judah taking of it and angered the Lord against them. Joshua sent spies to Ai near Beth-aven east of Bethel; the spies return and recommend only a few thousand (3,000) men to attack Ai; but in the battle 36 Israelites died, and Israel fled in terror from Ai, from the city-gate to Shebarim’s descent. Joshua and the Elders mourn and complain to the Lord, that He betrayed them to the Amorites, and regretting crossing the Jordan. The Lord tells him to get up, for Israel has sinned in the contraband, and transgressed His Covenant; Israel will fall before their foes as accursed without His help till the devoted thing is destroyed. Joshua calls Israel to surrender the devoted thing for destruction: Israel comes by tribe, and Judah is taken; by family, and the Zerahites taken; by man, and Zabdi taken; by his household and Achan is taken. Achan confesses his sin of coveting and stealing spoils: a Babylonian mantle of Shinar, 200 silver shekels, a gold wedge weighing 50 shekels; and hiding them in his tent. Joshua retrieves the contraband; then takes Achan (the trouble-maker) and the stuff and his possessions to the Valley of Achor, and troubles him by stoning and burning him to death, along with all his belongings. A heap of stones was piled up, and the place called Achor’s Valley. Then the Lord’s wrath was appeased and deflected. Now the Lord orders Joshua to attack and destroy Ai as they did to Jericho, for He has given them to Israel to conquer. Joshua ambush Ai by a clever maneuver (between Beth-el and Ai on the west) and the men of Ai is drawn away from the city, the city is burnt in accord with the Lord’s word. Early next morning Joshua and the Elders mustered the people, and they went to Ai on the north side, a valley between. 5,000 fighters ambush Ai on the north, the others were hiding in ambush on the west. Joshua enters the Valley, the King of Ai rose early to pursue Israel as before; Joshua retreats to entice them out into the Arabah desert, leaving Ai and Beth-el defenseless. The Lord tells Joshua to extend his javelin towards the city, and then those hidden rushed into the city and captured it, torching it. The men of Ai turned around to see Ai on fire, and they were immobilized; Israel turned from their retreat to pursue the men of Ai, and those of Israel in the city returned to pursue the men of Ai, now trapped between two divisions of Israel. Israel destroyed all of them, in the field, the desert, and the city, total 12,000 men and women. Joshua withdrew his extended javelin after Ai was destroyed. Israel took for themselves only the cattle as spoil. The King of Ai they hanged on a tree till sunset, then threw his body outside the gate, and piled a heap of stones on it. Joshua erected an Altar of unhewn stones to the Lord at Mount Ebal as Moses commanded in the Book of the Law (Deuteronomy); and offered sacrifices to Him. He wrote on the Stones a copy of the Law of Moses (Deuteronomy) in the sight of Israel. Israel and the leaders and rulers and all non-Israelis in two companies stood on opposite sides of the Ark of Covenant before the Levitical Priests; 1/2 at Mount Gerizim and 1/2 at Mount Ebal as Moses commanded. He read all the words of the Law, the blessings and curses, all the words to every Israeli and non-Israeli.
The Kings of the 6 nations in Canaan from all directions united to fight Joshua and Israel. Gibeonites heard of conquest of Jericho and Ai, in fear and wit presented themselves as strangers from a distant country to seek a covenant or treaty with Israel at Gilgal; for we, they said, heard what the Lord did to the Egyptians, and to the Amorites’ kings, Sihon of Heshbon and Og of Bashan at Ashtaroth, so we were delegated to seek an alliance. Joshua with the rulers of the people covenanted a peace pact by oath with the Gibeonites, without seeking the Lord’s counsel. 3 days later they discovered the Gibeonites were locals and neighbors. Israel continued to advance in the Conquest and arrived at the cities of Gibeonites (Gibeon, Chephirah, Beeroth, & Kiriath-jearim); and did not destroy them in keeping with the oath, of which the Israelites complained; Joshua made the Gebeonites wood-choppers and water-carriers for Israel, and for the Lord’s Altar at His chosen place. King Adoni-zedek of Jerusalem united a confederacy of 4 Kings: Hoham of Hebron, Piram of Jarmuth, Japhia of Lachish, and Debir of Eglon, to attack Gibeon (a great city) for alliance with Joshua and Israel. These 5 Amorite Kings and their forces besieged Gibeon; the Gibeonites sent to Joshua at Gilgal for help against the Amorite Kings. Joshua and the warriors went out for war; the Lord promised victory to Israel by Joshua. The Lord discomfited them before Israel, and they slaughtered them at Gibeon; chased and slew them to the ascent of Beth-horon, to Azekah, to Makkedah; and those who escaped to the descent of Beth-horon; the Lord rained great hailstones on them destroying some more than Israel slew by sword. During the battle against the Amorites Joshua commanded that the Lord to halt the Sun over Gibeon, and the Moon over the Valley of Aijalon; and He did it, for an entire day; never or since, was it heard, that the Lord obeyed the voice of a man. Joshua returned to Gilgal, and the 5 Kings had fled and hid themselves in the Cave of Makkedah; Joshua sealed it with a great stone and set a watch till the war was over; leaving only a terrified remnant secured in the fortified cities. Joshua returned to the Cave of Makkedah, and had the 5 Kings brought before him, and ordered the chief warriors to put their feet on their necks; he then put them to death, and hung them on 5 trees till sunset, and then took them down and threw them in the Cave Makkedah and sealed it. Joshua took and destroyed Makkedah, as he did to Jericho, leaving none alive. Thence they passed from Libnah to Lachish, and the Lord delivered it for destruction by Israel; the second day they destroyed it utterly as at Libnah. King Horam of Gezer came to help Lachish, but Joshua destroyed him and his people. From Lachish they passed on to Eglon and they destroyed it completely as with Lachish. From Eglon to Hebron and destroyed it. Thence returned to Debir and destroyed it as with Hebron and Libnah. Joshua smote and destroyed all the land, the hill-country, the South, the lowland, the slopes, with all their kings as the Lord God commanded. Joshua conquered them from Kadesh-barnea to Gaza, to Goshen, to Gibeon, with all their kings and land; for the Lord God of Israel fought for Israel; then Joshua and Israel returned to the Camp at Gilgal.
King Jabin of Hazor allied with 3 Kings, Jobab of Maon, of Shimron, and of Achshaph, along with the Kings in the north, in the Arabah south of Chinneroth, in the lowland, and in the heights of Dor on the west; and with the Canaanite on the east and west, and the Amorite, Hittite, Perizzite, Jebusite in the hill-country, and the Hivite under Hermon in the land of Mizpah. All these as a mighty army without number with many horses and chariots gathered and encamped for battle at Merom against Israel. The Lord promised victory to Israel for the next day, and that their horses will be hocked, and their chariots burnt. Joshua and his warriors surprised the encamped hosts by the waters of Merom and routed them, chasing them to great Sidon, to Misrephoth-maim, through the Valley of Mizpeh eastward; destroying them, hocking their horses and burning their chariots as the Lord commanded. Joshua turned back to Hazor (which was the head of all those kingdoms) and destroyed them and burnt the city. He destroyed all the cities of those kings as Moses the Lord’s servant commanded. The fortified mound cities he did not burn except for Hazor; and Israel took all the livestock as spoil and prey, but killed all the men, as the Lord commanded Moses, and Moses commanded Joshua. Joshua conquered and captured all the land: the hill-country, the South (Negev), Goshen, the lowland (Shephelah), the Arabah (Desert), the hill country of Israel and its lowland, from Mount Halak towards Seir, to Baal-gad in the Valley of Lebanon under Mount Hermon; with all their kings he put to death. He warred a long time against those kings, making no peace treaty with any of them, except the Hivites of Gibeon; conquering all the others. The Lord hardened the hearts of those nations to destroy them, as He commanded Moses. Joshua cut off the Anakim from the hill-country, Hebron, Debir, Anab, and from the hill-country of Judah and Israel; destroying their cities; leaving no Anakim except those remaining in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. Joshua conquered the whole country as the Lord spoke to Moses, and he gave it to Israel as inheritance by their tribal divisions. And the Land had rest from war.
The two Kings of Canaan were already defeated and conquered east of the Jordan, and Israel took possession of their lands as an inheritance; from Trans-Jordan eastward toward the sunrise, from the Valley of the Arnon to Mount Hermon, and Arabah eastward: Sihon of the Amorites, with all their lands from Heshbon and Aroer, edge of the Valley of Arnon to half of Gilead, to Jabbok River, the border of Ammonites; the Arabah to the Sea of Chinneroth (Galilee) eastward, to the Sea of Arabah (Dead Sea, Salt Sea) eastward towards Beth-jeshimoth, and the south under the slopes of Pisgah; and Og of Bashan of the Rephaim, at Ashtaroth and Edrei, in Mount Hermon, in Salecah, Bashan, border of Geshurites and Maaccathites, half of Gilead, the border of Sihon of Heshbon. Moses had conquered and allotted their lands to the 2 1/2 tribes as inheritance. The Kings of the land west of the Jordan that were defeated and conquered, and the lands partitioned to the tribes of Israel by Joshua were from Baal-gad in the Valley of Lebanon to Mount Halak, to Seir; the hill-country, lowland, Arabah, the slopes and desert, in the South. 6 Nations: Hittite, Amorite, Canaanite, Perizzite, Hivite, and Jebusite; 31 Kings in 31 Cities: Jericho, Ai, Bethel, Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, Eglon, Gezer, Debir, Gedir, Hormah, Arad, Libnah, Adullam, Makkedah, Beth-el, Tappuah, Hepher, Aphek, Lassharon, Madon, Hazor, Shimron-meron, Achshaph, Taanach, Megiddo, Kedesh, Jokneam in Carmel, Dor in height of Dor, Goiim in Gilgal, and Tirzah.
Now Joshua was old (over 100) in years; the Lord tells him that there still remains much land to be possessed: the regions of the Philistines, the Geshurites; from Sihor near Egypt to Ekron northward, reckoned to the Canaanites; the 5 Lords of the Philistines, the Gazites, Ashdodites, Ashkelonites, Gittites, Ekronites, and Avvim, in the south; the land of Canaanites, Mearah of the Sidonians, to Aphek, to the border of the Amorites; the land of Gebalites, of Lebanon, towards sunrise-east, from Baal-gad under Mount Hermon to entrance of Hamath; all the inhabitants of the hill-country, from Lebanon to Misrephoth-maim, all the Sidonians; these he allotted to Israel as commanded. The 9 1/2 tribes were allotted lands on the west of the Jordan, the 2 1/2 tribes on the east of the Jordan; from Aroer next to Arnon through the Valley and Plain of Medeba to Dibon in Trans-Jordan, captured from Sihon and Og. But the Geshurites and the Maachathites remained. The Levites received no tribal lot as commanded. The 2 1/2 tribes in Trans-Jordan with all the cities in the plain and 12 other cities: the 5 Princes or Chiefs of the Midian Sihon, which Moses killed: Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba; and the soothsayer Balaam ben-Beor, who Israel slew with them. Israel settled in all those regions from Jordan to Jazer to Gilead to Aroer to Heshbon to Ramath-mizpeh & Betonim to Mahanaim to Debir to Beth-haram & Beth-nimrah, Succoth, Zaphon to Jordan to the Sea of Chinnereth eastward; to Mahanaim, Bashan, with 60 Cities, to Gilead & Ashtaroth, and. Edrei. All these Moses distributed as inheritance to the 2 1/2 tribes in the Plains of Moab; but Levi was the Lord God’s inheritance.
The 9 1/2 tribes inherited in Canaan from Eleazer the Priest and Joshua ben-Nun and the tribal Princes by lot, as the Lord commanded Moses. Joseph’s two sons received each an inheritance; but Levi received only cities and suburbs to live and have substance; and the land was divided by lot. Judah’s lot and borders: Caleb the Kenizzite (now 85) reminded Joshua that Moses the Man of God promised them in Kadesh-Barnea (2 years after the Exodus) when he was 40 years old when he spied out the land and returned with a good report against the 10 spies with a bad report; Moses promised that the land he would tread he could inherit forever, now 45 years later, still strong and brave as he was earlier, desires the hill-country of the Anakims, with its great and fortified cities; for with the Lord’s help, I will drive them out. Joshua blessed him with Hebron, formerly called Kiriath-Arba the Great of the Anakim. Then the Land rested from war.
Judah’s Partition: 1st: south lot, portion, border, and division was from Edom to the Desert of Zin southward, to further south; to upper Salt Sea and southward to the ascent of Akrabbim through Zin to south of Kadesh-Barnea near Hezron to Addar to Karka to Azmon, to the brook of Egypt to the seacoast. The east border was the Salt Sea to Jordan River. The north quarter was the bay of the Sea at the end of Jordan, up to Beth-Hoglah, along north Beth-Arabah, to the Stone of Bohan ben-Reuben; up to Debir from Valley of Achor, north to Gilgal across the Ascent of Adummim, south side of the River, along the Waters of En-Shemesh to En-Rogel, up by the Valley of Ben-Hinnom near the Jebusite southward (Yeru-Shalom, Jerusalem), up to the top of the Mountain near the Valley of Hinnom westward, the uttermost part of the Vale of Rephaim northward; thence to fountain of the Waters of Nephtoah, to the cities of Mount Ephron, on to Baalah (Kiriath-Jearim), thence westward to Mount Seir, on to the side of Mount Jearim on the north (Chesalon), down to Beth-Shemesh, along Timnah; thence beside Ekron northward, thence to Shikkeron, along Mount Baalah to Jabneel, on to the Sea; west to the Great Sea coast. Caleb drove out the 3 sons of Anak: Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai; thence against Debir (Kiriath-Sepher); he promised his daughter Achsah in marriage to one who took the city; Othniel ben-Kenaz, Caleb’s brother, took it and married her. She desired a blessing of springs of water also, so Caleb gave her the upper and lower springs. Judah’s Inheritance in their outermost cities South border to Edom: 29 Cities and villages: Kabzeel, Eder, Jagur, Kinah, Dimonah, Adadah, Kedesh, Hazor, Ithnan, Ziph, Telem, Bealoth, Hazor-Hadattah, Kerioth-Hezron (Hazor), Amam, Shema, Moladah, Hazar-Gaddah, Heshmon, Beth-Pelet; Hazar-Shual, Beer-Sheba, Biziothiah, Baalah, Iim, Ezem, Eltolad, Chesil, Hormah, Ziklag, Madmannah, Sansannah, Lebaoth, Shilhim, Ain, and Rimmon. In the lowland were 14 Cities and villages: Eshtaol, Zorah, Ashnah, Zanoah, En-Gannim, Tappoah, Enam, Jarmuth, Adullam, Socoh, Azekah, Shaaraim, Adithaim, Gederah, and Gederothaim. Again 16 Cities and villages: Zenan, Hadashah, Migdal-Gad, Dilean, Mizpeh, Joktheel, Lachish, Bozkath, Eglon, Cabbon, Lahmam, Chitlish, Gederoth, Beth-Dagon, Naamah, and Makkedah. Again 9 Cities and villages: Libnah, Ether, Ashan, Iphtah, Ashnah, Nezib, Keilah, Achzib, and Mareshah. In addition to these were other Cities with their towns and villages: Ekron, Ashdod, Gaza, to the Brook of Egypt and the Great Sea. In the hill-country 11 Cities and villages: Shamir, Jattir, Socoh, Dannah, Kiriath-Sannah (Debir), Anab, Eshtemoth, Anim, Goshen, Holon, and Giloh. And 9 Cities and villages: Arab, Dumah, Eshan, Janim, Beth-Tappuah, Aphekah, Humtah, Kiriath-Arba (Hebron), and Zior. And 10 Cities and villages: Maon, Carmel, Ziph, Jutah, Jezreel, Jokdeam, Zanoah, Kain, Gibeah, and Timnah. And 6 Cities and villages: Halhul, Beth-Zur, Gedor, Maarath, Beth-Anoth, and Eltekon. And 2 Cities and villages: Kiriath-Baal (Kiriath-Jearim), and Rabbah. In the wilderness desert 6 Cities and villages: Beth-Arabah, Middin, Secacah, Nibshan, City of Salt (Ir-hamMelach), and En-Gedi. The Jebusites remained in Judah at Jerusalem till now (Samuel’s day), because they could not be driven out. ((110 plus Cities in all))
Joseph’s Partition (Manasseh & Ephraim: 2nd and 3rd: From Jordan River to the waters of Jericho (east of Jericho but west of Jordan) in the desert up to hill-country of Beth-El to Luz, along border of Archites to Ataroth, down west to the Japhletites, to Beth-Horon the nether, to Gezer, and along the coasts of the Sea. Ephraim’s borders: eastward at Ataroth-Addar to Beth-Horon the upper, westward at Michmethath on the North, eastward to Taanaqth-Shiloh, along east of Janoah, down to Ataroth, to Naarah, to Jericho to the Jordan; from Tappuah westward along Brook of Kanah, and to the Sea; besides the Cities and villages of Manasseh designated for Ephraim. They drove out the Canaanites at Gezer, but elsewhere in Ephraim the Canaanites continued to this date (Samuel’s day), serving as laborers.
Manasseh’s lot, Joseph’s firstborn, in Machir Manasseh’s firstborn, Gilead’s father, a man of war and had Gilead and Bashan. The other sons of Manasseh: Abiezer, Helek, Asriel, Shechem, Hepher, Shemida; Hepher’s 5 daughters claimed from Eleazar, Joshua, and the Elders 5 parts of the inheritance as promised by Moses. Manasseh had in all 10 parts not counting the lot of the 1/2 tribe in Trans-Jordan. The borders were from Asher to Michmethath, before Shechem, along the right hand to En-Tappuah (Tappuah of Manasseh, but its border belonged to Ephraim); and down to Brook of Kanah, and south of the brook; sharing borders and cities, out to the Sea: Ephraim south, and Manasseh north; from the Sea to north to Asher, and east to Issachar and Asher Beth-Shean with its towns, also Ibleam, Dor, En-Dor, Taanach, Megiddo, and the three heights. They could not drive out these Canaanites; instead, later when they were able they made them task workers. The children of Joseph complained that their lot was too small, and the Canaanites have iron-chariots in Beth-Shean and its towns, and in Valley of Jezreel. Joshua bid them to take the hill country, cut down its forests, and drive out the strong Canaanites.
The Assembly of Israel set up the Tent of Meeting at Shiloh: and Canaan was subdued but partly conquered; but 7 tribes had yet no inheritance. Joshua reproved Israel for delay to conquer the rest of Canaan. He sent 3 men from Shiloh from each tribe to survey the unconquered land to the north, and describe it in a book, partitioned into 7 Partitions to be parted by cast of lots; they did and returned to Shiloh. (The Levites being excluded as the Lord’s Inheritance); Judah and Joseph excluded, also the 2 1/2 tribes in Trans-Jordan having received their inheritance. At Shiloh Joshua cast lots and partitioned thus: 1st Lot: Benjamin (4th) were to be between Judah and Joseph: north from Jordan beside Jericho thru the hill-country west, thru the Desert of Beth-Aven; thence along to Luz (Beth-El), south, to Ataroth-Addar, near the mountain south of Beth-Horon the nether; thence west and south, from the mountain before Beth-Horon south, out to Kiriath-Baal (Kiriath-Jearim) of Judah; thence its south border went west to the Waters of Nephtoah; down to uttermost part of the mountain before the Valley ben-Hinnom, being the Vale of Rephaim north, thence beside the Jebusite south, down to En-Rogel; north to En-Shemesh, to Geliloth, against the ascent of Adummim, down to Stone of Bohan ben-Reuben; along against Arabah north into Arabah, alongside of Beth-Hoglah north, to Salt Sea at south Jordan, its east quarter. Their 12 Cities and villages: Jericho, Beth-Hoglah, Emek-Keziz, Beth-Arabah, Zemaraim, Beth-El, Avvim, Parah, Ophrah, Chephar-Ammoni, Ophni, and Geba. Also 14 Cities and villages: Gibeon, Ramah, Beeroth, Mizpeh, Chephirah, Mozah, Rekem, Irpeel, Taralah, Zelah, Eleph, the Jebusite (Jerusalem), Gibeah, and Kiriath.
2nd Lot: Simeon (5th): Their inheritance was in Judah (which had a large territory) : 13 Cities and villages: Beer-Sheba (Sheba), Moladah, Hazar-Shual, Balah, Ezem, Eltolad, Bethul, Hormah, Ziklag, Beth-Marcaboth, Hazar-Zusah, Beth-lebaoth, and Sharuhen, Also 4 Cities and villages: Ain, Rimmon, Ether, and Ashan; all around them to Baalath-Beer, and Ramah of the South (Negev). 3rd Lot: Zebulun (6th): 12 Cities and villages: Sarid west to Maralah to Dabbesheth to the brook before Jokneam; from Sarid east to Chisloth-Tabor, to Daberath, to Japhia, thence east to Gath-Hepher, to Eth-Kazin, out to Rimmon out to Neah; turning north to Hannathon, out to Valley of Iphtah-El, Kattath, Nahalal, Shimron, Idalah, and Bethlehem, 4th Lot: Issachar (7th): 16 Cities and villages: Jezreel, Chesulloth, Shunem, Hapharaim, Shion, Anaharath, Rabbith, Kishion, Ebez, Remeth, Engannim, En-Haddah, and Beth-Pazzez; bordering to Tabor, Shahazumah, Beth-Shemesh, out to Jordan. 5th Lot: Asher (8th): 22 Cities and villages: Helkath, Hali, Beten, Achshaph, Allammelech, Amad, Mishal, to Carmel west, to Shihor-Libnath, down to sunrising to Beth-Dagon, Zebulun, Iphtah-El north to Beth-Emek, and Neiel; out to Cabul on the left hand, Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, Kanah, to great Sidon, turning to Ramah, and the fortified City of Tyre; out to Sea by Achzib, Ummah, Aphek, and Rehob. 6th Lot: Naphtali (9th): 19 Cities and villages: From Heleph, from the Oak in Zaanannim, Adaminekeb, Jabneel, Lakkum, out at Jordan; west to Aznoth-Tabor, thence to Hukkok, to Zebulun on the south, to Asher on the west, and to Judah toward the sunrising. The fortified Cities were Zidim, Zer, Hammath, Rakkath, Chinnereth, Adamah, Ramah, Hazor, Kedesh, Edrei, En-Hazor, Iron, Migdal-El, Horem, Beth-Anath, and Beth-Shemesh. 7th Lot: Dan (10th): From Zoar, Eshtaol, Ir-Shemesh, Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Ithlah, Elon, Timnah, Ekron, Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Baalath, Jehud, Bene-Berak, Gath-Rimmon, Me-Jarkon, Rakkon, opposite Joppa; their borders went out further, they fought Leshem and captured it and exterminated them, and settled in their place, and calling it Dan. Thus, Israel partitioned the rest of Canaan to the 7 tribes. They gave Joshua his inheritance, according to the Lord’s command, in Timnath-Serah, which he asked for, in the hill-country of Ephraim; and he built the City and lived there. (Eleazar the Priest, Joshua ben-Nun, and the tribal heads at Shiloh partitioned the land by lottery.) ((In all there were 100 plus Cities, in addition to the 110 Cities of the 3 tribes, making some 200 plus Cities; not counting the 60 Cities of the 2 1/2 tribes: in all some 260 Cities and villages.))
Then the Lord tells Joshua to tell Israel to assign or designate the Cities of Refuge as He commanded Moses, for those who cause unintentional death, to seek refuge and protection from the blood-avenger; exactly as Moses had written. They set apart Kedesh in Galilee in the hill-country of Naphtali; Shechem in hill-country of Ephraim; Kiriath-Arba (Hebron) in the hill-country of Judah; in Trans-Jordan opposite Jericho eastward they appointed Bezer in the desert in the plain of Reuben; Ramoth in Gilead in Gad; and Golan in Bashan in Manasseh. (6 Cities of Refuge in all.)
In like manner the leading Levites petitioned them at Shiloh for their Cities and suburbs promised by the Lord by Moses, to live in and for their livestock. Israel gave them by lot: 1st Lot: Kohathites of Aaron: Cities combined in Judah, the Simeonites, and Benjamin: Kiriath-Arba Abi-haAnak (Hebron) with suburbs in the hill country, because Caleb inherited the fields and villages of the City belonged to Caleb ben-Jephunneh. Merarites had 12 Cities in Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun. The Aaronic priests got 9 Cities from 2 tribes: Hebron, suburbs, and City of Refuge; Libnah and suburbs, same with Holon, Debir, Ain, Juttah, Beth-Shemesh. From Benjamin, they got 4 Cities with suburbs: Gibeon, Geba, Anathoth, and Almon: (13 Cities and suburbs in all). The other Kohathites got Cities by lot in Ephraim, 4 Cities and suburbs: Shechem, City of Refuge, Gezer, Kibzaim, and Beth-Horon. 4 Cities and suburbs in Dan: Elteke, Gibbethon, Aijalon, Gath-Rimmon. 2 Cities and suburbs in Manasseh: Taanach, and Gath-Rimmon. (10 Cities and suburbs in all) The Gershonites got 2 Cities with suburbs in Manasseh: a City of Refuge and Be-Eshterah. From Issachar 4 Cities with suburbs: Kision, Daberah, Jarmuth, and En-Gannim. From Asher 4 Cities with suburbs: Mishal, Abdon, Helkath, and Rehob. From Naphtali 3 Cities with suburbs: Kedesh in Galilee, City of Refuge, and Kartan: (13 Cities with suburbs in all.) The Merarites got from Zebulun 4 Cities with suburbs: Jokneam, Kartah, Dimnah, and Nahalal. From Reuben 4 Cities with suburbs: Bezer, Jahaz, Kedemoth, and Mephaath, From Gad 4 Cities with suburbs: Ramoth-Gilead, City of Refuge, Mahanaim, Heshbon, and Jazer: (12 Cities with suburbs in all.) (All the Levitical Cities with suburbs in Israel were 48 in all.) The Lord thus gave to Israel all the land of Canaan He promised; He gave them rest and subdued all their enemies.
Joshua praised the 2 1/2 tribes for their obedience in helping the 9 1/2 tribes conquer Canaan. He then dismissed them to return to their possession in Trans-Jordan; warning them to obey the commandment and law of Moses the Lord’s Servant, to love the Lord God, walk in His ways, keep His commandments, cling to Him, and serve Him with all their heart and soul. Joshua blessed them and sent them away; with wealth, livestock, silver, gold, brass, iron, and much raiment from the spoil of their enemies. They departed from Shiloh in Canaan and returned to Gilead. But the 2 1/2 tribes built a great altar near the Jordan in the Land of Canaan. Israel heard and gathered at Shiloh to wage an attack on the Trans-Jordanians, and they sent Phinehas ben-Eleazar the Priest and 10 tribal Princes to know why they have trespassed against God and turned away from the Lord in rebellion, as in the iniquity of Peor still defiling Israel; the Lord will now be enraged against Israel; if the land in Trans-Jordan is unclean, then pass over to the Lord’s Possession, His Tabernacle dwelling-place; do not setup another altar against the Altar of the Lord God; don’t forget Achan ben-Zerah in his trespass against the devoted things and many perished. The 2 1/2 tribes strongly replied that the Mighty-God, God, the Lord (El, Elohim Yehowah) knows and Israel will know, and spare us not, if we built an altar for offerings and sacrifices may He require it. Rather it is a Witness (Ed) to prevent in future generations that the Israelites on west of the Jordan not to disown the Israelites on the east of the Jordan, saying the Jordan River is a border between us and you. On hearing this Phineas, the Priest and the Princes were pleased and blessed them; and they returned averting war.
Now the Lord gave Israel rest from war; and In time Joshua became very old and he summoned all Israel with their tribal elders and heads or princes, judges, and officers, and exhorted them that the Lord has left the remaining nations or Gentiles as Israel’s inheritance, from the Jordan to Great Sea in the west; and He will drive them out also that you might possess their land; and to take courage to obey all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses (Deuteronomy), not to intermix with these nations, or mention the name of their gods, or to serve and worship them; but to cling to Him; but if you intermarry with them and they with you, He will no longer drive out these Gentiles, but they shall be a snare and a trap to you, a scourge in your sides, and thorn in your eyes; till ye perish from this good land He gave you, for transgressing His Covenant, to commit idolatry, thus igniting His anger against you unto quick destruction.
Joshua then gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem, with all their leaders and rulers, and he said to them: Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: your fathers long ago dwelt beyond the River (Euphrates, in the east , in Mesopotamia), Terah the father of Abraham and Nahor, and they served other gods; and I took Abraham thence and brought him to Canaan, and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac; and I gave to Isaac Jacob and Esau; I gave Esau Mount Seir to possess; but Jacob and his children went down into Egypt; I sent Moses and Aaron, and I plagued Egypt as I did, and brought you out. I brought your fathers out of Egypt unto the Sea (Yam), the Egyptians pursued your fathers with chariots and horsemen to the Red Sea (Yam Suph); and they cried out to the Lord, and He put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea to cover and bury them; ye saw it, and ye dwelt in the desert many days (40 years). I brought you to the land of the Amorites in Trans-Jordan, and he fought with you; I delivered them into your hand, and ye possessed their land; I destroyed them before you. Then Balak ben-Zippor, King of Moab, waged war against Israel, and sent for Balaam ben-Beor to curse you; but I refused to listen to Balaam, therefore he blessed you still, and I delivered you from his hand. Ye went over the Jordan and came to Jericho, and they fought against you: the Amorite, Perizzite, Canaanite, Hittite, Girgashite, Hivite, and Jebusite (7 Nations, Gentiles), and I delivered them into your hand; I sent the hornet before you to drive them out, the 2 kings of the Amorites; not by thy sword or bow; and I gave you a land you did not cultivate, cities ye built not, to dwell in them; vineyards and oliveyards ye planted not, to eat of them. Therefore fear the Lord, serve Him in sincerity and truth; remove or abolish the gods or idols your fathers served beyond the River (Euphrates), and serve Him; and if it is evil to serve Him, then chose today whom ye will serve, the gods of Mesopotamia, or the gods of the Amorites, where you dwell; but as for me and my house we will serve the Lord. They answered that they would not forsake the Lord to serve other gods; for He brought us from Egypt the house of bondage by great signs and preserved us along the way, He drove out the Amorites; therefore, we will serve the Lord our God. Joshua said they could not serve Him, for He is a holy God, and a jealous God; He will not forgive your transgression or your sins. If ye forsake Him to serve foreign gods; then He will turn on you to consume you. They replied no, they will serve the Lord. Joshua said ye are witnesses against yourselves that you have chosen to serve Him; they said they are witnesses. Remove then the foreign gods among you and incline your heart to the Lord the God of Israel. They said to Joshua we will serve Him and listen to His Voice. Joshua made a Covenant with the People that day; and set them a statute and an ordinance in Shechem. Joshua wrote these words in the Book of the Law of God, and took a great stone, and set it up under the oak-tree near the Lord’s Sanctuary, as a witness against Israel; for it has heard all the Words of the Lord which He spoke as a witness; less ye deny your God. Joshua sent the People away to their inheritance. Joshua died being 110 years old; they buried him near his inheritance in Timnathserah, in the hill-country of Ephraim, on the north of the mountain of Gaash. Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and the elders that outlived him, who knew the Lord’s work for Israel. The bones of Joseph which Israel brought out of Egypt they buried in Shechem, in the parcel Jacob bought from the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for 100 pieces of money; and they became the inheritance of the children of Joseph. Eleazar the son of Aaron died and was buried in the hill of Phinehas his son, which was in the hill-country of Ephraim.
Before we continue our reading and come to Judges, we will reflect on Joshua in some matters. The Lord’s words directly spoken and expressed will continue to become less frequent, the Book of the Law must become the Revelation and Inspiration for Israel. The first words in red are these: Joshua 1:2-9: “Moses My servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, thou, and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel… Only be strong and very courageous, to observe to do according to all the law, which Moses My servant commanded thee: turn not from it to the right hand or to the left, that thou mayest have good success whithersoever thou goest. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate thereon day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein: for then thou shalt make thy way prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success. Have not I commanded thee? Be strong and of good courage; be not affrighted, neither be thou dismayed: for Jehovah thy God is with thee whithersoever thou goest. Every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, to you have I given it, as I spake unto Moses.” Here we see and learn that a new relation has come about between the Lord and Israel and Joshua. As Moses was the Prophet and Leader by whom God would accomplish His purpose with the People for the Land by the Book, so too Joshua is the new Prophet for the same end. In these words (verses 2, and 5-9), and the charge, to Joshua the Lord is speaking to him personally as the corporate and national head, the you and your is the yu and yur, or the archaic thou and thee and thine, and not the plural you or ye of the people proper (which is used in verses 3-4). The standard of measurement and judgment for both Joshua and Israel is the Torah Moses or the Sepher, the Book; for the Book is now enlarging and soon will contain the history and generation of Joshua and the Judges and the Kings, along with the Priests and Prophets and the People, individually and nationally. It will lead to the content of the Psalms and other poetic books of the Old Testament. It is essential and requisite that we understand the Book as related to the Land and the People. The promised land was not yet possessed by the people, the man was not yet planted in the land, though the patriarchs walked up and down and all around in it. The river was there but the people did not live by it, but rather it was a border that must pass over, and through, to the good land. The land on the other side of the Jordan was possessed and dominated by nations or Gentiles opposed to the Lord and His word contained in the Book. They must be dispossessed by warfare, by driving them out and destroying them in every way they ruled, used, and defiled the land. The words of the Book of Joshua are the details and history of that warfare of conquest from Gilgal to Shiloh to Shechem, from the capture of Jericho to the death of Joshua, and many things relative to the land. The circumcision of Israel of the new generation born in the wilderness after the exodus from Egypt, corporate or national guilt and sin as in Achan, treaty with the Gibeonites, the wars and conquests of southern and northern Canaan, the partition of the land to the 12 tribes, their cities and suburbs, with villages and pastoral lands, and many more things. About 50 years transpire in Joshua, after all the tribes were assigned their lands and borders on both sides of the Jordan, after warning them and instructing them, and at the end, before he dies, Joshua in his final words to the people cites the Lord’s words in red, chapter 24: 2-13 in His review of their history and His involvement from Abraham and the idolatry of beyond the flood to Canaan to Egypt to the Desert to the Promised Land; then he renews the Covenant between Israel and the Lord. The Land is still far from conquered or occupied which leads to the Book of Judges for 400 years of history of the struggles and conflicts of subjugation of Canaan or the Land of the Canaanites, and the transformation to Israel, the land of Israel, Eretz Israel, and not Palestine or the Land of the Philistines.
The Book of Joshua, Sepher Yehoshua, is divided into two divisions: chapters 1-12 and 13-24, first part concerns the conquest of Canaan and to things relating to the past, and the second part concerns the partition and allotment of Canaan to the tribes of Israel, and those matters relating to its conquest and division for the future. There are some 200 hundred cities involved in the Book, and there were 31 Kings and their cities that were conquered on the west of the Jordan River, and 2 Kings on the East of the Jordan or Trans-Jordan. The conquest was never complete, and Israel was to continue till complete and full dominion was attained, which is the Book of Judges with its account of the history and state of the nation.
The typical significance of Joshua as the Savior Lord is clear and strong, of Canaan as the heavenly home, of the spiritual warfare of this life and of the world, are abundant. The recurrent themes as with Moses is followed and extended in Joshua. Shiloh was prophesied of by Israel in his dying blessings on his sons with its Messianic significance, but it must first develop in Israel as a nation in the Land as its first center of conquest, in chapter 18-22, and we follow it as the center in Judges and 1st Samuel till it was captured by the Philistines, then had temporary residence in Israel for more than 20 years till David (2nd Samuel) brings it into Jerusalem, the city of David. The principles by which God acted in the removal of the evil nations of Canaan, and of the use of war and violence to accomplish the possession of Canaan and Palestine, are both profound and perplexing. That Israel must drive out the Gentiles of Canaan by armed force, and even complete extermination of people and animals alarms us with fear and dread. We cannot soften or sanitize the record of these wars; and we cannot ignore the human execution of the Divine will, that God intended to pass judgment and sentence upon wickedness. The land is defiled by shed blood, whether murder, violence, rape, or abortion, the land is polluted and becomes sick and unhealthy. The earth is God’s creation, He owns every speck of sand, and every drop of water, but He has given it to man to care for in His stead, and in a manner honorable to Him. Man was made of the earth to elevate nature to a higher and better level, and in the perfection of the noble dirt, make it holy ground. For the larger context of the historical-prophetical books I cite Keil-Delitzsch commentary on Joshua:
“The thorah, or five books of Moses, which contains an account of the founding of the Old Testament kingdom of God, and the laws which were given through Moses, is followed in the Hebrew canon by the writings of the “earlier prophets,” „YNŠJR „YJYBN, (nbiim r’shim), prophetae priores. This collective name is given to the four historical books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, which trace, in the light of divine revelations, and of the gradual unfolding of the plan of salvation, the historical development of this kingdom of God from the death of Moses, the mediator of the old covenant, or from the entrance of the people of Israel into the land of Canaan promised to their fathers, till the dissolution of the kingdom of Judah, and the Babylonian captivity; the whole embracing a period of nearly nine hundred years. The names given to these books are taken from the men whom the God-king of Israel called and appointed at different times as the leaders and rulers of His people and kingdom, and indicate, very suitably on the whole, the historical periods to which the books refer. The book of Joshua describes the introduction of the people of Israel into the promised land of Canaan, through the conquest effected by Joshua, and the division of the land among the tribes of Israel. As Joshua only completed what Moses had commenced but had not been permitted to carry out, on account of his sin at the water of strife (Num. 20:12); and as he had not only been called by the Lord, and consecrated by the laying on of the hands of Moses, to accomplish this work, but had also been favoured with direct revelations from God, and with His miraculous help in the execution of it; the book which is named after him, and contains the account of what he did in the power of the Lord, is more closely related to the Pentateuch, both in its form and contents, than any other book of the Old Testament. In this respect, therefore, it might be regarded as an appendix, although it was never actually joined to it so as to form part of the same work, but was from the very first a separate writing, and simply stood in the same dependent relation to the writings of Moses, as that in which Joshua stood to Moses himself, of whom he was both the servant and successor….These four historical writings have been very justly called prophetical books of history: not, however, because they all, but more especially the books of Samuel and the Kings, give very full accounts of the labours of the prophets in Israel; nor merely because, according to the early Jewish tradition, they were written by prophets; but rather because they describe the history of the Old Testament covenant nation and kingdom of God in the light of the divine plan of salvation, setting forth the divine revelation, as it was accomplished in the historical development of Israel, or showing how the Almighty God and Lord of the whole earth continued as King of Israel uninterruptedly to fulfil the covenant of grace which He had concluded with the fathers and had set up at Sinai, and built up His kingdom, by leading the people whom He had chosen as His own possession, notwithstanding all the opposition of their sinful nature, further and further onwards towards the goal of their divine calling, and thus preparing the way for the salvation of the whole world. These books, therefore, do not contain a general history of the natural development of the Israelitish nation from a political point of view, but trace the history of the people of God, or Israel, in its theocratic development as a covenant nation, and as the channel of that salvation which was to be manifested to all nations in the fulness of time. Their authors, therefore, by virtue of prophetic illumination, have simply selected and described such events and circumstances from among the rich and plentiful variety contained in the accounts handed down by tradition, whether relating to families, tribes, or the nation as a whole, as were of importance to the history of the kingdom of God; that is to say, in addition to the divine revelations in word and deed, the wonders wrought by God, and the prophetic declarations of His counsel and will, they have recorded chiefly such points in the life and conduct of the nation and its more prominent members as affected advantageously or otherwise the development of the divine kingdom in Israel. Whatever had no inward connection with this higher aim and peculiar calling of Israel, was, as a rule, passed over altogether, or, at all events, was only touched upon and mentioned so far as it served to exhibit the attitude of the nation generally, or of its rulers and leaders, towards the Lord and His kingdom. This will help to explain not only the apparent inequality in the treatment of the history, or the fact that here and there we have long periods merely referred to in a few general remarks, whereas, on the other hand, the adventures and acts of particular individuals are depicted with biographical minuteness, but also another distinctive peculiarity, viz., that the natural causes of the events which occurred, and the subjective motives which determined the conduct of historical personages, are for the most part left unnoticed, or only briefly and cursorily alluded to, whilst the divine interpositions and influence are constantly brought into prominence, and, so far as they were manifested in an extraordinary manner, are carefully and circumstantially described.”

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Christian Biblical Reflections.12

(Here are pages 198-229, Deuteronomy. See PDF for the Book proper. mjm)



DEUTERONOMY : Chapters 1-34 : Moses V:

Deuteronomy consists of 34 chapters, and its subdivisions not easily marked, yet two sections may be readily seen, chapters 1-11 and 12-34 (31-34 are also distinct); it is rightly called the Second-Law from its subject or content; but its Hebrew name is Debbarim or Words, which in Greek is Logoi; thus together it is the Book of the Words of the Second Law. The Book continues from Numbers in the place and time in the final month of Israel’s 40 days in the Desert. (A note as to the Red Letter words in the Books of Moses: In Exodus chapter 3 God calls Moses by name: ‘Moses, Moses’ and the Lord frequently chapter after chapter, page after page, then at Sinai the direct speaking is dominant red, chapters 20-35; in Leviticus 1-7 is red, 11-27 is all red; in Numbers it is about half and half throughout, the direct speaking balanced to His peoples experience, need, and actions; here in Deuteronomy like Genesis, the direct speaking is lessened, and Moses speaking for God becomes dominate; the last words in red is Deut. 34:4: And Jehovah said unto him, This is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed: I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither.) In Genesis the writer and speaker is hidden, Moses nowhere occurs; in Exodus the Lord soon appears and communicates to Moses then by Moses and Aaron to Israel; in Leviticus it is the Lord speaking to and by Moses and Aaron throughout; in Numbers it is the Lord speaking to Moses with Aaron and then with Eleazar; and now it is Moses speaking and rehearsing and reminding Israel of their history in the wilderness; and if we may say, Moses’s reflections. The encampment was in east trans-Jordan in the desert and plain across the Yam Suph between Paran, Tophel, Laban, Hazeroth, and Dizahab. It is 11 days walk from Horeb by way of mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea. Then in 40th year in the 11th month on 1st day of the month Moses spoke to the children of Israel in accordance with the Lord’s commandment to them (over the past 40 years), and after Moses had smitten Sihon and the Amorites in Heshbon, and Og of Bashan in Ashtaroth at Edrei. In Trans-Jordan of Moab Moses commenced to declare or rehearse or restate this Law, the Torah, and a Second Law, Deuteronomy.
Moses recalls to Israel the time they camped at mount Horeb or Sinai and God directed them to turn to the hill-country of the Amorites and the Arabah and the Negev, and all the country and lowlands nearby, all the way to Great Sea and all Canaan and Lebanon, all the way to the Great River Euphrates in the north (above Syria, to Haran). Moses begins to speak in 1st person as the divine Lawgiver, in whom all the Lord’s words and thoughts have found a settled place, and the human vessel is transformed over the 40 years to speak as God to Israel, even as the Lord promised when He called him. He has brought them to the entrance of the Promised Land and he commands them to enter and possess, just as the Lord had also done. Moses reminds them that at Horeb he was unable to handle the task of caring for the entire nation, as made so numerous by the Lord, and he prays that the Lord increase them a 1000 time more with blessings as promised; nor to tolerate their problems and burdens and strife. He reminded them that he directed them to designate qualified men of wisdom and understanding and well-known, and he made for them tribal heads and captains and officers, to be delegated judges on his behalf to the people; telling them not to be corrupt and partial, bias or taking bribes, but to be fair and honest without fear of man, since it was God’s judgment they were giving; and that the most difficult cases must be brought to him. He reminded them that he had commanded them all the things they needed to do; and how they journeyed from Horeb passing through great desert and terrible wilderness nearby the Amorites, as the Lord God had commanded, and came to Kadesh-barnea, near to the hill-country of the Amorites, the country which the Lord God has given. He reminded them that the Lord the God of their fathers has set the land before them to conquer and occupy, and not to fear or be dismayed. He reminded them that they requested from him to send out spies and scouts to search and assess the land and return with a strategic report of how and where to invade. Moses said he was pleased with their request and chose and sent 12 spies, which went up to the hill-country and to the valley of Eshcol, returning with fruit and a good report that the land was good as the Lord God said and gave. He reminded them they rebelled and refused to invade, complaining in their tents in accusations against the Lord God’s motive; saying that most of the spies disheartened them with news of the Amorites were big and tall, with very fortified cities, and even had the Anakims there. And he said he tried to encourage them not to be so afraid, for the Lord their God fights for them, and will protect and defend and care for them as a Father of a little child does, and as He showed in Egypt and in the Desert. He reminded them of their unbelief in the Lord their God Who provided a place in the desert for them to camp, guiding in fire by night and the cloud by day. And that the Lord heard them and was enraged and swore that that evil generation will never see the good land, except for faithful Caleb. He also reminded them that the Lord was angry with him because of them, and said he too would not enter, but Joshua his attendant will lead Israel into Canaan, and he was to be encouraged. Moses further reminded them that the Lord would allow their little ones and children, for which they were so concerned of becoming a prey, to enter; but they must turn back towards Yam Suph. He reminded them that they admitted their sin against the Lord, and then desired to invade and attack, girding on weapons of war, and were forward and presumptuous to attack the Amorites, but the Lord by him tried to stop them but they refused to listen and rebelled again in presumptuousness; so the Amorites, their enemies, engaged in battle and chased them as bees do, and defeated them at Seir to Hormah; and that afterwards they repented and returned in tears, but the Lord refused to listen or respond. So, he said, they remained in Kadesh a long time.
Moses continues his rehearsal of Israel’s history in the desert near Yam Suph and around mount Seir, till the Lord indicated that it was time to move on northward, passing through the border of Esau their brethren in Seir, and though they are afraid they must not be attacked, because the Lord has given that land to Esau as his inheritance; they were to buy food and water, for the Lord their God has blest them these 40 years that they lacked nothing. He recalled to them that they bypassed their kin Esau in Seir along the way of Arabah, Elath, and Ezion-geber; and bypassing the desert of Moab. At that time, he said, the Lord told him not to vex Moab for He has given the children of Lot that country as their property. (There previously dwelt the Emim, a people great and tall as the Anakim, regarded as Rephaim, but called Emim by the Moabites. The Horites lived in Seir before the children of Esau succeeded by destroying them; just as Israel in time did in Canaan.) (This is an example as in other places that the Scriptures were edited at times to clarify certain details for any number of reasons. The emendation or amendment is no less Scripture than what is edited. The Holy Spirit is not limited to Moses or Aaron, or to Joshua and Eleazar, or to the Levites or prophets or others. The scribal transmission of the Sacred Text is not a dilution of inspiration, nor detracts from authenticity of authorship.)
Thence they crossed over the brook Zered, which now was 38 years after they had left Kadesh-barnea, after all generation of the militia died off as the Lord swore; for He was determined to terminate them in the desert. So, Moses continued, after they were all dead the Lord told them to pass over Ar, Moab’s border, near to the Ammonites; but they were not to vex Ammon, for He had given that land to Lot’s descendants as their property. (This also belonged to Rephaim before the Ammonites, who called them Zamzummim; a people like the famed Anakim, who the Lord destroyed for Ammon, and as He did for Esau in Seir of the Horites; even unto the Avvim in the villages of Gaza, and the Caphtorim of Caphtor.) He said the Lord would terrify all the nations who will hear of this invasion. Moses sent messengers from the desert of Kedemoth seeking peace and passage from Sihon king of Heshbon as he had solicited to Esau of Seir and the Moabites in Ar; Sihon refused because the Lord hardened his spirit and his heart obstinate, so to destroy them. So Sihon fought with Israel at Jahaz, and defeated by the Lord’s help, capturing and destroying all of them and their cities and families, leaving none alive; and took all their cattle and things from their cities. Israel by the Lord God’s help destroyed and every city from Aroer bordering the valley of Arnon, and all about, to Gilead. But the land and people forbidden by the Lord God was not invaded, as the Ammonites, and all the side of the river Jabbok.
Then Moses reminded them that they then turned north to the way of Bashan and its king Og warred with them at the battle of Edrei; and the Lord assured him that they and theirs would be done as done with the Amorites, completely annihilated. Some 60 cities were captured in the region of Argob and the kingdom Og in Bashan; all fortified with high walls, gates, and bars; not counting many unwalled towns; all utterly destroyed and spoiled. Also, the land of the two kings of the Amorites we captured in trans-Jordan from Arnon to Mount Hermon of Syria, which the Sidonians called Mount Sirion and the Amorites call Senir; along with the plains and Gilead and all Bashan, up to Salecah and Edrei the cities of Og in Bashan. (Og the king of Bashan was the last of the remnant of Rephaim, with an iron bed-frame of 9×4 standard cubits (12×6 feet) and is in Rabbah of the Ammonites.) Israel occupied all that area and was ceded to the 21/2 tribes as their property; the area of Arnon and Gilead to the Reubenites and Gadites; and the area of north Gilead and all Bashan and Argob to the ½ tribe of Manasseh. (Now Bashan was before Rephaim but was captured along with Argob and the Geshurites and the Maacathites by Jair who renamed it Havvoth-Jair to the present day (the time of Samuel).) He reminded them that he granted and partitioned the trans-Jordan area to the 21/2 tribes from Gilead to Arnon to Jabbok, and to Arabah to Jordan to Chinnereth to the Sea of the Arabah (Dead Sea) to Pisgah eastward. At that time Moses commanded them and reminded them that the Lord their God has given them Trans-Jordan as their possession; but they must pass over armed to assist the rest of the tribes in the conquest of Canaan. Their families may settle in the land till they return after the conquest. Also, at that time he reminded them that he commanded Joshua of what the Lord their God did to the two kings, and so will He do all the kingdoms in Canaan; that he (Joshua) must not be afraid of them, for the Lord their God fights for them. He recalls to them that he petitioned the Lord, Who has shown His servant greatness and power, for no other god in heaven or earth can do such works and acts; to permit him to see and enter the good land across the Jordan and the goodly mountain, and Lebanon. But the Lord was angry at him because of them and refused his request; but told him to ascend to the top of Pisgah and look in all 4 directions and see the land which he will not enter with Israel. So, they stayed in the valley opposite Beth-peor.
Moses concludes the introduction of the rehearsal of Israel’s history in the wilderness with the reiteration and repetition and additional instruction of statutes and ordinances, which they must obey to live and possess the land of promise, granted by the Lord the God of their fathers. They must not add or subtract from the word commanded by him, so that they might obey all the commandments of the Lord their God. They saw how the Lord destroyed the followers of Baal-peor, and that He preserved them; that he has instructed them in the Lord God’s commandments to observe in Canaan. Their obedience is wisdom and understanding to all peoples that will hear of these statutes; and they will say that this great nation is wise and understanding; that no other great nation has a god so near as the Lord God is to Israel; and none have laws as righteous as these now given. They must take heed not to forget these things, in soul and heart, teaching them to their children and grandchildren; to remember when they stood before the Lord God in Horeb, when He said to assemble before Him to hear His words that they might fear Him always, and to live on earth, and teach their kids. Israel approached the burning mountain with flames, darkness, cloud, and dark smoke; and the Lord spoke to them from the midst of the fire, and they heard the voice of words but saw no form. He declared His covenant and commanded obedience to the Ten Words, the 10 Commandments, which He wrote down or inscribed on two tables of stone. At that time the Lord commanded that they should be taught the laws to be practiced in Canaan; and that they note well they did not see any form or likeness on that day when the Lord spoke to them from Horeb out of fire; that they not be corrupted with idolatry of any form, male or female, beast or bird, or reptiles or fishes; lest they look into the skies and worship and serve the heavenly bodies, things that the Lord has allotted to other peoples and nations. But the Lord delivered Israel from Egypt that iron furnace to become His inheritance; He was angry with Moses because of Israel and denied him to enter the good land, but instead to die in the desert of Trans-Jordan. They must take heed against forgetting the covenant and committing forbidden idolatry; since the Lord God is a devouring Fire and Jealous God. Then after their children and grandchildren, after many generations in Canaan, they defile themselves in idolatry of all sorts, and anger the Lord their God; then heaven and earth is witness today against Israel, and they will perish from Canaan and be destroyed; and He will disperse them among the peoples, till they are few among the nations of their exile. They will serve various man-made gods of wood and stone, idols blind and deaf, cannot eat or smell. But they will return and find the Lord their God in searching for Him with all heart and soul; in tribulation in later times will return and obey; for He is a merciful God, unfailing, non-destroying, and never-forgetful of His promised and sworn covenant. For ask of old, from God’s creation of Adam on earth, from the anywhere under heaven, if any such thing was seen or heard; that people heard the voice of God from the fire and still live. Or, that God attempted to take a nation from out of another nation by trials, signs, wonders, war, by a mighty hand, by outstretched arm, and by great terrors, as He did for them in Egypt. He showed all this to be known as the only God to Israel, by His voice and fire. Because He loved their fathers He has chosen their descendants and rescued them from Egypt; and to drive out of their inheritance greater and mightier nations before them. Therefore, since He is Jehovah Elohim forever obey and enforce all His commandments of the laws now given for life and peace.
Moses then designated the 3 cities (Bezer, Ramoth Gilead, and Golan Bashan) in Trans-Jordan, as refuge for one who causes death accidentally or without intention or premeditation. This concludes the Law or Torah of Moses for Israel, in testimonies, statutes, and judgments after the Exodus in Trans-Jordan near Beth-peor of the Amorites, which Israel conquered and settled all that territory. We hereby discern that we have come to a transition to a new section, which some have labeled the Second Discourse. The writer clearly makes a distinction between what Moses taught from the history and geography related to Moses and Israel and the nations.

Moses called Israel to hear the Law and Doctrine to learn and practice; for the Lord God made this covenant with Israel and not with their fathers, when He spoke to them face to face from the fire in Horeb (when Moses interceded for Israel in their fear of the fire, and to reveal to them the Word of the Lord): saying to them: the Lord God saved them from Egypt the house of bondage: 1. Do not have other gods in place of the Lord. 2. Do not make idols of anything or person in any form, to worship or serve them; for the Lord is a jealous God, avenging wickedness for many generations on His enemies; but compassionate towards His friends. 3. Do not profane the Name of the Lord God; for He will hold him guilty. 4. Observe the Sabbath as holy as He commanded; 6 days to work and rest on the 7th day, this applies to every person and every animal in Israel; and remember the Exodus and Egyptian slavery. 5. Honor to parents, father and mother as He commanded for long life and blessing in Israel. 6. Do not kill or murder. 7. Do not commit adultery. 8. Do not steal or rob. 9. Do not bear false witness or lie or slander against another. 10. Do not covet or desire or lust anything or any person that belongs to another. These are the Words which the Lord uttered by a great Voice to Israel from the mount; and He added nothing more; and He wrote them on Two Tablets of Stone, and He gave them to Moses for Israel. And Israel was terrified at the sight and sound from the mount, and at the Voice of God speaking to man and no one died. Israel’s leaders ask Moses to mediate between God and them, lest they be consumed by His fire, for nothing like this has ever happened. Moses was to hear from and speak to God and relate to Israel the Lord’s words and for their observance. The Lord responded to their request and wished that Israel would ever and always have such a heart in godly fear and obedience for all generations and for blessings. He sent Israel back to their tents but demanded Moses to stand in His Presence to hear the Law and Doctrine of the Lord God to Israel to practice in Canaan.
Now these are His Doctrines and Laws, His Words, in detail, for Israel in Canaan, to fear and obey Him always: Israel must hear and observe His words and law for blessing and increase and prosperity as He promised. Israel heard that the Lord God is one YHWH, one Lord, and one Jehovah: He must be loved with all of the heart, soul, and strength. These words of Moses to Israel from the Lord must ever be in the heart and must always be taught to Israel in every generation in every family; in their talk and walk, in their homes and bedrooms, in the morning and at night; and must be bound on as a sign or mark on the hand, and as frontlets on the forehead between the eyes. They are to be written on the door posts of their houses and gates of the cities. He warns them to beware after the Lord God has settled them in Canaan, the promised Land, to inherit good things, cities, cisterns, vineyards, and olive-trees, all which was not theirs; that they then forget their Deliverer from slavery; rather they must fear and serve Him and make oaths by His Name alone. Israel must not seek the gods of the nations to provoke His jealously and burning hot anger, so that He would destroy them from the land. They must not tempt Him as in Massah; but must enact and enforce all His words and laws, doing what is good and right in His sight, for their blessings and prosperity in Canaan, as He swore long ago; to evict the heathens of Canaan. They must tell their offspring concerning the Lord’s words and laws, and of the Exodus and the Wilderness; that His Word and Law, Dabar and Torah, may bless and preserve their lives, be their righteousness in obedience as He promised.
When the Lord God brings Israel to Canaan, and evicts and exile and destroy the 7 nations of Canaan, greater and powerful, superior in number and strength, and He defeats them, Israel must completely destroy them, make no covenant or league with them, show no mercy to them, and not to intermarry with them; for they will be seduced to commit idolatry with their gods and to serve idols, and the Lord’s hot anger will quickly destroy Israel. Therefore, they must be thoroughly destroyed and annihilated, demolishing their idols, relics, altars, pillars, Asherim, statutes, images, temples, groves, and such things, and they must be burnt in the fire. For Israel is to be His holy people, His chosen possession, and His peculiar and special and prized inheritance; loved and chosen not because they were numerous, for they were the smallest of the peoples, but He loved them because of His word and oath of promise to their fathers to redeem and deliver them from Egypt. They must know and realize that He is God and is faithful and true, a covenant or promise keeper, merciful and kind to His friends and lovers and keepers of His Commandments, even to 1,000 generations; but repaying and avenging His enemies and haters to their faces, to destroy them. Israel must implement and execute all His Word and Law so that He might fulfill and accomplish His Covenant and Mercies and His Oath to the Patriarchs; and to love and bless, to multiply and increase, to prosper in everything and every way to Israel in Canaan. That Israel be blessed above all peoples, that they and their cattle be fertile, that He remove all sicknesses and prevent the known diseases of Egypt, which He will put on their enemies. But those peoples must be consumed without pity, lest they serve their gods and be snared. Israel must not be afraid to dispossess those nations but recall the Exodus and the Lord God’s salvation of Israel by power and signs and wonders. The Lord God will send the hornet after them, and they will hide and perish; they must not be afraid, for He is great and awesome; and He will eject those nations little by little, lest the wild animals increase and out populate Israel. He will deliver the nations to Israel to rout and destroy, to ruin and discomfit, and to terminate their kings in all of Canaan; and burn up their carved images and idols; and must not covet their silver and gold things and decorations, to be snared by the detestable things to the Lord God. Israel must not house an abomination, to become devoted to destruction, but must utterly detest and abhor it as devoted or banned and condemned.
All these commandments must be observed in Canaan, remembering the 40 years desert wanderings or drifting to humble, to prove, to know the heart, if they will be obedient. He humbled them with hunger and fed them with manna, to show them that man does not live by bread only but live by the words from the Lord’s mouth. Their clothes did not get old; their feet did not swell for 40 years. Israel must consider that He disciplined them as a son; that they obey and fear Him. The Lord God brings Israel to the good land with brooks of water, fountains and wells, and springs of valleys and hills; of wheat, barley, grape vines, fig trees, and pomegranates; of oil, olive, and honey; without lack of bread or things; with great natural resources of iron and gold. So after Israel have settled and feasted to the full, and blessed the Lord God for the good land; they must not forget Him and His words and laws after they have become satisfied and prosperous in food, houses, herds, flocks, silver, gold, and such things in abundance, that they in pride disregard Him Who saved them from Egypt, and led them in the desert filled with poisonous serpents and scorpions, without water; and Who supplied water from the rock of flint, and provided manna; all to humble and test them and to see their final condition, if they would boast in their hearts of their own power and might to become wealthy; and also to establish His sworn ancient covenant. Israel must always remember the Lord God grants power and wealth for His covenant’s sake. So, if Israel forsakes Him to follow and serve and worship idols, they will absolutely perish as the other nations of Canaan; because Israel rejected His voice and warnings.
Israel must listen up, for they are about to invade and conquer Canaan across the Jordan, to conquer superior nations in numbers and power, with great fortified cities, with great and tall people as the notorious Anakim. Israel must know it is He Who goes ahead of them as a Devouring Fire to destroy the heathens and subjugate them to them, so they might easily and quickly destroy them. But after their conquest and subjugation, they must not boast as if their own righteousness defeated those nations; and not rather that the wickedness of these nations caused Him to drive them out and defeated them and to establish His word of promise to the 3 Patriarchs. It is the Lord God Who gave to Israel the good land despite their unrighteous stubbornness; and to remember that they enraged and provoked Him from the Exodus to the Invasion, as a rebellious people. Also, the provocation and wrath at Horeb that the Lord’s anger would destroy Israel, when He gave the tables of stone of His covenant with Israel, during the first 40 days and nights without bread or water. The stone tablets were written by the finger of God with the same words He uttered to Israel from the mount from fire to the assembly. During that time, they corrupted themselves, and sent Moses down quickly to his apostate idolatrous people; and He said of this stiff-necked people that He would utterly destroy them and make of him a stronger and greater nation. Moses continued to remind them that he descended the mount with the two tables; and when he saw their sin and idolatry against the Lord God, he threw down and broke the tables; then he fell down and stayed another 40 days and nights just as the 1st because of Israel’s sinful provocation; for He was determined to destroy Aaron; but he prayed for him, and took the sin calf and melted it and stamped and ground it to dust; then he threw it in the brook flowing down the mount. Israel provoked the Lord at Taberah, Massah, and at Kibroth-hattaavah; and then at Kadesh-barnea they enraged Him when He sent them to invade and conquer and occupy Canaan; they rebelled against His commandment, disbelieved and refused to listen to Him; for they have been rebellious against the Lord from the day Moses came to them. So Moses reminded them how he fell face down to ground before Him during the 2nd 40 days and nights, that he would not destroy His people and inheritance redeemed by His greatness from Egypt; and to remember His servants the Patriarchs; and to overlook Israel’s stubbornness and wickedness and sin; that the heathens might not criticize the Lord as impotent to save those He delivered, and unable to fulfill His promise, so to say that, He destroyed them in hate in the desert. But Moses continued to intercede for Israel as God’s people and portion, His redeemed.
So the Lord, Moses reminded them, had him carve the two tablets of stone the 2nd time, just like the first, ant be brought to Him in the mount so He may again write the exact words as the former that Moses broke; and it must be placed in a ark or box or chest, made of acacia wood; and He wrote on them the 10 Words or Ten Commandments; which he gave to Moses for Israel; and he returned to the assembly and deposited the tables in the ark, which still exist to this day, 38 years later. (Israel journeyed from Beeroth Benejaakan to Moserah; there Aaron died and was buried, and his son Eleazar ministered in the priest’s office in his place. Thence they journeyed to Gudgodah, then to Jotbathah, a land of water brooks; at that time the Lord selected and set apart the Levites to carry the Ark of the Covenant, and to stand before and minister to and bless in His Name, to this day (38 years later). Levi has no portion or inheritance with his brethren, for the Lord is His inheritance as He designated.) Moses again the 2nd (it appears a 3rd time is meant, but it really goes back to the 2nd , which is under consideration) time as in the 1st occasion, stayed another 40 days and nights, and the Lord listened to his plead not to destroy them. Then the Lord told Moses it’s now time to lead the people to enter Canaan.
Moses instructs Israel of the Lord God’s requirement to fear Him, to walk in all His ways, to love and serve Him with all of the heart and soul, both as a nation and as individuals; to fulfill all His words and laws of commandments, statutes, ordinances, charges, and judgments, from this day forward, in the desert and in Canaan. All the heavens and the earth belong to Him, yet He loved and chose the Patriarchs and their descendants above all other peoples. Israel must circumcise the foreskin of the heart, and no longer be stiff-necked; for He is the God of gods and the Lord of lords, He is mighty and awesome, and takes no reward or bribe. He vindicates the orphans and widows, loves the sojourner and immigrant as Israel once was in Egypt; He is to be feared, served, and clung to, and to make oaths only in His Name; He is Israel’s Praise and God, great and wonderful in acts and works. The patriarchs migrated to Egypt numbering 70 souls and are about to enter Canaan as a multitude as the stars of heaven of some 3 million in all. He is to be loved and his words and laws obeyed always. This adult generation, (not the next generation of their children unfamiliar with the Lord God’s discipline and works and signs and power and greatness in the Exodus from Egypt, and at the Red Sea (Yam Suph), and in the desert till present, and how He dealt with the rebels of Reuben) must know and see clearly His great work; to obey His command that Israel might be strong to conquer and possess Canaan, and to enjoy the good and fertile and blessed land, ever favored by the Lord God. If Israel is faithful and obedient and loyal to Him with all heart and soul, then He will bless and prosper with rain and growth, with grains and animals, with wine and oil, to eat to the full and satisfied. Israel must be on guard of turning away from Him to serve and worship idols, and so anger Him against Israel to withhold rain and crops, to destroy them in the land. But Moses words and doctrines, the Law or Torah to Israel must be in the heart and soul, bound as a sign on the hand and frontlets on the foreheads; to be taught to the children, talked about in their homes and travels, from morn to eve; and to be written on door-posts and city walls; that their lives be prolonged with future generations enduring forever as the heavens and the earth. And if Israel is faithful and obedient to the Mosaic Law to love and follow and cling to the Lord God, then He will defeat and eject the great and mighty heathens from Canaan. Israel will then occupy from the wilderness to Lebanon, from the Euphrates River (in Syria and southern Turkey), and from Jordan to the farthest Sea (the Great Mediterranean Sea); without any people or nation to challenge or oppose them, but their enemies will be terrified by the Lord God.
Moses then set before Israel the Blessing and the Curse (Berachah u-Qelalah): their blessing if obedient to Law of Moses of the Lord God’s commandments; and the curse if disobedient and apostate and commit idolatry. When Israel enters Canaan they must set the Blessing on Mount Gerizim and the Curse on Mount Ebal, mountains on western territory across the Jordan River in the land of the Canaanites who reside in the Arabah or Plains opposite Gilgal near the Oaks of Moreh; for Israel is to occupy the country; and there to observe the Law of Moses. In Canaan Israel must implement all the statues and ordinances, and to destroy and burn all the places and things of idolatry whether mountains, hills, groves, altars, pillars, Asherim, images, or any such thing. Israel must not be like them towards the Lord God; but must seek and visit His chosen place of habitation, to bring their sacrifices and offerings, and to celebrate His feasts, both the nation and the families and individual. Israel must no longer do whatever each man desires or thinks right, but after entering Canaan, and settled and resting in the good land free from enemies and at peace; that they must resort only to the Dwelling-Place of His Name to sacrifice and offer and vow to Him; and one and all rejoice before Him, including the Levite in the city gates. Israel must not offer sacrifices in any other place but what has been chosen and designated by the Lord. Israel may kill and eat of the animals as food in any place they desire, but must not partake of its blood, but to pour it out on the ground. Also, this applies to the tithes and vows made to the Lord, for these must be presented to Him in His Place or House, to be feasted and shared and enjoyed along with the Levites. The Levite must not be ignored or neglected. And when He has enlarged Israel’s borders, and flesh is desired to eat, but the Place of His Name is too far away, then the flesh of animals may be eaten in their cities and gates, without the blood of its life, enjoying and satisfied with these meals in the Lord’s eyes. But the holy things and the vows must be presented to Him at His Place; to offer the sacrifices and offerings on the Altar, and to pour out the blood near the Altar. These words of Moses must be carefully observed, to do the good and right thing in His sight. And after the conquest of Canaan and Israel fully settled in their new land, they must not be ensnared by the idolatry of these nations of Canaan, such as their gods and idols and how they serve them. Israel must not do like these idolatrous nations which commit every abomination to the Lord God which He hates and abhors, detest and despises, like when they offer their sons and daughters to be burnt in the fire to their gods.
Moses added that Israel must not add to nor subtract from this Law he has given them. If there is a prophet or dreamer of dreams or seer predicting a sign and wonder to allure or seduce the people to go after foreign gods to serve them, they must not regard their words or utterances because the Lord God is testing Israel’s love for Him; for He alone must be feared, obeyed, served, and attached. But such revealers must be put to death for inciting rebellion against the Lord God, Who delivered Israel from Egypt; thus is this evil put away. Anyone secretly enticing the people to idolatry or apostasy in any form of relatives or friends must be put to death without hearing, or mercy, or pity, or protection; and he who is solicited must first put his hands to him, then that of all the people. The seducer must be stoned to death, so that Israel may hear and fear to permit any such wickedness. If a city in Israel is seduced to commit such idolatry, near or far, very careful inquiry is to be made of the fact and truth of such abomination done, and then the citizens or residents of that city must be slain by the sword, utterly destroyed of man and beast. The very goods of that city shall be collected as a heap and then burnt up; and that city must not be rebuilt; and nothing of that city must be found with anyone, so that the Lord’s fierce anger might not consume His people, but instead show them mercy and compassion, and multiply them as promised long ago, that in obedience He will bless them.
Moses continued that Israel as the People of the Lord God must not mark their bodies, by cuttings and tattoos, or shave their foreheads for the dead, since they are His holy and chosen people different than all the nations. They must not eat any detestable thing, but only the designated clean and allowable animals; such with hoofs parted in two or chews the cud and regurgitate. Some animals which only have one of these characteristics must not be eaten, for they are unclean and not permitted, and their carcasses must not be touched. Likewise the fishes in the waters and seas, those with fins and scales are eatable, but not if they do not, for those are unclean. Clean birds are edible, but not those designated as unclean as the predators and scavengers. All insects with wings are unclean and are not edible. Not edible is anything which dies of itself for Israel, but the foreigner may eat it. The goat’s kid must not be boiled in its mother’s milk. All increase and harvest must be tithed yearly and presented to the Lord at the Place of His Name; and if it is too far a distance then the tithed must be converted to money, and it be taken to His City and House, and the money used to purchase the sacrifices or offerings as desired or needed; and to feast and rejoice in His Place. And the Levite must not be forsaken or neglected as he is without tribal property. Every 3 years must all the tithed of increase and stored inside the city gates; that the Levite, the immigrant, the orphans, and the widows may eat from it and be satisfied; so that the Lord God may bless your labors.
Every seven years must be declared a year of release for all those in debt by loans and sales, the creditors must release or forgive the debt to his neighbor or brother or fellow citizen. The debt may be exacted from the foreigners or immigrants but not an Israelite; for the poor will not exist in Israel if the Lord God bless and prosper His people; if they diligently obey His voice and Moses’ laws. He will bless Israel as promised so that they will be the lender and creditor to many nations and not the borrower in debt, and they shall rule over nations and not be subjugated. If the poor exists in Israel they must not be mistreated, avoided, disqualified, nor rejected from help and charity, but freely and properly given aid and sustenance; and no base thought and heart consider the 7th year of release is approaching and thus refuse or avoid helping the brother, the needy, and the poor in Israel. If a fellow Hebrew, man or woman, is sold or bought to serve, it must not be longer than 6 years, and in the 7th year they must be released freely and given substance or sustenance or severance in goods or money; remembering Israel’s slavery in Egypt and His redemption; this is the reason Moses commanded this conduct. If a servant refuses to be set free or released because he loves his master and the house and has been treated well; then an awl must be driven through his ear into the door, and thus he will be permanently the servant, male or female. The 6 years’ service must not be regretted in the release, since his service is double the value of a hired servant; for this He will bless Israel. The firstling males of the animals must be sanctified to the Lord God; they must not be used for labor; but eaten as yearly sacrifices at the Lord’s Place. It must be without defect as a sacrifice; and eaten within the gates whether unclean or clean; and the blood must be drained by the altar.
In the month of Abib the Passover must be observed in memorial of the Exodus; the sacrifice of the Passover must be kept exactly and in detail as prescribed; along with the rules of removal and abstinence from leaven or yeast for that week, and the eating the bread of affliction to recall and reflect the Exodus from Egypt. The Passover Lamb must be completely eaten or burned, nothing left over, eaten at night and roasted, in the Lord’s chosen Place. The feast of unleavened bread is to be 7 days. Also 7 weeks must be numbered from the time the sickle is used to harvest, and then on the 50th day, Pentecost, the Feast of Weeks to the Lord God celebrated with tribute of freewill-offering from His blessings; to rejoice with the family and household and servants and the Levites and the sojourners, and the orphans, and widows in Israel. Never forget the bondage in Egypt, and always remember to observe Moses’ statutes. The Feast of Tabernacles or Booths (Succoth) is for 7 days and begins after the harvest of crops and grapes for the winepress, to be celebrated by all in Israel in joy, for the entire week in the Place of His choice; and with all His blessings. The 3 annual Feasts required for all males to appear to the Lord God in the chosen Place are of Unleavened Bread, of Weeks, and of Tabernacles; and none must appear empty handed, but with what He has blessed him with. There must be judges and officers in all the city gates in every tribe to judge righteous judgment; without twisting or distorting justice, or partiality, or taking bribes; for bribes blinds the eyes of the wise and perverts the words of the righteous. But what is truly just must be followed that they may live and inherit the land He has given. No Asherah must ever be planted near the Altar of the Lord God, nor any pillar which He hates.
` Also no animal sacrifice to the Lord God must be defective or deformed for that is detestable to Him; if anyone in Israel has become apostate and committed idolatry in any city, doing evil in His sight and transgressing His covenant, to follow and serve idols, to worship sun, moon, and stars, which He has forbidden. When this detestable evil and crime becomes known it must be carefully verified, then the guilty must be stoned to death. Only by 2 or 3 witnesses must anyone be executed by the people, and the witnesses must participate in the condemnation. Thus is evil stopped and prevented in Israel. When judicial or legal cases arise that are very difficult or problematic anywhere in Israel, then the controversial case must be brought to His chosen Place to the Levitical priests and to the existing judge to enquire and resolve; and their sentence and judgment must stand and followed, to be observed as they teach Israel, and their decision and judgment and sentence or verdict must not be altered or ignored by anyone. But a presumptuous person who refuses the verdict of the Priest who stands to minister before the Lord God, or of the Judge, then such an evil person must die; to stop and prevent such presumption in Israel. When Israel has possessed Canaan and desire to elect a King to rule over the nation, he must be chosen from his brethren in Israel and not from an unrelated foreigner. The King must not multiply horses for himself, must not lead Israel back to Egypt to acquire more horses, for He has forbidden them ever to return; must not have many wives to turn his heart away, must not accrue great wealth in silver and gold. But when the King ascends the throne or is inaugurated in his kingdom he must write for himself a copy of Moses Law in a Book from the Book which is with the Levitical priests; and the King must keep it and read it daily all his life, that he may learn to fear the Lord God, and to keep and enforce all the words of the Torah of Moses; that the King does not become haughty and proud against his brethren, that he does not deviate or neglect any detail to the left or right; that his kingdom may be established and his rule lengthened in Israel.
Also the Levitical Priests, the tribe of Levi, have no portion or inheritance with Israel, but are to eat of the Lord’s offerings by fire as their inheritance as He has indicated. The priests’ due and share must be from the people’s sacrifices and offerings and gifts; because the Lord God chose Levi on behalf of Israel to minister in His name forever. The Levite in the various cities of Israel may desire and choose to relocate to the Lord’s Place, and they must be permitted to share in the ministry and service of their Levitical brethren. They must share equally in the common meals in additional to what they received from the sale of their patrimony or inheritance or estate. Israel must enter Canaan to become like the heathens or nations there; such as child sacrifices by fire to idols, or divination, or augury, enchanter, sorcerer, charmer, consulter, fortune teller, an astrologer, familiar spirit, wizard, necromancer, and such like. These things and persons are a detestable abomination to the Lord, and for these very things the Lord God has driven them out before Israel. Israel must be perfect with the Lord God; and not like these nations who listen to and practice augury and divination of soothsayers and the like; but He has not permitted Israel to this. But the Lord God will rise up a Prophet in Israel like to Moses, and he must be heard and obeyed in all that Israel requested of Him at Horeb or Sinai in the day of the Assembly, when they desired Moses to mediate and intercede between Israel and the Lord. He granted the petition and said He would rise up a Prophet like Moses and put His words in his mouth to speak to Israel all His commands. Those who hear the Lord’s words spoken in His name by the Prophet will be accountable. But that Prophet who prophecies presumptuously in His name which He has not commanded, or who speaks in the name of other gods, that Prophet must die. And the true words of the Lord’s speaking is known when the prophecy is fulfilled as revealed, but if it fails the Prophet is false and has lied, speaking presumptuously; Israel must not fear such.
When the Lord God has defeated the nations of Canaan and Israel has conquered and occupied their country and the cities, then 3 cities must be set apart as Refuge for those escaping the avenger of blood in cases of non-volitional deaths, without premeditation and by accident without malice; the manslayer in such as case is not guilty of murder and need not die for causing death. The Cities of Refuge and Sanctuary must not be too far apart that the manslayer is caught and killed by the blood avenger in his hot anger. When the Lord enlarge Israel’s borders and expands into all the promised territory, then an additional 3 cities may be added; for if Israel is faithful and obedient to His word and Moses’ law, the three cities must be added lest innocent blood be shed, and Israel become guilty. But if a man ambushes and kills another man and then flees to a City of Refuge, he is a murderer and guilty deserving death; and the elders of his home city shall send or summon for him to be arrested and handed over for justice, and he must be put to death without pity; and so remove innocent blood and be preserved. One witness alone must not establish anyone’s guilt of wickedness or sin of a crime; there must be 2 or 3 witnesses. If an unrighteous witness arises against another person of wrong or crime, then both men in controversy must stand before the Lord and the priests and the judges; and diligent inquisition must be made, and if it is determined that the witness is a false accuser and a slanderer of his brother; then must be put to death; thus others will hear and fear, and such evil prevented. The law of retaliation, lex talionis, is impartial and reciprocal: life for life, eye for eye, tooth or hand or foot is the same, and such like.
When in war or battle against Israel’s enemies and see their horses, chariots, and their numbers, and the like; remember the Lord God the Savior from Egypt, and fear not. The priest must approach and speak to the army of Israel to engage in the battle without a faint heart, or fear, or tremble, or terror, for the Lord God fights for Israel to save them from their enemies. The officers shall dismiss any man who has built a new house and not dedicated it, to return home and do so, lest he die in battle, and another does it. So too with one who has planted a vineyard and has not enjoyed its fruit; dismiss also those engaged or espoused but have not married. Further the officers shall dismiss the fearful and faint-hearted, that the others’ hearts melt not. Afterwards the officers must appoint captains of the armies or forces to lead the people. In besieging a city first offer terms of peace; and if they are willing and desire a treaty, then they may become tributary to serve Israel. If they refuse to negotiate peace but choose war, then besiege it till the Lord God delivers them in defeat to Israel; then every male in that city must be slaughtered; but the women, children, cattle, goods of the city, and all spoil, may be spared and reserved as booty and prey, to enjoy the spoil of the enemies of Israel. But this only applies to the cities at a distance outside the limits of the cities of the nations of Canaan. But the cities of the peoples of Canaan, the 6 nations, must be utterly destroyed, none may live or breathe; that Israel may not learn to follow all their abominations and idolatry to sin against the Lord God. If the city is besieged for a long time in the war against it, the fruit trees must not be axed down since they are food supply; only trees that produce no fruit may be cut down and used for bulwarks to subdue it.
When a slain person is found in the field and it is not known who killed him, then the elders and judges shall come forward to measure the distance from the body to the nearest city, and the elders of that city must take a heifer never worked or yoked, and they must take the young heifer to a rough uncultivated valley, and cut off the heifer’s head at the neck there. Then the Levitical priests must come near as those chosen by Him to minister and bless in His name, and to decide all controversy and every stroke; and the elders shall wash their hands over the beheaded heifer; and they shall declare that their hands has not shed this person’s blood. May the Lord be merciful and forgive Israel, His redeemed, to remove guilt of this innocent blood; and the shed blood will be forgiven; and so remove blood guilt from Israel in the Lord’s sight. When He has given Israel victory in battle, and among the captives a beautiful girl, damsel, is seen and desired to become a wife, she may be brought home to the man’s house, she must shave her head and pare her nails or trim her fingernails, and remove her clothes of captivity, and she must remain in his house a full month grieving her parents; after this may he be joined to her and they become husband and wife. If later he delights not in her, he may release her to go freely, he must not sell her for money or treat her as a slave, because he has humbled her. If a man with two wives loves one and hates the other, and both bearing a child, the true firstborn if of the hated wife or disfavored mother must be respected and the primogeniture or firstborn’s rights must be acknowledged and granted in the inheritance and must not be given to the favored one; the firstborn must inherit a double portion of all the property and possessions. If parents have a stubborn rebellious and incorrigible son, refuses to listen or obey either parents, even after discipline and chastisement; then his parents must bring him to the elders of his city to the city gates or courts, and tell the elders of stubborn rebellious son as a glutton and drunkard. The men of the city shall then stone him to death to remove evil and produce fear in Israel. If a man sins worthy of death, and he is hung on a tree, his body must not remain overnight, but must be buried that day; for one hanged on a tree is cursed of God; that the land be not defiled.
If an ox or sheep of a brother or neighbor strays, it must be returned to the owner; and if the owner is a far distance, the lost animal must be kept till it has been sought, then must be restored. The same for a donkey, or his clothes, or any lost item which is found, it must be restored to the owner once known. If a brother’s donkey or ox falls in a pit, those nearby must help pull it out. A woman must not wear a man’s clothing, nor must man a woman’s garment, for such is detestable to the Lord God. If a bird nest is found with the dam sitting on its eggs, the eggs may be taken but the dam or hen must not be taken with its young; for Israel’s good and long-life. When a new house is built the roof must have a battlement or enclosure to prevent an accidental fall and blood guilt on that house. Vineyards must not be seeded with various seeds which defiles the seed and the fruit. The ox and donkey must not be yoked together to plow. Garments must not be worn of mixed fabrics as wool and linen. Garments or vestures must have fringes or hems on the four edges.
If a man marries a woman then hates her and slanders her or accuses her with an evil name, saying that he discovered she was not a virgin; then her parents must produce proof or token cloth to the elders of their daughter’s virginity. The elders then must chastise or whip the man, and fine him 100 silver-shekels, and give them to her father, for the evil and shame or dishonor to a virgin of Israel. She will remain has his wife and may never divorce her. But if it is true that her virginity could not be proven; then she must be brought to the door of her father’s house and the men of her city must stone her death; for her folly in Israel by playing the whore in her father’s house; so removing evil from Israel. If a man is found sleeping with a married woman, they must both die; thus removing evil from Israel. If a virgin betrothed or engaged to future husband, and another man finds her in her city, and sleeps with her; they both must be brought out to the city gates to be stoned to death; the virgin because she did not cry out for help in the city; and the man because he humbled and violated his neighbor’s wife; thus evil is put away. But if a man finds an engaged or promised virgin in the field and forces or rapes her, only the man must die; the damsel must not be punished for sin; since this case is as when a man murders his neighbor; for she cried for help in the field, but none saved her. But if a man finds a virgin not engaged or promised, and lies with her by force, or violates her, then is discovered, the man must give to the damsel’s father 50 silver-shekels, and must marry her, and may never divorce her. A man must not take his father’s wife, nor discover his father’s skirt.
The wounded in the stones, the castrated, or deformed must not enter the Lord’s assembly; nor a bastard or one of illegitimate birth up to the 10th generation; nor an Ammonite or Moabite to the 10th generation, for they refused help and passage to Israel after the Exodus from Egypt, and they hired Balaam ben-Beor from Pethor of Mesopotamia to curse Israel, but the Lord God turned the intended curse into Israel’s blessing, for He loved Israel, therefore never desire their peace or prosperity. Never abhor or despise an Edomite for he is a brother and relative; nor an Egyptian, for Israel was a pilgrim in his land; but their children in the 3rd generation may enter the Lord’s assembly. When Israel encamps their enemies in war they must not do or touch anything evil; if one is unclean by a nocturnal emission he must leave the camp proper, and remain on the outskirt till the evening, but he must bathe before he returns. There must be place outside the camp for natural relief, and a paddle or a shovel in the weapons pack to dig and cover what comes out; for the Lord God walks in Israel’s camp to deliver and defeat the enemies; that He see no unclean thing and turn away. A run away or escaped slave must not be arrested and returned to his master but may freely live where he feels safe without oppression. There must not be a prostitute of the daughters of Israel, and no sodomite or homosexual of the sons of Israel; and the harlot’s hire or a dog’s wages must not come into the House of the Lord God for a vow; for prostitution and homosexuality is a detestable thing to Him. Loans to a brother must not be with usury or interest in any form; but interest may be charged to a foreigner; so that the Lord God may bless and prosper Israel in Canaan. Vows to the Lord God must be paid on time, for He requires it, and it be not sin; but it is not a sin to not vow; but what one has uttered must be observed and fulfilled according to the vow made to Him as a freewill-offering and promise. The neighbor’s vineyard may be freely eaten of to satisfy hunger and need but must not be put in a vessel or container to take; so too with his standing grain or unharvested crop, the ears may be hand plucked but no sickle to be used.
When a man marries a woman and finds in her something unseemly or improper, he may write her a bill of divorcement and give it to her and then send her away; she may then remarry to another man; but if the second husband hate her and divorces her, she may not return to the first husband after being defiled, for that is abomination to the Lord; and they must not cause the land to sin in this. When a man marries a new wife, he must not go out to war, neither charged with any business or obligations; but he must stay at home one year to cheer his new wife. The mill or upper millstone must not take as pledge or security, for it is as life. A kidnapper of a fellow Israelite, who enslaves him or sells him, must be put to death, so to eradicate the evil or crime in Israel. The plague of leprosy, symptoms and precautions and regulations, must be observed carefully as the Levitical priests teach Israel in Moses’ law; remember what the Lord God did to Miriam after leaving Egypt. When a loan is made the pledge or security must not be forced from his house; but the borrower must be allowed to bring it out to the lender; and a poor’s man pledge must not be kept overnight., but be restored to him before sunset, that he may sleep in his garment, and thus bless in return; this is righteousness to the Lord God. A poor hired servant, whether Israelite or immigrant, must not be oppressed in the gates; but his wages must be paid by sunset, being poor and needy; lest he cry to the Lord, and it be sin. Parents must not be put to death for their children, nor children for parents, but each one for his own sin. The justice to pilgrim and orphans must not be wrested or avoided or distorted; nor take a widow’s clothes as pledge; but remember the Egyptian slavery and His redemption of Israel for this command. Do not reap a second time the harvest sheaf or crop, but leave it for the pilgrim, orphans, and widows, that the Lord God may bless the labor. Also the vineyards must not be gleaned after gathering, but must be left for the poor; remembering Israel’s bondage in Egypt.
If men have a controversy for judgment, the judge must justify the righteous and condemn the wicked; and the wicked deserving whippings must be beaten before the judge, and the number or penalty according to the crime; but no more than 40 strips to be exceeded; lest he is regarded vile. The ox while treading must not be muzzled. When one of two brothers who live together dies without a son, then the wife must be married to the other brother and not to a stranger; and he must perform the husband’ brother to her; and her firstborn shall succeed in his brother’s name, that his name may not be abolished in Israel. If he refuses or dislikes to take his brother’s wife, then she must go to the elders at the gate and declare his refusal to raise up his brother’s name in Israel to perform the duty to him. The elders of his city must call and speak to him, and if he insists his refusal; then his brother’s wife in the elders’ presence, must remove his shoe, and spit in his face, saying that so must it be done to one who refuses to build his brother’s house; his name in Israel will be the House of the Shoeless Man. When two men are fighting, if the wife of one of them comes near, to help her husband, and grabs the other man’s private organ; then her hand must be cut off without pity. There must be no diverse or unequal weights, great or small, in the bag; nor in the house diverse measures; but a perfect and just, equal standard, weight and measure; to prolong days in Israel; for all those who do such are detestable to the Lord God. Remember Amalek’s attack on Israel after the Exodus, striking the hindmost and feeble, when faint and weary, not fearing God; so, when Canaan is conquered and Israel at rest from their enemies, and occupying His promised land; then Amalek must be completely wiped out; this must not be forgotten.
When Israel is in possession of their inheritance from the Lord God, each must take a basketful of the first of the fruits of the ground to the chosen Place for His Name; and must say and profess to the priest that he has come this day to Lord’s land promised long ago. The priest must take and set the basket down before the Altar of the Lord God; to which a reply and confession must be made concerning Israel or Jacob as a Syrian who migrated to Egypt few in number, then became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous; then the Egyptians mistreated, afflicted, and enslaved Israel; then they cried to the Lord God, and He heard their voice, saw their affliction and toil and oppression; and the Lord delivered Israel from Egypt by might and power, with terror, signs, and wonders; and brought Israel to Canaan, which flows with milk and honey; thus here is the first of the fruit of the ground which He has given; and it shall be set before the Lord God, and worship before Him; and rejoice one and all of Israel. When the tithe in the 3rd year is given of the harvest and surplus, it must go to the Levite, sojourner, orphans, and widow, that they may eat and be satisfied; and confess to Him, that the holy things have not been kept at home, but are hereby given in accordance to Moses’ commandment of the Lord, and has not been transgressed or forgotten; and it has not been eaten in mourning, neither pilfered, or becoming unclean, or offered for the dead; but have listened and obeyed His entire commandment. May He look down from His Holy Habitation from Heaven and bless His people and the ground of the Promised Land.
This day the Lord God commands obedience to His statutes and ordinances with all heart and soul. Israel has avouched the Lord this day to be their God to walk in His ways, statutes, commandments, ordinances, to listen to His voice, and to be His people and possession as He promised; and He has avouched Israel to Himself to keep His commandments; to exalt them above all nations He has made, with praise, in name, and honor, to be a holy people to Him as He said. Moses and the Elders of Israel commanded the People to keep all Moses’ commandment; and when they cross Jordan into Canaan, the Lord God’s promise and favored land, to erect great plastered stones, and write on them all the Words of this Law (Dabar and Torah). In mount Ebal the plastered stones; and an altar to the Lord God, an altar unhewn and unaltered stones, for burnt-offerings and sacrifices of peace-offerings, to be eaten there and to rejoice before Him. The Words of this Law must be written or inscribed on the stones very plainly; and Moses and the Levitical Priests bid Israel to listen up, for they have now become the People of the Lord God, to obey His voice and laws. Moses charged Israel that day, that 6 tribes, or ½ the nation, are to stand on mount Gerizim to bless the People across the Jordan: Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Joseph, and Benjamin. And on mount Ebal 6 tribes or ½ the nation, for the curse: Reuben, Gad, Asher, Zebulun, Dan, and Naphtali. The Levites must answer and shout to Israel 12 Curses with 12 Amens from the People. Cursed are all secret detestable idolaters and idol-craftsmen; accursed are neglecters of parents; and remover of neighbor’s landmark; and causing the blind to stray; and robs the justice to sojourner, orphans, and widows; and sleeps with his father’s wife, uncovering his father’s skirt; and sleeps with any animal in bestiality; and sleeps with his sister or step-sister in incest; and sleeps with his mother-in-law; and who smites his neighbor in secret or ambush; and who takes a bribe to kill an innocent person; and who confirms not this law to them; all the People shout Amen to each of these 12 Curses.
Moses continued to instruct Israel that if they hear and obey diligently the voice of the Lord God in Moses’ command, that He would exalt them above all the nations of the earth; with the abundance of His blessings for obedience. Israel will be blessed in the city and the field; blessed in offspring, in produce, in livestock, and flocks; blessed in the basket and kneading-trough; and blessed in coming and in going. The Lord will defeat the enemies; they shall come as one force but will scatter in retreat 7 ways. He will bless the barns, and labor or cultivation; and establish Israel as a His holy people in obedience walking in His ways. All peoples of the earth will see the Lord’s Name in Israel and be afraid; and He will prosper Israel, in children, in cattle, in crops, in Canaan as He swore to the Fathers. He will open the good treasure of heaven to rain in season to bless the toil; and Israel will lend to many nations but will not borrow. Israel will be the Head and not the Tail, be above and not below, in their obedience to Him as Moses commanded to observe; and not to depart from the Words of the Law to the right or to the left to go after other gods to serve them. But if Israel disobeys and refuses to listen to Him and His words and laws by Moses, that He will put His curses on Israel. They will be cursed in the city and field; in baskets and kneading-trough; in child-bearing, in crops, in cattle, and in the young of the flock; and accursed in coming or going. The Lord will plague Israel with curses, discomforts, rebuke, in everything; to be destroyed and perish quickly for evil-doings and apostasy. He will make pestilence cling till they are consumed in Canaan. He will smite with consumption, fever, inflammation, fiery heat or burning rash, with sword, blasting, and mildew; and Israel will be pursued and destroyed by their enemies. He will cause Israel to be defeated by their enemies, to go out as one but to flee in retreat in 7 ways; and to be tossed and exiled about among all the kingdoms of the earth among the Gentiles. Israel’s dead shall be food for birds of heaven, and for the wild animals, and none will scare them away. He will plague Israel with Egypt’s boils, with emerods or hemorrhoids, scurvy, and the itch, without treatment or healing. He will cause madness and insanity, blindness, and despair and depression of heart; to cause one to grope in daylight as the blind in darkness, and without prosperity, but only oppression and robbery without a helper. A man will marry a woman but another will sleep with his wife; he will build a house but another will live in it; he will plant a vineyard but will not enjoy its fruit; his ox will be slain in his sight but will not eat of the meat; his donkey will be violently taken and not restored; his sheep given to his enemies, and none to save or stop; and his children given to another people while he looks on in pain and longings and powerless to do anything. The harvest and produce and fruit of his labors will be taken by a foreign nation to eat; and he will be crushed and oppressed; driven insane at the sight of sufferings; the Lord will afflict a man’s knees and legs with severe and incurable boils, from sole of the foot to crown of the head. He will exile Israel and their elected King to a Gentile nation to serve foreign and strange gods of wood and stone; Israel will become astonishment, a proverb, and a byword to all the Gentiles that He surrendered them to captivity. Israel shall plant many seeds but harvest little, for the locust will consume it; will cultivate vineyards but have no wine or grapes, for the worms shall eat them. The abundance of olive-trees will not produce oil for their anointing, for the fruit will be cast or exported; Israel’s offspring will be exiled into captivity; his trees and crops will be possessed by locusts. The sojourner or pilgrim or stranger or alien in Israel will be elevated and superior, but Israel be lowered and inferior; so that he will lend to Israel but need not to borrow; he will be the head and they will become the tail. These curses will plague Israel to their destruction for disobedience to the Lord God’s voice and His commandments; and be as a sign and wonder to the generations to follow. And because they served not the Lord God with rejoicement and gladness for all His abundant blessings, they shall serve the enemies that the Lord will send against Israel, to be in hunger, thirst, nakedness, poverty, and yoke of captivity, till Israel is destroyed. The Lord will bring a distant nation from far away as the eagle flies whose tongue is not understood; a fierce nation, disregarding the old and the young; and he will eat the cattle, the crops, till Israel is ruined; and he will leave nothing left, no grain, new wine or oil, no increase of cattle or young of the flock, till Israel perish. They shall besiege Israel at all the gates, breaking down the trusted walls and towers of defense in His given land; till some will eat their own children’s flesh in the siege and distress of the invading enemies. The tender gentleman will not share of his children’s flesh that he eats with his brother or wife or other children, during the siege and distress in his starvation. So too the delicate and tender woman or lady will likewise eat her own child and refuse to share the body with anyone else in her family during the siege and distress of starvation. If Israel will not observe and practice all the Words of this Law written in this Book (eth-kol-Dibbrei hat-Torah hazzoth hakkethubhim bas-Sepher hazzeh), that is the Book of Deuteronomy, that they may fear this Glorious and Fearful or Awesome Name, Jehovah Elohim; then He will increase and multiply the plagues as wonderful and great, to the next generation and after, sore and clinging sicknesses. He will bring on Israel again all the diseases of Egypt that was feared and they shall infect and spread. Even many diseases and plagues not written in the Book of this Law (Deuteronomy), will the Lord bring to destroy; till He reduce Israel to be few instead as the vast host of stars in heaven; because of disobedience to His voice. Thus, He will no longer rejoice in Israel to do them good and multiply, but to destroy and cause to perish, to pluck them from Canaan. The Lord will scatter Israel among all the peoples both near and far, and abandoned them to serve other gods and idols, new and strange, wood and stone. Israel will not find ease or comfort or favor or rest among these Gentiles; but He wills them a trembling heart, failing eyes, and a pining soul; so that the life and soul is in doubt and uncertain, fearing night and day, and no assurance or security. In the morn they will long for the eve, at sunset they will pray for sunrise, for all the calamity and misery. And the Lord will bring Israel back to Egypt in ships against His promise they would never see Egypt again, but as selling themselves as slaves and no one will buy them.

We are now at the last division of Deuteronomy in which the last 5 chapters will conclude Moses V, and allow us to complete Chapter Two of these Reflections. Till now I have altered the text to always speak in the 2nd or 3rd person, avoiding deliberately the 1st in singular or plural; but in these final chapters I will relate the Text in the persons inspired in this Book, in hopes that the reader might see the uniqueness of this Second Book and Finger of the Divine Hands of the Bible.
These are the Words of the Covenant (Dibbrei hab-Berith) which the Lord commanded Moses to make with the children or sons of Israel in the Land of Moab, in addition to that Covenant which He made with them in Horeb or Sinai. Moses called all Israel and said: Ye have seen all that the Lord did in Egypt to Pharaoh and his servants and his country; the great trials, signs, and great wonders: but He has not given you a heart to know, eyes to see, or ears to hear to this day. And I have led you 40 years in the desert wilderness: your clothes and shoes aged not. Ye ate no bread, drunk no wine or strong-drink, that ye may know that I am the Lord your God. And when ye came to this place, King Sihon of Heshbon, and King Og of Bashan warred against us but we defeated them, and took their land and gave it to the 2 ½ tribes for an inheritance, Reuben, Gad, and half Mannasseh. Keep and do then the Words of the Covenant that ye may prosper in everything. Ye stand now before Him, your heads or chiefs, tribes, elders, officers, even all the men of Israel, with your little ones, wives, and thy sojourner in thy camps, from wood-chopper to water-carrier; to enter into His Covenant and His Oath He now makes with thee; to establish thee this day to Himself as a People, to be God to thee as He said, and as He swore to thy Fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Neither with you only do I make this Covenant and Oath, Moses continued, but with him who stands here with us before Him, as well as he who is not here today. Ye know how we dwelt in Egypt and passed through the nations along the way, and ye saw their abominations, idols of wood and stone, silver and gold, which they had; lest among you man or woman, family or tribe, whose heart turns away from the Lord our God, to serve the gods of the Gentiles, lest there be a root which bears gall and wormwood; and when he hears the words of this curse, he blesses himself, and says: I have peace though I walk in stubbornness of my heart, to destroy the moist with the dry. The Lord will not pardon him, but His anger and jealously will smoke against him, and all the curses written in this Book (Deuteronomy) will rest on him, and he will blot out his name. The Lord will set him apart for evil in Israel with all the curses of the Covenant written in this Book of the Law. And the future generations of your children, and the foreigner from a great distance, shall ask on seeing the plagues and sicknesses; and the entire country with brimstone, salt and sulfur, burning, no sowing, no produce, no grass growing, but like Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim, which the Lord overthrew in anger and wrath; then all the Gentiles shall ask why He has done this? Why this great hot anger? Then men will say that it’s because they forsook the Covenant of the Lord, the God of their Fathers, which he made with them when He freed them from Egypt, after they served and worshipped other strange unknown gods: so His anger burnt against this Land to curse it as is written in this Book; and He uprooted them in anger, wrath, and great indignation, and cast them into another land, to this day. The secret things belong to the Lord our God; but revealed things are ours and our children, that we may obey all the Words of this Law.
And it shall be when all these transpire in the blessing and the curse, which I now set before thee, and thou recall them among the Gentiles where He has exiled the thee, and shalt return to Him, and obey His voice and this command, thou and thy children with all heart and soul; then He will turn thy captivity, and have compassion, and return and gather thee whence He scattered thee; thine outcasts from the uttermost lands He will gather and fetch thee: and He will return thee to the Land of thy Fathers to repossess it, and to do thee good and multiply thee more than thy fathers. He will circumcise thy heart and thy offspring’s heart to love Him with all thy heart and soul, that thou mayest live. He will put all these curses on thine enemies, haters, and persecutors. Thou shalt return and obey His voice and do His commandments as I command thee today. He will prosper thee in every way and everything, to rejoice over thee as with thy fathers; if thou shalt obey His voice, His commandments, His statutes written in this Law Book, turning to Him with all heart and soul. This commandment which I now command thee is not too hard or far off; it’s not in heaven to say, who shall ascend to heaven for us to bring it down, that we may hear and obey? Neither beyond the sea to say, who will cross the sea to bring it to us to hear and obey? Rather the Word is very near, in thy mouth and heart to do.
This day, Moses continues, I set before thee life and good, and death and evil; I command thee to love the Lord thy God, walk in His ways, keep His commandments, statutes, and ordinances, to live and grow, that He may bless thee in Canaan. But if thy heart turns away, refusing to listen, but be drawn away to idolatry, to worship and serve other gods; I denounce to you this day, ye shall surely perish quickly in Canaan. I call heaven and earth to witness against you today, that I have set before life and death, blessing and curse: so then choose life to live, thou and thy seed; to love Him, and obey Him, and cling to Him; for He is thy Life and Length of Days, to live in the Land promised by oath the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
Moses went and related these words to all Israel. He said to them, I am now 120 years old, unable to go out and come in; and the Lord has told me, saying: Thou shalt not cross the Jordan. The Lord thy God will go before thee, and destroy these Gentiles, and thou shalt dispossess them: Joshua shall lead thee as the Lord has said. The Lord will destroy them as He did to the Amorites and their country; He will subdue them and ye shall do as I commanded you; be strong and brave, fear not or frightened of them; for He goes with thee, he will not fail or forsake thee. Moses then said to Joshua before Israel: Be strong and brave; lead this People into Canaan and conquer it. The Lord goes ahead of thee; He will be with thee, He will not fail or forsake thee; fear not and be not dismayed. Then Moses wrote this Law and delivered it to the Levitical Priests who carried the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, and to all Israel’s Elders. Moses then commanded them that in every 7th year, the Year of Release, in the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths, when Israel appears before the Lord thy God at His Chosen Place, thou shalt read this Law before all Israel’s audience. Assemble the People, men, women, children, and strangers in the city-gates, to hear and learn and fear Him, and observe all the Words of this Law; and that their children also may know and obey and learn to fear Him always in Canaan.
And the Lord said to Moses: Thy days to die are near; thou and Joshua present yourselves at the Tent of Meeting that I may commission; and they did so. And He appeared in the Tent in a Pillar of Cloud, which stood over the Tent Door. And He said to Moses: thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; and Israel will arise and play the harlot with strange pagan gods, to forsake Me, and break My Covenant. Then My anger will ignite against them, and they’ll be devoured, with many evils and troubles; then they’ll say: these evils are upon us because our God is not among us: For I will hide My Face in that day for their evil works and idolatrous apostasy. Now then write ye this Song for you and teach it to Israel: put it in their mouths, that it be My Witness against Israel. That after I have brought them into My Promised Land by Oath to their Fathers, flowing with milk and honey, and have eaten and are satisfied, and become fat; they will turn to serve idols and gods, to despise Me, and break My Covenant. Then after many evils and troubles visit them, that this Song will witness against them; for it must never be forgotten out of the mouths of their seed: for I know their imagination today before they enter Canaan. So, Moses on the same day wrote this Song, and taught it to Israel. Then he gave a charge to Joshua to be strong and brave, to lead Israel into Canaan. Afterwards Moses finished writing the Words of this Law in a Book, then he commanded the Levites transporting the Ark of the Lord’s Covenant, to take this Book of the Law, and place it beside the Ark of the Lord your God’s Covenant, to be a Witness against thee. For I know thy rebellion and stubbornness against the Lord while I still live; how much more after I die. Assemble to me all your Tribal Elders and Officers that I may speak these words in their ears and summon heaven and earth as witness against them. For I know after my death ye will utterly corrupt yourselves, turning aside from the way I have commanded; and evil will befall in later times, for your evil doings in His sight, to provoke Him to anger by your works. Then Moses spoke in the audience of the Assembly of Israel the words of this Song, until they were finished.

The Song of Moses of the Lord and Israel:

Let the Heavens and Earth hear the Words my mouth speaks!
My Doctrine drops as rain; my Speech distills as dew;
as rain-drops on tender-grass; and as showers on the herb.
I will proclaim Jehovah’s Name: Ascribe greatness to our God!
The Rock, His Work is Perfect; all His Ways Justice:
Faithful God without iniquity; He is Just and Right!
They are corrupt to Him, not His children, a blemish, a perverse and crooked generation.
Do ye thus requite the Lord, foolish and unwise people?
Is He not thy Father Who bought thee? He made and established thee!
Remember the Ancient Days, consider years of many generations:
Ask thy father, he will show thee; thine elders, they will tell thee.
When Elyon gave the Gentiles their inheritance, He separated the Sons of Adam;
He set the borders of the peoples, according to the number of the Sons of Israel.
Jehovah’s Portion is His People; Jacob is the Lot of His Inheritance.
He found him in a desert land, a waste howling wilderness;
He encompassed him, He cared for him.
As the Eagle stirs her nest, flutters over her young;
He spread out His Wings, He took them, and He carried them on His Pinions.
The Lord alone led him, and no foreign god.
Made him ride on earth’s high-places;
he ate the increase of the field; and to suck honey from the flinty rock;
the herd’s butter, the flock’s milk, the lambs’ fat, and rams of Bashan’s breed, and goats;
the finest of wheat, and thou drank wine from the blood of grapes.
Jeshurun got fat and kicked: thou art fat and big and sleek;
then he forsook God his Maker and devalued the Rock of his Salvation.
They made Him Jealous with idols; provoked His Anger with abominations.
They sacrificed not to God but to demons,
to unknown gods, to new modern ones, never dreaded by your fathers.
Thou art unmindful of the Rock Who begat thee, forgotten God Who birth thee.
The Lord saw and abhorred, because of the provocation of His sons and daughters;
He said, I will hide My Face, I will see their end:
for they are a perverse generation, unfaithful children.
They made me Jealous with Lo-El; provoked me with Vanities;
I will make them jealous with Lo-Am; provoke them with a foolish Nation (Goi-Nabal).
Fire has kindled Mine Anger, it burns to the lowest Hell,
and it devours its increase and sets ablaze the Mountain’s Foundations.
I will heap evils on them, spend Mine arrows on them:
to be wasted in hunger, devoured in burning heat, bitter destruction;
I will send teeth of beasts on them, poison of reptiles of the dirt.
Outside the sword bereaves, inside the chambers terror;
young man and virgin, nursing-babe and grey-headed man.
I said I will disperse them afar, I will abolish their memory from men:
but I feared the provocation of the enemy, lest their adversaries misjudge,
to say, our hand is exalted, the Lord has not done all this.
They are a nation void of counsel, no understanding in them
Oh, that they were wise and understood this, to consider their latter end!
How should one chase 1,000, and two pursue 10,000;
unless their Rock sold them, and the Lord betrayed them?
For their rock is not as our Rock, our enemies themselves judge;
their vine is the vine of Sodom, and fields of Gomorrah;
their grapes are of gall, their clusters are bitter;
their wine is the poison of serpents, deadly venom of asps.
Is not this stored with Me, sealed among My treasures?
Vengeance is Mine, and Recompense when their foot slip:
the day of their calamity is near, the inevitable hastens.
Jehovah judges His People, repents Himself for His Servants:
He sees impotence, nothingness, isolation or abandonment.
He will ask where their gods are; the rock of their refuge;
which ate the fat of their sacrifices, and drank the wine of their drink-offering?
Let them arise now to help you and be your protection.
I and I alone am He, and no-god with Me:
I kill and resurrect; I wound and heal; nothing can deliver from My Hand.
I lift My Hand to Heaven and say: As I live forever!
If I sharpen my glittering Sword, My Hand seizes Judgment;
I will render Vengeance to Mine adversaries, Recompense to Mine haters.
I will make Mine Arrows drunk with blood of the slain
and captives, from the head of the leaders of the enemy.
Rejoice ye Gentiles with His People: He will avenge the blood of His Servants,
and vengeance to His opposers and expatiate for His Land and His People.

Then Moses rehearsed all the words of this Song in the ears of the people, he, and Hoshea ben-Nun. After Moses finished speaking all these words to all Israel; and he said to them, Set your heart to all the Words which I testify to you today, which ye must command your children to observe to practice in all the Words of this Law. It is not vanity for you, for it is your life, to prolong your days in Canaan. That same day the Lord spoke to Moses to ascend the Mountain of Abarim, into Mount Nebo in the Land of Moab across Jericho. Now behold the Land of Canaan which I give to the Sons of Israel for a possession; and die in the mount there, and be gathered to thy people, as thy brother died in Mount Hor, and was gathered to his ancestors; because ye both trespassed against Me in Israel at the waters of Meribah of Kadesh, in the Desert of Zin; because ye did not sanctify Me in the midst of Israel. For thou shalt see the Land before thee; but thou shalt not enter it with Israel.
Now this is the Blessing of Moses the Man of God who blessed Children of Israel before his death, saying: The Lord came from Sinai, He rose from Seir to them; he shined from Mount Paran, he appeared with 10,000 Holy Ones: at His Right Hand was a fiery Law for them. Yes, He loves the People; all His Saints are in Thy Hand: they sat at Thy Feet to receive of Thy Words. Moses commanded us Torah, an inheritance for the Assembly of Jacob. He was King in Jeshurun, when the Heads of the People gathered, all the Tribes of Israel together.
Reuben: Let him live and not die; let his men be not few.
Judah: Hear, Lord, Judah’s voice, bring him to his people; his hands contended for himself; Thou shalt be Help against his adversaries.
Levi: Thy Thummim and Urim are with Thy godly one, proven at Massah, strove with at the waters of Meribah; he said of father and mother, he saw not; neither acknowledged his brethren, knew not his own children: for they observed Thy Word, and keep Thy Covenant. They teach Jacob Thine Ordinances, Israel Thy Torah: they put incense before Thee, and whole burnt-offering on Thine Altar. Lord, bless his substance, accept his works; smite the loins of those resisting him, which hate him and that they never rise again.
Benjamin: The Lord’s Beloved dwells in safety by Him; he covers him all day long, He dwells between His Shoulders.
Joseph: The Lord’s Blessing on his land, with precious things of heaven, with dew, and with the dormant depth below; with precious fruits of the sun, precious growths of the moons, with the best of the ancient mountains, and everlasting hills; with precious things of earth and its fullness; the good-will of Him Who dwelt in the Bush. Let them all come on the head of Joseph, on the crown of the head of him who was separated from his brethren. The firstling of his herds his majesty; his horns are the horns of the wild-ox: with them he will push all the peoples: to the ends of the earth: the 10,000 of Ephraim, and the 1,000 of Manasseh.
Zebulun and Issachar: Zebulun, rejoice in thy going out, Issachar, in thy tents. They shall call the peoples to the mountain; there shall they offer sacrifices of righteousness: to suck the abundance of the seas, the hidden treasures of the sand.
Gad: Blessed is He Who enlarges Gad: he dwells as a lioness, he tears the arm, yes, the crown of the head; he provided the best part for himself, there was the Lawgiver’s portion reserved; he came with the chiefs of the People; he executed the Lord’s righteousness, His ordinances with Israel.
Dan: Dan is a lion’s whelp, he leaps forth from Bashan.
Naphtali: Naphtali satisfied with grace, full of the Lord’s blessing; possess thou the west and the south.
Asher: Asher is blessed with children; let him be acceptable to his brethren, let him dip his foot in oil. Thy bars are iron and brass; as thy days so thy strength.
Israel: Jeshurun, there is none like El, He rides upon the Heavens for thy Help, in His Excellency on the Skies. The Eternal Elohe is thy Dwelling-Place, and underneath are the Everlasting Arms; He exiles the enemy before thee, and says, Destroy! Israel dwells in peace, the fountain of Jacob alone, in a land of grain and new wine; yes, His Heavens drop dew. Israel, thou art blessed; who is like thee, a People saved by the Lord, the Shield of the Help, the Sword of the Excellency! Thine enemies shall submit themselves to thee; thou shalt tred on their high-places.

Moses then went up from the Plains of Moab to Mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, opposite Jericho; and the Lord showed him all the Land of Gilead to Dan, and all Naphtali, and the Land of Ephraim and Manasseh, and all the Land of Judah, to the furthest Sea, and the South, and the Plain of the Valley of Jericho the city of palm-trees, to Zoar. The Lord said to him, this is the Land I swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, that I will give it to thy seed: I have caused thee to see it with thine own eyes, but thou shalt not enter. So, Moses the Lord’s Servant died in the Land of Moab according to the Word of the Lord. He buried him in the Valley of the Land of Moab opposite Beth-Peor: but no one to this day (time of Samuel) knows his sepulcher. Moses was 120 years old at death, his eye not dim, natural force unabated. Israel wept and mourned for him in the Plains of Moab for 30 days. Afterwards Joshua was full of the spirit of wisdom, for Moses had laid hands on him, thus Israel listened to him as the Lord had commanded Moses. No Prophet has risen in Israel like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and wonders, which the Lord sent him to perform in the Land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, to his servants, and to all his land; and in all the mighty hand, and all the great terror, which Moses worked in the sight of all Israel.

Deuteronomy and Moses’ Pentateuch:

Moses V reveals to us the Second Law and the Second Finger-Division of the Old Testament, showing us that the 5th and last Book of the Pentateuch is the second Divine member of the Bible as God’s Hand. The 1st book initiates all the history and purposes of God as a Genesis of His Witness of Himself to all mankind, first and foremost to His declared people, and then to all world of the Gentiles as His rightful possession, but now in separation by disobedience and sin. This 5th Book of Moses is the Sepher Debbarim, the Book of the Words of Moses the Man of God; it is the Debbrith (the words) of the Divine B’rith (Covenant) with Israel in connection, that is in anatomical and organic relationship to his genesis with the Patriarchs and the Sons of Noah as the Gentile world, and His original covenant and vital relations to Noah then earlier with Adam. And though Israel is the primary subject of His then present reflections with man as His world and His works; yet He is ever interested in and connected to the nations as One Who desires to save and restore man to Himself. The way of reconciling the world to Himself was not yet perfected nor revealed, but its features were slowly unfolding in Divine lessons and illustrations, in signs and symbols, in types and allegories, in words and pictures, and in other details and examples not then understood, and often still hidden to many Bible believers among Jews and Christians; not to mention the others who meddle and peddle the Sacred Scriptures. Deuteronomy testifies of Moses as the Lord’s servant and voice, His instrument of revelation, His tool of salvation, and His representation of authority and ownership.
Some of the peculiarities of this Book have already been mentioned, such as its name, its emphasis as Moses Words and Doctrine, Moses’ Mishnah, in His review and rehearsal of the contents of the four former Books, and specifically of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. Throughout the Pentateuch, in each Book, Moses’s name occurs hundreds of times, almost 800 times, and joined with Aaron about 100 times; yet in Deuteronomy his name is never joined to Aaron, or Eleazar as in Numbers, or Joshua, but only the pronouns used of or to him in relations to Aaron or to others. He is here called as the faithful Servant of God, the Man of God. It is in this Book that Moses’s Law or the Mosaic Law is established for Israel for all times. It is generally believed that references to This Book are that of the Pentateuch or the Torah, but it is very clear it is only to Deuteronomy as the Second Law. The Decalogue of Exodus, along with the additional laws and commandments, ordinances and statutes, and all such like, are essentially reiterated and repeated in this Book of Moses Words and Doctrine and Mishnah. As said earlier, it was God’s intent to transform Moses from a Prophet to His Voice and Man, and in so doing Moses words became God’s words because the Lord’s words became Moses’ words. It was Deuteronomy, along with the Articles inside the Ark of the Covenant, that was to be kept in the Most Holy Place as a witness to the New Covenant with Israel, a Second Covenant established after the First Covenant and its Tablets or Written Contract was broken, and thus become null and void. It was Deuteronomy that was to be ever known and spoken in Israel; to be written on Ebal and Gerizim in its Curses and Blessings; and it was Deuteronomy as the Debbarim that was to ever to be read and considered by Joshua and the Elders and Judges of Israel; and it was the Book that the Kings of Israel had to have their own hand-copy in commencing their reign; and finally it was this Book that King Josiah was given by the Priest Hilkiah when it was discovered and recovered from the ruins of the House of the Lord, the Temple of Solomon, and in which Israel’s had neglected many things written in it. It is this Book, the Scroll, in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, after the Exile and the Return, that it was discovered that the Feast of Booths was not kept in the prescribed manner from the times of Joshua and the conquest of Canaan. It was also Deuteronomy that the Holy Spirit used in the mind and hearts of the Sweet Psalmist of Israel, and in his son, the Wisest of Israel. Both the Psalms and Proverbs developed by inspiration what was in the Pentateuch or Torah, but more fully in this Book.
We left Israel in Egypt as a tribe of Hebrews, but in Exodus we have a great populace nation enslaved to the Imperial Egypt; and God delivers them by Moses in display of mighty miraculous works, in signs and wonders, showing His vested interest in His People. He brought them through the Red Sea on dry ground and preserved them in the Desert Wasteland and dry and barren wilderness to strip them of all that was Egyptian, and to transform them from Hebrews to His Son Israel. He made with them a Covenant of the Decalogue and demanded of them to build His Sanctuary that He might tabernacle with them and make His Home on earth with man. He trained them by trials and discipline in what they ate and drank, by their shoes and clothes, in their lusts and desires, and in all things touching their heart and soul, their spirit and life. He ordained a Priesthood upon which He established His Law, His Word and Doctrine, by which all men might know Him to be the Lord, the only true God. He had Promised a Land to the Patriarchs, and He brought them in due time to invade and conquer it, to possess and settle it according the words of Moses Law. But they refused and rebelled, so He delayed their entry into Canaan for 40 years wandering in the deserts of Arabia; during these 38 added years the older generation were made to die off, never to enter the good land; and to raise a new generation that knew not Egypt. The internal or interior nature of man was thus fully exposed and dealt with in many ways. It was now in the last days of Moses that Israel was ready to enter Canaan by warfare and obedience. God had formed as He had transformed Moses by His word and Spirit, and now that same Spirit and Word would also transform a people into a divine nation as witnesses and signs to the world. In Deuteronomy we have both the history and the future of Israel. We see their blessings and their curses, but all contingent on His Word of the Covenant. We have not labored to bring out the thousands of types and reasons of the Divine Word in the Books of Moses, it was thought enough to digest and condense the details so that as the revelation unfolds it might be readily noticed and appreciated. But we must now enter and record some of these matters before we begin our journey to the Psalms.
Deuteronomy is the Book of the Law or in Hebrew with the Jews it is Sepher Debarim of the Torah. The Torah or the Law was originally the Word of God, it was what God spoke by His Mouth and expressed His Mind and Heart, His Thoughts and Desires; it was all that is of Him and from Him and to Him in whatever context or relation; whether determination or reflection. Torah became the Doctrine and the Teaching or Instruction, consisting of words and laws, items and details, cases and examples, and many such things. The Divine Doctrine consisted in two parts, both given at Mount Sinai or Horeb in the Wilderness of Sin and the Desert of Zin on the other side of the Red Sea and Yam Suph. God spoke to Moses and all Israel the Decalogue and He wrote it with the Finger of God; after the 10 Commandments He spoke to Moses for all Israel many other words consisting of diverse laws and commands, rules and regulations, and many like things; these became the Oral Law. The Hebrews, Israel, then at last the Jews, believe that the Torah consists of these Two Laws, the Written Law and the Oral Tradition. But in fact, the Divine Word ever preceded and over-shadowed this dual expression of the Torah Covenant. The 10 Words governed all the laws of the Torah and was superior to and greater than all human laws and traditions. But it was also transcendent and majestic in simplicity and application in all the Mosaic conditions of Israel’s experiences and history. But it was not the Original and the Better which existed in God from all eternity as His Nature and Personality. The Eternal Word revealed God as in Genesis, and He created, made, formed, and trained Adam in those words which was of His image and likeness and countless other things. That Word was the Truth of God in Witness and Testimony, in Covenant and Tradition, and all the human experience and world history has become and done. The Word was first spiritual and Heavenly, then it became natural and Earthly, that is, by the Word becoming Incarnate in the world; and in time Messiah would fulfill this Doctrine and Truth in its highest and most-transcendent form. The Torah was protected or guarded and then fenced or edged in to preserve the purity of the Sacred Text, and so the Mishnah of Moses as found in Deuteronomy, the Second Law, for the First Law was now dead and buried by sin and unbelief, was interpreted by the Mishnah of the Elders and later the Rabbis. In time the Mishnah grew into the Talmud with many explanations and examples to preserve the Mishnaic interpretations and all its hermeneutical principles and references of the Torah of Moses and of God. We Gentiles, some half or part Jewish blood, and many more of Israel’s spirit, need instruction in this Hebrew Tradition that has developed outside of the Christian Church, and often opposed to Christ, to understand the enmity and alienation that historically exists.

In Deuteronomy Moses establishes Judaism, Biblical Judaism or Mosaism, and governs and determines its development thereafter. The renewal of the Patriarchal Covenant is also appended and modified as to Israel’s condition and behavior. Moses reminds them that this covenant that the Lord God makes with them is not merely that covenant He made with their fathers nor even with those of the Exodus, but with them, the new generation after 40 years in the Wilderness, with them who are about to invade and possess Canaan. Moses emphatically repeats this dispensational distinction, as seen in Deut. 5:3: “The LORD (YHWH) made not this covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all of us here alive this day.” This said after the 40 years of wanderings in the desert. And though the covenant was that of the patriarchal promises, to fulfillment added changes essential to the new relations and conditions of both Israel as well as the Gentiles. In the Desert they could do what was right in their own eyes, and getting themselves into trouble, but in the promised land, Canaan, that will come to an end, and strict discipline and punishment carried out for every disobedience to the Law. They are to be a model people or righteousness, holiness, of judgment and mercy, and of grace and truth in the world among all the nations. The wicked vile and horrible practices of the nations in Canaan and everywhere, must be exposed and opposed by their lives and testimony. God’s choice of them was not of their superior qualities, not their numeric advantage, but of God’s favor and promises to the fathers. The nations of Canaan were not rejected and then ejected because Israel was so noble and attractive, but only because the wickedness and depravity of those nations in the eyes of God, for Moses reminds them that every detestable, abominable, horrible, and perverse practices was done for and with and to their gods and idols, practices as infanticide to Moloch. This Book was to be regarded in a special sacred way, that its laws commandments, precepts, and statutes, and all the words written in it, was to guide and teach them the divine way. The Book was to be preserved in such a way it was ever a witness of God’s presence and relations to His people. Though Genesis gave the history and generations of the Land and the People, it was Deuteronomy that shows the Book by which the Land and the People will be transformed. Therefore, this Book must not be added to nor its words deleted in part or whole throughout Israel’s dispensation.

Hertz’ Pentateuch (Chumash) and Haftorahs inform us of these details from the Massoretic Notes in various Hebrew Manuscripts: Genesis has 1,534 verses; 12 Sedrahs (parshiyoth) or Sections; 43 Sub-sections, Sedarim, in the Triennial Cycle; (in 50 Chapters). Exodus has 1.209 verses; 11 Sedrahs; 29 Sedarim; (Eng. 40 Chapters.). Leviticus has 859 verses; 10 Sedrahs; 23 Sedarim; (Eng. 27 Chapters). Numbers has 1,288 verses; 10 Sedrahs; 32 Sedarim; (Eng. 36 Chapters). Deuteronomy has 955 verses; 11 Sedrahs; [27 Sedarim]; (Eng. 34 Chapters). The total number of verses in the Torah is 5,845. The Five Books of Moses printed text only is about 350 pages at 400 words per page in 11or12 point font and represents 1/4th of the Old Testament.
Rambam’s Complete Restatement of the Oral Law (Mishneh Torah) [Deuteronomy]:
The Law as it should actually be practiced by all in our day by the Master Teacher Moshe son of Maimon (also known as RaMBaM (Rabbi Moses ben-Maimon) or Maimonides) (Translated from the Hebrew text reconstructed according to the Yemenite manuscripts by the staff of Mechon Mamre.) ©2011 Mechon Mamre, 12 Hayyim Vital St, Jerusalem, Israel. (
The Rambam’s Introduction to the Mishneh Torah: Preface: “In the name of God (Elohim, Allah), Lord of the world” (Genesis 21:33) “Then I will not be ashamed when I gaze at all Thy mitzvoth (commandments)” (Psalms 119:6).
1. All the commandments that were given to Moshe (Moses) at Sinai were given together with their interpretation, as it is written “and I will give thee the Tables of Stone, and the Law, and the Commandment” (Exodus 24:12). “Law” is the Written Law; and “Commandment” is its interpretation: We were commanded to fulfill the Law, according to the Commandment. And this Commandment is what is called the Oral Law.
2. The whole of the Law was written down by Moshe (Moses) Our Teacher before he died, in his own hand. He gave a scroll (book) of the Law to each tribe; and he put another scroll by the Ark for a witness, as it is written “take this book of the Law and put it by the side of the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD your God, that it may be there for a witness against thee” (Deuteronomy 31:26).
3. But the Commandment, which is the interpretation of the Law, he did not write it down, but gave orders concerning it to the elders, to Yehoshua (Joshua), and to all the rest of Israel, as it is written “all this word which I command you, that shall ye observe to do . . .” (Deuteronomy 13:1). For this reason, it is called the Oral Law.
4. Although the Oral Law was not written down, Moshe Our Teacher taught all of it in his court to the seventy elders; and El`azar, Pinehas, and Yehoshua, all three received it from Moshe. And to his student Yehoshua (Joshua), Moshe Our Teacher passed on the Oral Law and ordered him concerning it. And so Yehoshua throughout his life taught it orally.
5. Many elders received it from Yehoshua, and Eli received it from the elders and from Pinehas; Shemuel (Samuel) received it from Eli and his court, and David received it from Shemuel and his court. Ahiyah the Shilonite was among those who had come out of Egypt, and was a Levite, and had heard it from Moshe, but was young in Moshe’s time; and he received it from David and his court…. [to Priests and Prophets to Ezra the Scribe and the Men of the Great Assembly to Hillel and Shammai to the great Rabbis like Gamliel the Elder to the Written Mishnah to the Talmuds, some 40 generations.
45. The number of Torah commandments that are obligatory for all generations is 613: 248 of them are positive commandments, whose mnemonic is the number of parts in the human body; 365 of them are negative commandments, whose mnemonic is the number of days in the solar year.”

Further reflections on Deuteronomy and the Books of Moses. We have given the Traditions that relates to the Torah and Pentateuch. The laws as enumerated and transmitted by Doctor and Rabbi Moses ben-Maimon as 613 consisting of positive and negative commandments in the Books of Moses, but deduced from the Mishnah, which at times altered the original commandment by extension in its application (as in the positive commandment 247, or the negative commandment 360) excluding Genesis, and primarily in Deuteronomy, are in reality many more. Certain laws may be added to the List, such as Deuteronomy 17:18-20 : “And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of [that which is] before the Levitical priests the and it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them; that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left: to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel.” Which would produce these Laws: 1. The King must write for himself a copy of this law in a book from the Levitical Priests’ copy. 2. He shall retain his copy of the Book of the Law. 3. He must read it daily always. 4. He must by all the words of the laws and statutes learn to fear the Lord his God. 5. He must keep and obey them that his heart be not lifted against his brethren; that he swerves not from the commandment; that his and his children’s days be prolonged in his kingdom in Israel. But only the first was put in the list (see commandment 18) and reasoned that the King must have two copies of the Law Book. And there are many other instances if each one was itemized as written, the Mishneh Torah may rise to about 1,000 laws or codes. And of course, as time went along the Judges, Kings, Priests, and Prophets all added other words that Israel was to believe and obey. For this reason, we said that the basis of the Law was the Word, that the laws were the words of God’s will and way. The legal instructions and doctrines were all designed to lead to life, a life with God; but it could not give that life to those who desired it in the weakness of their sinful condition, and the frailty of their flesh. Man’s fragile soul and mind and will could not motivate perfect and constant obedience, so the sacrificial system was provided to bandage the hurts and sores till something better might be offered. This will be seen in the Psalms as that cry and expression of something more, and higher, and far better for both sinner and Savior.
The Law in Moses’ Books was an element or condition of God’s Covenant and Testament or Witness with Israel, which contained many parts and members, and which continued to multiply as the nation grew. The ancient laws of every people, tongue, and nation had laws in the thousands, and then as the kingdom and empire expanded the number of laws also increased into ten-thousands, and then by modern times into hundred-thousands, and now some nearing a million. But all laws in Scripture and the world may be reduced to a few basic laws or principles; such was the Decalogue or the 10 Words, the Ten Commandments, by which all the laws of the Old Covenant were developed. And all laws in the Old Testament in the Law and the Prophet and the Psalms or other Writings were further reduced to Two Commandments (Duologue or Dialog versus Monologue), Love for God and Neighbor, for Him and Others. Now the Mishnah and the Mishneh give us the list of the Oral Law or the Divine Tradition in such a way we may agree with the old saying that from Moses the Lawgiver to Moses the Codifier there has been none like Moses in the transmission of the Law to Israel. But Jewish Tradition is filled with restrictions to the truth, in that its rabbinical interpretations have become additional laws and commandments even to the nullifying or voiding the Torah of God. We brought forth Spinoza earlier as a witness and example of the criticism of the truth of Sacred Scripture in which all inspiration is reduced to human extension and adaptation of ordinary experience and passion. And we may feel for Spinoza’s struggle in his Jewish identity in a Christian dominated world, in which he had to come to terms with Catholicism and Neo-Catholicism, that is Protestantism, and with its Scholastic Rationalism; so here in Rambam we feel his pain as a Jew trying to maintain orthodox faith in a Islamic world, and it’s Neo-Islamism, or Sufism, and its Scientific Rationalism; both great Jewish leaders, both rejected by Rabbinical Orthodoxy while young and living, but after death were owned and honored. Maimonides doctrine of the Oral Law and the Written Law, Mishnah Torah, has dominated most of modern Judaism to retain a semblance of ancient orthodoxy and defense against Christianity and Islam. He truly is an Aquinas of Judaism.
Modern Orthodox Judaism, both Kosher and Rabbinical, accuses the Christian Church and its scholars as mishandling and misinterpreting the Old Testament Bible, in the its most fundamental essentials and value, that is as it pertains to Jesus as the Messiah. No reflections of the Old Covenant, the Old Testament or Tanakh, especially of the Torah and Psalms and Isaiah and Daniel must fail to consider Jewish beliefs and practice as it relates to Messiah and Christian experiences. The Synagogue is the modern witness of the Divine Worship of which we read in the Hebrew Scriptures in the Mosaic Law and those Prophets who poke of the Mosaic system or institution as it applied to Israel’s condition from time to time. The Synagogue Pentateuch or Chumash, with the Haftorahs or Readings from the Prophets, along with its notes and comments transmits to Jew and Gentile Talmudic Orthodoxy. I use several, but favor Hertz’ Edition, but value the Stones Edition of ArtScroll Mesorah Publications as much. Like the Jews, Christians, that is Torah Jews and Bible Christians agree on the Divine Inspiration of Sacred Scripture, and in fact many things related the written Text of the Bible is held in common. It is those intrinsic and core doctrines as it relates to Messiah or Christ that ever divides us and must of nature do so if one or the other stands true. In America, though anti-Semitism still exist in a lesser degree than decades or centuries ago, it is commonly acknowledged that the Jews, the Hebrew People of Israel, have suffered wrongly and horrifically at the hands of Christians, in church and state, far too frequently. This religious persecution by professed Christians has not honored the name of Christ, among the Jews and in the world, and even in the Church. Nor do I excuse the Jewish blame in persecution or slander or other anti-Christian words and acts throughout the centuries. We all may give thanks to God that America and Britain are close and true friends to the modern state of Israel. But now for the divisive doctrines in Moses against Christ and Christianity found in the Chumash Torah.

Hertz’ Pentateuch or Chumash:
1: Fall of Man or Adam: The Christian Dogmatic Doctrine of Original Sin in Adam’s Sin or Fall, and man born consequently in a sinful state and sin nature, is strange and dangerous, and at times an unbelievable vilification of Woman, is rejected by Judaism as somber error. Rather man was and is mortal, ever retains the Divine image and likeness, always capable to improve his life in obedience to God’s Law which is the cure of and from an evil condition. Original Virtue is Jewish doctrine, and the Golden Age of Humanity is in the future as in Isaiah 2 and 6. (Hertz does not notice the doctrinal defect when he writes a few pages later, in his Note on Abraham: “Mankind descending from Adam became hopelessly corrupt…..and moral darkness overspreads the earth.” And does not consider whence and why the creature with the divine image becomes “hopelessly corrupt” in “moral darkness”. The fictional story of Abram’s childhood in Ur in rejecting idols is a vain attempt to dodge man’s sinful nature of which Abram partook.)
2: The Binding of Isaac (Akedah): Hertz cannot see any typical or prophetical reflections in the Divine Requirement of the Sacrifice of Isaac on Mount Moriah or the Temple Mount chapter 22 of Genesis, nor at the mature years of Isaac (not a child), nor anything of Messiah. He only sees a new meaning and influence (as others have done by running away from Christ they run into something as a cheap substitute, like for example, Kierkegaard’s religious existentialism, whose basis of conversion was encased in his childhood horror of the Sacrifice.) Hertz new symbolism and divine principle is that of martyrdom, in which Jews have often sacrificed their lives for the Law of God. As the Apocryphal Maccabean story of Hanna and her 7 sons, which Hertz cites the Midrash, as bettering Father Abraham, because she gave to and for God her 7 Sons in Death. God provided the Ram Sacrifice Himself as a Substitute for the Firstborn; but many are veiled.
3: Alleged Christological References in Scripture: The rendering of the Hebrew in Gen. 49:10 as “until Shiloh come”, is an example of the weak hermeneutics of Christians wanting to find Messianic verses to evangelize ignorant Jews. Hertz cites several other renderings to remove any Messianic typification and significance to a future Messiah, and notes that Shiloh is never elsewhere used of Messiah. (But here again the veil needs to be lifted in the Reading of the Law: the entire passage is verses 9-12: Judah as a Young Lion, leaves His Prey, He lowers and couched as a Lion and Lioness; who shall raise Him up (resurrect Him)? The Sceptre will not depart from Judah (yet this is before Judah had a throne or king or kingdom), the Ruler’s Staff or Rod from between His Feet (yet no ruler’s staff or rod had yet been established in Israel concerning Judah); till men come to Shiloh or Shiloh comes to men, and to Him (Shiloh) shall be the Obedience of the Peoples (Israel and the Gentiles). What then? After He comes He will Bind His Foal to the Vine; He washes His Garments in Wine, His Vesture in Blood of Grapes; His Eyes Red with Wine, His Teeth White with Milk. (What kind of Shiloh could Jacob-Israel possibly be describing in Spirit?) Is not Hertz betraying Jewish prejudice and ignorance? He admits that the older rabbinical teachings saw clearly the Messianic message in this prophecy, but now it is being abandoned. Why? Hertz further cites other so-called Messianic verses that Christian Scholars of repute are gradually reputing; examples: Psalm 2:1, Kiss the Son; Isaiah 7:4, a Virgin shall conceive; and Isaiah 53rd, the most famous.
4: The Decalogue or Ten Commandments: Hertz: “No religious document has exercised a greater influence on the moral and social life of man than the Divine Proclamation of Human Duty, known as the Decalogue. These few brief commands –only 120 Hebrew words in all– cover the whole sphere of conduct, not only of outer actions, but also of the secret thoughts of the heart. In simple, unforgettable form, this unique code of codes lays down the fundamental rules of Worship and of Right for all time and for all men.” The Talmud Teachers by every means, including Rabbinic legend, emphasized the eternal and universal significance of the Commandments; teaching that before the Creation the Tables for the Commandments were prepared out of the sapphire of the Throne of Glory; that it was for all the world, and every people and nation was intended; thus the Divine Voice at Sinai divided itself into 70 tongues to represent all the nations in the entire world. The Rabbis held the 6th of Sivan, when the Law was given, to be as sacred as the Day of creation, because it was the Moral Law, of Conscience and Right in the Universe that completed the Creation, and without it creation would be meaningless. All schools of Judaism hold the Decalogue to be the Fundamentals of the Faith, and the Pillars of the Torah and its Roots. In fact, the whole content of Judaism as Creed and Life can be arranged under the ten general headings of the Commandments. Outside the Synagogue among many of the greatest Christian leaders the Decalogue was taught to be the noblest of laws and ethics. Judaism stands or falls with its belief in the historic actuality of the Revelation at Sinai.
5: Jewish Interpretations of Sacrifice: Hertz: Rabbinical Judaism accepted the law of sacrifices without presuming to find a satisfactory explanation of its details. No need to ask why God demanded it, but only to consent to His will. But some Rabbis retorted to symbolism, not as extreme as Philo, and this Rabbinical view of the spiritual symbolic significance has dominated modern Judaism; showing man’s gratitude to God, dependence on Him, absolute devotion, and confidence in Him. But a few Rabbis taught a so-called juridical ((or judicial and forensic justice and substitutionary penalty and payment for reconciliation and atonement, propitiation or expiation or satisfaction.)). Hertz: “As a sinner, the offender’s life is forfeit to God; but by a gracious provision he is permitted to substitute a faultless victim, to which his guilt is, as it were, transferred [and covered temporarily] by the imposition of hands [in identification of the guilty or the offering]. Many Christian exegetes adopted this interpretation and built the whole theological foundation of their Church upon it. “Hertz then refers to the rationalist view of sacrifice held by Maimonides and Abarbanel, that it was a divine accommodation to primitive conceptions to wean mankind from religious rites and idolatry.
6: The Golden Rule is treated at length to establish that Moses and not Jesus was the true author of the Golden Rule or the Positive Commandment of Love thy Neighbor as thyself. But we need not be troubled about Moses defenders on this difference.
7: Vows: Hertz treats the great value of vows and oaths in Judaism, and with that the Kol Nidre or the Annulment of Vows. But we need not meddle with this doctrine and practice also.
8. The Shema: “Hear, O Israel, the LORD our God, the LORD is One”: “These words enshrine Judaism’s greatest contribution to the religious thought of mankind. They constitute the primal confession of Faith in the religion of the Synagogue….” Which negates Polytheism; Dualism; Pantheism, and the Belief in the Trinity; and promotes Brotherhood of Man; Unity of the Universe and History; and the Messianic Kingdom. “As to the words, “And the LORD shall be One, and His Name One,” they are combined with the Shema Yisroel in the Musaph Prayer [additional sacrificial prayer] of the New Year –one of the most solemn portions of the Jewish Liturgy. They also form the last sentence of the Oleynoo prayer [as in the Kaddish or Mourner’s Prayer], and thus end every statutory Jewish service –morning afternoon, and evening. There could be no more fitting conclusion for the Jew’s daily devotion than this universalist hope for God’s Kingdom.”
9: Deuteronomy: This is the longest annotated Book in the Chumash of Moses in Hertz Edition. After a lengthy treatment of the Shema’s Meaning and History, under the sub-heading Defense of the Unity: “The Rabbis not only trained Israel to the understanding of the vital significance of the Divine Unity; they also defended the Jewish God-idea whenever its purity was threatened by enemies from without or within. They permitted no toying with polytheism, be its disguises ever so ethereal; they brooked no departure, even by a hair’s breadth, from the most rigorous monotheism; and rejected absolutely everything that might weaken or obscure it. The fight against idolatry and paganism begun by the Prophets was continued by the Pharisees. Abraham, the father of the Hebrew people, they taught, started on his career as an idol-wrecker. In legends, parables, and discourses, they showed forth the folly and futility of idol-worship, and pointed to the infamy and moral degradation evidenced by the Roman deification of the reigning Emperor…… The Rabbis defended the Unity of God against the Jewish Gnostics, those ancient heretics who blasphemed the God of Israel, ridiculed the Scriptures, and asserted a duality of Divine Powers. And they defended it against the Jewish Christians, who darkened the sky of Israel’s monotheism by teaching a novel doctrine of God’s ‘sonship’; by identifying a man, born of woman, with God; and by advocating the doctrine of a Trinity: Said a Palestinian Rabbi of the fourth century: ‘Strange are those men who believe that God has a son and suffered him to die. The God who could not bear to see Abraham about to sacrifice his son but exclaimed “Lay not thine hand upon the lad,” would He have looked on calmly while His son was being slain, and not have reduced the whole world to chaos!’” Hertz continues that the Rabbis defended orthodox monotheism against the powerful Christian Church through the Middle Ages, and in the Present Day continues against lenient and liberal Christian theologians and writers…. Conclusion: ‘It was undeniably a stroke of true religious genius—a veritable prompting by the Holy Spirit, –to select, as Prof. Steinthal reminds us, out of the 5,845 verses of the Pentateuch this one verse (Deut. VI: 4) as the inscription for Israel’s banner of victory. Throughout the entire realm of literature, secular or sacred, there is probably no utterance to be found that can be compared in its intrinsic intellectual and spiritual force, or in the influence it exerted upon the whole thinking and feeling of civilized mankind, with the six words which have become the battle-cry of the Jewish people for more than twenty-five centuries’ (Kohler).”
10: Hertz continues his Additional Notes and Comments on Deuteronomy in remarks on the Reward and Punishment in Judaism; Jewish Education; Monarchy and Freedom in Israel, and the King; on Marriage, Divorce, and the Position of Woman, in Judaism; the Hallowing of History (“Israel is the author of the idea of History.”). Hertz concludes with his last Addendum on Deuteronomy: its Antiquity and Mosaic Authorship: I. Deuteronomy and the Religious Revival under King Josiah (621 B.C.E.) (in which he advocates and proves that it was the Book of Deuteronomy, as the Book of the Law, that was Recovered in the Temple, the House of the LORD, during the early reign of King Josiah by the Hilkiah the Priest; and elaborates on the Book’s effect and influence of the Revival of Israel and in turn the Preservation of Judaism; with the strongest criticism of the modern schools of higher criticism of the Bible). II. The Authorship of the Second Part of Isaiah, Chapters 40-66. He shows that the universal belief and tradition was the Book of Isaiah was composed by one author, one Isaiah; that the notion of two authors or two Isaiahs is precarious and incredulous criticism, both weak and strained, and filled with countless variances among its advocates; and Hertz also claims that it was Ibn Ezra who was the first to maintain the second half of Isaiah appears to be composed by another contemporary of Isaiah by its internal witness: as in no prediction concerning the appearance of Cyrus or Israel’s captivity is made, but assumed to be well known history; that the name Isaiah never occurs in the second half, nor any personal reference connecting to the author; that the Synagogue the ancient order of the Great Prophets were: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Isaiah; and other less significant reasons that cause some to speak of this part as the Deutero-Isaiah, the Second Isaiah of Babylon.

Additional Reflections on the Pentateuch:

The purposes of God in Genesis chapters 1 and 2 are eternal and unfailing in His bringing about a Land and a People and a Book to satisfy His Heart and Mind, of which He has spoken by His Spirit and clearly made known by His Word in the revelation of the written words from His Mouth. The history of the world is the unfolding of the eternal purpose concealed in types and figures, for His infinite counsels and His foreknowledge of all His intent lay within His Own Soul, waiting in timely manner and proper ways to bring them about, and disclose to us with wisdom and understanding beyond our natural attainments. His image and likeness in us will display His power and majesty despite all that His creation might fail or be deficient by its nature. Man, as lord over all the earth, over its lands, its waters, and its skies; subduing all creatures to his dominion and power; as he ever increases in number and knowledge, beyond any comparison to the animals around him. That has continued uninterrupted from Adam to Moses; although the condition of man did change, and his constitution so altered to deform the divine image in ways and means that reduced him to mere flesh, as a beast, and at times worse than all animals and creatures of this world. Adam in disobedience brought into humanity as a genetic defect and terminal diseases, and a malignant destructive virus; permeating all his inner man in the slavery to his external man of blood, flesh, skin, bones, and his outwards form. All the spiritual qualities of Adam and his decedents shows the conflict of the good and the evil, of the outward and the inward, of love and hate, and a million such descriptions of human personality. In regard to God as the Creator, as the Maker, He Who speaks and acts, and as Lord Who forms and enlivens man, then nurses and trains him in all things of life and blessedness; man, also would in his own world exhibit this dualism often in opposition, and sometimes in harmony according to Divine decree. As God to creation, and the heavens to the earth, and water to land, and life to man; so is man for the Lord’s will and intent. The divine principles of creation, the laws of nature and physics, are all subject to His Word and Power, and it is the operation of His Spirit that works to fulfill all His desire. The way of life and of death is set before man in the garden, man’s home and land in his infancy with the Lord God. From Adam comes both peoples, one follows Adam in disobedience and sin; the other submits to God’s will and way and offers back to God the right and acceptable sacrifice. The serpent as the enemy of God and man, lures and captures man, and in time begins to devour him and to possess his soul and body by the death of man’s spirit and life. In Adam, after the Sin and the Fall, man has become like the serpent and his offspring becomes a brood of vipers. But in Adam man is still God’s creation, with God’s breath of life, and a semblance of innocence and glory; but only in the seed of the woman which in birth shows God’s work and wonder, as a sign and a witness of the divine. This begins a new level of the divine landscape, with its highs and lows; and in between are plains of all kinds; and by which new features appear in the new players or participants. In mankind is seen both the Seed of Woman and the Seed of the Serpent, with the conflict of the head of the one and the heel of the other. The divine blood-line springs in the Woman’s Seed as her children walk with God and in time the Child as the Seed of the Woman triumphs over the Serpent. He will show grace and favor, comfort and rest, to His own in the midst of judgment and destruction of the world; a world that was His, and He loves, and for which He plans salvation.
The ways of God are inscrutable, super-transcendent, surpassing all human thoughts and minds; they are divinely hidden everywhere in all reality and existence, in the universe and all life, and in man. Yet He writes them in clear signs and characters in order that we might come to know and love Him, to fear and serve Him, and for Him to be our God, and us to be His People. In Noah and his Sons God would see and select of them a people to bear His Name (ha-Shem), and that Semitic race of the Hebrew people would become His called and chosen People in Abram of Ur of Chaldea of the Babylonian world. He as Shaddai led him to a new land to inherit it has an eternal home from God; though he died without seeing it and left but one son to bear the birthright and divine promises and blessings. The world continued according to God’s decree from creation, altered by His new covenants along the way, and those visitations of His own choice and manner, as in the Angels manifesting His decisions and words. It is the revelation to Abraham by God’s words and covenant that the Hebrews were formed into theistic people holding confused localize notions of God, in an adulterated version of monotheism and polytheism. Such a world of which the Patriarchs Abraham and Isaac and Jacob lived; and in such a world of hundreds of nations, peoples, tribes, and families, and tongues, God continued to effect His purpose as He affected man in a very simple manner. God revealed His thoughts and ways by His speaking His words to His chosen vehicle or vessel, whether a Melchisedek, an Abimmelech, a Pharaoh, or Priest like Jethro, or Prophet like Balaam, or even an animal like Balaam’s donkey. We see His presence veiled and distorted in the ancient world of the nations of the Patriarchs up to the days of Moses; whether we read of the Sumerians or Accadians, of Babylon or Assyria, a Nimrod or a Hammurabi, and a host of others; His knowledge is there in types and shadows, in reality and in idolatry. These times among all Gentiles He needs must wink at seeing human degradation and the utter confusion of truth or history. But then in the right time and in the perfect condition He must visit His People, and He must deliver them out of their misery, darkness, confusion, abomination, slavery, and many such things; and He must speak anew and more clearly and must write all His Words in a Book for His People in the New Land, and that He might manifest His presence and live with them as a token of His eternal tabernacle with man and His creation.
The Word of the Lord God in all His words, in promises and covenants, in laws and requirements, in judgments and decisions, in codes and cases, in statutes and ordinances, and many other such things, would by Moses create a People of the Book, the Book of God and His Law and Covenant. The Exodus from Egypt and Wilderness Wanderings in the Desert, with Tabernacle and Tent, with the Sacrifices and Levitical Priesthood during the 40 years, were training and trial, a sifting and election, a purging and perfecting of Israel to display them as His Glory and Witness and Light to the Gentiles. The transformation of Jacob to Israel from the Hebrew People to Jehovah’s Nation was actually a shadow and a veil of something far greater and better, of which Moses in his own person and life would foreshadow and illustrate. From his sufferings in Egypt to his exile in Midian, from a Hebrew Egyptian to a Hebrew Israelite, from a prince to a shepherd, and in many other depictions God’s work and word taught man the divine doctrine of salvation to prevent final judgment and condemnation on man, and to renew and restore His creatures in a new creation. Who and What God was and is and will be would slowly and increasingly be displayed in the audience of His people in His world. The Divine qualities and attributes by means of all the words of Moses’ Law and Book, Sepher Torah, the Holy Scriptures, would lead man to the truth of God. And though it may be said by ancients that the Torah was created before the World, yet it is truer to say that the Word (Debar) gave the Law (Torah). Moses as the Lawgiver was the Voice and Mouth of God, and as Our Teacher in Israel, the Prophet and Man of God serving Him to the end that man may be wooed or driven to the Lord God and His Word. That Word would in time come forth from eternity into the world in Israel as a Final Prophet of God to complete and fulfill all God’s words and laws and commandments.

The Pentateuch as the Sacred Writings and the Holy Book instructs us about God, and reveals His Truth, the truth coming from Him and returning to Him. We said in the early chapters of Genesis that God is the Author of all things that His Word is His speaking with power and life to create and make all things. That of Man or Adam He spoke man’s existence and creation in His will and purpose or plan, but in time, and His way, He formed man in a more personal manner, as if He was begetting out of His labor the pregnancy of His generation and being. Moses has recorded God’s words and His doctrines, has absorbed and integrated the Divine Word within his mind and memory, and conveyed that message to Israel and to us. Its details as has been said consist of a library of Divine and Spiritual things along with a host of ordinary and common things. Many things have been passed on to us as common knowledge, while some things are mysteries understood by a few and taught to a remnant. Our interpretations are not always accurate, at times only partially true, and often erroneous in our ignorance with assumptions and presumptions of divine things. The long history of the Church and of the Synagogue, have preserved many of the Divine Doctrines amidst much tradition. Divine Tradition does exist in certain instances when the words proceeded from God. The literal views as well the symbolic, the natural or spiritual interpretations, in many cases are limited and restrictive, with misapplications everywhere in every group or family. Many of these we have already noticed from Genesis to Deuteronomy. We have reserved some views till we completed the Five Books of Moses and gave a detail but comprehensive digest synopsis of Scripture of Moses. We are prepared to move onwards and forward towards the next great book of the Divine Hand in Psalms, but we must traverse through the historical books from Joshua to Esther. Job will be treated with the Psalms and the other Poetic Books. I remind the reader and the Bible student that I have established the uniqueness and superiority of the 1st and 5th Books of Moses’ Pentateuch-Chumash, and though the Books of Exodus-Leviticus-Numbers are essential to the Word revealed, still it is Genesis & Deuteronomy that governs the Book. The 40 years Wilderness Wandering was intended to be only 2 years, and that only to transform the people, construct the Tabernacle and Sanctuary, and constitute the Law and Sacrifices in the Aaronic and Levitical Priesthood, and of those essentials relative to the Promised and Possessed Land. Therefore, again, I repeat, with this in view, the next great Book is the Psalms where the Law and the Word, from Genesis to Deuteronomy to David will find a maturity and superiority that surpasses the old.

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Christian Biblical Reflections.11

(Here are pages 180-197. The Graphics or Illustrations & Maps will no doubt not be visible in the post; the PDF will be uploaded to see the examples given. As usual, errors are corrected as I notice them, or informed by others. mjm)

Illustrations & Maps Relevant to CBR Chapter I and the Word :

1. Simple marks to Complex figures: Geometric & Symbolic: Nature & Human:
1. . : dot, period, point, and mark; used in many Alphabets and Writings; etc.
2. – : line, a mark of a dot extended in a straight direction; used in Alphabets, etc.
3. ( ) : curve, curved line, extended simple lines into complex lines into forms, figures, etc.
4. [ ] : angles, simple straight lines into complex forms, figures, etc.
5. O : circle, simple curved line closed; etc.
6. Square, Triangle, Spiral, Circles (multi-circles), etc. complex extensions of simple lines & curves.
7. Shapes, Forms, Figures, Characters, Marks, etc. are complex derived from the simple.
8. Art, Pictures, Images, Charts, Maps, etc. are representations and illustrations of things, etc.

2. Hammurabi Code Stone Monument

3. Larkin’s Dispensational Truth, © 1918. God’s Sanctuary: Tabernacle, Priesthood and Camps.


3. Larkin’s Dispensational Truth and Spiritual World, © 1918, 1920: Example of the Doctrine of the Tripartite (Trichotomy) Nature of Man. Compare with many others, Heard, Bullinger, Nee, etc. For Dichotomy: merge Soul & Spirit into one.

4. Ancient Latin Map of the Earth in Middle Ages: note distortions and ignorance of the World.

5. City and Temple (Ziggurat) of Ur; of Abraham’s times; once unknown and denied to exist; excavated along with much more, in 1930s. It relates from Nimrod to Abram.

6. Older Map of Middle East of the Ancient Nations.


7. Modern Physical Map of Middle East.

8. King Tut’s Tomb (Tut-Ankh-Amun) or Sarcophagus or mummified coffin, discovered in 1922 in Valley of Kings. See Nat. Geographic, Sept. 2010, King’s Tut’s DNA. Relates Israel in Egypt and the Dynasty of Pharaohs from Joseph to Moses; from Yuya & Tuyu to Tut & Ankh-Esen-Amun.

Image Image

9. Google’s Virtual Map of the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba & Sinai Peninsula, 2011.


10. Bing (Microsoft) Virtual World Map of 2011.

11. Egypt & Arabia & Sudan of 1910, borders and railways; British Protectorate. Compare T.E Lawerence on Arabia Partition, 1910-1922. Compare Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916 of Partition of Middle East.

12. Google’s Virtual map of Middle East area near Israel, from 2 Gulfs to Syria, etc.

13. Modern Middle East map of borders, roadways, terrain, etc.

14. Sumerian standard’s “war panel” at Ur, time before Abram; shows war, craft, etc. See S.N. Kramer “History begins at Sumer”; also J.B. Pritchard’s ANE, vol.1

15. Ancient Near-East Map from American Bible Society in eSword.

16. Partition Maps: Israel & Trans-Jordan 1910-1922-1967. Note Dagger (Israel) and Ax (Jordan).

17. Arabian-Indian-Iranian Teutonic Plate or Rift next to the African and Eurasian. Note line through Red Sea, northward through Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea, and Jordan River along eastern coast of Mediterranean Sea.

18. The Major Rivers of the Middle East.

19. Birds Eye View of the Holy Land: Ancient Canaan-Palestine-Israel:

20. Ancient Palestine-Canaan-Israel:

21. TimeLine of Ancient Egypt by National Geographic Society. The periods relating to the times between Joseph and Moses are numbers 6 and 7, Dynasties 15 – 20, 1600-1400 B.C.
Time Line of Ancient Egypt: Egypt Secrets of an Ancient World.
1. Predynastic About 5500-3000 B.C.: Climatic change about 7,000 years ago turns most of Egypt—except for along the Nile—to desert. Farming begins and communities form along the river, with important population centers at Buto, Naqada, and Hierakonpolis. Egypt remains divided into Upper and Lower (southern and northern) Egypt.
2. Early Dynastic (Dynasties I-III) 2950-2575 B.C.: Consolidation of Upper and Lower Egypt and the founding of Memphis, the first capital; Calendar and hieroglyphic writing created. Royal necropolis located at Abydos; vast cemeteries at Saqqara and other sites.
3. Old Kingdom (Dynasties IV-VIII) 2575-2150 B.C.: Age of pyramids reaches zenith at Giza; cult of the sun god Re centered at Heliopolis; Cultural flowering; trade with Mediterranean region and brief occupation of Lower Nubia.

4. First Intermediate Period (Dynasties IX-XI) 2125-1975 B.C.: Political chaos as Egypt splits into two regions with separate dynasties.
5. Middle Kingdom (Dynasties XI-XIV) 1975-1640 B.C.: Reunification by Theban kings. Dynasty XII kings win control of Lower Nubia; royal burials shift north to near Memphis; Major irrigation projects; Classical literary period.
6. Second Intermediate Period (Dynasties XV-XVII) 1630-1520 B.C.: Asiatic Hyksos settlers rule the north, introducing the horse and chariot; Thebans rule the south.
7. New Kingdom (Dynasties XVIII-XX) 1539-1075 B.C.: Thebans expel the Hyksos and reunite Egypt. In this “age of empire,” warrior kings conquer parts of Syria, Palestine, and Lower Nubia.
8. Third Intermediate Period (Dynasties XXI-XXIV) 1075-715 B.C.: Egypt is once again divided; the high priests of Amun control Thebes; ethnic Libyans rule elsewhere.
9. Late Period (Dynasties XXV-XXX) 715-332 B.C.: Nubians from Kush conquer Egypt; Egypt reunited under Saite dynasty. Persia rules in fifth century B.C. Egypt independent from 404 to 343 B.C.
10. Greco-Roman Period 332 B.C. – A.D. 395: Ptolemies rule after the death of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C. Dramatic growth of population and agricultural output. Roman emperors build many temples, depicting themselves in the Egyptian style.
(National Geographic Society. ©1996-. All rights reserved.)
(Awaiting permission:


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Christian Biblical Reflections. Chapter I.pdf

((Christian Biblical Reflections. Chapter I. pdf. mjm.)) Christian Biblical


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Christian Biblical Reflections.10

((Here are pages 161-179; with further corrections. We this post and submission I have completed Genesis – Numbers, as planned and promised, Chapter 1 completed; Chapter 2 of Deuteronomy – Psalms, is planned for April. I also will attempt to upload a PDF of each Chapter as completed, if I find the way to do so. mjm.))

NUMBERS: Chapters 1-36: Moses IV:

The Fourth Book of Moses, Moses IV, consists of 36 chapters, and takes its name from the content of the book as given verse two, the number of the names; but the Hebrew uses the fourth word, bedmidbar, meaning “in the wilderness” or desert. The connection to Leviticus is obvious and intentional, as the continuation of the story in the scroll. The Book has two significant parts, part one from chapters 1 to 14, and part two, chapters 15 to 36. Part one is at Sinai, when the people were numbered, then moves to the Desert of Paran, where the spies were sent out and returned. Part two Is at the Desert of Paran near Kadesh-Barnea after the rebellion and refusal to invade Canaan and continues through the next 38 years of wandering in the wilderness up to the 40th year after the Exodus, to the last month of Moses life.
The Lord spoke to Moses in the Desert of Sinai in the Tent of Meeting on 1st day of the 2nd year after the Exodus, for him and Aaron to number all the male Israelites by families and clans, from 20 years and above, those able to go to war, to enlist them by their hosts or divisions. Each Tribe to be represented by a leader or general, in this order: of Reuben; of Simeon; of Judah; of Issachar; of Zebulun; of Joseph’s Ephraim; and of Manasseh; of Benjamin; of Dan; of Asher; of Gad; and of Naphtali.  These twelve were the Princes of the Tribes of Israel the heads of the thousands of Israel; Moses and the 12 princes with Israel in the Sinai Desert declared their lineages, on the 1st day of the 2nd month, from 20-60, as commanded they were numbered by generations, families, houses, and polls all that could go to war. Those numbered were: of Reuben were 46,500; of Simeon were 59,300; of Gad were 45,650; of Judah were 74,600; of Issachar were 54.400; of Zebulun 57,400; of Joseph’s Ephraim were 40,500; of Joseph’s Manasseh were 32,200; of Benjamin were 35,400; of Dan were 62,700; of Asher were 41,500; of Naphtali were 53,400. The total number of Israel’s military was 603,550. Only the Tribe of Levi was forbidden to be numbered because the Lord appointed the Levites over the Tabernacle of Testimony and its furniture to minister to it and encamp around it and to take it down and to set it up; but the stranger who comes near shall be put to death. The children of Israel shall encamp by their own standards in their divisions, and the Levites must encamp around the Tabernacle that wrath come not on the community.
The tribes of Israel are to camp around the Tabernacle on four sides by the standards and ensigns or banners or flags, opposite or facing the Tent. On the East Judah’s hosts and the tribal prince, with all the numbered men; in like manner next to him is Issachar; next Zebulun; in all on the East side of the Three Tribes is some 186,400; these are to march and camp first. On the South likewise is Reuben and with him is Simeon and Gad, in all 151,450; these to march or set out and camp 2nd. The Tent of Meeting with the camp of the Levites by their standard in between the 12 Tribes, 6 in front and 6 in back. On the West is standard of Ephraim’s camp and host, as the others, along with Manasseh and Benjamin; in all these totaled 108,100; the third to set out or march and camp. On the North is Dan’s standard and host, in like manner, along with Asher and Naphtali; in all these totaled 157,600. These 12 Tribes numbered in all 603,550; excluding the Levites; they set out and encamped by families and houses.
The generations of Moses and Aaron at the time the Lord spoke to Moses at Mount Sinai: Aaron sons were Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar; these were anointed and consecrated to minister or serve in the priest’s office or Aaronic Priesthood. Nadab and Abihu died as childless rebels for offering strange fire to the Lord in the Sinai Desert, leaving only Eleazar and Ithamar minister.   The Lord tells Moses to bring and present the tribe of Levi to minister or serve Aaron by keeping his charge and for Israel at the Tent of Meeting in the service of the Tabernacle, to attend to all the furniture and service.  The Aaronic priesthood is not to be approached by a stranger or unauthorized person, who must be put to death.  The Levites are to be numbered from one month and older, from the names of the families and houses of Aaron three sons: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.  The Gershonites encamped westward behind the Tabernacle; with its tribal prince; and their charge and duties in the Tent of meeting was the Tabernacle and Tent, and its inner Covering, the Screen or Curtain for the door or entrance, and Hangings for the court, the outer Screen or Curtain, and its Cords or Ropes.  The Kohathites in like manner, on the Tabernacle’s south-side, were numbered, and their charge was the Sanctuary and its Ark, Table, Lampstand, Altars, Vessels, and inner Screen or Curtain.  Eleazar is to be Prince of Princes of the all Levitical Priests, and supervisor of the Sanctuary attendants.  The Merarites likewise, on Tabernacle’s north-side were numbered and their charge was the Tabernacle’s Boards, Bars, Pillars, Sockets, Instruments, and its Service, its Court-pillars, Sockets, Pins, and Cords or Ropes. The encampment on the Tabernacle’s east-side before the Tent of Meeting as the sun rises was Moses and Aaron and his sons, to keep the charge of the Sanctuary for Israel; the stranger who approaches shall be put to death.  The Levites that were numbered by Moses and Aaron by the Lord’s command, males from one month and older, were 22,000. The Lord told Moses to number all males of Israel from one month and older by names; for the Levites are to be a substitute for all the firstborn of Israel, and the Levites’ livestock for the firstlings of Israel.  Moses numbered Israel and the male population from one month and older came to 22,273, that is 273 over. For these the redemption is to be 5 sanctuary-shekels a person (one shekel = 20 gerahs); the redemption-money came to 1,365, which Moses gave to Aaron as the Lord commanded.
The Lord told Moses and Aaron to take the Kohathites from 30 – 50 for the service of the Tent of Meeting for the most holy things: before setting out the Aaronic priests take down the Veil of screen or curtain and cover the Ark of Testimony with it, and over the Veil a covering of Sealskin (Badger-skins), and over that a blue Cloth, and its Staves or Poles inserted The Table of Showbread must also be covered with blue-cloth, and on the Table its dishes, spoons, bowls, and cups, these covered with a scarlet-cloth and over this a covering of sealskin or badger-skin, with its poles inserted. The Lampstand of the Light and its lamps, snuffers, snuff dishes, oil vessels, are to be covered with a blue-cloth, and then sealskin, and put on the frame. The Golden Altar is to be covered with blue, and then a covering of sealskin, with its poles inserted; the vessels of ministry in the Sanctuary are to be covered with blue-cloth, covered with sealskin, and placed on the frame.  The Altar’s ashes are removed, and the Altar to be covered with purple-cloth, with its vessels, fire pans, flesh-hooks, shovels, basins, and its vessels, and covered them with sealskin, and its poles inserted. After the Aaronic priests have covered the Sanctuary and its furniture then the Kohathites are to carry them, but must not touch them, or they may die; these are their burden (things to be carried and transported) in the Tent of Meeting. Eleazar ben-Aaron the priest is responsible for the oil for the light, sweet incense, continual meal-offering, anointing oil, the Tabernacle and its things, and the Sanctuary and its furniture. The Kohathites are not to be cut off from the Levites in their care of the most holy things in their service and burden; they must not ever look inside the Sanctuary, lest they die. The Gershonites were numbered from 30 to 50 to attend to and serve the work of the Tent of Meeting. Their Service and burdens is to carry the curtains of the Tabernacle and Tent of Meeting, its covering, covering of sealskins, screen or curtain for the door or entrance of the Tent, the court hangings, the screen or curtain for the door or entrance of the gate of the court, their cords and instruments, and whatever is needed in the service.  The Merarites in like manner numbered to serve and care and carry the Tabernacle’s boards and bars, its pillars and sockets, its court pillars and sockets, their pins and cords, with all the instruments and service, each instrument by appointment. Moses and Aaron the Princes of Israel numbered the Levites by families and houses, from 30 to 50, for the work of service to carry the burdens in the Tent of Meeting as commanded by the Lord; and the total was 8,580 Levites from Kohath, Gershon, and Merari.
The Lord told Moses to command Israel to isolate the lepers, those with discharges, and those unclean by the dead, male and female, outside the camp, so the camp, the Lord’s dwelling) become not defiled. The guilty soul who sin or trespass against the Lord must confess and make restitution in full and add 1/5th to his victim or the other party; and for the injured party without some kin, the restitution must go to the Lord’s priest, with the ram for his atonement. All heave-offerings of holy things of Israel must go to the priest, and anyone’s hallowed things. A wife who trespass against her husband in secret adultery, being defiled but no witness against her, not being caught in the act; if the spirit of jealousy causes her husband to suspect her adultery, whether true or not, she must be brought to the priest with her offering of 1/10th ephah of barley meal, without oil or frankincense; it is a jealousy meal-offering, a memorial of remembrance. The priest shall take holy water in earthen container and dust from the floor of the Tabernacle mix in it, and before the Lord the woman’s hair loosed, and give her the meal-offering of memorial and jealousy and give her the mixed water of bitterness which causes the curse. The priest must make her swear an oath that she has not committed adultery and uncleanness while married, and then she is to be free from the bitter water of the curse; but if she is guilty and defiled, may the Lord make her a curse and oath to her people, when her thigh is infected and her body swell, after the cursed water enters her stomach; and she must say ‘amen’, ‘amen’.  The priest must write these curses in a book, and then blot them out with the water of bitterness; then the woman must drink it bitter. The priest must take the meal-offering of jealousy from the woman, and wave it to the Lord, and bring it to the altar; he shall take a handful of the meal-offering as a memorial, and burn it on the altar, then make her drink it. Afterwards if she is defiled and guilty of trespass the bitter water will cause her to be cursed, and if not, she will not be cursed but conceive seed. This is the law of jealousy of the spirit of jealousy, to free or convict the wife or husband of iniquity.
The law of the Nazirite, by the Lord’s command to Moses for Israel, that when an Israelite, man or woman, makes a special vow of a Nazirite to separate to the Lord, they must abstain from wine or alcohol, from wine-vinegar or vinegar, from grape-juice or grapes or raisins. A Nazirite must abstain from partaking of anything that comes from the grapevine; a Nazirite must not cut the hair or beard, till the vow is fulfilled, he is holy in his separation; the locks of the hair of his head must grow long. A Nazirite must not come near a dead body to become unclean, not for any relative, because he is holy and separated to God. If he is accidently defiled by the dead, he must shave his head on the 7th day of his cleansing and offer his sacrifices on the 8th day at the Tent, a sin and burnt offering for his atonement for sin of death. He may renew a vow of separation to the Lord but must not resume the days of his former vow voided by defilement. When a Nazirite vow is completed he must offer all his sacrifices to the Lord at the Tent; after the priest is done the Nazirite must shave, and take the hair and put it under the fire of peace-offerings; then the priest give him the boiled shoulder of the ram, a cake, and a wafer, and the priest must wave them as a wave-offering to the Lord; this is holy for the priest, and also the wave-breast and heave-thigh; then may the Nazirite drink wine.
The Lord said to Moses to tell Aaron and sons to bless Israel in this way: ‘The Lord bless them, keep them, shine on them, and be gracious to them, lift is countenance on them, and give them peace’; thus His Name is put on them to bless them. When Moses setup the completed constructed Tabernacle (a year from the Exodus) and anointed and sanctified it and all related to it, that the tribal princes of Israel of the militia offered their oblations to the Lord at the Tabernacle; 6 covered wagons or carts, one per two tribes, and 12 oxen, one per tribe were offered; for the service of the Tent for the Levites; to the Gershonites 2 wagons and 4 oxen; and to Merarites 4 carts and 8 oxen. The Kohathites were given none, because they shouldered the Sanctuary service.  The princes offered on a set day the offering for the dedication of the Altar, for 12 days, 1st Judah, 2nd Issachar, 3rd Zebulun, 4th Reuben, 5th Simeon, 6th Gad, 7th Ephraim, 8th Manasseh, 9th Benjamin, 10th Dan, 11th Asher, and the 12th was Naphtali. The tribal Princes each offered the same offerings which was alike: 1 silver platter 130 sanctuary-shekels in weight, 1 silver bowl of 70 sanctuary-shekels, both filled with fine flour mixed with oil for a meal-offering; 1 golden spoon of 10 shekels, full of incense; for a burnt-offering one bullock, one ram, one he-lamb a year old; for a sin-offering one male goat; for the sacrifice of peace-offerings were 2 oxen, 5 rams, 5 he-goats, 5 he-lambs a year old. Each Prince offered the same kind and number of offerings each for his tribes’ day for the Altar’s dedication in its anointing: 12 silver platters of the same weight, 12 silver bowls of same weight, 12 golden spoons of same weight; the silver totaled 2400 sanctuary-shekels; the gold totaled 120 shekels; the bullocks, rams, he-lambs, their meal-offerings, and he-goats were 12 in all for burnt and sin offerings; for sacrifice of peace-offerings were in all 24 bullocks, 60 rams, 60 he-goats, 60 he-lambs. Now when Moses entered the Tent of Meeting to speak to God, he heard a Voice speaking to him from above the Mercy-seat or Atonement-cover, from between the two cherubs.
The Lord told Moses that Aaron must light the 7 lamps or candles of the Lampstand to give light in front of the Candlestick, which was made of beaten gold and its base and flowers exactly as the Lord showed Moses in the mount. The Levites are to be cleansed with water of expiation or purification, and all their flesh shaved, and their clothes washed, and they must bathed, and must offer the sacrifices of the sin-offering; they present them to the Lord at the entrance of the Tent with all Israel; and Israel must lay their hands on the Levites, and Aaron must offer them as a wave-offering in place of Israel to minister to the Lord. The Levites must then lay their hands on the heads of the bullocks offered as sin and burnt offering to the Lord for atonement for the Levites as a wave-offering; they are made separate for the ministry of the Tent in substitution for Israel the Lord’s Firstborn. The Levites are a gift to the Aaronic priests for the ministry of atonement of Israel to prevent plague and death when they approach the Lord’s Sanctuary. The Levites must serve and wait on the work or ministry of the Tent from age 25 to 50; and from 50 years and older must cease from the work and service, but from 50 and older must minister with their brethren in the Tent and its charge.
The Lord spoke to Moses in the Wilderness or Desert of Sinai in the 1st month of the 2nd year after the Exodus.  The Passover must be kept as prescribed in the 14th day of the 1st month, Abib, at night. If some are unclean by death contact, or on a journey, they must keep the Passover on the 14th day of the 2nd month at night with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, and nothing must remain till the morning. But if anyone is clean and at home and does not keep the Passover in its appointed season, he will bear his sin.  This applies to even the stranger or foreigner in the land, for one statute applies to all. When the Tabernacle was erected the cloud covered the Tent of Testimony, and at night the cloud appeared as fire; but when the cloud lifted and moved on so too Israel journeyed and followed, and Israel encamped where it rested; by the Lord’s command the journeyed and at His command they rested, according to the cloud, whether it rested on the Tabernacle many or few days, even if only for one day, so did they; whether two days, a month, or a year.
Two silver Trumpets or Horns of beaten work must be made for the calling and gathering of the congregation of Israel to assemble at the Tent of Meeting. If the Trumpets are blown only once, the leaders are to the gather; if the Trumpets are sounded for alarm the 1st time, the East camp must move; if sounded 2nd time the South camp must follow; an alarm must be trumpeted for their journeys. But for gathering the assembly they must trumpet without alarm; and the Aaronic priests are to sound the Trumpets as a permanent statute for all generations.  There must be a sound of alarm for war with the Trumpets, and the Lord God will remember and save Israel from their enemies.  There must be trumpet sounds for gladness and feasts, for the new months, for the different sacrifices and offerings, for such celebrations as a memorial to God. In the 2nd year in the 2nd month on the 20th day the cloud lifted off the Tabernacle of Testimony, and Israel left the Desert of Sinai and came to the Wilderness of Paran. The order of the journey of the hosts or army by standards and camps and princes was: Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, then the Tabernacle, after it is taken down, and the Gershonites and Merarites; after them Reuben, Simeon, Gad; then followed the Kohathites transporting the Sanctuary and those to setup the Tabernacle; after these were Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin; and last was Dan, Asher, and Naphtali. They journeyed and marched.  Moses conversed with his father-in-law Hobab (Jethro) ben-Reuel the Midianite, inviting him to join Israel in their journey to Canaan, and he would be treated well; but he turned down the invitation to return to his land and people. Moses entreated him to accompany Israel in the desert as eyes for Israel, and they truly will treat him good. Israel departed from the Mountain of the Lord and went 3 days journey, with Ark of Covenant of the Lord leading the way to find a new resting place, the cloud leading above.  When the Ark moved forward Moses bid the Lord to Rise and scatters His enemies and put to flight those who hate Him; when the Ark rested he bid the Lord to Return to the hundreds of thousands of Israel.
The people complained with evil, and the Lord heard it and burned in anger and He devoured to the edges of the camp; and they cried to Moses, and he prayed and then the fire abated; for which reason the place was called Taberah. The mixed crowd in Israel lusted exceedingly crying for flesh to eat like when they were in Egypt, when they ate freely, along with cucumbers, melons, leeks, onions, and garlic; for their soul was tired of the manna (it looked as coriander seed (zera-gad), as bdellium (here only and in Gen. 2; the bedolach is a resin or pearl, whitish or grayish; but mostly uncertain; its connection to the dew, seeds, and quails is curious),and it was gathered and grounded, or beaten or boiled, and made into oil tasting cakes; and it fell only at night. The people’s complaints and tears angered the Lord and displeased Moses, who complained to the Lord of the burden of caring for such a people, as if as a mother to conceive and birth them, or a nursing-father to carry them as nursing-babes in the bosom to Canaan (here the Lord and Moses are pictured as Shaddai). Moses despaired how he could feed all these unbearable people with flesh and chooses rather to die now than to guide them. In response the Lord appointed 70 elders and officers of Israel to stand with Moses at the Tent, and He told him that He would take of the Spirit on Moses and put it on the Elders to share the burden of the people with him.  But the people must sanctify themselves for the next day they will indeed eat flesh according to their cries and demands, not just a day or more, but an entire month till it comes out of their nostrils and they despise it, since they rejected and complained against the Lord. Moses replied that the footmen alone numbered over 600,000, how he could give them flesh to eat for a month, and even all the flocks and herds slain, or all the fishes of the sea would not be enough to satisfy them. The Lord replied to Moses that His Hand is not so short to fulfill His every word. So, when the Spirit rested on the 70 Elders gathered around the Tent they prophesied. Two of Elders (Eldad and Medad) remained in the camp and the Spirit rested on them and they prophesied; a young man ran and reported it to Moses, and Joshua ben-Nun, his minister, a chosen man, ask Moses to stop them, but Moses replied that is it jealousy for him, but wished that all the Lord’s people were prophets and His Spirit rest on them. Moses and the Elders returned to the camp, and the Lord sent a wind that brought quails from the sea (here is a clue to Israel’s location in Arabia), and they fell near the camp, about a day’s journey on both sides of the camp all around, flying about 2 feet above the ground. The people gathered quails for a day and half, each 10 homers or more, and then distributed them throughout the camp. While they stuff themselves, even before they could chew it, the Lord’s anger ignited and severely plagued them; and they called the place Kibroth-hat-taavah, for they buried those who lusted.
From Kibrothhattaavah they journeyed to Hazeroth and stayed; there Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses for marrying a Cushite (Ethiopian, African of southern Egypt, black or dark, not a remarriage of Zipporah the Midianite) woman. They equated themselves with Moses in hearing the Lord, and the Lord heard it; now Moses was the meekest of men. The Lord demanded Moses and Aaron and Miriam to appear at the Tent, and He appeared in a pillar of cloud, and called to Aaron and Miriam, and told them that to a prophet among the people He will appear in a vision or dream, but to His servant Moses who is faithful in all His house, He will speak mouth to mouth clearly and not obscurely; he may see the Form of Jehovah; and He asked why they were not afraid to speak against His servant. The Lord’s anger burned against them, and He departed, and the cloud lifted, and Miriam was leprous as snow-white. Aaron seeing her, begged Moses for forgiveness for their foolish sin, and to spare Miriam from a more severe case of the plague, as a miscarriage. Moses begged the Lord to heal her; but the Lord said that if she had spit on her father’s face she should be shamed for 7 days, so she must be outside the camp for a week. The people remained in Hazeroth till Miriam returned.
From Hazeroth they came to Desert of Paran and encamped in the wilderness. The Lord instructed Moses to commission 12 spies who are tribal princes from the tribes of Israel to survey and spy out the land of Canaan. Two of the 12 were Caleb ben-Jephunneh of Judah, and Hoshea (who Moses renamed Joshua) ben-Nun of Ephraim; these 12 were sent out as spies. They were to enter Canaan by the South borders and into the Hill-Country, to get intelligence of the entire land and its people, their strength and number, the country’s condition and landscape, its cities and forts, the camps, the crops, the trees, and such. The spies are to return bravely and with some fruit of the land. The time was the season of the first-ripe grapes (about summer, July). The spies surveyed from the Desert of Zin to Rehob to Hamath; from the South to Hebron, where the 3 sons of Anak lived (Hebron was built 7 years before Zoan of Egypt); then they came to the valley of Eshcol (or wady or stream or pass of Grape-clusters) and they cut down clusters of grapes. They returned in 40 days and reported to Moses and Aaron and to Israel in the Desert of Paran to Kadesh. They said the good news is the land flows with milk and honey and fruit; but the bad news is the people are strong, the cities are great and fortified, and the Anakims live there; in the South dwell Amalek; and Hittite, Jebusite, and Amorite in the hill-country; the Canaanites are by the sea coasts and along the Jordan. Now Caleb hushed the people before Moses and encouraged them to invade and conquer quickly. But the 10 spies insisted that the occupants are too strong, giving an evil report that the land consumes its inhabitants, and have giants, even the Nephilim or Anakims; and that the spies appeared as grasshoppers compared to them. Israel cried in despair and complained against Moses, and sighing for to have died in Egypt or the Desert; asking why the Lord delivered them to kill them in Canaan, desiring to return to Egypt by a new captain. Moses and Aaron prostrate before the assembly, and Joshua and Caleb tore their clothes and tried to persuade the company that the land is worth it, that if the Lord delights in them He will give them this rich land; but they must not rebel and be afraid for they will be their bread. The congregation wanted to stone them; then the Lord’s glory appeared at the Tent to all Israel; and He asked Moses how long they will despise Him in unbelief of all His miracles; and offered to plague them and disinherit them, and to make of him a new greater and mightier nation in their place. But Moses pleaded that the Egyptians will hear the news and broadcast it to the Canaanites, for they all know the Lord dwells in Israel, and He is seen by Face, and His cloud and pillar leads them. If the Lord kills them, the nations which heard the news of His fame of the Exodus will reason that the Lord was not able to bring them to their new home in the land He promised, so He killed them in the desert. Moses prayed that the Lord’s great power, with His slow anger, mercy, forgiving iniquity and transgression, punishing the guilty, visiting parents’ wickedness on the children to the 4th generation; he begs pardon for the people as in forgiveness to them from Egypt to the present. The Lord replied that He has forgiven them as Moses prayed, but by His Life all the earth will be filled with His glory and these men of unbelief and rebellion and disobedience and ungrateful, who has tempted him by testing and provoking Him these 10 Times (Ex. 5; 14; 15; 16; 17; 32; Num. 11; 11; 12; 14)) disregarding His Voice; He swore by oath to them that that generation of those who despised the Lord will not enter Canaan, except for Caleb (and Joshua), because his spirit was different, and fully followed Him, for he and his seed will enter.
Now the Amalekite and Canaanite resided in the valley; He made them return to the desert near the way to the Red Sea (Yam Suph, Gulf of Aqaba). The Lord told Moses He is fed up tolerating these complaining stubborn people, tell them that as they have desired and demanded so it will be; their dead bodies will fall in the desert, everyone from the age of 20 and older who have complained will never enter Canaan, excluding Caleb and Joshua. But the children that they were worried about becoming a prey they will enter the land they rejected, but they will die in the wilderness, and their children must be wanderers and pilgrims in the desert for 40 years, a day for a year (40 days for 40 years) to bear their inequities and know my alienation. Thus, did He say and swore and so it must be. He spared the children but slew the parents; He favored the younger generation and destroyed the older one; and the spies that brought the evil report died by the plague of the Lord. Moses told all this to the people, and Israel mourned and decided to go up to the mountain top and determined to invade Canaan as previously ordered; but Moses rebuked them again of a new transgression against the Lord’s command and told them to not go up because the Lord will not go with them.
Korah a Kohathite priest along with the Reubenites Dathan and Abiram and with a company of 250 Israelite famed princes who assembled against Moses and Aaron; accusing them of usurping the priesthood, since all Israel is a holy assembly of the Lord, then Moses fell face down, and told Korah and his company that the Lord will show and say who is holy and choose who may approach Him. The next day all of them are to take censers filled with fire and incense before the Lord Who will decide who is holy, for the Levites were usurping by rebellion against their appointed service and ministry from the Lord to usurp the priesthood opposing Aaron.  When Moses sent for Dathan and Abiram they refused to come, complaining that he has led them away from Canaan (milk and honey) to be killed in the desert, and has made himself the prince, and has not led them to the rich new land, but desire to put out their eyes. Moses enraged asked the Lord to reject their offering, for he has taxed or oppressed anyone. Moses told Korah and his crowd to take a position and Aaron another place everyone with 250 censers; they gathered at the Tent, and the Lord’s glory appeared to all. The Lord told Moses and Aaron to separate their selves away from the congregation that He may instantly consume them; but they fell down and begged the God of the spirits of all flesh not to destroy all for one man’s sin, and not be angry with all. The Lord told Moses that the congregation must remove from the tabernacle (tent and home) of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and their families. He and the elders told the people to depart from their tents, and touch nothing of theirs or they may be consumed; and they moved back and about. Moses declared that the Lord will confirm His commission to Israel by the rebels not dyeing a common death or visited as other men; but the Lord make a new thing by opening the ground swallow them all and all that belongs to them, going alive into hell or the grave (sheol); all will know these men despised the Lord. It was so done, they were swallowed alive by the earth, into sheol, and the earth closed again, and they perished from the assembly; and Israel ran away that they might not be swallowed up. But the fire of the Lord devoured the 250 men who offered the incense. The Lord ordered that Eleazar the priest take the 250 burnt censers and scatter the fire yonder because they are holy, censers of sinners against their souls; the censers must be beaten and made into a covering of the Altar, a memorial to Israel to prevent a non-Aaronic stranger from approaching to burn incense as did Korah and his crowd.
The next morning the congregation of Israel accused Moses and Aaron of killing the Lord’s people; and while assembled thus they saw the Lord’s glory appear in the cloud above the Tent. Moses and Aaron stood in front of the Tent, and the Lord told them to get away from the Congregation that He might quickly consume them; and they prostrated themselves. Moses told Aaron to quickly take his censer with fire and incense to the Congregation and make atonement for them to halt the Lord’s wrath and plague. And he did so to stand between the living and the dead, and the plagued stopped; but the plague killed 14,700, excluding those of Korah’s rebellion.  The Lord told Moses that Israel must take 12 rods for the tribal princes and write their names on each and Aaron’s name to be written on a rod for Levi; and all the rods placed inside the Tent of meeting before the Testimony where the Lord appeared. He will choose the rod and it will bud and the complainers of Israel will be silenced; and it was so; the Aaron’s rod for the house of Levi budded and blossomed and produced ripe almonds; and the Lord commanded that Aaron’s rod must be kept before the Testimony as a token or sign of the rebels, and that others may not murmur and die. Israel spoke to Moses afraid that they might die as undone, since those who approach the Lord’s Tabernacle are dead and perish.
The Lord told Aaron that he and his sons and the Levites must bear the iniquity of the Sanctuary, and the Aaronic priests will bear the wickedness of their priesthood. The Levites are to help and minister to him, but only the Aaronic priests may be before the Tent of Testimony; to keep the charge of the Sanctuary and the Altar, that none may die. The Levites are to assist as a gift in the charges and service of the Tent to the Aaronic priesthood in all concerning the Altar and inside the Veil, their priesthood is a service gift; no stranger must approach, or he will die. Also, to Aaron and sons He gave the charge of His heave-offerings and the holy anointed things of Israel as their continual portion.  All the fire sacrifices of the most holy things of the various oblations, every male must eat of it; also the heave and wave offerings of Israel all the priest’s family may eat who are clean; also of the best first fruits of the crops; also of the first ripe fruits, and of the devoted things, and the firstborn of man and beast, and those redeemed firstborn and firstlings. All the redeemed of Israel valued by the priests; but the firstlings of the animal sacrifices are a fire offering to the Lord and to be burnt up, but the waived breast and the right thigh may be eaten. The heave-offerings the priest’s family may eat as a covenant of salt before the Lord forever.  The tithe of Israel belongs to the Levites as an inheritance as payment for their service in the Tent, that Israel may not approach with sin and die. The Levites must do the service of the Tent to bear their inequities always for the tithe of Israel is theirs. And the Levites are to tithe of the tithe as a heave-offering to the Lord and must be given to Aaron the priest. All the gifts must be offered as a heave-offering and sanctify part of it, and reckoned as increase produce; and eat it as reward for service without sin.
The Lord told Moses for Israel that the statute of the law of the spotless and unblemished and Red Heifer, never yoked, is that she is to be given to Eleazar the priest, and he must take her outside the camp and she must be slain in his presence, and he shall sprinkle her blood toward the front of the Tent 7 times, and the Red Heifer must be entirely burnt up. The priest must throw some cedar-wood, hyssop, and scarlet into the fire of the burning heifer; then he must wash clothes, bathe, and remain unclean till eve; the one who burnt her shall do likewise. Then a clean man shall collect the ashes of the heifer and store it outside the camp in a clean place and be kept for the Congregation as water for impurity as a sin-offering; and he who gathers the ashes shall do likewise. So too with one who touches a dead person’s body and does not purify himself, he defiles the Lord’s Tabernacle; he must die because the water for impurity was not applied to him, and he remains unclean still.  The law of a dead man in a tent defiles everyone and everything in the tent for 7 days; so too the death contact in the field or elsewhere.  The ashes of the burnt sin-offering by fresh water must be sprinkled on the unclean by death, on the 3rd and 7th day; and he who applies the water himself must be cleansed; and death to the who refuses to purify himself since he has defiled the Lord’s Sanctuary.
Now Israel encamped in the Desert of Zin in the 1st month (of the 40th year) at Kadesh (we are now concluding Numbers, and its relations to Genesis and Deuteronomy, and are preparing for Moses V), and Miriam died and was buried. Again, the assembly complained and opposed Moses and Aaron wishing to die quickly as their brethren earlier rather than slowly by thirst to death; they criticized them for their deliverance to an evil place without seed, figs, grapes, pomegranates, or water. They left the assembly of complainers and prostrated before the Lord’s glory; and He told Moses to take the Rod with the assembly, and to speak to the Rock to bring forth water for the people and animals. They gathered the assembly of rebels and denounced to them that they must produce water from the Rock; he struck the Rock twice (instead of once) and water flowed abundantly. But the Lord said to them that since they did sanctify the Lord in the eyes of Israel they will not enter Canaan with the people. These are the waters of Meribah of Israel’s strife with the Lord and He was not sanctified. Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, relating Israel’s stay in Egypt, their mistreatment and travail, their deliverance and exodus, the Lord’s Angel bringing them up to Edom’s southern borders to the city Kadesh. Moses requested passage through Edom to Canaan, and he promised that Israel would only go along the King’s Highway and will not touch or eat or drink anything. Edom refused, and Israel requested again, but Edom again refused, and came to oppose them with many people; Israel turned away; and journeyed from Kadesh to mount Hor at the border of Edom. The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, telling Aaron must die here before Israel enters Canaan because they rebelled against the Lord’s word at the waters of Meribah; and he must bring Aaron and Eleazar to mount Hor; and must strip Aaron of his priestly garments and put them on his son Eleazar. Aaron died in mount Hor in the sight of Israel; Moses and Eleazar descends the mount, and all the congregation of the house of Israel grieved for Aaron 30 days.
Now the Canaanite king of Arad, who lived in the South hearing that Israel went by the way of Atharim, attacked and captured some of them; Israel vowed that if the Lord defeats them by Israel then their cities will be utterly destroyed. So, He did, and Israel destroyed the cities of the southern Canaanites near Hormah. They journeyed from mount Hor by the way of the Red Sea (Yam Suph, Aqaba) going around Edom; and the souls of the people was much discouraged on the way, and they complained against God and Moses for bringing them from Egypt to die in the wilderness, without bread and water, and they hated the light bread of manna. The Lord sent fiery serpents (seraphim serpents, poisonous snakes) to bite and kill many people. The people came to Moses repenting and confessing their sins, and begging Moses to pray that the Lord remove the snakes; and he did. The Lord told him to make a fiery serpent of brass and set it on a standard, and anyone bitten by a snake looking on it shall live; and it was so. Then Israel journeyed and encamped in Oboth, then again to Lyeabarim in the desert near Moab eastward to the sun-rising. Again, they traveled to the valley of Zered, then to Arnon’s other side in the desert borders of the Amorites and Moab. Here is it said, in the Book of Jehovah’s Wars (Sepher Milchamoth), Vaheb in Suphah (eth-Waheb beSuphah), and the Valleys of Arnon (Hannechalim Arnon, Arnon’s Nachalim, Nachal, or Stream, Torrent, Vale, Wady, or Wady), and the Slope of the Valleys (Eshed Nachalim) towards Ar’s dwelling, adjacent to Moab’s border; thence to Beer, the Well, where the Lord told Moses to gather the people, and He gave them water, and Israel sang the ‘Song of Spring Up O Well’, the well princes dug, nobles delved, with scepter and staves. They left the desert went to Mattanah, then to Nahaliel, then to Bamoth, then to the valley in the field of Moab, to the top of Pisgah overlooking the desert.
Israel then out messengers to Sihon the king of the Amorites, just as they did earlier to the king of Moab, to be permitted to pass through his land into Canaan; but he also refused and mustered and attacked Israel at Jahaz. Israel defeated them by the sword and captured and occupied his land from Arnon to Jabbok at the strong and secure border of the Ammonites. Israel captured and occupied all the cities of the Amorites, Heshbon and all the surrounding towns. Now Heshbon was the city of Sihon the king of the Amorites who captured it by defeating the king of Moab and occupied all his land up to Arnon. Thus those who speak in proverbs say to invite them to come to Heshbon and build and establish the city of Sihon; for a fire from Heshbon and a flame from Sihon devoured Ar of Moab, and the lords of Arnon’s high-places; woe to Moab and undone is Chemosh’s people; his sons are fugitives, and his daughters captives to Sihon king of the Amorites; they were shot, and Heshbon perished up to Dibon, and destroyed up to Nophah and to Medeba. Israel occupied the land of the Amorites.  Moses sent spies or scouts to Jazer and captured it and drove out the Amorites; then they turned to the way Bashan and Og its king engaged at the battle of Edrei. The Lord told Moses not fear him or his people for He has given Israel their land, and they must be treated just as Sihon king of the Amorites at Heshbon; Israel utterly destroyed them and possessed their land.
Israel then moved and encamped in the plains of Moab across Jordan’s Jericho; and Balak ben-Zippor the king of Moab aware of Israel’s defeat of the Amorites, and that Moab was afraid and distressed by Israel’s number and strength; that he told the elders of Midian that Israel will lick up all the nearby country as the ox eats the grass. He sent messengers to Balaam ben-Beor to Pethor by the River (Euphrates), to his people’s land, saying that a people come from Egypt and cover the earth, and residing nearby; soliciting him to come and curse Israel that he might prevail and strike them to drive them out of the country. But God told Balaam he must not go nor curse for they are blessed. Balaam arose in the morn and told the princes of Balak to return home for the Lord refuses to permit him to go. They returned and reported to Balak, but he sent other more honorable princes to Balaam with an offer of great honor and reward, at any cost, that he may curse the people. Balaam told them not even Balak’s house full of silver and gold could make him alter the word of the Lord God. But he bid them stay the night to see what the Lord might say. God visited him at night and told him to go with the men who came to hire him, but he must only speak only what He speaks to him. He awoke and readied his donkey and went with them; but God’s anger burned against him, and the Lord’s angel stood to oppose him, as he rode along with his two servants. The donkey seeing the angel blocking the passage with a sword drawn, it turned away into the field; Balaam hit her to turn her back. The angel moved to a narrow path between the vineyards between walls, the donkey seeing the angel went into the wall crushing Balaam’s foot; he struck her again. Again, the angel moved further to a narrower place without room to pass, the donkey seeing him she collapsed under him, and he struck her with his staff; but the Lord opened her mouth, and she asked him what wrong has she done to be struck these 3 times. He replied to her that she has mocked him, and if he had a sword he would kill her; she replied that he has ridden her all her life, and has never acted this way, and he agreed; but the Lord opened Balaam’s eyes to see the angel standing with a drawn sword, so he bowed to the ground. The angel rebuked him for beating the donkey 3 times, and that he came as an adversary to him for his perverse course, that if the donkey had not halted and turned away he would have slain him and spared her. Balaam replied that he was unaware of the angel’s opposition, and if he was displeased he would return home; and he told him to go with them and warned him to only speak what he would tell him; he went with the princes. Balak met him at the city of Moab at the furthest border of Arnon and asked why he delayed responding to his urgent plea and generous offer of reward. Balaam reminded Balak that he has no power but to speak God’s expressed words; they both went to Kiriath-huzoth, there Balak sacrificed oxen and sheep and fed Balaam and the princes. Next day Balak took him to Baal’s high places to see all the people.  Balaam instructed Balak to construct 7 altars and prepare 7 bulls and 7 rams; he did so and offered the sacrifices. Balaam told Balak to wait by his burnt-offering while he would go see if the Lord might visit him, and he related the words and vision to Balak. God met Balaam and he told Him that he had prepared and offered two sacrifices each on 7 altars. Then the Lord put a word in Balaam’s mouth, and to return to speak it to speak to them; he turned and found them all waiting by the burnt-offering.
Then Balaam related his parable and vision: Balak the king of Moab brought me from Aram, from the mountains of the East (Mesopotamia) to curse Jacob and defy Israel. But how can he curse one whom God has not cursed or defy whom the Lord has not defied; for from the top of the rocks and hills he sees them dwelling alone and not numbered with the nations. Jacob’s dust cannot be counted, and the 4th of Israel cannot be numbered; and may Balaam’s death and end be like righteous Israel. Balak protested that instead of cursing his enemies he has altogether blessed them; but Balaam insisted he can only speak what the Lord inspires. Again, Balak took him to a 2nd place to see only a small part of Israel and to curse them; to the field of Zophim to the top of Pisgah and sacrificed as before; likewise did Balaam as before, and so also the Lord. Balaam returned to Balak and the princes of Moab; and Balak asked what the Lord said, and Balaam related his 2nd parable and vision. Arise and listen Balak ben-Zippor, God is not a liar like man, does not repent as the son of man, He will do what He says and fulfill His words; he must bless because He blessed, and cannot reverse it. He sees no iniquity in Jacob and no perversity in Israel; the Lord his God is with him, the shout of a King among them God rescued them from Egypt, as with the strength of the wild-ox (thoaphoth, high-horns, strong-horns, and unicorn). Jacob is without enchantment and Israel without divination; they will say of Jacob and Israel: what has God done? The people rises as a lioness and a lion, he will not rest till he devours his prey and drink their blood. Balak protested that he neither curse nor bless them; but Balaam reminded him that he must only speak what the Lord has spoken. Again, Balak took Balaam to another place in hopes that God will permit him to curse Israel; but the 3rd time he took him to the top of Peor overlooking the desert; and as before made sacrifices on 7 altars. But Balaam seeing that the Lord determined to bless Israel turned his face towards the wilderness without enchantments but gazed upon Israel’s tribes; and the Spirit of God came upon him. Balaam’s 3rd parable and vision, with closed eyes, which speaks and hears the words of God; which sees the vision of Shaddai, falling down with eyes open. Beautiful are Jacob’s tents and Israel’s tabernacles; as spacious valleys, as gardens by the river-side, as the Lord’s planted lign-aloes; and as watered cedar-trees. Water flowing buckets, seed of many waters; his King higher than Agag, and his kingdom exalted. God delivered them from Egypt, with strength of a wild-ox; and he will consume the nations his adversaries, breaking their bones, and shooting them with arrows; as couched lion and lioness at rest. Blessed are those who bless them and cursed are those which curse them.
Balak very angry at Balaam clapped his hands saying he invited him to curse his enemies, but instead 3 times he has blest them; he told him to return home since the Lord has deprived him of honor. Balaam reminded him that he told the messengers his limitations to speak only what the Lord revealed, no matter what the bribe or rewards offered; Balaam before leaving offered his advertisement and prediction of the future actions of Israel against Moab. As before, he uttered his prophetic parable of God’s words and Elyon’s knowledge and Shaddai’s vision in his trance: he saw in the distant future a Star of Jacob and a Sceptre of Israel striking all Moab and breaking all the sons of tumult; Edom-Seir, his enemies, will be conquered, Israel victorious; one from Jacob has dominion, and will destroy the city’s remnant. Then looking toward Amalek he continued his parable and prophecy: Amalek the first and head of the nations or Gentiles shall finally come to destruction. So too his 3rd parable: the Kenite with their strong and secure homelands nested in the rock; Kain indeed will be devastated and captured by Asshur or Assyria. Again, he continued with his 4th and final parable: who will survive the acts of God? And the ships of Kittim’s coast will afflict and invade and destroy Asshur. Balaam returned home and Balak departed.
But Israel settled in Shittim; and the people played the harlot there with the daughters of Moab, who had invited them to share and partake in their sacrifices to their gods or idols, and to worship their idol gods. Israel was joined or united with Baal-peor as a harlot; and the Lord’s anger ignited against Israel. He told Moses to take the chiefs of the people and to hang them up before the sun to turn away the Lord’s fierce anger from Israel. Moses told the judges to slay anyone who had joined and participated at Baal-peor. One of the princes had taken along a Midianite woman in sight of Moses and the congregation of Israel while they wept at the door of the tent of meeting. Phinehas ben-Eleazar ben-Aaron saw, and arose with a spear, and went after the Israelite into the pavilion or tent and speared them both together; and the plague ended, after 24,000 died. The Lord told Moses that Phinehas has mitigated His wrath on Israel by his zeal for the Lord’s burning jealousy; he will have His covenant of peace, and to his seed, for an everlasting priesthood, for his zeal atoned for Israel.  The slain Israelite was Zimri ben-Salu a prince of the Simeonites; the Midianite woman was Cozbi bath-Zur who was a chief or sheikh of Midian. The Lord told Moses to vex and smite the Midianites as they seduced and deceived Israel concerning Peor, and of Cozbi a daughter and sister of a Midianite prince.
After the plague of Peor the Lord told Moses that Eleazar the priest must number all Israel, a census of those 20 and older able to go to war in Israel of those delivered from Egypt. This they did in the plains (areboth, the Arebah) of Moab by the Jordan River near Jericho: of Reubenites, 4 families or clans numbered 43,730 (of these were Pallu’s son Eliab and his 3 sons Nemuel, Dathan and Abiram; these last two were the same rebels of Korah’s company, all of which died by the earth swallowing them and the fire devoured the 250 as a sign; but Korah’s sons died not); and of Simeonites, 5 tribal-families numbered 22,200; of Gadites, 7 clans totaled 40,500; of Judah (Judahites, Judaens, Jews), (Judah’s sons Er and Onan died in Canaan), 3 clans and clans of Perez’ sons, numbered in all 76,500; of Issachar, 4 clans totaled 64,300; of Zebulun, 3 tribal-families, the sum was 60,500; of Joseph’s Manasseh, 1 clan and 1 family of Machir’s son, and of Gilead 6 families, and of Zelophehad’s 5 daughters, all these totaled 52,700; of Joseph’s Ephraim, 3 clans, plus of Eran I family, in all numbered 32,500; of Benjamin, 5 clans, and of Bela’s sons 2 families, in all totaled 45,600; of Dan’s son, 1 clan of 64,400; of Asher, 3 clans, plus of Beriah 2 families, and Asher’s daughter Serah, these all numbered 53,400; of Naphtali, 4 clans numbered 45,400. All Israel numbered in total sum 601,730; and the Lord told Moses that the land must be divided for inheritance by the number of their names; the more numerous get more land, and the smaller tribes get less land. But the land must be divided by lot to inherit.  The Levites in 3 clans and 5 tribal-families; (now of Kohath was Amram, and his wife Jochebed was of Levi who was born in Egypt, and of these were Aaron and Moses, and their sister Miriam); and Aaron had 4 sons, two of them died in offering strange fire before the Lord; all these Levites numbered 23,000 of males 1 month and older. These were excluded in the census of Israel for they were not to be given a tribal inheritance in Israel. This census numbered by Moses and Eleazar was taken in the plains of Moab by Jordan at Jericho. Not a single man was in this census that was in the census made by Moses and Aaron in the desert of Sinai (38 years earlier), according to what the Lord had sworn concerning their dying in the wilderness, except for Caleb and Joshua.
Now the 5 daughters of Zelophehad ben-Hepher ben-Gilead ben-Machir ben-Manasseh ben-Joseph were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah stood before Moses and Eleazar and the elders at the door of the Tent; and they argued that their father had died in the desert for his own sin but did not participate in the rebellion of Korah, without a male heir, his name must not be removed from his family inheritance, but his daughters should be allowed to inherit his portion. Moses inquired of the Lord Who replied that the daughters of Zelophehad were right and must inherit their father’s possession. Further, when a man dies without a male heir then the tribal-inheritance must go to the female, and if no children must pass on to his brothers, or his father’s brothers, or to the nearest of kin; this is a perpetual statute and ordinance in Israel.
Then the Lord told Moses to go up into this mountain of Abarim, to see at a distance the promised land of Israel, then he must die as Aaron had died, because they rebelled at the Lord’s word in the desert of Zin in Israel’s strife and of their not sanctifying Him at waters of Meribah of Kadesh in Zin’s desert. And Moses requested that the Lord as God of the spirits of all flesh, to appoint a successor as a shepherd to lead Israel in going and coming. The Lord told him to call Joshua, in who is the Spirit, and lay hands on him before the priest Eleazar and the assembly, and to charge him, and to give him of his own honor that Israel might obey and follow him. And he shall stand before Eleazar who will inquire for him the Divine Judgment of Urim before the Lord, and at Joshua’s word shall all Israel go out or come in; and it was done.
Then the Lord by Moses commanded the Israelites that His oblations and food offerings by fire as a sweet smell, must be offered appropriately and timely as originally given at Sinai. Whether fire offerings as continual burnt-offerings, or drink offerings or meal-offerings, or such; with animals or grains, on Sabbaths or holy days and seasons, or ordinary days or special occasions, must all be performed in strict and exact order of the Mosiac code of the Lord at Sinai. So too with all sacrifices and offerings as the sin-offering with all that pertains to it, that is offered for atonement or propitiation or satisfaction or reconciliation, all must conform to the original mandates and regulations, in manner and substance, in fasts or feasts, for individuals or the nation. The Mosaic legislation and Divine ordinances must not be altered or ignored for all generations in all or the least of its detail, including all amendments or additions divinely given. Whether in set feasts as the Passover, or in vows, free-will offerings, burnt-offerings, meal-offerings, drink-offerings, peace-offerings, and all such offerings, they are to be performed to the Lord as commanded. Men’s vows to the Lord or soul sworn binding bond oaths must be kept as vowed; and so too unmarried women’s vows, unless her father negates it; and so too a married woman’s, unless her husband negates it; all must be by divine regulations. A widow’s vow must be kept. These legal statutes governing relations and conditions of people are to be observed exactly.
The Lord by Moses ordered Israel to avenge and execute the Lord’s vengeance on the Midianites; and then Moses will die. Each tribe must send to war 1,000 men, in all numbering 12,000. Eleazar the priest and the vessels of the Sanctuary, with alarm trumpet in hand, with them. They warred with Midian and slaughtered them, slaying all the adult males, and the five kings of Midian, and also Balaam ben-Beor they killed by sword. Israel captured the women and children of Midian, and their cattle and flocks, and all their goods they took as prey or spoil. They burnt up all their cities and encampments, and led captive all that belonged to the Midianites, and brought the captives and spoil to Moses and Eleazar at the camp in the plains of Moab by Jordan at Jericho. Moses was enraged at all the captains of war that they had spared the Midianite women, declaring that these women followed the counsel of Balaam to prostitute themselves in trespass against the Lord concerning Peor and the plague that followed. So Moses ordered them to kill every male child and all the non-virgin women; thus sparing only the female children and the Midianite virgins. Those who executed the orders and had killed the Midianite captives must remain outside the camp for 7 days to be purged from blood and death, on the 3rd and 7th day; also every garment or fabric, skins, wooden things, must all be purged by water and sacrifices. Eleazar the priest instructed the soldiers the Lord’s statute by Moses concerning the metal objects of gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead to be purged and cleansed by fire and water, and all other substance and objects must be water purged, such as clothes by washing. After the 7 days of exclusion from the camp they were cleansed and returned.
The Lord by Moses demanded a census of the sum and number of the prey or captives of both man and beast, to be taken by Moses, Eleazar, and the tribal princes. The prey or captives to be divided into two parts, one part of the soldiers, and the other part of the assembly; and a tribute levy to the Lord to be made.  One soul of every 500 persons or humans, of oxen, of donkeys, and of flocks, and the number from this half must go to Eleazar as the Lord’s heave-offering; and the other half one out of every 50 and the sum to be given to the Levites caring for the Lord’s Tabernacle; and it was so done. The count of all the livestock prey, not counting the soldier’s booty, totaled 675,000 sheep, and 72,000 oxen, and 61,000 donkeys, and 32,000 virgin women; and the half belonging to the soldiers’ portion and booty numbered 337,500 in all. The Lord’s tribute of sheep was 675; and of the 36,000 oxen His tribute was 72; of the 30,500 donkeys His tribute was 61; and of the 16,000 persons His tribute was 32.  Moses gave the tribute of the Lord’s heave-offering to Eleazar the priest as Moses was commanded.  And the half belonging to the assembly, totals based on one out of every 50 of the assembly’s half; the tribute sum went to the Levites serving the Tabernacle. Then the officers over the army, the captains of thousands, and captains of hundreds came and told Moses they have numbered all the soldiers to the last man and have brought the Lord’s oblation from every soldier’s booty of all the objects of gold jewels, of ankle-chains, and bracelets, signet-rings, ear-rings, and armlets or arm-bands, to make atonement for their souls before the Lord.  Moses and Eleazar took the gold and jewels; and the gold of the heave-offering offered by the captains came to 16,750 shekels, from what the soldiers had personally taken for themselves as their booty. They took the soldiers’ gold and brought it into the Tent of Meeting as a memorial before the Lord.
Now the Reubenites and Gadites had extensive cattle and saw the lands of Jazer and Gilead were good cattle pastures, they came to Moses and Eleazar and the princes or elders, and requested that from Ataroth to Beon, 9 lands, all the country the Lord smote for Israel, being good cattle land, to be given to them as a possession on the east side of the Jordan River. Moses first response was to question their motives that they wished to escape war and to desert their brethren while they settle in trans-Jordan. He rebuked them for discouraging the Israelites from crossing over into Canaan; and he reminded them what their fathers did 38 years earlier at Kadsehbarnea, when they returned from Eshcol and influenced Israel to refuse to invade Canaan. The Lord then enraged at Israel swore that not a single man of that generation from 20 and older should see and enter the land promised to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob; excluding Caleb the Kenezite and Joshua, for they completely followed Him. In His burning anger He made Israel wander as nomads and Bedouins in the desert for 40 years (38 years extra) till all that evil and rebellious generation died off. So Moses accused the two tribes of like conduct as sinful men fueling the Lord’s fierce anger towards Israel, so that He will desert and destroy the people in the wilderness. The two tribes replied that they would make folds and enclosures for their livestock and build fenced cities for their families to protect them from the local inhabitants; but they as warriors would accompany Israel into Canaan till the conquest. They will return to Trans-Jordan only after the conquest of Canaan and Israel securely occupies the country as their inheritance.  Moses then yielded or acquiesced to their desires, restating the conditions and terms of this new agreement in which they may remain guiltless to the Lord and to Israel. He warned them to be faithful to this contract or their sin will find them out. So he granted their request and permitted them to do as they said; and he instructed Eleazar and Joshua to grant to them the Transjordan or the land of Gilead as their possession after Israel’s conquest of Canaan. So all Israel agreed to the covenant and the Reubenites, Gadites, and half tribe of Manasseh were given the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites, Og king of Bashan, its land and coasts and all their cities. The Gadites built 9 fenced cities and folds for their sheep. The Reubenites 6 cities, some names being changed, But Machir ben-Manasseh and his sons conquered Gilead and dispossessed the Amorites; so Moses granted to them to settle in Gilead as their inheritance. Manasseh’s son Jair captured the small towns of Gilead and called it Havoth-Jair. So too Nobah captured Kenath and its villages and named it Nobah.

These are the Journeys of Israel’s Hosts or Armies after the Exodus out of Egypt led by Moses and Aaron; and he wrote or recorded the directions of Israel’s journey and goings. They departed from Rameses in the 1st month on the 15th day, on the morning after the Passover in greatness in sight of all the Egyptians, who buried all the firstborn which the Lord had killed and had executed judgments on their gods or idols. Israel left Rameses and camped in Succoth, then to Etham at the desert’s border, then to Pihahiroth by Baalzephon and camped at Migdol; then they crossed the sea into the desert, and went 3 days journey (some 30 miles) into the desert of Etham and camped at Marah; thence to Elim with its 12 founts and 70 palms and camped; thence camp by Yam Suph; thence camped in the desert of Sin; thence encamped in Dophkah[10], thence to Alush, then Rephidim a place without water, thence to the desert of Sinai; and thence to Kibrothhattavah, then to Hazeroth Rithmah , thence to Rimmonparez, then to Libnah; and thence to Rissah, then to Kehelathah, then to mount Shapher; thence to Haradah, then to Makheloth, then to Tahath, then to Tarah; and thence to Mithcah, then to Hashmonah, then to Moseroth; thence to Benejaakan, then to Horhagidgad, then to Jotbathah, then to Ebronah; thence to Eziongaber, then to the desert or wilderness of Zin or Kadesh. (About 30 locations of encampment.) And thence left to mount Hor at Edom’s border; and Aaron by the Lord’s command went up and died in mount Hor at 123 years of age in the 40th year, in the 1st of the 5th month, after the Exodus.
The Canaanite, king of Arad, who dwelt in the South or Negev of the land of Canaan, heard of Israelites’ coming. They journeyed from Hor to Zalmonah and encamped; thence to Punon, then to Oboth and camped in Lye-abarim (Lyim) in Moab’s border; thence to Dibon-gad, then to Almon-diblathaim; thence to the mountains of Abarim facing Nebo; thence to the Arabah or Plains of Moab by Jordan at Jericho and encamped near the Jordan River from Beth-jeshimoth to Abel-shittim in the Arabah of Moab. These journeys and encampments, in all some 40 locations or sites, over 40 years, brought Israel at the door and crossing into Canaan. The Lord by Moses in the Arabah of Moab at Jericho by Jordan commanded Israel to pass over across the Jordan and drive out all the Canaanites in the land, and to destroy their figurines and statutes and monuments, and their molten images and high places, their idols and idolatries. They must conquer Canaan and possess and occupy the land and country as He promised. They must inherit the land by lot and by number, to the more or to the less, by tribes and families as permanent inheritance. If they do not completely drive out all the remnants of Canaan then those who reside in the country will be eye splinters, side thorns, and will vex them; and the Lord will treat Israel as He dealt with the Canaanites.
The Lord by Moses commanded Israel to inherit the land of Canaan by designated borders and divisions or 4 quarters. South Quarter or Southern Border from the desert of Zin along the borders of Moab, and its Border from the Salt Sea (Yam Melach) eastward, turning southward at the ascent of Akrabbim, passing along to Zin; going southward of Kadesh-barnea, to Hazar-addar, to Azmon; turning at Azmon to the brook of Egypt, thence to the Sea. The Western Border is the Great Sea (Mediterranean Sea). The Northern Border is from the Great Sea and marking or designating mount Hor, to the entrance of Hamath, to Zedad, to Ziphron, and to Hazar-enan. The Eastern Border is marked or designated from Hazar-enan to Shepham, down to Riblah east of Ain, down to the side of the Sea Chinnereth (Galilee) eastward; down to Jordan, going to the Salt Sea. This is the geographical description of the designated borders inherited by lot by the 9 1/2 tribes of Israel on the west of Jordan in Canaan or Palestine. For the 2 1/2 tribes inherited the country in Transjordan on the east of Jordan toward the sun-rising. The Lord by Moses designated the men by Eleazar and Joshua to divide and partition the land by lot for the tribal inheritance; one tribal-prince from each tribe by name; 12 in all.
The Lord by Moses continued His commands to Israel that they must give to the Levites from their inheritance cities to reside in, along with suburbs; for their cattle and substance, and all their animals and livestock. The suburbs must be measured from the wall of the city outward to 1,000 cubits all around (some 1800 – 2000 feet, or 1/3 mile); then measured on the four sides of the city, east and south, west and north, additional 2000 cubits (some 3000 feet or 2/3 mile), making a circle enclosing or surrounding the walled city. The Levites must be given 6 cities of refuge for the manslayer, causing unintentional or accidental death, to flee for refuge and asylum. An additional 42 cities must be given, all these 48 cities must have suburbs; these are to be taken from each tribe by numerical representation, of the more or of the less. He commanded Israel to appoint in Canaan the 6 Cities of Refuge for the accidental or unintentional deaths for temporary refuge till he is tried by the court of judgment. In Transjordan must be 3 cities, and in Canaan 3 cities for those causing deaths but are not murderers, that is those who kill intentionally, willfully, and by use of a weapon or object, or by ambush and hatred; such are murderers and may not be a refugee and protected from the blood avenger. The one who kills or murders by whatever means must be judged by the assembly’s judicial courts; to save or put to death, to protect or to hand over, to restore or condemn. He must stay in the City of Refuge till the death of the High Priest who was anointed with holy oil; and if the manslayer leaves before this and encounters the blood avenger’s kin and is slain by him, the blood avenger is not guilty. But after the death of the standing anointed High Priest he may return home without harm.
These things are permanent statutes and ordinances for all generations in the land. But a true guilty murderer shall be put to death at least by 2 or 3 witnesses; no ransom money or bribe for the killer or murderer to flee or free, convict or release; for such pollutes the land, for blood pollutes the land; and no expiation can be made for the land except by the blood of the one who shed it. The land must not be defiled for the Lord resides in Israel. The tribal-heads of the Gileadites of Machir ben-Manasseh of Joseph brought before Moses and the princes and the chiefs of Israel the case of the inheritance of Zelophehad’s daughters. If they should marry outside the tribe of Manasseh then their husband’s tribe will inherit their land, and in the Jubilee resort to their husband tribes. Moses by the Lord’s command declared that the sons of Joseph are right in their concern; the daughters of Zelophehad must marry only within the tribe of Manasseh to prevent the loss of tribal inheritance into another tribe. No tribal inheritance is to be lost by marriage into another tribe. So Zelophehad’s daughters did as commanded; they married into the families of the tribe of Manasseh, retaining their father’s inheritance. These concludes the commandments and ordinances which the Lord commanded Moses in the Arabah of Moab by Jordan at Jericho.

 We have now completed the summary and digest of the Book of Numbers of Israel’s 40 years in the wilderness or desert in transition from the Exodus of Egypt and slavery to Canaan, the Promised Land.  Also we have surveyed the three books of Exodus and Leviticus and Numbers as preparatory and preliminary to the Book of Deuteronomy as the Second Law. We have presented by way of reflections and interpretations that the Bible as the Divine Hands with its Thumbs and Fingers illustrate and symbolize the Books of the Bible are connected in such a way that 10 key Books along with the other interconnected Books unfold the written Word of God as witness by the prophetic Spirit to the Living Word Who is revealed from beginning to end. I have attempted in my reflections to adhere tenaciously to the Text in these 4 Books of Moses as the initial foundation of God’s revelation and purpose, His design and intent, and His works and ways.  We have seen and learnt from the Scriptures step by step, line upon line, by letters and words, by sentences and verses, and by chapters and books as many details as we could that will help us as we progress through the Scriptures.  We have restrained ourselves from thinking that our understanding in these modern times in which we live and know, is the standard by which we read and understand the Bible. The Bible we have judged is its best interpreter as to the letter, and by the Spirit of God is alive and enlightens our minds and hearts, creating faith and obedience, giving hope and patience as we follow after God in faith and obedience.
The 4 Books of Moses are plainly presented as from one source; the Author must be God or it all falls apart, Scripture broken into countless pieces and hundreds of parts or documents. If this were true, God forbid this unbelief, the faith and ingenuity required to account for the thousands of details would be nothing short of divine. As we have seen and said at different times that the stories and the history, both in facts and experiences, are obviously based on oral and written traditions in regards to natural things as it is in mankind, as easily attested by thousands of witnesses of the recovered past, as resurrected witness to the veracity and relevancy of the Bible. But if we stop here we stop short of the entrance to the Good Land of Divine things revealed spiritually and inspirationally by God Who is the Witness to Himself and all His desires towards man.  The God of the Bible requires absolute faith but in absolute truth and honesty, He is not capricious or manipulative with the facts or the details, and requires nothing less than to follow His example in our hearing and searching of Scripture. And further we have not tried to engage the science of those Bible experts, or accomplished scholars, who have spent their lives in understanding the Book of Books, as if we could outdo them in their own domain. No, we have consulted them here and there, comparing what we read and discover against their comments and explanations and have not blinked at the problems or differences that exists; but have freely admitted ignorance in some things unexplainable or irreconcilable or apparent or real contradictions, as if the human did not clothed the divine.
We conclude Numbers with a few observations, reserving many things to the major reflections on Deuteronomy the Second Finger in which we must unite and intertwine the Mosaic System as the Divine Word. Numbers, as in all the other Books of the Bible, or in most books of the world, is understood always in three parts, the beginning and the end and what is between these. This is seen in man in the family, a father and a mother and the child springing from both; and many such examples may be adduced. Numbers opens by taken us back to Sinai a year after the Exodus, and at the time of the completion of the Tabernacle as God’s Sanctuary in the Tent of Meeting, and with all that pertains to the Divine Service and Liturgy of the Aaronic and Levitical Priesthood in work and ministry for the Lord and for Israel. The Book ends at the door to Canaan in Trans-Jordan of Moab which was conquered and captured and possessed by Israel and granted to the 2½ tribes as their inheritance. The military preparations are introduced by the essential numbering and the enlisting of Israel’s militia; and it continues up to the time they were to commence the invasion of Canaan, of which they refused from fear and unbelief. The remainder of the time would be used to destroy unbelief and rebellion, fear and provocation; and would harden for war, training them to fight the Lord’s battle against idolatry and wickedness. And as with the Tabernacle in structure and features, so also the Encampment of Israel portrayed God dwelling with His people from the whole and then the Levitical tribe, and in the innermost in His Sanctuary of the Holiest of all. The picture and types are like those in Exodus and Leviticus but now seen in the armies of Israel. The names and places of the people and the land paint a picture of conflict and crisis. But all this and more will be discovered and emerge in growth and life.

 (From Edersheim’s Bible History of the Old Testament 1876-1887, 1890, reprinted frequently to the present time, originally published in 7 volumes, by Alfred Edersheim, the author of Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. His work covers the Pentateuch or Torah in 2 volumes; volume 1 covers Genesis in two parts, the World History and the Nations (5 Generations, Creation to Shem), and the Patriarchs’ History (5 Generation, Terah to Jacob). In volume 2 surveys the Exodus and the Wilderness Wanderings. Deuteronomy is treated only sparingly, mainly as parallels to the other books, and carrying over into Joshua; in this he is deficient to present the fuller picture and the grand design.
From his Preface in Volume 1: “One of the most marked and hopeful sign of our time is the increasing attention given on all sides to the study of Holy Scripture. Those who believe and love the Bible, and have experienced its truth and power, can only rejoice at such an issue. They know that “the Word of God liveth and abideth forever,” that “not one tittle” of it “shall fail;” and that it is “able to make wise unto salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus.”
Accordingly they have no reason to dread the results either of scientific investigation, or of searching inquiry into “those things which are most surely believed among us.” For, the more the Bible is studied, the deeper will be our conviction that “the foundation of God standeth sure.” It is to help, so far as we can, the reader of Holy Scripture — not to supersede his own reading of it — that the series, of which this is the first volume, has been undertaken. In writing it I have primarily had in view those who teach and those who learn, whether in the school or in the family. But my scope has also been wider. I have wished to furnish what may be useful for reading in the family, — what indeed may, in some measure, serve the place of a popular exposition of the sacred history. More than this, I hope it may likewise prove a book to put in the hands of young men, — not only to show them what the Bible really teaches, but to defend them against the insidious attacks arising from misrepresentation and misunderstanding of the sacred text.  With this threefold object in view, I have endeavored to write in a form so popular and easily intelligible as to be of use to the Sunday-school teacher, the advanced scholar, and the Bible-class; progressing gradually, in the course of this and the next volume, from the more simple to the more detailed. At the same time, I have taken up the Scripture narrative successively, chapter by chapter, always marking the portions of the Bible explained, that so, in family or in private reading, the sacred text may be compared with the explanations furnished. Finally, without mentioning objections on the part of opponents, I have endeavored to meet those that have been raised, and that not by controversy, but rather by a more full and correct study of the sacred text itself in the Hebrew original. In so doing, I have freely availed myself not only of the results of the best criticism, German and English, but also of the aid of such kindred studies as those of Biblical geography and antiquities, the Egyptian and the Assyrian monuments, etc.
But when all has been done, the feeling grows only stronger that there is another and a higher understanding of the Bible, without which all else is vain. Not merely to know the meaning of the narratives of Scripture, but to realize their spiritual application; to feel their eternal import; to experience them in ourselves, so to speak — this is the only profitable study of Scripture, to which all else can only serve as outward preparation. Where the result is “doctrine, reproof, correction, and instruction in righteousness,” the Teacher must be He, by whose “inspiration all Scripture is given.” “For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? Even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.” But the end of all is Christ — not only “the end of the law for righteousness to everyone that believeth,” but also He in whom “all the promises of God are Yea and Amen.”  A. E.”)

(From his Preface in Volume 2: “The period covered by the central books of the Pentateuch is, in many respects, the most important in Old Testament history, not only so far as regards Israel, but the Church at all times. Opening with centuries of silence and seeking Divine forgetfulness during the bondage of Egypt, the pride and power of Pharaoh are suddenly broken by a series of miracles, culminating in the deliverance of Israel and the destruction of Egypt’s host. In that Paschal night and under the blood-sprinkling, Israel as a nation is born of God, and the redeemed people are then led forth to be consecrated at the Mount by ordinances, laws, and judgments. Finally, we are shown the manner in which Jehovah deals with His people, both in judgment and in mercy, till at the last He safely brings them to the promised inheritance. In all this we see not only the history of the ancient people of God, but also a grand type of the redemption and the sanctification of the Church. There is yet another aspect of it, since this narrative exhibits the foundation of the Church in the Covenant of God, and also the principles of Jehovah’s government for all time. For, however great the difference in the development, the essence and character of the covenant of grace are ever the same. The Old and New Testaments are essentially one — not two covenants but one, gradually unfolding into full perfectness, “Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner stone” of the foundation which is alike that of the apostles and prophets. (Ephesians 2:20)
There is yet a further consideration besides the intrinsic importance of this history. It has, especially of late, been so boldly misrepresented, and so frequently misunderstood, or else it is so often cursorily read — neither to understanding nor yet to profit — that it seemed desirable to submit it anew to special investigation, following the sacred narrative consecutively from Chapter to Chapter, and almost from Section to Section. In so doing, I have endeavored to make careful study of the original text, with the help of the best critical appliances. So far as I am conscious, I have not passed by any real difficulty, nor yet left unheeded any question that had a reasonable claim to be answered. If this implied a more detailed treatment, I hope it may also, with God’s blessing, render the volume more permanently useful. Further, it has been my aim, by the aid of kindred studies, to shed additional light upon the narrative, so as to render it vivid and pictorial, enabling readers to realize for themselves the circumstances under which an event took place.” A.E.)

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